Abstract

The refractive index distribution of cells and tissues governs their interaction with light and can report on morphological modifications associated with disease. Through intensity-based measurements, refractive index information can be extracted only via scattering models that approximate light propagation. As a result, current knowledge of refractive index distributions across various tissues and cell types remains limited. Here we use quantitative phase imaging and the statistical dispersion relation (SDR) to extract information about the refractive index variance in a variety of specimens. Due to the phase-resolved measurement in three-dimensions, our approach yields refractive index results without prior knowledge about the tissue thickness. With the recent progress in quantitative phase imaging systems, we anticipate that using SDR will become routine in assessing tissue optical properties.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Refractive index distribution is an intrinsic property of tissues, which governs light matter interaction and has shown potential for label-free diagnosis [1]. As a result, light scattering techniques for tissue diagnosis have long been used in various configurations (see, e.g., Refs [2–26].). The measurable quantity is typically the irradiance as a function of the momentum transfer, q = 2πsin(θ/2)⁄λ, where λ is the wavelength of the light in the tissue and θ is the scattering angle, Fig. 1. Thus, two classes of scattering measurements have emerged: spectroscopic, and angular, depending on whether, respectively, the λ-dependence or θ-dependence is retrieved experimentally. The experimental curves are fitted with a physical model that contains particular assumptions about the light-tissue integration, e.g., the first-order Born approximation, for weakly scattering regime, and the diffusion approximation for strong multiple scattering. Often, the tissue is approximated by a distribution of spheres, for which Mie theory results can be computed easily [27].

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) Scattering geometry, Ui, ki are the incident field and wavevector. (b) Momentum conservation: ki and ks are the incident and scattered wave vector, 𝝙kx and 𝝙kz are the variance of the components of the transverse wave vector, θ is the scattering angle.

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Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) [28] has been applied recently to imaging tissue slices, including unlabeled biopsies [29–32]. The phase maps obtained made it evident that, at least in the visible domain, tissue structure is better described by a continuous distribution of refractive index rather than a discrete ensemble of particles. These findings led to the development of light tissue scattering models based on the first-order Born approximation [33, 34]. It has been demonstrated that QPI based on spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM) [35, 36] can be used for diagnosis and prognosis in unlabeled cancer biopsies [30, 32]. Still, measuring the refractive index from a QPI image requires knowledge of the tissue thickness. Thus, despite significant progress, measuring information about the tissue refractive index distribution remains a grand challenge.

Here we present a new approach for extracting cell and tissue refractive index information from QPI data.

2. Theory

We use the statistical dispersion relation (SDR) [37] and experimental results from QPI to extract information about the refractive index distribution of cells and tissues. The dispersion relation associated with a field in weakly scattering medium, has the form (see Ref [37]. for the proof)

k2=n02β02(1+σn2n02)

In Eq. (1), <k2> is the second order moment of the wavevector, k2=kx2+ky2+kz2, angular brackets denote ensemble averaging, n0 is average refractive index, β0 is the wavenumber in vacuum, β0=ω/c, and σn2 is the variance of the refractive index in the 3D volume. Our goal is to use QPI data, from which to obtain <k2>, and use Eq. (1) to extract σn2.

In order to measure optical path length maps associated with thin biological specimens, we exploited SLIM [35, 36], which provides phase information with high sensitivity. The SLIM system (Cell Vista SLIM Pro, Phi Optics, Inc.) benefits from a common path interferometric geometry and white light illumination, which grant excellent temporal and spatial sensitivity [36]. The measureable quantity is the phase of the temporal cross-correlation function, evaluated at the origin [38], namely

Γ01(r)=U0(r,t)U1(r,t+τ)|τ=0=|Γ01(r)|eiϕ(r)
In Eq. (2), U0 is the reference field, U0=A0ein0β0z, U1 is the image filed, and ϕ represents the measureable phase shift.

In order to compute the second order moment of the wavevector from the measured ϕ, we start with the definition of <k2>, which reads

k2=k2|U(k)|2d3k|U(k)|2d3k=(kx2+ky2+kz2)|U(k)|2d3k|U(k)|2d3k.
From Parseval's theorem we have the following identity
|U(k,ω)|2d3k=8π3|U(r,ω)|2d3r.
Furthermore, we use the differentiation property of the Fourier transform,
kxU(k,ω)1iU(r,ω)x
where indicates the Fourier transformation. Equation (5) allows us to express kx2 in terms of the derivative along x, while Eq. (4) can be used to replace the integrals over k with ones over r. Thus, Eq. (3) can be re-written as
kx2=|U(r,ω)x|2d3r|U(r,ω)|2d3r.
For phase objects, the measured field from the specimen can be expressed as
U(r,ω)=A(ω)exp[iϕ(r)],
where A is the amplitude of the field. As a result, Eq. (6) takes a simple form,
kx2=|ϕ(r,ω)x|2d3r.
The same process applies to the y and z dimensions, such that, finally, the variance of the refractive index associated with a transparent specimen, can be retrieved from the measured phase image as
σn2=1β02|ϕ|2
In essence, Eq. (9) shows that we can extract the refractive index variance from the mean gradient intensity of the measured phase images.

3. Results

In order to illustrate this approach, we present experimental results on live neurons and a number of tissue biopsies. We used white light from a halogen lamp, with central wavelength of 574nm and full-width half maximum of 150nm, and a 40X /0.75 NA objective. Figure 2 shows results obtained on live neurons in culture. We measured a z-stack including 129 slices with a step of 9.0 slices/µm, which matches our x-y sampling. Figure 2(a) shows a middle frame (1776 pixels × 1760 pixels) of the z-stack reconstructed phase maps, while Figs. 2(b) and 2(c) show the first order derivative along x, ϕ(r,ω)/x, and the gradient intensity along x, i.e., |ϕ(r,ω)/x|2, respectively. Figure 2(d) shows the histogram of the gradient intensity with respect to x. Following Eq. (9), we can calculate the second order moment of the k-vector of kx2, ky2 and kz2 in the whole field of view and then calculate the spatial variance of refractive index, 𝜎n. We can apply the same approach to regions of interest of arbitrary size in the field of view.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) SLIM image of a neuron, with the color bar indicates phase in radians (Visualization 1). (b) Map of ϕx, with the color bar indicates phase in units of rad/μm. (c) Map of |ϕx|2, with the color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/μm)2 (Visualization 2). (d) Histogram of the values in (c).

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In Fig. 2, we show the 𝜎n results for a region on the neuron cell body vs. its neurites. The results indicate that the soma is characterized by a higher variance, 𝜎1 = 0.028 vs. 𝜎2 = 0.018. This difference can be attributed to the fact that neurites are essentially 1D structures, while the cell bodies are 2D. Note that the background generates an order of magnitude lower value for a comparable region, 𝜎0 = 0.002. This 𝜎0 value ideally would approach zero for a noise free measurement. However, spatial phase noise due to the optics and impurities in the cell culture contribute to a non-zero background level, which represents the ultimate sensitivity of our measurement.

We further applied our approach to measure colon biopsies, of 6 µm thickness. The z-stack consisting of 300 slices was recorded using the SLIM instrument, at the same axial sampling as before. Following the same procedure, we obtained the refractive index variance over the whole field of view of 𝜎n = 0.026, as shown in Fig. 3. Again, choosing different regions of interests yields different values of the variance, which indicates the strong refractive index inhomogeneity associated with the tissue.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) SLIM image of a colon biopsy, with the color bar indicating phase in radians (Visualization 3). (b) Map of ϕx, with the color bar indicating phase in units of rad/μm. (c) Map of |ϕx|2, with the color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/μm)2 (Visualization 4). (d) Histogram of the values in (c).

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We performed the same analysis on 8 distinct regions of colon tissue slice and summarized their results in Fig. 4. The refractive index variance, averaged over the 8 measurements, is 𝜎n = 0.023 ± 0.006.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a)-(h) SLIM images of different colon biopsies, with the color bar indicating phase in radians. (i) the refractive index variance 𝜎n for (a)-(h).

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We also acquired z-stacks of papillary thyroid cancer biopsies. The z-stack consisted of 300 frames and one of the retrieved phase maps (2064 pixels × 2048 pixels) is shown in Fig. 5(a). The results obtained for the first-order derivative and its magnitude squared with respect to x are shown in Fig. 5(b) and 5(c). The histogram of the gradient intensity is shown in Fig. 5(d). The refractive index variance in the whole field is 𝜎n = 0.029, and the selected areas show slight variations around this value.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a) SLIM image of a papillary thyroid cancer biopsy, with the color bar indicating phase in radians (Visualization 5). (b) Map of ϕx, with the color bar indicating phase in units of rad/μm. (c) Map of |ϕx|2, with the color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/μm)2 (Visualization 6). (d) Histogram of the values in (c).

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Different papillary thyroid cancer biopsies are shown in Figs. 6(a)-6(h), and their relevant refractive index variances are presented in Fig. 6(i). The refractive index variance averaged over all the measurements is 𝜎n = 0.021 ± 0.008.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 (a)-(h) SLIM images of different papillary thyroid cancer biopsies, with the color bar indicates phase in radians. (i) the refractive index variance 𝜎n for (a)-(h)

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4. Summary and discussion

In summary, three-dimensional QPI data can be used to extract the variance of the refractive index in cells and tissues. The key feature of this approach is that the thickness of the specimen is not required a priori. This is due to the use of the SDR, which only requires that the sample of interest is sampled in its entirety and the results averaged properly. One important difference with respect to the tomographic approaches [38–40] is that SDR does not require solving the scattering inverse problem, i.e., we retrieve the variance of the refractive index, not its 3D distribution. As a result, this method is very fast and practical. For weakly scattering objects, such as cells and thin slices of tissue, the refractive index variance can be simply obtained from the gradient of the phase data. The amplitude modulation is likely to make a difference in brain slices, as reported in Ref. 41. However, in all our live cell and unstained biopsy imaging, amplitude modulation is negligible, which justifies our approximation of phase objects. Although a measure of the refractive distribution spread and not of the absolute values of refractive index, the variance has been shown to be crucial when diagnosing diseases such as cancer [31]. It is possible that during cancer progression the average value of the tissue refractive index may not change, but its spatial distribution undergoes modification [31]. Because of the tremendous progress in QPI instrumentation, we hope that the approach presented here will be readily adopted to extract information about optical properties of biomedical specimens.

Funding

National Science Foundation (CBET-0939511 STC, DBI 14-50962 EAGER, IIP-1353368) (for more information, visit http://light.ece.illinois.edu/); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (61377009); Major National Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (2013YQ290489); China Scholarship Council (201506685053); Heilongjiang Science Foundation of China (F201411); and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China.

Acknowledgments

Neurons were prepared by Dr. Catherine Best at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The biopsy samples were prepared at the University of Illinois at Chicago under the supervision of Dr. Andre A. Kajdacsy-Balla.

References and links

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3. A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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6. I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999). [CrossRef]  

9. K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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References

  • View by:

  1. V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis (SPIE Press, 2007), Vol. 642.
  2. A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  3. A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054044 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041302 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  26. R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues (McGraw-HillNew York, 2011).
  29. S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. H. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Measuring the scattering parameters of tissues from quantitative phase imaging of thin slices,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2281–2283 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. Z. Wang, H. Ding, and G. Popescu, “Scattering-phase theorem,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1215–1217 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. M. Shan, V. Nastasa, and G. Popescu, “Statistical dispersion relation for spatially broadband fields,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2490–2492 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  39. E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 291–293 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

M. Shan, V. Nastasa, and G. Popescu, “Statistical dispersion relation for spatially broadband fields,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2490–2492 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2009 (3)

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054044 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (5)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 291–293 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aida, T.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054044 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babacan, S. D.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Backman, V.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Badizadegan, K.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Balla, A.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bassi, A.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, A.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging,” Opt. Lett. 24(5), 291–293 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloom, S. L.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brand, R. E.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, P. V.

Brezinski, M. E.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Budka, H.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Busch, D. R.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, J.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carney, P. S.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carpenter, S.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerussi, A.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chikoidze, E.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

Collier, T.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corlu, A.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crum, C. P.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuccia, D. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Culver, J. P.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czerniecki, B. J.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dehghani, H.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Demichele, A.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Dhar, A.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dichtl, S.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dimofte, A.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

Do Rschel, K.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durkin, A. J.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Espinoza, J.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang-Yen, C.

Feld, M. S.

Y. Sung, W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical diffraction tomography for high resolution live cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(1), 266–277 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fercher, A. F.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraker, D. L.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friebel, M.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Georgakoudi, I.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gillette, M. U.

Glatstein, E.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goddard, L. L.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Graf, R. N.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guerra, A.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guillaud, M.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gurjar, R. S.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, A.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. M.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, K.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartman, D. J.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Izatt, J. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, Y.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, K. S.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, J.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kajdacsy-Balla, A.

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalashnikov, M.

Kandel, M. E.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keefe, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelley, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kogel, C.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Konecky, S. D.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LaFace, J.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lakhani, S.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lanning, R.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, T.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, E.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leibowitz, B.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Liu, Y.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lovat, L. B.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Z.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, X. H.

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[Crossref]

Macaulay, C.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macias, V.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majeed, H.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

Metz, J.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mihi, A.

Miles, J.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Millet, L.

Millet, L. J.

Mir, M.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moritz, A.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mourant, J. R.

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mu Ller, G.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Müller, M. G.

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munger, K.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nastasa, V.

Nines, R.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Novelli, M. R.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ntziachristos, V.

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pathak, S.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pham, H. V.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, T.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickard, D.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pifferi, A.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
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Popescu, G.

M. Shan, V. Nastasa, and G. Popescu, “Statistical dispersion relation for spatially broadband fields,” Opt. Lett. 41(11), 2490–2492 (2016).
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S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
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H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
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T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
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Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
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Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
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Z. Wang, H. Ding, and G. Popescu, “Scattering-phase theorem,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1215–1217 (2011).
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Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Measuring the scattering parameters of tissues from quantitative phase imaging of thin slices,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2281–2283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poplack, S. P.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
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K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
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Preusser, M.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
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Putt, M. E.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
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H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
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Pyhtila, J. W.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
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R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
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Ripley, P. M.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
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Robinson, D. J.

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054044 (2008).
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Robl, B.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
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Rogers, J.

Roggan, A.

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
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Rose, I. G.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
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Rosen, M. A.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
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Sattmann, H.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
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A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
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Saunders, C.

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
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Schnall, M. D.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
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R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
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Shah, N.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
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Shan, M.

Shapshay, S. M.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
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Sheetse, E. E.

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
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Shen, Z.

Soho, S.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
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H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, X.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sperr, W.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sridharan, S.

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steele, V. E.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J.

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054044 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoner, G. D.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sun, D.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, Y.

Svaasand, L.

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
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Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
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Swartling, J.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
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Tangella, K.

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ding, Z. Wang, X. Liang, S. A. Boppart, K. Tangella, and G. Popescu, “Measuring the scattering parameters of tissues from quantitative phase imaging of thin slices,” Opt. Lett. 36(12), 2281–2283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
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Tchou, J.

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, G. A.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tosteson, T. D.

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
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D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
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B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unarunotai, S.

Unterhuber, A.

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
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S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
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Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wallace, M. B.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. W.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Wax, A.

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
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A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
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Yang, C.

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
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A. Wax, C. Yang, V. Backman, M. Kalashnikov, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Determination of particle size by using the angular distribution of backscattered light as measured with low-coherence interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(4), 737–744 (2002).
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R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
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H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
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V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, R.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T. C.

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (2)

A. Wax, C. Yang, M. G. Müller, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, V. E. Steele, G. D. Stoner, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “In situ detection of neoplastic transformation and chemopreventive effects in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3556–3559 (2003).
[PubMed]

S. Uttam, H. V. Pham, J. LaFace, B. Leibowitz, J. Yu, R. E. Brand, D. J. Hartman, and Y. Liu, “Early prediction of cancer progression by depth-resolved nanoscale maps of nuclear architecture from unstained tissue specimens,” Cancer Res. 75(22), 4718–4727 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caries Res. (1)

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, “Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures,” Caries Res. 34(1), 59–69 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Circulation (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for optical biopsy. Properties and demonstration of vascular pathology,” Circulation 93(6), 1206–1213 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faraday Discuss. (1)

K. Badizadegan, V. Backman, C. W. Boone, C. P. Crum, R. R. Dasari, I. Georgakoudi, K. Keefe, K. Munger, S. M. Shapshay, E. E. Sheetse, and M. S. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis and imaging of invisible pre-cancer,” Faraday Discuss. 126, 265–311 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, J. Van Dam, V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, M. G. Müller, Q. Zhang, K. Badizadegan, D. Sun, G. A. Thomas, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Fluorescence, reflectance, and light-scattering spectroscopy for evaluating dysplasia in patients with Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 120(7), 1620–1629 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (16)

K. Chen, L. T. Perelman, Q. Zhang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Optical computed tomography in a turbid medium using early arriving photons,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 144–154 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. J. Bigio, S. G. Bown, G. Briggs, C. Kelley, S. Lakhani, D. Pickard, P. M. Ripley, I. G. Rose, and C. Saunders, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5(2), 221–228 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. Macaulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(1), 7–16 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, T. M. Johnson, S. Carpenter, A. Guerra, T. Aida, and J. P. Freyer, “Polarized angular dependent spectroscopy of epithelial cells and epithelial cell nuclei to determine the size scale of scattering structures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 378–387 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pifferi, J. Swartling, E. Chikoidze, A. Torricelli, P. Taroni, A. Bassi, S. Andersson-Engels, and R. Cubeddu, “Spectroscopic time-resolved diffuse reflectance and transmittance measurements of the female breast at different interfiber distances,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1143–1151 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, C. Kogel, S. Soho, S. Srinivasan, X. Song, T. D. Tosteson, S. P. Poplack, and K. D. Paulsen, “Characterization of hemoglobin, water, and NIR scattering in breast tissue: analysis of intersubject variability and menstrual cycle changes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 541–552 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. W. Wang, T. C. Zhu, M. E. Putt, M. Solonenko, J. Metz, A. Dimofte, J. Miles, D. L. Fraker, E. Glatstein, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, “Broadband reflectance measurements of light penetration, blood oxygenation, hemoglobin concentration, and drug concentration in human intraperitoneal tissues before and after photodynamic therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 014004 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wax, J. W. Pyhtila, R. N. Graf, R. Nines, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, V. E. Steele, and G. D. Stoner, “Prospective grading of neoplastic change in rat esophagus epithelium using angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 051604 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amelink, D. J. Robinson, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Confidence intervals on fit parameters derived from optical reflectance spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054044 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, M. Preusser, H. Budka, A. Stingl, and T. Le, “Imaging ex vivo healthy and pathological human brain tissue with ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011006 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Choe, S. D. Konecky, A. Corlu, K. Lee, T. Durduran, D. R. Busch, S. Pathak, B. J. Czerniecki, J. Tchou, D. L. Fraker, A. Demichele, B. Chance, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, J. P. Culver, M. D. Schnall, M. E. Putt, M. A. Rosen, and A. G. Yodh, “Differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors by in-vivo three-dimensional parallel-plate diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024020 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques and B. W. Pogue, “Tutorial on diffuse light transport,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(4), 041302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roggan, M. Friebel, K. Do Rschel, A. Hahn, and G. Mu Ller, “Optical Properties of Circulating Human Blood in the Wavelength Range 400-2500 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 36–46 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Majeed, M. E. Kandel, K. Han, Z. Luo, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Breast cancer diagnosis using spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(11), 116017 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Med. (1)

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabeled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 256–263 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neoplasia (1)

B. J. Tromberg, N. Shah, R. Lanning, A. Cerussi, J. Espinoza, T. Pham, L. Svaasand, and J. Butler, “Non-invasive in vivo characterization of breast tumors using photon migration spectroscopy,” Neoplasia 2(1-2), 26–40 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

V. Ntziachristos, X. H. Ma, A. G. Yodh, and B. Chance, “Multichannel photon counting instrument for spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(1), 193–201 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

S. Sridharan, V. Macias, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, and G. Popescu, “Prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9976 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lee, E. Lee, J. Jung, H. Yu, K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Lee, Y. Jeong, and Y. Park, “Label-free optical quantification of structural alterations in Alzheimer’s disease,” Sci. Rep. 6, 31034 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light Scattering Methods and Instruments for Medical Diagnosis (SPIE Press, 2007), Vol. 642.

G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues (McGraw-HillNew York, 2011).

Supplementary Material (6)

NameDescription
Visualization 1: MP4 (755 KB)      SLIM images of a neuron, with the color bar indicates phase in radians
Visualization 2: MP4 (487 KB)      The phase second order derivative along x of the data in Video 1. The color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/µm)^2, as explained in the Fig. 2c caption.
Visualization 3: MP4 (6152 KB)      SLIM images of a colon biopsy, with the color bar indicating phase in radians
Visualization 4: MP4 (6141 KB)      The phase second order derivative along x of the data in Video 3. The color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/µm)^2, as explained in the Fig. 3c caption.
Visualization 5: MP4 (7400 KB)      SLIM images of a papillary thyroid cancer biopsy, with the color bar indicating phase in radians
Visualization 6: MP4 (6595 KB)      The phase second order derivative along x of the data in Video 5. The color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/µm)^2, as explained in the Fig. 3c caption.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Scattering geometry, Ui, ki are the incident field and wavevector. (b) Momentum conservation: k i and k s are the incident and scattered wave vector, 𝝙 k x and 𝝙 k z are the variance of the components of the transverse wave vector, θ is the scattering angle.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) SLIM image of a neuron, with the color bar indicates phase in radians (Visualization 1). (b) Map of ϕ x , with the color bar indicates phase in units of rad/μm. (c) Map of | ϕ x | 2 , with the color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/μm)2 (Visualization 2). (d) Histogram of the values in (c).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) SLIM image of a colon biopsy, with the color bar indicating phase in radians (Visualization 3). (b) Map of ϕ x , with the color bar indicating phase in units of rad/μm. (c) Map of | ϕ x | 2 , with the color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/μm)2 (Visualization 4). (d) Histogram of the values in (c).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)-(h) SLIM images of different colon biopsies, with the color bar indicating phase in radians. (i) the refractive index variance 𝜎 n for (a)-(h).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) SLIM image of a papillary thyroid cancer biopsy, with the color bar indicating phase in radians (Visualization 5). (b) Map of ϕ x , with the color bar indicating phase in units of rad/μm. (c) Map of | ϕ x | 2 , with the color bar indicates phase in units of (rad/μm)2 (Visualization 6). (d) Histogram of the values in (c).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a)-(h) SLIM images of different papillary thyroid cancer biopsies, with the color bar indicates phase in radians. (i) the refractive index variance 𝜎n for (a)-(h)

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k 2 = n 0 2 β 0 2 ( 1 + σ n 2 n 0 2 )
Γ 01 ( r ) = U 0 ( r , t ) U 1 ( r , t + τ ) | τ = 0 = | Γ 01 ( r ) | e i ϕ ( r )
k 2 = k 2 | U ( k ) | 2 d 3 k | U ( k ) | 2 d 3 k = ( k x 2 + k y 2 + k z 2 ) | U ( k ) | 2 d 3 k | U ( k ) | 2 d 3 k .
| U ( k , ω ) | 2 d 3 k = 8 π 3 | U ( r , ω ) | 2 d 3 r .
k x U ( k , ω ) 1 i U ( r , ω ) x
k x 2 = | U ( r , ω ) x | 2 d 3 r | U ( r , ω ) | 2 d 3 r .
U ( r , ω ) = A ( ω ) exp [ i ϕ ( r ) ] ,
k x 2 = | ϕ ( r , ω ) x | 2 d 3 r .
σ n 2 = 1 β 0 2 | ϕ | 2

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