Abstract

The anisotropically intrinsic scattering and reflection of a sole cell of polymer network-90° twisted nematic liquid crystals (PN-90° TNLCs) without any polarizer are proposed. Light with specifically linear polarizations, incident from one direction, can penetrate the PN-90° TNLCs with applied voltage. The polarization direction of the output beam will be rotated 90°. The same linearly polarized light, incident from the other direction, will be scattered because it encounters the refractive indices mismatch of various LC domains. The reflection, resulting from the boundaries of LCs and polymers, also shows optical anisotropy. Such LC devices can be applied as scattering-type linear polarizers.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

An optical diode, also known as an optical isolator, has attracted substantial attention because of its ability to manipulate light and its potential applications on information technology. Incident light can transmit optical diode in one direction; however, these lights are blocked in the reverse direction [1]. The reported device also shows unique asymmetrical transmission. Studies have successfully fabricated optical diodes based on photonic crystals [2,3]. Moreover, Faraday rotator and linear polarizers can be combined to demonstrate a known optical diode [4]. Several studies reported that the combination of nematic liquid crystals (LCs) and cholesteric LCs (CLCs) could be used to demonstrate non-reciprocal transmissions [1,5,6]. The use of a dye-doped nematic LC, which serves as a defective layer in a periodical structure, to achieve asymmetrical transmission was also investigated [7]. However, the disadvantage of fabricating an optical diode based on LCs/CLCs is that electro-optical properties of these LCs are strongly sensitive to incident light wavelengths; the advantage is that electro-optical tunability of such devices becomes possible [1,8]. The main feature of these optical devices described above is their asymmetrical transmissions.

In the recent decade, polymer network nematic LCs (PN-NLCs) have been studied worldwide because of their optical properties. PN-NLCs can be switched between transparent and scattering states by applying a specific voltage [8–12]. A polymer network consisting of polymer strands/monomers forms along the direction of LC molecules [8–13]. The structures resulting from the orientation of LCs serve as a mold for the formation of polymer networks during photo-polymerization. Generated polymer networks can provide strong anchoring for LC molecules that are close to the polymer fibril and maintain LC orientation. On the other hand, LCs in bulk generate multi LC domains (mLCds) under the applied external voltage. The effective refractive index mismatch between mLCds mainly results in the scattering of incident light [8,14,15]. Moreover, sizes of mLCds determine the scattering of incident lights with various wavelengths [16–19]. Light scattered by homogeneously aligned PN-NLCs was demonstrated to be strongly dependent on the polarization direction of linearly polarized (LP) incident light [8,15,20,21]. Moreover, homeotropically aligned PN-NLCs and PN 90° twisted nematic LCs (PN-90° TNLCs) were introduced to eliminate the scattering performance, which strongly depended on the direction of the LP incident lights [8,9,15,22]. In comparison with homogeneous PN-NLCs, the direct advantages of the LC device using PN-90° TNLCs are better contrast, larger fabrication tolerance, and larger temperature tolerance [23]. Accordingly, considerable attention has been devoted to scattering performances and applications of PN-90° TNLCs in the past decade [9,23–31]. An outgoing light beam through such PN-90° TNLCs maintains LP light and the polarization direction of the incident LP light beam will be rotated 90° as PN-90° TNLCs meet the criteria of Mauguin’s condition [8]. PN-NLCs and/or PN-90° TNLCs based on the well-known recipe (E7 and RM257), consisting of those adopted in this paper, have been widely studied, and many LC devices have been developed based on such an interesting mixture. In 2011, Yamaguchi et al. has investigated a polarization-dependent scattering PN-90° TNLC cell [30,31]. Briefly, they proposed that the light scattering by their PN-90° TNLC cell is caused by the refractive index mismatch between the LCs and the polymer fibrils. Hence, the scattering of incident LP light with its polarization direction parallel (perpendicular) to the rubbing direction is strong (weak). The result indicates that the light scattering by the PN-90° TNLCs with the application of external voltage is strongly dependent on the polarization direction of the incident LP light. By contrast, we herein propose the mechanism from other points of view to elucidate the polarization-dependent light scattering by PN-90° TNLCs based on the polarization transformation of the incident LP light to elliptically polarized (EP) light inside the LC cell and the refractive index mismatch between the generated mLCds. A fully detailed investigation on the optical mechanism of PN-90° TNLCs showing asymmetrical transmission, will be reported. Briefly, regarding the asymmetrical scattering and reflection, the transmittance as a LP light incident from one direction can pass through the LC cell, while exactly the same light incident from the other direction will be scattered. Most importantly, the optically anisotropic reflection, also known as the back scattering, from the PN-90° TNLCs is analyzed. We have theoretically elucidated the corresponding mechanism for the first step, and several experiments have been demonstrated to verify the proposed mechanism.

In this paper, an investigation and systematic analysis of broadband scattering-type optical isolators/linear polarizers with their properties of electrically switchable and asymmetrical transmission using PN-90° TNLCs have been reported. Briefly, the doped reactive mesogen will be polymerized and aligned along 90° TNLCs. LC alignment can continuously rotate from one substrate (along x-axis) to the other (along y-axis), and ± z-axis indicates the propagation directions of the incident lights. Accordingly, the generated polymer network structure will be consistent with that of the 90° TNLCs. Without the application of external voltage, PN-90° TNLCs function as common 90° TNLCs; hence, the polarization of a broadband incident light with linear polarization parallel (or perpendicular) to the front director of LCs penetrating through PN-90° TNLCs will be rotated 90°, as the PN-90° TNLCs meet the criteria of Mauguin’s condition [8]. However, with suitable external voltage application, incident lights propagating along the ± z-axis with a specifically linear polarization direction can penetrate PN-90° TNLCs from one direction, and its polarization direction will be rotated 90°. Such a polarization rotation of 90° is not the key factor to achieve the reported asymmetrical transmission. On the other hand, the LP light, which comes from the opposite direction, can be scattered. The reason for such light scattering results from the refractive index mismatch of the generated mLCds. We discovered that scattering strength is strongly dependent on polarization states and propagation directions of incident lights. Moreover, without applying any external voltage, we observed that the reflection (back-scattering) intensity, resulting from LC and polymer boundaries, of incident light with specifically linear polarization propagating along the ± z-axis is also strongly dependent on its propagation direction. Here, two experiments were designed to directly show the asymmetrical transmission by the PN-90° TNLCs. Moreover, to modulate a LP light by a single LC cell of PN-90° TNLCs, working as a polarization-dependent scattering shutter, the correct side of the LC cell should be confirmed to ensure that the incident polarized light could be scattered [23–29].

2. Methods

2.1 Material and cell preparations

The materials adopted herein were nematic LCs, E7 (~95 wt%, Merck) and reactive mesogen, RM257 (~5 wt%, Merck). The mixture was mixed homogeneously. No photo-initiator was used herein to achieve smooth polymer network structure by slow cross-linking rate. The extraordinary/ordinary refractive indices (ne/no) of E7 and RM257 were 1.746/1.521 and 1.687/1.508, respectively. Notably, the difference of ne (0.059) between E7 and RM257 was larger than that of no (0.013) between E7 and RM257. Two indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates were treated with planar alignment layers and then rubbed along two orthogonal directions (x- and y-axes). An empty cell, with a 12-µm-thick cell gap was fabricated by these two substrates. The empty cell was filled with the homogeneous mixture by capillary action and treated with UV illumination (central wavelength was ~365 nm, intensity was ~10 mW/cm2) for 60 min to gradually generate smooth polymer networks. LC cell surface facing UV light was called the S1, and the other surface as the S2. Finally, an LC cell with PN-90° TNLCs structures was completed.

2.2 Fabrications

To generate smooth polymer networks, unpolarized UV light (λ = 365 nm, 10 mW/cm2) was used as light source and illuminated onto the S1 of the LC cell. During photo-polymerization, RM257 fibrils tended to grow along the direction consistent with LC director orientation [8,9]. Thus, polymer RM257 (p-RM257) network structures were generated following the 90° TNLC structures mold of the original LC orientation. The PN-90° TNLCs were formed; the schematic is shown in Fig. 1(a). Concentration of p-RM257 networks close to S1 was higher than that close to S2 because of molecular diffusion [8,9]. However, to elucidate the anisotropic properties of PN-90° TNLCs, we assumed that p-RM257 networks concentration was homogeneously distributed through the whole LC bulk. Moreover, the electro-optical properties of the formed PN-90° TNLCs without the application of an external field were intrinsically consistent with those of the original 90° TNLCs.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematics of (a) PN-90° TNLCs structures under UV illumination (365 nm) and (b) structures of PN-90° TNLCs with an application of external voltage after the photo-polymerization processes are completed. S1 and S2 represent command and reference surfaces, respectively.

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3. Mechanism of optically anisotropic properties

To elucidate the mechanism of the optically anisotropic properties of PN-90° TNLCs (Fig. 1), four LP light beams (L1in, L2in, L3in, and L4in) with different polarization states and propagating directions were introduced as shown in Fig. 1(b). Figure 1(b) presents the structures of PN-90° TNLCs, possessing optical isolator properties by applying a suitable external voltage. As shown in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b), the LC and PVA boundary position that was aligned with x-axis (y-axis) was defined as z = 0 (z = d). The incident lights, L2in from S1 and L3in from S2, were scattered because they encountered different refractive indices between various mLCds. Refractive indices of mLCds, encountered by L1in, L2in, L3in, and L4in as they travel into the PN-90° TNLCs, must be investigated to clarify the mechanism of PN-90° TNLCs. Before discussing the refractive indices of various mLCds, changes in linear polarization state of LP lights penetrating through PN-90° TNLCs should be elucidated first. The polarization state of LP light in the bulk of TNLCs satisfying Mauguin’s condition is elliptical polarization [32].

Figure 2 shows the schematic diagrams of the changes of the dimensionless parameter of major (DPoma) and minor (DPomi) axis of EP “L1in or L2in or L3in or L4in” when they were travelling in the LC bulk along ± z-axis in 11 different positions. In Fig. 2(a), L1in and L2in travel along the + z-axis from z = 0, and in Fig. 2(b), L3in and L4in travel along the −z-axis from z = d. The red, white, green, and blue arrows represent the polarization directions of L1in, L2in, L3in, and L4in, respectively. The orange–yellow rods, shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b), represent the orientation of p-RM257/LC molecules on the xy-plane in 11 different positions at the z-axis, marked as 0, d10, 2d108d10, 9d10, and d. LCs and p-RM257 fibrils rotate continuously from x-axis to y-axis. Notations of 0, d, and 5d10 represent the positions of S1, S2, and middle bulk, respectively. The 90° TNLCs can be divided into homogeneous LC layers with identical thicknesses, and the LC director of each homogeneous layer can be uniformly oriented as an external voltage is applied. Regarding the electro-optical properties, 90° TNLCs can be viewed as the sum of these layers [32]. Moreover, for simplification, we assumed that all major (minor) axes of EP “L1in or L4in” and “L2in or L3in” are parallel (perpendicular) and perpendicular (parallel) to the fast axis of LC molecules (p-RM257 fibrils) in PN-90° TNLC, respectively, as shown in Figs. 2(a) and 2(b). Moreover, the DPoma of EP “L1in or L2in” (“L3in or L4in”) gradually decreases and increases from positions 0 to 5d10 and 5d10 to d (d to 5d10 and 5d10 to 0), respectively. To simplify the analysis, we assume that the changes of the DPoma of the EP in the bulk can be normalized to 1 and are described as Eqs. (1) and (2),

DPoma=cos(π2dh),  0h<5d10.
DPoma=cos(π2π2dh),  5d10hd.
where h (ranging from 0 to d) represents position in the bulk of LC cell. As h = 0 and h = d, Eqs. (1) and (2) show that DPoma is 1. This result is reasonable because “L1in or L2in” and “L3in or L4in” are LP at positions 0 and d, respectively. Moreover, DPomi of EP “L1in or L2in” (“L3in or L4in”), which gradually increases and decreases from positions 0 to 5d10 and 5d10 to d (d to 5d10 and 5d10 to 0), respectively, can also be normalized to 1 and is described as Eqs. (3) and (4),

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Schematics polarization states variations of incident light in the bulks of LC cell. The orange rods represent the orientation of p-RM257/LC molecules on the xy-plane at 11 positions, marked as 0, d10, 2d108d10, 9d10, and d. (a) L1in and L2in travel along the + z-axis from z = 0, and (b) L3in and L4in travel along the −z-axis from z = d.

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DPomi=sin(π2dh),  0h<5d10.
DPomi=sin(π2π2dh),  5d10hd.

As h = 0 and h = d, Eqs. (3) and (4) show that DPomi is 1. This result is reasonable because “L1in or L2in” and “L3in or L4in” are LP at positions 0 and d, respectively. Normalized DPoma and DPomi could be viewed as normalized light intensity with polarization along the major and minor axes of EP light. The maximum and minimum values of normalized DPoma (DPomi) were defined as 1 (0.707) and 0.707 (0), respectively. At position (h) of 5d10, DPoma and DPomi values remained the same (0.707) because the linear polarization of the incident LP light was transferred to the circular polarization for these two cases.

Figure 3 shows the calculation variations of DPoma from the perspective view of “L1in or L4in” and DPomi from the perspective view of “L2in or L3in” as a function of the positions in LC cell based on Eqs. (1)–(4). Notably, the two curves shown in Fig. 3 were symmetric with respect to the middle of the LC cell, also known as h=5d10. Clearly, except at h=5d10, all values shown as red diamonds were larger than those shown as blue squares in Fig. 3. The minimum value of the red curve was equal to the maximum value of the blue one at h=5d10. The value of red diamonds was considerably larger than that of blue squares as h was close to 0 and d. Considering the above-mentioned assumption on Figs. 2(a) and 2(b), we found that the DPoma of “L1 or L4” and DPomi of “L2 or L3” encountered similar refractive indices in different mLCds, which is the ordinary refractive index (no) of the used LCs with/without application of external voltage. The assumption is reasonable because the LC director of each homogeneous layer can be uniformly oriented as an external voltage is applied. We also assumed that all major (minor) axes of EP L1in and L4in (L2in and L3in) are parallel to the fast axis of LC molecule/p-RM257 fibrils, so that they are nearly parallel to the fast axis of LC director of each homogeneous layer when a suitable voltage is applied. Therefore, DPoma of “L1 and L4” and DPomi of “L2 and L3” encounter no of LC in different mLCds through the whole bulk. Moreover, we also assumed that no of used LC polymer was identical with that of used LCs to simplify the discussion. Therefore, incident light could pass through the LC cell without any light scattering [8]. However, the DPomi of “L1 and L4” and the DPoma of “L2 and L3” encountered different refractive indices at different mLCds with a suitable application of external voltage. Accordingly, incident light will be scattered [8]. In the next paragraph, we will discuss the scattering performance (SP) of incident lights, including L1in, L2in, L3in, and L4in, in detail to elucidate the electrically switchable optical isolator of PN-90° TNLCs.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Variations of DPoma of “L1in or L4in” and DPomi of “L2in or L3in” as a function of position.

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SP of homogeneous PNLC can be described according to Eq. (5), in which the reflection from glass and air boundary was ignored [32–34],

SP=1exp(CΔneff2λ02d)=0dCΔneff2λ02exp(CΔneff2λ02h)dh.
where h, C, Δneff, and λo are position, mLCds average domain size in the bulk, effective refractive index difference, and incident light wavelength, respectively. The h ranged from 0 to d, where d was the cell gap. Notably, Δneff values depended on the selection of LCs, whereas effective birefringence of LCs was dependent on applied voltage amplitude [8,24]. The maximum Δneff was the birefringence of LCs, also known as (neno). Moreover, referring to Eq. (5), C and Δn were considered as constants. The wavelength parameter was λ02, but not λ04, because the incident light was scattered via Mie scattering [34,35]. We mentioned that light scattering was mainly caused by DPomi of “L1in or L4in) and DPoma of “L2in or L3in”. Therefore, based on Eq. (5), SP of “L1in or L2in or L3in or L4in” can be described by Eqs. (6) and (7) as follows:
SPL1 or L4=05d10[sin(π2dh)]CDP0miΔneff2λ02exp(CDP0miΔneff2λ02h)dh+  5d10d[sin(π2π2dh)]CDP0miΔneff2λ02exp(CDP0miΔneff2λ02h)dh.
SPL2 or L3=05d10[cos(π2dh)]CDP0maΔneff2λ02exp(CDP0maΔneff2λ02h)dh+                 5d10d[cos(π2π2dh)]CDP0maΔneff2λ02exp(CDP0maΔneff2λ02h)dh.
SPL1 or L4 and SPL2 or L3 represent SP of L1in or L4in and L2in or L3in, respectively, through PN-90° TNLCs. CDP0ma and CDP0mi represent the averaged domain sizes that DPoma of “L1 or L4” and DPomi of “L2 or L3” encountered, respectively. Values of CDP0ma and CDPmi were considered as constants. According to Fig. 3, all values of red diamonds in each position were larger than those of blue squares, except for the value at 5d10. Therefore, the integral value of Eq. (7) must be larger than that of Eq. (6). Based on the calculation results, we can say that under a suitable application of external voltage, incident light of LP L4in (L1in) with polarization direction along the x (y)-axis (Fig. 2) can penetrate through PN-90° TNLCs from S1; simultaneously, light will be scattered from Sr. Results directly show the evidence of asymmetrical transmission by the reported PN-90° TNLCs. An experiment was designed to further investigate and confirm the statements shown in Eqs. (6) and (7).

4. Results and discussion

4.1 Anisotropic scattering of PN-90° TNLCs

An experiment was designed to demonstrate the properties of asymmetrical transmission by the reported PN-90° TNLCs. The experiment setup, as shown in Fig. 4, was for the measurements of real scattering strengths of L1in, L2in, L3in, and L4in after passing through PN-90° TNLCs with and without the application of external voltages. Rubbing directions of PVA alignment layers onto S1 and S2 were along the x- and y-axes, respectively, to form PN-90° TNLCs. An unpolarized He–Ne laser (λ = 632.8 nm) was used as the probe beam and was incident from S1 of PN-90° TNLCs. The unpolarized light can be divided into two orthogonally linear polarized lights with equal intensity [(L1in or L2in) and (L3in or L4in)]. Moreover, an analyzer was placed behind PN-90° TNLCs. A photo-detector was set behind the analyzer to investigate transmittance variations during various external voltage applications. The distance between the photo-detector and LC cell, and the collection angle of the scattering were about 10 cm and 2.3°, respectively. Without applied voltages, the PN-90° TNLC cell acted similar to a common 90° TNLC cell. Referring to Fig. 1(b), degree of linear polarization (DoLP), a value between 0 and 1, was significantly discussed and defined as,

DoLPL1 or L2=L1outL2outL1out+L2out.
DoLPL3 or L4=L4outL3outL4out+L3out.
DoLPL1 or L2 and DoLPL3 or L4 were used to examine DoLP of L1out and L4out, respectively, after passing through PN-90° TNLCs. Figures 5(a) and 5(b) show the results as He–Ne laser passed through S1 and S2 sides, respectively. The red circle (triangle) curves shown in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b) represent transmittance versus voltage (TV) curves of L1out (L2out) and L3out (L4out) under applications of various applied voltages, respectively. Regarding the measurements shown in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b), the reflections caused by the glass substrates are considered. Moreover, the red circle and triangle curves in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b) show the TV curves measured as transmission axis of the analyzer was parallel to x-axis and y-axis, respectively. With applied external voltage of 25 V, L1in and L4in penetrated through PN-90° TNLCs, whereas L2in and L3in were scattered by PN-90° TNLCs. These experimental results correspond to the analysis described above. The measured transmittances of L1out, L4out, L2out, and L3out were approximately 72.33%, 77.33%, 2.95%, and 2.63%, respectively. Moreover, both the calculated DoLP values of L1out and L4out, as shown in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b), exceeded 0.93 (maximum of 1) as 25 V was applied. Clearly, the obtained results successfully demonstrated the properties of asymmetrical transmission by the reported PN-90° TNLCs. Accordingly, a specific LP light [L2in and L3in shown in Fig. 1(b)], travelling from only one direction, can be blocked (scattered) using a single LC cell of PN-90° TNLCs with the application of external voltage. If the applied voltage is turned off, lights with any polarization can pass through the LC cell from both directions. In addition, DoLPs of L1out and L4out that were close to 1 strongly indicated that such PN-90° TNLC devices can be applied as scattering-type linear polarizers. Notably, the transmittances of L1out and L4out continuously decreased as the applied voltage is higher than 25 V. The orientation of LCs, close to p-RM257 fibrils, rotated as the applied voltage was higher than 25 V; this rotation caused the transmittance to change. Therefore, extra LC domains were generated, which increased light scattering, to decrease the transmittances of L1out and L4out. Additionally, the contrast ratios of the polarized lights, L2 and L3, are calculated to be about 12.4 and 13.5, respectively. These two obtained contrast ratios can be tuned to be equal by fabricating the mLCds with the same size in the PN-90° TNLC. The method to approach fixed size mLCds will be discussed in the conclusion section.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Experiment setup for demonstrating the polarization selective light scattering properties of the reported LC device achieved by PN-90° TNLCs.

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 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Variations of transmittance and degree of polarization as functions of applied voltage. The unpolarized lights were incident from (a) command (S1) and (b) reference (S2) surfaces. Analyzertrans. represents the direction of the transmission axis of the analyzer.

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4.2 Anisotropic reflection of PN-90° TNLCs

The transmittance shown as red circle (L1out) [red triangles (L3out)] curve was slightly higher than that of the red triangle (L2out) [red circle (L4out)] curve, as shown in Fig. 5(a) [5(b)], without the application of external voltage. The difference in their transmittances are mainly caused by the reflections (back-scatterings) resulting from p-RM257 and LCs boundaries [33]. Another cause for the difference could be the imperfection of the generated polymer networks. Figure 6 shows the schematic structures of the proposed PN-90° TNLCs without the application of external voltage. Reflections can be calculated by the following relationships with the condition that all lights were normally incident onto LC cell [34,35],

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of PN-90° TNLCs structures without any application of external voltage.

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Rno=(nnoLC  nnopRM257nnoLC + nnopRM257)2=0.0000184.
Rne=(nneLC  nnepRM257nneLC + nnepRM257)2=0.000295.

Equations (10) and (11) represent reflections caused by one boundary of p-RM257 and LCs with respect to no and ne, respectively. The nno-LC, nno-pRM257, nne-LC, and nne-pRM257 represent no of LC, no of p-RM257, ne of LCs, and ne of p-RM257, respectively. Under ideal conditions, p-RM257 grows uniformly from one substrate to the other through the bulk of LC cell. Therefore, the DPoma and DPomi of “L1 or L4” always encounter Rno and Rne of both LC and p-RM257, respectively; the DPomi and DPoma of “L2 or L3” always encounter Rne and Rno of both LC and p-RM257, respectively. Moreover, because the polarization state of light traveling in the bulk of PN-90° TNLCs was EP, the reflection calculated from Eqs. (10) and (11) should multiply DPoma and/or DPomi to calibrate the light reflections. According to Eqs. (1)–(4), overall reflections of L1 and L2 (RL1 and RL2) with LP parallel to y- and x-axes can be described by Eqs. (12) and (13), respectively [34,35].

RL1(1{[1cos(π2d0)Rno]××[1cos(π2π2dd)Rno]}mboundaries)+            (1{[1sin(π2d0)Rne]××[1sin(π2π2dd)Rne]}mboundaries).
RL2(1{[1sin(π2d0)Rno]××[1sin(π2π2dd)Rno]}mboundaries)           (1{[1cos(π2d0)Rne]××[1cos(π2π2dd)Rne]}mboundaries). 

Light reflections of RL1 and RL2 are functions of the position with respect to the top and bottom substrates. m represents the quantity of the boundary between p-RM257 and LCs. Furthermore, Fig. 7 shows the difference between L1 [RL1, Eq. (12)] and L2 [RL2, Eq. (13)] light reflections. The blue triangles and orange circles represent the calculated reflections RL2 and RL1, respectively. RL2 was always higher than RL1 if the value of m was selected as 6, 10, 30, and 90. Such results gave direct evidence that transmittances (without any application of external voltage) of the red circle (L1out) [red triangle (L3out)] curve should be slightly higher than that of the red triangle (L2out) [red circle (L4out)] curve in Fig. 5(a) [5(b)]. Theoretically, with proper selection of adopted materials, undesired light reflection can be fully eliminated if the nno-LC equals the nno-pRM257, and the nne-LC equals the nne-pRM257.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Variations of overall reflection of L1 and L2, also known as RL1 and RL2, as a function of m. m represents the quantity of the boundary between p-RM257 and LCs.

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4.3 Asymmetrical polarization-dependent transmission

Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrated that a sole LC cell of PN-90° TNLCs shows asymmetrical polarization-dependent transmission, indicating that a specific LP light, incident from only one side, can pass through the LC cell. The experimental setups and results are shown in Fig. 8. The black and blue arrows represent the rubbing directions of these two substrates, S1 and S2, respectively. S1 (S2) is close to the camera (light source). The red arrow depicts the linear polarization direction of the light source, which was polarized by a polarizer with the transmission axis parallel to y-axis. Figures 8(b) and 8(d) show the configurations for demonstrating the experimental results presented in Figs. 8(a) and 8(c), respectively. Moreover, the experimental setup shown in Fig. 8(b) [8(d)] was used to demonstrate the real situation of L1in/out or L4in/out [L2in/out or L3in/out] shown in Fig. 1(b). The rubbing directions of S1 (S2) substrates depicted in Figs. 8(b) and 8(d) were perpendicular (parallel) and parallel (perpendicular) to the x-axis, respectively. As a suitable voltage was applied, Fig. 8(a) showed that the backlight [refer to the L1in and L4in in Fig. 1(b)] penetrated through the PN-90° TNLCs, and the background image can be observed even if a slight reflection was present. These results are consistent with those shown in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b) (red circle curves). On the other hand, after the PN-90° TNLC cell was rotated 180° along the x-axis, Fig. 8(c) shows that the backlight [refer to the L2in and L3in in Fig. 1(b)] did not penetrate through PN-90° TNLCs and was fully scattered, consistent with the results shown in Figs. 5(a) and 5(b) (red triangle curves). Moreover, because the spectrum of backlight covered almost all visible RGB wavelength, the experiment results indicated that the PN-90° TNLC devices can be used for all visible wavelengths.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Observation of the cases of L1in/out and L4in/out [Fig. 2(a)] through PN-90° TNLCs (a) with the application of a suitable external voltage according to the experimental setup shown in (b); (c) observation of the cases of L2in/out and L3in/out [Fig. 2(b)] with the application of a suitable external voltage according to the experimental setup shown in (d). Red, black, and blue arrows represent the linear polarization directions of the light source (known as the transmission axis of the polarizer), rubbing directions of the substrate S1, and rubbing directions of the substrate S2, respectively (see Visualization 1).

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Furthermore, a video (Visualization 1) for directly exhibiting the asymmetrical polarization-dependent transmission based on the setup, shown in Fig. 8, is given. The initial experimental setup, revealed in the start of the video (Visualization 1), is identical with that shown in Fig. 8(d) without any applied voltage. The LCEO logo can be observed clearly in the beginning, and is blocked by the LC cell at the scattering state when an AC voltage is applied. Such an observation corresponds to that depicted in Fig. 8(c). Thereafter, the LC cell with an applied voltage is rotated 180° along the x-axis, and then the LCEO logo reappears again, consistent with the observation and the experimental setup shown in Figs. 8(a) and 8(b), respectively. One can see the slight light scattering from the LC cell because of the slight mismatch of refractive indices of LC and p-RM257. Finally, when the applied AC voltage is switched off, the LC cell reverts to its common PN-90° TNLC so that one can see the LCEO logo clearly through the LC cell. In summary, the video (Visualization 1) clearly demonstrates the asymmetrical polarization-dependent transmission using a sole LC cell of PN-90° TNLCs. Moreover, the red and blue curves in Fig. 9 show the measured spectra of the PN-90° TNLC device with and without the application of a suitable external voltage using the setup consistent with that shown in Fig. 8(d), respectively. Clearly, the spectra of transmittance and scattering of the LC device cover the wavelengths range of all visible lights (between 450 nm and 650 nm).

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 The red and blue curves represent the measured spectra of the PN-90° TNLC device with and without the application of a suitable external voltage using the setup consistent with that shown in Fig. 8(d), respectively.

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Figure 10 depicts the schematic diagrams of the asymmetrical polarization-dependent transmission using a single LC cell of PN-90° TNLCs. Referring to Fig. 10(a), we found that lights with linear polarizations parallel to y-axis traveling along the + z-axis (−z-axis) can (cannot) pass through the PN-90° TNLCs with an applied AC voltage. On the other hand, lights with linear polarizations parallel to x-axis traveling along the + z-axis (−z-axis) cannot (can) pass through the PN-90° TNLCs with an applied AC voltage [Fig. 10(b)]. Notably, the linear polarization direction of the passed lights will be rotated 90°. Considering a special application, this LC device can be utilized to a unidirectional light shutter for LP ambient light when a suitable voltage is applied. One can see through it from only one side, but not from the other side.

 figure: Fig. 10

Fig. 10 Schematic diagrams of the asymmetrical polarization-dependent transmission using a single LC cell of PN-90° TNLCs with an applied AC voltage for the cases of incident lights with linear polarization directions parallel to (a) y-axis and (b) x-axis traveling along ± z-axis.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Moreover, response times of PN-90° TNLCs were also measured. The initial voltage off state of PN-90° TNLC was in transmissive state. After the external voltage was applied, mLCds were formed and strongly scattered the incident lights. The rise and fall times were defined as the periods required to change the transmission of PN-90° TNLCs from 90% to 10% and from 10% to 90% of its maximum transmission, respectively. Accordingly, the measured rise and fall times were measured to be approximately 1.25 and 10.35 ms, respectively. Notably, the rise time was considerably shorter than the fall time. This result was reasonable because the orientation of LCs was aligned by the torque produced by the applied external field (rise time), whereas it spontaneously relaxed to its initial state when the applied voltage was turned off (fall time). Regarding the LC devices, response time was short enough for real information/display technology applications [23]. Moreover, such LC devices based on the reported PN-90° TNLCs can be extended to apply to the optical information/communication, requiring asymmetrical transmission.

5. Conclusion

In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrated the use of PN-90° TNLCs as a broadband and optically asymmetrical scattering and transmission optical device for a specific LP light. The conclusion is based on the homogeneous formation of polymer network through the whole LC cell of PN-90° TNLCs. The key process for generating such structures is the absence of the photo-initiator, which does accelerate the rate of photo-polymerization process. Such electrically switchable PN-90° TNLCs with the asymmetrical polarization-dependent transmission and scattering, achieved by a single LC layer, are almost independent of wavelengths in visible light. Comparing with other LC optical devices showing asymmetric transmission [1,5–7,36,37], we found that their performances are usually dependent on the wavelengths of incident light and need at least two or three LC layers and optical structures. By applying an appropriate voltage onto the LC cell, incident light with a specifically linear polarization (L1in and L4in) can penetrate the PN-90° TNLCs from one direction, and its polarization direction will be rotated 90°. However, such a polarization rotation is absolutely not the cause for the reported asymmetrical transmission. On the other hand, referring to Fig. 1(b), the key point is that the LP lights, (L2in or L3in) and (L1in or L4in), having two different polarization directions with respect to the long axis of the polymerized reactive mesogen (p-RM257) encounter mismatch and match-refractive indices of LC and reactive mesogen, respectively. Regarding our theoretical analysis, we assumed that the sizes of all mLCds in the bulk of LC cell from S1 to S2 are the same. However, in reality, the size of mLCds close to S2 should be larger than that of the others [1]. Referring to Refs [38, 39], the fixed size of mLCds in the bulk of LC cell can be achieved by the off-resonant method. The performance of PN-TNLCs, such as reduction of threshold and operation voltages, further increase of DoLP, decrease of response time, and effect of UV curing light sources polarization state, can be improved further [40,41]. Furthermore, based on the reported results depicted in Figs. 1(b) and 10, modulating a LP light by a single LC cell of PN-90° TNLCs, working as a polarization-dependent scattering shutter, the correct side of the LC cell should be confirmed to ensure that the incident LP light could be scattered. A simplified model is proposed to theoretically analyze the PN-90° TNLCs. A more precise model is under development, and researches on electrically switchable unidirectional light-pass glasses is currently ongoing. Moreover, because a sole cell of PN-90° TNLCs can be used to effectively block unwanted broadband lights with specific linear polarization direction, this device possesses a significant potential for laser/information technology application [1].

Funding

Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST 103-2112-M-008-018-MY3; MOST 106-2112-M-008-002-MY3).

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Professor Rumiko Yamaguchi of the Graduate School of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University in Japan, for the helpful discussion. We are also grateful to Mr. Wen-Fa Cheng in our department for making the spectra measurements. Importantly, we sincerely thank the reviewers for their valuable comments and significant suggestions.

References and links

1. J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994). [CrossRef]  

3. S. F. Mingaleev and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear transmission and light localization in photoniccrystal waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(9), 2241–2249 (2002). [CrossRef]  

4. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 4th edition).

5. E. Kallos, V. Yannopapas, and D. J. Photinos, “Enhanced light absorption using optical diodes based on cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 2(10), 1449–1461 (2012). [CrossRef]  

6. M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 49–52 (2006). [CrossRef]  

7. R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593–3595 (2003). [CrossRef]  

8. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001)

9. I. Dierking, “Polymer Network Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 167–181 (2000). [CrossRef]  

10. R. A. M. Hikmet, “Anisotropic gels and plasticized networks formed by liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 9(3), 405–416 (1991). [CrossRef]  

11. Y. K. Fung, D. K. Yang, S. Ying, L. C. Chien, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, “Polymer networks formed in liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 19(6), 797–801 (1995). [CrossRef]  

12. A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, and C. Y. Huang, “Polymer-Network Formed in Liquid Crystals: Polymer Network Induced Birefringence in Liquid Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(1), 3960–3963 (1996). [CrossRef]  

13. R. A. M. Hikmet and H. M. J. Boots, “Domain structure and switching behavior of anisotropic gels,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(6), 5824–5831 (1995). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. R. Yamaguchi, K. Inoue, and R. Kurosawa, “Effect of Liquid Crystal Material on Polymer Network Structure in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystal Cell,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 29(2), 289–292 (2016). [CrossRef]  

15. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).

16. J. Sun, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Submillisecond-Response Polymer Network Liquid Crystal for Next-Generation Spatial Light Modulators,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 1449–1452 (2014). [CrossRef]  

17. Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004). [CrossRef]  

18. J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013). [CrossRef]  

19. J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 52, 183–192 (2014).

20. R. A. M. Hikmet, “Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(9), 4406–4412 (1990). [CrossRef]  

21. R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, S. Sakurai, L. Xiong, and T. Tomono, “Normal and reverse mode light scattering properties in nematic liquid crystal cell using polymer stabilized effect,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 28(3), 319–323 (2015). [CrossRef]  

22. R. A. M. Hikmet, “Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels with negative dielectric anisotropic,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 213(1), 117–131 (1992). [CrossRef]  

23. Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator based on polymer stabilized twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 12(7), 1221–1227 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. K. Takatoha, A. Harimaa, Y. Kanamea, K. Shinoharaa, and M. Akimotoa, “Fast-response twisted nematic liquid crystal displays with ultrashort pitch liquid crystalline materials,” Liq. Cryst. 39(6), 715–720 (2012). [CrossRef]  

25. Y. Huang, H. Ren, X. Zhu, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically tunable polarization-independent micro lens using polymer network twisted nematic liquid crystal,” United States patent 7079203 B1, Jul. 18 (2006).

26. J. Li, P. J. Bos, and J. Chen, “Polymer stabilized four domain twisted nematic liquid crystal display,” United States patent 5831700 A, Nov. 3 (1998).

27. Y. Huang, H. Ren, X. Zhu, and S. T. Wu, “Electronically tunable polarization-independent micro lens using polymer network twisted nematic liquid crystal,” United States patent 7408601 B1, Aug. 5 (2008).

28. P. Bos, J. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, “A low-threshold-voltage polymer network TN device,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 24, 877–880 (1993).

29. R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Electro-optical properties and morphology of reverse scattering mode TN LCD,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 25(3), 313–316 (2012). [CrossRef]  

30. R. Yamaguchi and L. Xiong, “Reverse-mode liquid crystal gels with twisted orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(6), 060203 (2010). [CrossRef]  

31. R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Polarizer free reverse-mode liquid crystal gels with super twisted orientation,” IMID digest 12, 86– 87 (2011).

32. P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystals Displays (Wiley, 1999).

33. J. Sun, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20124–20129 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. R. Apetz and M. P. B. van Bruggen, “Transparent alumina: a light-scattering model,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 86(3), 480–486 (2003). [CrossRef]  

35. Y. T. O, J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, and D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374(1-2), 191–195 (2004). [CrossRef]  

36. S. Y. Lu and L. C. Chien, “A polymer-stabilized single-layer color cholesteric liquid crystal display with anisotropic reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131119 (2007). [CrossRef]  

37. C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Observation of anisotropically reflected colors in chiral monomer-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041106 (2011). [CrossRef]  

38. A. Y. G. Fuh, W. K. Chen, K. T. Cheng, Y. C. Liu, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Formation of holographic gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystals using off-resonant light,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 774–780 (2015). [CrossRef]  

39. N. Kawatsuki, E. Uchida, and H. Ono, “Formation of pure polarization gratings in 4-methoxyazobenzene containing polymer films using off-resonant laser light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4544–4546 (2003). [CrossRef]  

40. R. Yamaguchi and T. Takasu, “Hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal smart glass with asymmetrical daylight controls,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23(8), 365–370 (2015). [CrossRef]  

41. D. Xu, J. Yuan, M. Schadt, and S. T. Wu, “Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 081114 (2014). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:
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  • |
  • |

  1. J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. F. Mingaleev and Y. S. Kivshar, “Nonlinear transmission and light localization in photoniccrystal waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(9), 2241–2249 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 4th edition).
  5. E. Kallos, V. Yannopapas, and D. J. Photinos, “Enhanced light absorption using optical diodes based on cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 2(10), 1449–1461 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 49–52 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593–3595 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Reflective Liquid Crystal Displays (Wiley, 2001)
  9. I. Dierking, “Polymer Network Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 167–181 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. A. M. Hikmet, “Anisotropic gels and plasticized networks formed by liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 9(3), 405–416 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. K. Fung, D. K. Yang, S. Ying, L. C. Chien, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, “Polymer networks formed in liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 19(6), 797–801 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, and C. Y. Huang, “Polymer-Network Formed in Liquid Crystals: Polymer Network Induced Birefringence in Liquid Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(1), 3960–3963 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. A. M. Hikmet and H. M. J. Boots, “Domain structure and switching behavior of anisotropic gels,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(6), 5824–5831 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. R. Yamaguchi, K. Inoue, and R. Kurosawa, “Effect of Liquid Crystal Material on Polymer Network Structure in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystal Cell,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 29(2), 289–292 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (Wiley, 2006).
  16. J. Sun, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Submillisecond-Response Polymer Network Liquid Crystal for Next-Generation Spatial Light Modulators,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 1449–1452 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 52, 183–192 (2014).
  20. R. A. M. Hikmet, “Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(9), 4406–4412 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, S. Sakurai, L. Xiong, and T. Tomono, “Normal and reverse mode light scattering properties in nematic liquid crystal cell using polymer stabilized effect,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 28(3), 319–323 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. A. M. Hikmet, “Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels with negative dielectric anisotropic,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 213(1), 117–131 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator based on polymer stabilized twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 12(7), 1221–1227 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. K. Takatoha, A. Harimaa, Y. Kanamea, K. Shinoharaa, and M. Akimotoa, “Fast-response twisted nematic liquid crystal displays with ultrashort pitch liquid crystalline materials,” Liq. Cryst. 39(6), 715–720 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y. Huang, H. Ren, X. Zhu, and S. T. Wu, “Electrically tunable polarization-independent micro lens using polymer network twisted nematic liquid crystal,” United States patent 7079203 B1, Jul. 18 (2006).
  26. J. Li, P. J. Bos, and J. Chen, “Polymer stabilized four domain twisted nematic liquid crystal display,” United States patent 5831700 A, Nov. 3 (1998).
  27. Y. Huang, H. Ren, X. Zhu, and S. T. Wu, “Electronically tunable polarization-independent micro lens using polymer network twisted nematic liquid crystal,” United States patent 7408601 B1, Aug. 5 (2008).
  28. P. Bos, J. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, “A low-threshold-voltage polymer network TN device,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 24, 877–880 (1993).
  29. R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Electro-optical properties and morphology of reverse scattering mode TN LCD,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 25(3), 313–316 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  30. R. Yamaguchi and L. Xiong, “Reverse-mode liquid crystal gels with twisted orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(6), 060203 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  31. R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Polarizer free reverse-mode liquid crystal gels with super twisted orientation,” IMID digest 12, 86– 87 (2011).
  32. P. Yeh and C. Gu, Optics of Liquid Crystals Displays (Wiley, 1999).
  33. J. Sun, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20124–20129 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. R. Apetz and M. P. B. van Bruggen, “Transparent alumina: a light-scattering model,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 86(3), 480–486 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  35. Y. T. O, J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, and D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374(1-2), 191–195 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  36. S. Y. Lu and L. C. Chien, “A polymer-stabilized single-layer color cholesteric liquid crystal display with anisotropic reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131119 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  37. C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Observation of anisotropically reflected colors in chiral monomer-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041106 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  38. A. Y. G. Fuh, W. K. Chen, K. T. Cheng, Y. C. Liu, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Formation of holographic gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystals using off-resonant light,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 774–780 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  39. N. Kawatsuki, E. Uchida, and H. Ono, “Formation of pure polarization gratings in 4-methoxyazobenzene containing polymer films using off-resonant laser light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4544–4546 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  40. R. Yamaguchi and T. Takasu, “Hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal smart glass with asymmetrical daylight controls,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23(8), 365–370 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  41. D. Xu, J. Yuan, M. Schadt, and S. T. Wu, “Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 081114 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

R. Yamaguchi, K. Inoue, and R. Kurosawa, “Effect of Liquid Crystal Material on Polymer Network Structure in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystal Cell,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 29(2), 289–292 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, S. Sakurai, L. Xiong, and T. Tomono, “Normal and reverse mode light scattering properties in nematic liquid crystal cell using polymer stabilized effect,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 28(3), 319–323 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Y. G. Fuh, W. K. Chen, K. T. Cheng, Y. C. Liu, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Formation of holographic gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystals using off-resonant light,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 774–780 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yamaguchi and T. Takasu, “Hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal smart glass with asymmetrical daylight controls,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23(8), 365–370 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

D. Xu, J. Yuan, M. Schadt, and S. T. Wu, “Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 081114 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 52, 183–192 (2014).

J. Sun, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Submillisecond-Response Polymer Network Liquid Crystal for Next-Generation Spatial Light Modulators,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 1449–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

K. Takatoha, A. Harimaa, Y. Kanamea, K. Shinoharaa, and M. Akimotoa, “Fast-response twisted nematic liquid crystal displays with ultrashort pitch liquid crystalline materials,” Liq. Cryst. 39(6), 715–720 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Electro-optical properties and morphology of reverse scattering mode TN LCD,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 25(3), 313–316 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20124–20129 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kallos, V. Yannopapas, and D. J. Photinos, “Enhanced light absorption using optical diodes based on cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 2(10), 1449–1461 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Polarizer free reverse-mode liquid crystal gels with super twisted orientation,” IMID digest 12, 86– 87 (2011).

C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Observation of anisotropically reflected colors in chiral monomer-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R. Yamaguchi and L. Xiong, “Reverse-mode liquid crystal gels with twisted orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(6), 060203 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. Y. Lu and L. C. Chien, “A polymer-stabilized single-layer color cholesteric liquid crystal display with anisotropic reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131119 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 49–52 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. T. O, J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, and D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374(1-2), 191–195 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator based on polymer stabilized twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 12(7), 1221–1227 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

R. Apetz and M. P. B. van Bruggen, “Transparent alumina: a light-scattering model,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 86(3), 480–486 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Kawatsuki, E. Uchida, and H. Ono, “Formation of pure polarization gratings in 4-methoxyazobenzene containing polymer films using off-resonant laser light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4544–4546 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593–3595 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

I. Dierking, “Polymer Network Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 167–181 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, and C. Y. Huang, “Polymer-Network Formed in Liquid Crystals: Polymer Network Induced Birefringence in Liquid Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(1), 3960–3963 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. M. J. Boots, “Domain structure and switching behavior of anisotropic gels,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(6), 5824–5831 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. K. Fung, D. K. Yang, S. Ying, L. C. Chien, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, “Polymer networks formed in liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 19(6), 797–801 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. Bos, J. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, “A low-threshold-voltage polymer network TN device,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 24, 877–880 (1993).

1992 (1)

R. A. M. Hikmet, “Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels with negative dielectric anisotropic,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 213(1), 117–131 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. A. M. Hikmet, “Anisotropic gels and plasticized networks formed by liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 9(3), 405–416 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

R. A. M. Hikmet, “Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(9), 4406–4412 (1990).
[Crossref]

Akimotoa, M.

K. Takatoha, A. Harimaa, Y. Kanamea, K. Shinoharaa, and M. Akimotoa, “Fast-response twisted nematic liquid crystal displays with ultrashort pitch liquid crystalline materials,” Liq. Cryst. 39(6), 715–720 (2012).
[Crossref]

Apetz, R.

R. Apetz and M. P. B. van Bruggen, “Transparent alumina: a light-scattering model,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 86(3), 480–486 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bloemer, M. J.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
[Crossref]

Boots, H. M. J.

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. M. J. Boots, “Domain structure and switching behavior of anisotropic gels,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(6), 5824–5831 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bos, P.

P. Bos, J. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, “A low-threshold-voltage polymer network TN device,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 24, 877–880 (1993).

Bowden, C. M.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. K.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. D.

Cheng, K. T.

A. Y. G. Fuh, W. K. Chen, K. T. Cheng, Y. C. Liu, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Formation of holographic gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystals using off-resonant light,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 774–780 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Observation of anisotropically reflected colors in chiral monomer-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chien, L. C.

S. Y. Lu and L. C. Chien, “A polymer-stabilized single-layer color cholesteric liquid crystal display with anisotropic reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131119 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Fung, D. K. Yang, S. Ying, L. C. Chien, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, “Polymer networks formed in liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 19(6), 797–801 (1995).
[Crossref]

Dierking, I.

I. Dierking, “Polymer Network Stabilized Liquid Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 167–181 (2000).
[Crossref]

Doane, J. W.

Y. K. Fung, D. K. Yang, S. Ying, L. C. Chien, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, “Polymer networks formed in liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 19(6), 797–801 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Bos, J. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, “A low-threshold-voltage polymer network TN device,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 24, 877–880 (1993).

Dowling, J. P.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
[Crossref]

Du, F.

Fan, Y. H.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fuh, A. Y. G.

A. Y. G. Fuh, W. K. Chen, K. T. Cheng, Y. C. Liu, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Formation of holographic gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystals using off-resonant light,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 774–780 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Observation of anisotropically reflected colors in chiral monomer-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041106 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, and C. Y. Huang, “Polymer-Network Formed in Liquid Crystals: Polymer Network Induced Birefringence in Liquid Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(1), 3960–3963 (1996).
[Crossref]

Fung, Y. K.

Y. K. Fung, D. K. Yang, S. Ying, L. C. Chien, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, “Polymer networks formed in liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 19(6), 797–801 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gauza, S.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Goto, K.

R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, S. Sakurai, L. Xiong, and T. Tomono, “Normal and reverse mode light scattering properties in nematic liquid crystal cell using polymer stabilized effect,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 28(3), 319–323 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Electro-optical properties and morphology of reverse scattering mode TN LCD,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 25(3), 313–316 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, and O. Yaroshchuk, “Polarizer free reverse-mode liquid crystal gels with super twisted orientation,” IMID digest 12, 86– 87 (2011).

Harimaa, A.

K. Takatoha, A. Harimaa, Y. Kanamea, K. Shinoharaa, and M. Akimotoa, “Fast-response twisted nematic liquid crystal displays with ultrashort pitch liquid crystalline materials,” Liq. Cryst. 39(6), 715–720 (2012).
[Crossref]

Haseba, Y.

J. Sun, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Submillisecond-Response Polymer Network Liquid Crystal for Next-Generation Spatial Light Modulators,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 1449–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hikmet, R. A. M.

R. A. M. Hikmet and H. M. J. Boots, “Domain structure and switching behavior of anisotropic gels,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 51(6), 5824–5831 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. M. Hikmet, “Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels with negative dielectric anisotropic,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 213(1), 117–131 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. A. M. Hikmet, “Anisotropic gels and plasticized networks formed by liquid crystal molecules,” Liq. Cryst. 9(3), 405–416 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. A. M. Hikmet, “Electrically induced light scattering from anisotropic gels,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(9), 4406–4412 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hong, K. J.

Y. T. O, J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, and D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374(1-2), 191–195 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. Y.

A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, and C. Y. Huang, “Polymer-Network Formed in Liquid Crystals: Polymer Network Induced Birefringence in Liquid Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(1), 3960–3963 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inoue, K.

R. Yamaguchi, K. Inoue, and R. Kurosawa, “Effect of Liquid Crystal Material on Polymer Network Structure in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystal Cell,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 29(2), 289–292 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, K.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 49–52 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kallos, E.

E. Kallos, V. Yannopapas, and D. J. Photinos, “Enhanced light absorption using optical diodes based on cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 2(10), 1449–1461 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kanamea, Y.

K. Takatoha, A. Harimaa, Y. Kanamea, K. Shinoharaa, and M. Akimotoa, “Fast-response twisted nematic liquid crystal displays with ultrashort pitch liquid crystalline materials,” Liq. Cryst. 39(6), 715–720 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kawatsuki, N.

N. Kawatsuki, E. Uchida, and H. Ono, “Formation of pure polarization gratings in 4-methoxyazobenzene containing polymer films using off-resonant laser light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4544–4546 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kivshar, Y. S.

Koo, J. B.

Y. T. O, J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, and D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374(1-2), 191–195 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kurosawa, R.

R. Yamaguchi, K. Inoue, and R. Kurosawa, “Effect of Liquid Crystal Material on Polymer Network Structure in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystal Cell,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 29(2), 289–292 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator based on polymer stabilized twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 12(7), 1221–1227 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C. K.

A. Y. G. Fuh, W. K. Chen, K. T. Cheng, Y. C. Liu, C. K. Liu, and Y. D. Chen, “Formation of holographic gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystals using off-resonant light,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(4), 774–780 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Observation of anisotropically reflected colors in chiral monomer-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. C.

Lu, S. Y.

S. Y. Lu and L. C. Chien, “A polymer-stabilized single-layer color cholesteric liquid crystal display with anisotropic reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131119 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. Q.

Matsui, T.

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593–3595 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mingaleev, S. F.

Nishimura, S.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 49–52 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O, Y. T.

Y. T. O, J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, and D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374(1-2), 191–195 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ono, H.

N. Kawatsuki, E. Uchida, and H. Ono, “Formation of pure polarization gratings in 4-methoxyazobenzene containing polymer films using off-resonant laser light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4544–4546 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ozaki, M.

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593–3595 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ozaki, R.

R. Ozaki, T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, “Electrically color-tunable defect mode lasing in one-dimensional photonic-band-gap system containing liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(21), 3593–3595 (2003).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 49–52 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, J. S.

Y. T. O, J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, and D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374(1-2), 191–195 (2004).
[Crossref]

Photinos, D. J.

E. Kallos, V. Yannopapas, and D. J. Photinos, “Enhanced light absorption using optical diodes based on cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 2(10), 1449–1461 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rahman, J.

P. Bos, J. Rahman, and J. W. Doane, “A low-threshold-voltage polymer network TN device,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 24, 877–880 (1993).

Ren, H.

J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sakurai, S.

R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, S. Sakurai, L. Xiong, and T. Tomono, “Normal and reverse mode light scattering properties in nematic liquid crystal cell using polymer stabilized effect,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 28(3), 319–323 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scalora, M.

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “The photonic band edge optical diode,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(4), 2023–2026 (1994).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

D. Xu, J. Yuan, M. Schadt, and S. T. Wu, “Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 081114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shin, D. C.

Y. T. O, J. B. Koo, K. J. Hong, J. S. Park, and D. C. Shin, “Effect of grain size on transmittance and mechanical strength of sintered alumina,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 374(1-2), 191–195 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shinoharaa, K.

K. Takatoha, A. Harimaa, Y. Kanamea, K. Shinoharaa, and M. Akimotoa, “Fast-response twisted nematic liquid crystal displays with ultrashort pitch liquid crystalline materials,” Liq. Cryst. 39(6), 715–720 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, M. H.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 49–52 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 52, 183–192 (2014).

J. Sun, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Submillisecond-Response Polymer Network Liquid Crystal for Next-Generation Spatial Light Modulators,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 1449–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20124–20129 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takanishi, Y.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 49–52 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takasu, T.

R. Yamaguchi and T. Takasu, “Hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal smart glass with asymmetrical daylight controls,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23(8), 365–370 (2015).
[Crossref]

Takatoha, K.

K. Takatoha, A. Harimaa, Y. Kanamea, K. Shinoharaa, and M. Akimotoa, “Fast-response twisted nematic liquid crystal displays with ultrashort pitch liquid crystalline materials,” Liq. Cryst. 39(6), 715–720 (2012).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 49–52 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomono, T.

R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, S. Sakurai, L. Xiong, and T. Tomono, “Normal and reverse mode light scattering properties in nematic liquid crystal cell using polymer stabilized effect,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 28(3), 319–323 (2015).
[Crossref]

Toyooka, T.

M. H. Song, B. Park, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Simple electro-tunable optical diode using photonic and anisotropic liquid crystal films,” Thin Solid Films 509(1-2), 49–52 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. S.

A. Y. G. Fuh, M. S. Tsai, and C. Y. Huang, “Polymer-Network Formed in Liquid Crystals: Polymer Network Induced Birefringence in Liquid Crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(1), 3960–3963 (1996).
[Crossref]

Uchida, E.

N. Kawatsuki, E. Uchida, and H. Ono, “Formation of pure polarization gratings in 4-methoxyazobenzene containing polymer films using off-resonant laser light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4544–4546 (2003).
[Crossref]

van Bruggen, M. P. B.

R. Apetz and M. P. B. van Bruggen, “Transparent alumina: a light-scattering model,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 86(3), 480–486 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. W.

J. Hwang, M. H. Song, B. Park, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, J. W. Wu, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, “Electro-tunable optical diode based on photonic bandgap liquid-crystal heterojunctions,” Nat. Mater. 4(5), 383–387 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

J. Sun, S. T. Wu, and Y. Haseba, “Submillisecond-Response Polymer Network Liquid Crystal for Next-Generation Spatial Light Modulators,” Dig. Tech. Pap. 45(1), 1449–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun and S. T. Wu, “Recent advances in polymer network liquid crystal spatial light modulators,” J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys. 52, 183–192 (2014).

D. Xu, J. Yuan, M. Schadt, and S. T. Wu, “Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 081114 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Sun, Y. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response and scattering-free infrared liquid crystal phase modulators,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20124–20129 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Lu, F. Du, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Variable optical attenuator based on polymer stabilized twisted nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 12(7), 1221–1227 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystals for infrared light modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1233–1235 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xiong, L.

R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, S. Sakurai, L. Xiong, and T. Tomono, “Normal and reverse mode light scattering properties in nematic liquid crystal cell using polymer stabilized effect,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 28(3), 319–323 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yamaguchi and L. Xiong, “Reverse-mode liquid crystal gels with twisted orientation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(6), 060203 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.

D. Xu, J. Yuan, M. Schadt, and S. T. Wu, “Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(8), 081114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

J. Sun, S. Xu, H. Ren, and S. T. Wu, “Reconfigurable fabrication of scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal prism/grating/lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, R.

R. Yamaguchi, K. Inoue, and R. Kurosawa, “Effect of Liquid Crystal Material on Polymer Network Structure in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystal Cell,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 29(2), 289–292 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Yamaguchi, K. Goto, S. Sakurai, L. Xiong, and T. Tomono, “Normal and reverse mode light scattering properties in nematic liquid crystal cell using polymer stabilized effect,” J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 28(3), 319–323 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yamaguchi and T. Takasu, “Hybrid aligned nematic liquid crystal smart glass with asymmetrical daylight controls,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 23(8), 365–370 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       The video (Visualization 1) clearly demonstrates the asymmetrical polarization-dependent transmission using a single liquid crystal cell of polymer network-90° twisted nematic liquid crystals.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of (a) PN-90° TNLCs structures under UV illumination (365 nm) and (b) structures of PN-90° TNLCs with an application of external voltage after the photo-polymerization processes are completed. S1 and S2 represent command and reference surfaces, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematics polarization states variations of incident light in the bulks of LC cell. The orange rods represent the orientation of p-RM257/LC molecules on the xy-plane at 11 positions, marked as 0, d 10 , 2d 10 8d 10 , 9d 10 , and d. (a) L1in and L2in travel along the + z-axis from z = 0, and (b) L3in and L4in travel along the −z-axis from z = d.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Variations of DPoma of “L1in or L4in” and DPomi of “L2in or L3in” as a function of position.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experiment setup for demonstrating the polarization selective light scattering properties of the reported LC device achieved by PN-90° TNLCs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Variations of transmittance and degree of polarization as functions of applied voltage. The unpolarized lights were incident from (a) command (S1) and (b) reference (S2) surfaces. Analyzertrans. represents the direction of the transmission axis of the analyzer.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of PN-90° TNLCs structures without any application of external voltage.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Variations of overall reflection of L1 and L2, also known as RL1 and RL2, as a function of m. m represents the quantity of the boundary between p-RM257 and LCs.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Observation of the cases of L1in/out and L4in/out [Fig. 2(a)] through PN-90° TNLCs (a) with the application of a suitable external voltage according to the experimental setup shown in (b); (c) observation of the cases of L2in/out and L3in/out [Fig. 2(b)] with the application of a suitable external voltage according to the experimental setup shown in (d). Red, black, and blue arrows represent the linear polarization directions of the light source (known as the transmission axis of the polarizer), rubbing directions of the substrate S1, and rubbing directions of the substrate S2, respectively (see Visualization 1).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The red and blue curves represent the measured spectra of the PN-90° TNLC device with and without the application of a suitable external voltage using the setup consistent with that shown in Fig. 8(d), respectively.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Schematic diagrams of the asymmetrical polarization-dependent transmission using a single LC cell of PN-90° TNLCs with an applied AC voltage for the cases of incident lights with linear polarization directions parallel to (a) y-axis and (b) x-axis traveling along ± z-axis.

Equations (13)

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D P o ma=cos( π 2d h ),  0h< 5d 10 .
D P o ma=cos( π 2 π 2d h ),   5d 10 hd.
D P o mi=sin( π 2d h ),  0h< 5d 10 .
D P o mi=sin( π 2 π 2d h ),   5d 10 hd.
SP=1exp( C Δ n eff 2 λ 0 2 d )= 0 d C Δ n eff 2 λ 0 2 exp( C Δ n eff 2 λ 0 2 h )dh.
S P L1 or L4 = 0 5d 10 [ sin( π 2d h ) ] C D P 0 mi Δ n eff 2 λ 0 2 exp( C D P 0 mi Δ n eff 2 λ 0 2 h )dh+     5d 10 d [ sin( π 2 π 2d h ) ] C D P 0 mi Δ n eff 2 λ 0 2 exp( C D P 0 mi Δ n eff 2 λ 0 2 h )dh .
S P L2 or L3 = 0 5d 10 [ cos( π 2d h ) ] C D P 0 ma Δ n eff 2 λ 0 2 exp( C D P 0 ma Δ n eff 2 λ 0 2 h )dh+                   5d 10 d [ cos( π 2 π 2d h ) ] C D P 0 ma Δ n eff 2 λ 0 2 exp( C D P 0 ma Δ n eff 2 λ 0 2 h )dh .
DoL P L1 or L2 = L 1 out L 2 out L 1 out +L 2 out .
DoL P L3 or L4 = L 4 out L 3 out L 4 out +L 3 out .
R no = ( n noLC    n nopRM257 n noLC  +  n nopRM257 ) 2 =0.0000184.
R ne = ( n neLC    n nepRM257 n neLC  +  n nepRM257 ) 2 =0.000295.
R L1 ( 1 { [ 1cos( π 2d 0 ) R no ]××[ 1cos( π 2 π 2d d ) R no ] } mboundaries )+             ( 1 { [ 1sin( π 2d 0 ) R ne ]××[ 1sin( π 2 π 2d d ) R ne ] } mboundaries ).
R L2 ( 1 { [ 1sin( π 2d 0 ) R no ]××[ 1sin( π 2 π 2d d ) R no ] } mboundaries )            ( 1 { [ 1cos( π 2d 0 ) R ne ]××[ 1cos( π 2 π 2d d ) R ne ] } mboundaries ). 

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