Abstract

We present a compact sensor for carbon monoxide (CO) in air and exhaled breath based on a room temperature interband cascade laser (ICL) operating at 4.69 µm, a low-volume circular multipass cell and wavelength modulation absorption spectroscopy. A fringe-limited (1σ) sensitivity of 6.5 × 10−8 cm−1Hz-1/2 and a detection limit of 9 ± 5 ppbv at 0.07 s acquisition time are achieved, which constitutes a 25-fold improvement compared to direct absorption spectroscopy. Integration over 10 s increases the precision to 0.6 ppbv. The setup also allows measuring the stable isotope 13CO in breath. We demonstrate quantification of indoor air CO and real-time detection of CO expirograms from healthy non-smokers and a healthy smoker before and after smoking. Isotope ratio analysis indicates depletion of 13CO in breath compared to natural abundance.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Breath gas analysis (BGA) has recently received wide attention and is increasingly used in medical research and diagnostics [1]. Many of the volatile compounds exchanged at the alveolar interface in the lung are associated with health conditions and biological functions and thus can provide information on the physiological and metabolic state of the body [2]. The main advantages compared to traditional clinical methods, such as blood sampling and tissue biopsy, are (i) completely non-invasive approach, (ii) unlimited sample volume and (iii) fast response time. Applications range from early disease detection, treatment monitoring and stable isotope tests to breathomics and validation of physiological models [1–3].

Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) arises primarily from incomplete organic combustion and appears in concentrations of 0.05-0.2 parts per million by volume (ppmv) in clean outdoor air [4]. The main endogenous source of exhaled breath CO (eCO) is systemic heme metabolism, catalyzed by heme oxygenase enzymes in response to oxidative stress, which typically results in end-tidal, mouth-exhaled eCO concentrations of 1-3 ppmv in the healthy population [5]. Elevated eCO levels were found in smokers and diseased cohorts [6]. In general, eCO is affected by exogenous sources, such as indoor air CO (up to several ppmv in poorly ventilated rooms), outdoor air pollution and cigarette smoke [5]. A fraction of eCO may also originate from induced heme oxygenase in airway or lung tissue as a consequence of local oxidative stress and inflammation. If this contribution could be distinguished from systemic CO and exogenous sources, eCO may be useful as biomarker for air pollution health effects and related respiratory diseases [7]. Possible strategies to discriminate between biomarker sources are real-time measurements, as well as isotope ratio and stable isotope tracer analysis [8, 9].

Real-time BGA refers to online breath sampling with gas exchange and data acquisition times fast enough to resolve individual breath cycles (expirograms or exhalation profiles). This is in contrast to traditional offline sampling, where mixed or end-tidal breath is stored in sample containers for later analysis. Real-time BGA can be used to measure the response to exposure or interventions and extract physiological parameters [10–13], and to optimize breath sampling procedures. Another important, yet largely unexplored, feature is the possibility to obtain spatially resolved information about the respiratory tract.

Analytical techniques capable of real-time BGA with sufficient sensitivity are soft-ionization mass spectrometry (normally not used for CO due to the low proton affinity of the molecule) and laser spectroscopy [14]. In particular, laser absorption spectroscopy has had considerable impact on BGA owing to its inherent selectivity and accuracy [15]. While cavity-enhanced techniques are often employed to reach the required sensitivities [16], many important biomarkers can today be accessed with mid-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) [15, 17]. The combination of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) or interband cascade lasers (ICLs) with multipass cells (MPCs) and modulation techniques opens up for sensitive, yet robust and portable instrumentation useful for clinical applications [18]. Distributed feedback ICLs are novel single-mode semiconductor lasers that cover the important spectral range 2.5-5 µm and offer narrow linewidth, wide current tuning, low-power consumption and room-temperature operation with thermoelectric cooling [19]. The rapid gas exchange times needed for real-time BGA can be achieved with low-volume MPCs [20].

Several cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometers [10, 21–23] and QCL-based TDLAS systems [12, 23] have been utilized for detection of exhaled breath CO. Recently, we introduced a TDLAS sensor employing an external-cavity QCL for simultaneous detection of CO and carbon dioxide (CO2) exhalation profiles [24]. Isotopes of CO in breath have been measured with a lead salt diode laser system [25] and cavity ring down spectroscopy [10]. Interband cascade lasers, however, despite their promising features, have so far rarely been applied to breath gas analysis [26] or CO detection [27]. In general, using direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS), ICLs have shown excellent performance down to 10−3 relative absorption in multipass cell-enhanced setups, but a sensitivity improvement due to wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) could not be demonstrated [28].

In this work, we present a compact mid-infrared TDLAS spectrometer based on an interband cascade laser for real-time detection of CO in ambient air and breath. It is shown that wavelength modulation spectroscopy can significantly improve the sensitivity and precision of ICL spectrometers. The use of WMS in combination with a novel, circular multipass cell with low volume and fringe level enabled eCO detection with high precision, accuracy and time-resolution. The sensor is applied to real-time detection of 12CO and 13CO exhalation profiles from healthy subjects and to investigate breath CO isotope ratios.

2. Line selection

The fundamental rotation-vibrational P(3) transition of 12CO at 2131.6316 cm−1 (4.6912 µm) with an actual (abundance-unweighted) line strength of 2.503 × 10−19 cm−1/(molecule·cm−2) was selected to maximize sensitivity to CO, while minimizing spectral interference due to other breath constituents. Figure 1(a) shows a HITRAN [29] simulation of the expected absorption spectrum around the P(3) transition for a CO concentration of 2 ppmv at a total pressure of 100 Torr and a temperature of 296 K. As potentially interfering species in this region, 5% CO2 and 5% water vapor (H2O) were included in the simulation. Evidently, overlap with CO2 is negligible, but there could be some minor spectral interference due to H2O. If necessary, exhaled H2O can be removed prior to analysis using a cold trap or Nafion tube. On the other hand, if the breath sampling system is unheated, as in this work, the H2O concentration in the sample cell might be considerably lower than 5% due to condensation [24].

 

Fig. 1 HITRAN2012 simulation of absorption spectra expected from a breath sample containing 2 ppmv CO, 5% CO2 and 5% H2O at 100 Torr and 296 K. (a) Around the P(3) 12CO transition, (b) for a 50 GHz ICL current tuning range, also covering 13C16O and 12C18O.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The wide mode-hop-free current tuning range (typically 50 GHz) of ICLs also allows detection of the stable isotopes 13C16O and 12C18O, with actual line strengths of 3.914 × 10−19 cm−1/(molecule·cm−2) and 3.596 × 10−19 cm−1/(molecule·cm−2), respectively, in the spectral region around the P(3) transition. Figure 1(b) depicts a corresponding HITRAN simulation, again including 5% CO2 and 5% H2O. The close-up on the isotope species in the inset suggests that 13C16O can be detected with minimal spectral interference, whereas some overlap with H2O may occur for a 12C18O measurement.

3. Experimental TDLAS setup

A schematic drawing of the experimental setup is shown in Fig. 2(a). The thermoelectrically cooled, continuous-wave distributed-feedback ICL (Nanoplus GmbH) emitting around 2131 cm−1 was driven by a commercial low-noise laser current and temperature controller (ILX Lightwave, LDC-3724C). At a diode temperature of 4 °C and a current scan interval of 38-80 mA, a mode-hop-free tuning range of ~50 GHz (2130.09-2131.87 cm−1) at an average output power of 1.4 mW was achieved.

 

Fig. 2 Schematic drawings of the experimental TDLAS setup (a) and the breath sampler (b). ICL – interband cascade laser, MPC – multi-pass cell, PD - photodetector, PT – pressure transducer, LDC – laser diode controller, FGen – function generator, LiA – lock-in amplifier.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The laser was scanned across the absorption lines using a 140 Hz triangular waveform supplied by a function generator (Agilent, 33522A). In order to perform WMS, a sinusoidal waveform with a frequency of 44.13 kHz generated by an external lock-in amplifier (Stanford Research Systems, SR830 DSP) was superimposed on the scan waveform using a power combiner (Mini-Circuits, ZFRSC-2050 + ). The modulation depth was optimized to ~2.2 times the half-width half-maximum of the absorption line. The relative frequency scale of the laser scan was obtained prior to each set of measurements employing a solid Germanium etalon (LightMachinery, OP-5483-50.8) with a free-spectral-range of 734.2 MHz.

A plano-convex lens with a focal length of 100 mm was used to couple the laser beam to a circular multipass cell (MPC, IR Sweep, IRcell-4M), which provided an effective absorption path length of 399 cm in a configuration with 51-reflections, and had a volume of 38 ml. The fringe level was specified to below 0.39 ‰ rms of the dc intensity by the manufacturer. The output beam from the MPC was focused on a mid-infrared photodetector (VIGO System, PVI-2TE-5-1x1) using an off-axis parabolic mirror. An optical attenuator prior to the MPC was used to adjust the laser power to match the detector specifications (<1 mW). The detector signal was recorded at an acquisition rate of 16 MHz by a PC equipped with a 16-bit data acquisition card (Spectrum, M2i.4963-exp). In WMS mode, the detector signal was first demodulated by the lock-in amplifier, and the resulting 2f-WMS signal was acquired.

Online breath sampling was achieved using an unheated, home-built buffer tube made of Teflon with a volume of 30 ml, shown in Fig. 2(b), on which a disposable antibacterial filter (GVS, Eco Maxi Electrostatic Filter, 4222/701) was mounted as mouthpiece and to prevent contamination. An inline capnograph (Phillips Respironics, Capnostat 5) and a flow meter (Phillips Respironics, FloTrak Elite) were installed between filter and buffer tube to monitor exhaled carbon dioxide (eCO2) as well as exhalation flow rate and volume. Subjects performed free tidal, mouth-exhaled breathing (both inhalation and exhalation) through the buffer tube, while a part of the sample was continuously drawn to the MPC. During inhalation, the tube was quickly flushed with ambient air, which marked the end of exhalation and improved the measurement of indoor air CO and the subsequent expirogram. The pressure in the MPC was monitored by a gauge (Leybold, Ceravac CTR100) and kept at 100 Torr with the help of a shut-off valve (Swagelok, EL3233) installed at the MPC inlet. The MPC outlet was connected to a vacuum pump (Leybold, Divac 1.4HV3C) with maximum pumping speed of 360 ml/s at 100 Torr, which resulted in MPC gas exchange times of the order of 0.1 s, and a sample flow rate of 50 ml/s from the atmospheric buffer tube to the cell.

4. Sensor performance

The performance of the TDLAS sensor was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, precision and linearity. Figure 3 presents experimental DAS and 2f-WMS raw signals (red markers, not all data points shown for clarity) of the P(3) transition at 2.76 ppmv 12CO, recorded with 0.07 s integration time (10 averages). The sample was derived from a 28.24 ppmv CO gas standard.

 

Fig. 3 Measured DAS (a) and background-corrected 2f-WMS (b) signals (markers) of the P(3) 12CO transition recorded at 0.07 s integration time (10 averages), with least-squares Voigt fits (blue, solid line) and fit residuals. The sample was a 2.76 ppmv gas standard at 100 Torr. For clarity, only every 10th and 30th data point is shown in the DAS and WMS spectra, respectively.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Each spectrum also shows a least-squares fit (solid line) of a simulated Voigt line shape to the raw data, as well as the corresponding fit residual. Direct absorption spectra were calculated using Beer-Lambert’s law, with the nitrogen-filled MPC background signal as incident intensity and including a first-order polynomial function to account for drifts in the wavelength-dependent background. The analyte concentration was directly obtained from the fit. 2f-WMS Voigt line shapes were simulated following the methodology proposed by Westberg et al. [30], and the 2f-WMS peak value extracted from the curve fit was used to obtain the CO concentration via calibration with DAS.

As exemplified in Fig. 3(a), the DAS scheme was limited by 1/f-noise, and, in practice, the detection limit was 230 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at 0.07 s acquisition time, which implied a (3σ) sensitivity of 1.8 × 10−6 cm−1Hz-1/2. In WMS mode, the 1/f-noise was efficiently removed, yielding a detection limit of 9 ppbv at 0.07 s integration time, and a corresponding (1σ) sensitivity of 6.5 × 10−8 cm−1Hz-1/2. Thus, a sensitivity improvement of about 25 was achieved with WMS compared to DAS. The WMS sensitivity was ultimately limited by drifts and fluctuations in the fringe-dominated background signal. The overall fringe-to-signal level of 0.45‰ rms was close to the minimum value specified by the MPC manufacturer.

Precision and stability of the sensor were investigated by means of the Allan-Werle deviation recorded at CO concentrations of 2.2 ppmv and 510 ppbv for DAS and WMS, respectively, and plotted as a function of integration time in Fig. 4(a). The plots follow the general behavior; first, white noise dominates and the precision improves with integration time (slope~1/τ), but above 10 s integration the precision is limited by thermal drifts and fluctuations in the background signal (slope~τ2). At 0.07 s integration time, the plots indicate a precision of 18 ppbv for DAS and 5 ppbv for WMS. The plots further suggest that a DAS precision of 2 ppbv and a WMS precision of 0.6 ppbv can be achieved at 20 s and 10 s integration time, respectively.

 

Fig. 4 (a) Allan-Werle deviation plots for DAS at 2.2 ppmv and 2f-WMS at 510 ppbv, (b) calibration curve for DAS (blue, triangular markers) and 2f-WMS (red, circular markers) obtained by dilution of a 28.24 ppmv CO gas standard. Solid line – linear fit to DAS response.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The linearity of the instrument response to changes in 12CO concentrations was tested for both detection schemes using 11 different CO/air mixtures at concentrations between 0.8 and 28.24 ppmv derived from the CO gas standard. The gas mixtures were generated using digital mass flow controllers (MKS Instruments, GM50A) at a total flow rate of 10 ml/s. While the DAS calibration curve in Fig. 4(b) exhibits a linear behavior in this concentration range, the 2f-WMS peak value is linear with concentration only in the optical thin limit, up to an absorbance of about 0.1 (10 ppmv). Considering typical eCO concentrations expected from healthy and diseased subjects and smokers, this upper limit for WMS detection is sufficient. Throughout the paper, 5 ppmv CO signals were used for 2f-WMS calibration. In case a breath test would require a larger dynamic range, rapid time-division multiplexed methods could be used for quasi-simultaneous DAS and WMS detection [31].

5. Detection of CO isotopes

Measured DAS spectra from a scan across the entire mode-hop-free current tuning range of the ICL at a diode temperature of 4 °C are displayed in Fig. 5(a), demonstrating detection of the three most important CO isotopes. The upper curve (solid black line) represents mixed breath collected from a smoker during smoking, whereas the lower spectrum (inverted; solid red line) is from the undiluted 28.24 ppmv CO gas standard, both acquired with an integration time of 10 s. Here, mixed breath was exhaled into an aluminum sample bag directly after inhaling cigarette smoke. The sample contained 117.80 ppmv 12CO, 1.38 ppmv 13CO and 274 ppbv 12C18O, which exemplifies the high CO levels in cigarette smoke. The gas standard sample contained 300 ppbv of 13CO and 63 ppbv 12C18O. The noisy baseline in the breath sample suggests residual absorption from unidentified breath or smoke constituents.

 

Fig. 5 (a) Measured DAS spectra over the full ICL current tuning range from a breath sample collected during smoking (black line) and from a 28.24 ppmv CO gas standard (inverted, red line), (b) Measured 2f-WMS signal (markers) from 13CO in the gas standard diluted to 2 ppmv 12CO, together with Voigt fit and residual. For both spectra, the sample pressure was 100 Torr.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 5(b) shows a background-corrected 2f-WMS signal from 19 ppbv 13CO in a diluted gas standard sample (2 ppmv 12CO) flown through the MPC. In accordance with the spectrometer sensitivity, the detection limit for 13CO in case of a stable background signal was 9 ppbv. This means that, for healthy subjects, e13CO concentrations will be close to the detection limit, and e12C18O will not be measurable. However, exposure [11] and stable isotope-labeled tracer studies [8] could readily be performed with this setup.

Isotopic abundances are usually expressed in terms of isotope ratios, and deviations from a standard ratio are referred to using the delta notation (δ, in units of per-mil) [32]. In the case of 13C/12C, the internationally recognized standard ratio is set to 0.0112372 based on CO2 in Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) limestone. Since the PDB standard contains exceptionally high 13C levels, almost all natural materials show negative δ13C values. Here, the CO-based δ13C values found in the standard gas and breath during smoking were −34 ± 25 ‰ and −8 ± 16 ‰, respectively, where the precision stems from the standard deviation of 10 samples. The obtained δ13C values are well within the range expected for clean air and biomass burning [33].

6. Carbon monoxide in indoor air and exhaled breath

Measurement sensitivity and time-resolution of the presented sensor are clearly suitable for real-time CO monitoring in ambient air and detection of eCO exhalation profiles. Knowledge of the inhaled biomarker concentration is a prerequisite for accurate and reliable BGA studies.

A typical 2f-WMS signal from 140 ppbv CO in indoor air sampled online in a well-ventilated laboratory is shown in Fig. 6(a) together with a Voigt fit. Figure 6(b) presents a 2f-WMS spectrum from 1.01 ppmv 12CO in alveolar breath of a healthy non-smoker. Spectral interference due to H2O was not observed. The structure in the fit residual is the result of a slight difference between the nitrogen-filled MPC and analytical background signals. A 2f-WMS signal from 38 ppbv e13CO in alveolar breath of a healthy smoker after smoking is shown in Fig. 6(c). Since e13CO detection was performed close to the detection limit, the difference between the MPC and analytical background signals, which can probably be attributed to changes in fringe structure and interference from other volatile breath compounds, was more pronounced. To improve e13CO quantification, the background-subtracted background signal was again subtracted from the background-subtracted analytical 2f-WMS spectrum.

 

Fig. 6 Typical 2f-WMS signals (markers) recorded during online sampling at 100 Torr, with least-squares Voigt fits (blue solid lines) and residuals (a) 12CO in indoor air, (b) e12CO in alveolar breath of a healthy non-smoker, (c) e13CO in alveolar breath of a healthy smoker after smoking. For clarity, only every 40th (a, b) and 20th (c) data point is shown in the raw spectra.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 7 presents typical sequences of e12CO expirograms from two healthy non-smokers exhaling at flow rates of around 250 ml/s (a) and 150 ml/s (b) while performing tidal plus expiratory reserve volume breathing and tidal breathing, respectively. The observed end-tidal eCO concentrations are within the range expected for healthy subjects (1-3 ppmv). During the inhalation period, indoor air was sampled. Each marker in Fig. 7(a) corresponds to the CO concentration derived from one recorded and evaluated raw spectrum. No data smoothing was applied in the e12CO expirograms shown in this work. The noise level on the breath cycles lies within the precision determined from the Allan-Werle plots for 0.07 s integration time. In Fig. 7(b), eCO2 expirograms recorded simultaneously with eCO by capnography close to the mouth are shown for comparison. The identical exhalation time for the two gases confirms true real-time detection without sample line delay, as previously verified for this sampling system [24].

 

Fig. 7 Sequences of e12CO expirograms obtained from two healthy non-smokers during tidal plus expiratory reserve volume breathing (a) and tidal breathing (b). No data smoothing was applied. (a) Each data point corresponds to a raw spectrum. (b) CO2 exhalation profiles simultaneously obtained by capnography are shown for comparison.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Typical e12CO and e13CO exhalation profiles from a healthy occasional smoker before smoking (19 h after the last cigarette) and 15 s after smoking are displayed in Fig. 8. The e13CO breath cycles were recorded about 30 s after e12CO. While the eCO levels are in the healthy population range before smoking, a two-fold increase was found after smoking. The shapes of the e12CO and e13CO expirograms are similar. Isotope ratio analysis reveals δ13C values of −268 ± 84 ‰ and −168 ± 39 ‰ before and after smoking, respectively. The precision was determined based on 10 pairs of spectra. After smoking, δ13C is less negative probably due to the high levels of 13C in cigarette smoke. Typical δ13C values in the breath of healthy non-smokers (data not shown) were around −200 ‰.

 

Fig. 8 Sequences of eCO expirograms from a healthy occasional smoker before smoking (19 h after the last cigarette) and 15 s after smoking; (a) e12CO profiles, (b) e13CO expirograms recorded 30 s after e12CO. Gray – raw data, colored lines – smoothed raw data.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Although, with the present setup, the isotopic species could not be analyzed simultaneously and the 13CO concentrations had a relatively high uncertainty (5 ppbv), the results indicate depletion of 13CO in the breath of healthy subjects. The deviation from the standard 13C/12C ratio seems larger for eCO than for eCO2, for which a δ13C value of −20‰ was reported [32]. A probable 13CO sink is oxidation to CO2 [8]. The results presented here are in contrast to the findings by Lee et al., who reported positive δ13C values in non-smokers and smokers [25].

Overall, the successful combination of a low-volume multipass cell with ICL-based WMS enabled detection of eCO exhalation profiles of a quality previously only reached with cavity-enhanced absorption techniques [10, 22]. Similar TDLAS systems are feasible for detection of other interesting biomarkers with exhaled breath concentrations in the high ppbv to ppmv range, such as ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Precise real-time BGA with TDLAS will enable detailed clinical studies of biomarker physiology and toxicology, as well as coupling of experimental data to models of gas exchange in the respiratory tract.

7. Conclusions

A compact mid-infrared TDLAS sensor for carbon monoxide in air and breath was realized based on an interband cascade laser operating at 4.69 µm. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy and a novel, low-volume multipass cell were implemented to achieve a detection limit and precision in the low ppbv range, while maintaining sub-second gas exchange times. Compared to direct absorption spectroscopy a sensitivity improvement of 25 was reached with WMS. The sensor was applied to real-time detection of 12CO and 13CO exhalation profiles from non-smokers and an occasional smoker before and after smoking. Elevated eCO levels were found after smoking. Isotope ratio analysis revealed depletion of 13CO with respect to natural abundance in all breath samples. The system will facilitate further investigation of CO physiology by means of real-time breath and stable isotope analysis.

Funding

Swedish Research Council (621-2013-6031); Kempe foundations (SMK-1446).

Acknowledgments

We thank Amir Khodabakhsh for providing occasional smokers breath samples.

References and links

1. A. Amann and D. Smith, Volatile Biomarkers: Non-invasive Diagnosis in Physiology and Medicine (Elsevier, 2013).

2. T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 421–426 (2006). [CrossRef]  

3. A. S. Modak, “Stable isotope breath tests in clinical medicine: a review,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014003 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. J. Li, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, and H. Fischer, “Real-time measurements of atmospheric CO using a continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser based spectrometer,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7590–7601 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. S. W. Ryter and A. M. K. Choi, “Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics,” J. Breath Res. 7(1), 017111 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. E. O. Owens, “Endogenous carbon monoxide production in disease,” Clin. Biochem. 43(15), 1183–1188 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. R. Gajdócsy and I. Horváth, “Exhaled carbon monoxide in airway diseases: from research findings to clinical relevance,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 047102 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. M. Sawano, “Demonstration and quantification of the redistribution and oxidation of carbon monoxide in the human body by tracer analysis,” Med. Gas Res. 6(2), 59–63 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. W. Miekisch and J. K. Schubert, “From highly sophisticated analytical techniques to life-saving diagnostics: Technical developments in breath analysis,” Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. 25(7), 665–673 (2006).

15. C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013). [CrossRef]  

17. C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007). [CrossRef]  

18. T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010). [CrossRef]  

19. I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015). [CrossRef]  

20. B. Tuzson, M. Mangold, H. Looser, A. Manninen, and L. Emmenegger, “Compact multipass optical cell for laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 257–259 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006). [CrossRef]  

22. I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016). [CrossRef]  

24. R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017). [CrossRef]  

25. P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. K. R. Parameswaran, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. M. Ganz, and T. H. Risby, “Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B73–B79 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. J. A. Nwaboh, Z. Qu, O. Werhahn, and V. Ebert, “Interband cascade laser-based optical transfer standard for atmospheric carbon monoxide measurements,” Appl. Opt. 56(11), E84–E93 (2017). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. L. Dong, Y. Yu, C. Li, S. So, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level formaldehyde detection using a CW room-temperature interband cascade laser and a miniature dense pattern multipass gas cell,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19821–19830 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013). [CrossRef]  

30. J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012). [CrossRef]  

31. A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014). [CrossRef]  

33. J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Amann and D. Smith, Volatile Biomarkers: Non-invasive Diagnosis in Physiology and Medicine (Elsevier, 2013).
  2. T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 421–426 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. S. Modak, “Stable isotope breath tests in clinical medicine: a review,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014003 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Li, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, and H. Fischer, “Real-time measurements of atmospheric CO using a continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser based spectrometer,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7590–7601 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. W. Ryter and A. M. K. Choi, “Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics,” J. Breath Res. 7(1), 017111 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. E. O. Owens, “Endogenous carbon monoxide production in disease,” Clin. Biochem. 43(15), 1183–1188 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. Gajdócsy and I. Horváth, “Exhaled carbon monoxide in airway diseases: from research findings to clinical relevance,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 047102 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Sawano, “Demonstration and quantification of the redistribution and oxidation of carbon monoxide in the human body by tracer analysis,” Med. Gas Res. 6(2), 59–63 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. W. Miekisch and J. K. Schubert, “From highly sophisticated analytical techniques to life-saving diagnostics: Technical developments in breath analysis,” Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. 25(7), 665–673 (2006).
  15. C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. B. Tuzson, M. Mangold, H. Looser, A. Manninen, and L. Emmenegger, “Compact multipass optical cell for laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 257–259 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  22. I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. K. R. Parameswaran, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. M. Ganz, and T. H. Risby, “Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B73–B79 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. A. Nwaboh, Z. Qu, O. Werhahn, and V. Ebert, “Interband cascade laser-based optical transfer standard for atmospheric carbon monoxide measurements,” Appl. Opt. 56(11), E84–E93 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. L. Dong, Y. Yu, C. Li, S. So, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level formaldehyde detection using a CW room-temperature interband cascade laser and a miniature dense pattern multipass gas cell,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19821–19830 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (4)

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Sawano, “Demonstration and quantification of the redistribution and oxidation of carbon monoxide in the human body by tracer analysis,” Med. Gas Res. 6(2), 59–63 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, Y. Yu, C. Li, S. So, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level formaldehyde detection using a CW room-temperature interband cascade laser and a miniature dense pattern multipass gas cell,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19821–19830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Tuzson, M. Mangold, H. Looser, A. Manninen, and L. Emmenegger, “Compact multipass optical cell for laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 257–259 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. W. Ryter and A. M. K. Choi, “Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics,” J. Breath Res. 7(1), 017111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Li, U. Parchatka, R. Königstedt, and H. Fischer, “Real-time measurements of atmospheric CO using a continuous-wave room temperature quantum cascade laser based spectrometer,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7590–7601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. O. Owens, “Endogenous carbon monoxide production in disease,” Clin. Biochem. 43(15), 1183–1188 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Gajdócsy and I. Horváth, “Exhaled carbon monoxide in airway diseases: from research findings to clinical relevance,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 047102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Parameswaran, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. M. Ganz, and T. H. Risby, “Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B73–B79 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. S. Modak, “Stable isotope breath tests in clinical medicine: a review,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 421–426 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Miekisch and J. K. Schubert, “From highly sophisticated analytical techniques to life-saving diagnostics: Technical developments in breath analysis,” Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. 25(7), 665–673 (2006).

1997 (1)

J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abell, J.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Allen, M. G.

Axner, O.

J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bewley, W.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bütz, D. E.

D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Canedy, C.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Casperson, S. L.

D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, A. M. K.

S. W. Ryter and A. M. K. Choi, “Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics,” J. Breath Res. 7(1), 017111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ciaffoni, L.

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clerici, C.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Conny, J. M.

J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997).
[Crossref]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Couper, J. H.

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cristescu, S.

B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cristescu, S. M.

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Currie, L. A.

J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997).
[Crossref]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, L.

Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ebert, V.

J. A. Nwaboh, Z. Qu, O. Werhahn, and V. Ebert, “Interband cascade laser-based optical transfer standard for atmospheric carbon monoxide measurements,” Appl. Opt. 56(11), E84–E93 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehehalt, R.

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emmenegger, L.

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, H.

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fritsch, T.

T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gajdócsy, R.

R. Gajdócsy and I. Horváth, “Exhaled carbon monoxide in airway diseases: from research findings to clinical relevance,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 047102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ganz, A. M.

Ghorbani, R.

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ghorbanzadeh, A.

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gibson, G. M.

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gonthiez, T.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Greule, M.

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Halonen, L.

O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hancock, G.

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harren, F.

B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[Crossref]

Harren, F. J.

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J.

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartmann, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hering, P.

T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Höfling, S.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Horváth, I.

R. Gajdócsy and I. Horváth, “Exhaled carbon monoxide in airway diseases: from research findings to clinical relevance,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 047102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kamp, M.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Keppler, F.

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Klein, A.

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Königstedt, R.

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Le Roy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, P. S.

P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Long, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Longbottom, C.

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Looser, H.

Lyulin, O. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mackie, C. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Majkowski, R. F.

P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandon, J.

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Manfred Schmidt, F.

O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mangold, M.

Manninen, A.

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

McManus, J. B.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McMillan, L. C.

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Merritt, C.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Metsala, M.

O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

Metsälä, M.

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, J.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miekisch, W.

W. Miekisch and J. K. Schubert, “From highly sophisticated analytical techniques to life-saving diagnostics: Technical developments in breath analysis,” Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. 25(7), 665–673 (2006).

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Milton, D. K.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Modak, A. S.

A. S. Modak, “Stable isotope breath tests in clinical medicine: a review,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moeskops, B.

B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[Crossref]

Müller, H. S. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mürtz, M.

T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Naus, H.

B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nelson, D. D.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nwaboh, J. A.

O’Neill, D. P.

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Owens, E. O.

E. O. Owens, “Endogenous carbon monoxide production in disease,” Clin. Biochem. 43(15), 1183–1188 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Padgett, M. J.

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pakmanesh, N.

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

Parameswaran, K. R.

Parchatka, U.

Patterson, C. S.

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perry, T. A.

P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polag, D.

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qu, Z.

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Risby, T. H.

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. R. Parameswaran, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. M. Ganz, and T. H. Risby, “Off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy with a mid-infrared interband cascade laser for real-time breath ethane measurements,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B73–B79 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 421–426 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, G. A.

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robbins, P. A.

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romanini, D.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, D. I.

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ryter, S. W.

S. W. Ryter and A. M. K. Choi, “Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics,” J. Breath Res. 7(1), 017111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahay, P.

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sama, S. R.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sawano, M.

M. Sawano, “Demonstration and quantification of the redistribution and oxidation of carbon monoxide in the human body by tracer analysis,” Med. Gas Res. 6(2), 59–63 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schiller, A.

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, F. M.

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, J. K.

W. Miekisch and J. K. Schubert, “From highly sophisticated analytical techniques to life-saving diagnostics: Technical developments in breath analysis,” Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. 25(7), 665–673 (2006).

Shorter, J. H.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skeldon, K. D.

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Skyttä, M.

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

So, S.

Solga, S. F.

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 421–426 (2006).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tittel, F. K.

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tuzson, B.

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vaittinen, O.

O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ventrillard-Courtillot, I.

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verkouteren, R. M.

J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weih, R.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

Werhahn, O.

Westberg, J.

J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012).
[Crossref]

Whigham, L. D.

D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014).
[Crossref]

Witzel, O.

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

Zahniser, M. S.

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

N. Pakmanesh, S. M. Cristescu, A. Ghorbanzadeh, F. J. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Quantum cascade laser-based sensors for the detection of exhaled carbon monoxide,” Appl. Phys. B 122(1), 1–9 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Ghorbani and F. M. Schmidt, “Real-time breath gas analysis of CO and CO2 using an EC-QCL,” Appl. Phys. B 123(5), 144 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2), 421–426 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Moeskops, H. Naus, S. Cristescu, and F. Harren, “Quantum cascade laser-based carbon monoxide detection on a second time scale from human breath,” Appl. Phys. B 82(4), 649–654 (2006).
[Crossref]

Clin. Biochem. (1)

E. O. Owens, “Endogenous carbon monoxide production in disease,” Clin. Biochem. 43(15), 1183–1188 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Anal. Chem. (1)

O. Vaittinen, F. Manfred Schmidt, M. Metsala, and L. Halonen, “Exhaled breath biomonitoring using laser spectroscopy,” Curr. Anal. Chem. 9(3), 463–475 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

P. S. Lee, R. F. Majkowski, and T. A. Perry, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for isotope analysis--detection of isotopic carbon monoxide in exhaled breath,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(10), 966–973 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

D. E. Bütz, S. L. Casperson, and L. D. Whigham, “The emerging role of carbon isotope ratio determination in health research and medical diagnostics,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 29(4), 594–598 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

I. Ventrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, “Multispecies breath analysis faster than a single respiratory cycle by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064026 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Breath Res. (7)

R. Gajdócsy and I. Horváth, “Exhaled carbon monoxide in airway diseases: from research findings to clinical relevance,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 047102 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Modak, “Stable isotope breath tests in clinical medicine: a review,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014003 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Ryter and A. M. K. Choi, “Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics,” J. Breath Res. 7(1), 017111 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Keppler, A. Schiller, R. Ehehalt, M. Greule, J. Hartmann, and D. Polag, “Stable isotope and high precision concentration measurements confirm that all humans produce and exhale methane,” J. Breath Res. 10(1), 016003 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fritsch, P. Hering, and M. Mürtz, “Infrared laser spectroscopy for online recording of exhaled carbon monoxide-a progress report,” J. Breath Res. 1(1), 014002 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Metsälä, F. M. Schmidt, M. Skyttä, O. Vaittinen, and L. Halonen, “Acetylene in breath: background levels and real-time elimination kinetics after smoking,” J. Breath Res. 4(4), 046003 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Shorter, D. D. Nelson, J. B. McManus, M. S. Zahniser, S. R. Sama, and D. K. Milton, “Clinical study of multiple breath biomarkers of asthma and COPD (NO, CO2, CO and N2O) by infrared laser spectroscopy,” J. Breath Res. 5(3), 037108 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (1)

J. M. Conny, R. M. Verkouteren, and L. A. Currie, “Carbon 13 composition of tropospheric CO in Brazil: A model scenario during the biomass burn season,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102(D9), 10683–10693 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. Meyer, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, W. Bewley, C. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(12), 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. (1)

J. Westberg, J. Wang, and O. Axner, “Fast and non-approximate methodology for calculation of wavelength-modulated Voigt lineshape functions suitable for real-time curve fitting,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra. 113(16), 2049–2057 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J. M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130(0), 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. S. Patterson, L. C. McMillan, C. Longbottom, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, and K. D. Skeldon, “Portable optical spectroscopy for accurate analysis of ethane in exhaled breath,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(5), 1459–1464 (2007).
[Crossref]

Med. Gas Res. (1)

M. Sawano, “Demonstration and quantification of the redistribution and oxidation of carbon monoxide in the human body by tracer analysis,” Med. Gas Res. 6(2), 59–63 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. H. Risby and F. K. Tittel, “Current status of midinfrared quantum and interband cascade lasers for clinical breath analysis,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sci. Adv. (1)

L. Ciaffoni, D. P. O’Neill, J. H. Couper, G. A. Ritchie, G. Hancock, and P. A. Robbins, “In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care,” Sci. Adv. 2(8), e1600560 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (2)

C. Wang and P. Sahay, “Breath analysis using laser spectroscopic techniques: breath biomarkers, spectral fingerprints, and detection limits,” Sensors (Basel) 9(10), 8230–8262 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Klein, O. Witzel, and V. Ebert, “Rapid, time-division multiplexed, direct absorption- and wavelength modulation-spectroscopy,” Sensors (Basel) 14(11), 21497–21513 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. (1)

W. Miekisch and J. K. Schubert, “From highly sophisticated analytical techniques to life-saving diagnostics: Technical developments in breath analysis,” Trac-Trend. Anal. Chem. 25(7), 665–673 (2006).

Other (1)

A. Amann and D. Smith, Volatile Biomarkers: Non-invasive Diagnosis in Physiology and Medicine (Elsevier, 2013).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 HITRAN2012 simulation of absorption spectra expected from a breath sample containing 2 ppmv CO, 5% CO2 and 5% H2O at 100 Torr and 296 K. (a) Around the P(3) 12CO transition, (b) for a 50 GHz ICL current tuning range, also covering 13C16O and 12C18O.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic drawings of the experimental TDLAS setup (a) and the breath sampler (b). ICL – interband cascade laser, MPC – multi-pass cell, PD - photodetector, PT – pressure transducer, LDC – laser diode controller, FGen – function generator, LiA – lock-in amplifier.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured DAS (a) and background-corrected 2f-WMS (b) signals (markers) of the P(3) 12CO transition recorded at 0.07 s integration time (10 averages), with least-squares Voigt fits (blue, solid line) and fit residuals. The sample was a 2.76 ppmv gas standard at 100 Torr. For clarity, only every 10th and 30th data point is shown in the DAS and WMS spectra, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Allan-Werle deviation plots for DAS at 2.2 ppmv and 2f-WMS at 510 ppbv, (b) calibration curve for DAS (blue, triangular markers) and 2f-WMS (red, circular markers) obtained by dilution of a 28.24 ppmv CO gas standard. Solid line – linear fit to DAS response.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured DAS spectra over the full ICL current tuning range from a breath sample collected during smoking (black line) and from a 28.24 ppmv CO gas standard (inverted, red line), (b) Measured 2f-WMS signal (markers) from 13CO in the gas standard diluted to 2 ppmv 12CO, together with Voigt fit and residual. For both spectra, the sample pressure was 100 Torr.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Typical 2f-WMS signals (markers) recorded during online sampling at 100 Torr, with least-squares Voigt fits (blue solid lines) and residuals (a) 12CO in indoor air, (b) e12CO in alveolar breath of a healthy non-smoker, (c) e13CO in alveolar breath of a healthy smoker after smoking. For clarity, only every 40th (a, b) and 20th (c) data point is shown in the raw spectra.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Sequences of e12CO expirograms obtained from two healthy non-smokers during tidal plus expiratory reserve volume breathing (a) and tidal breathing (b). No data smoothing was applied. (a) Each data point corresponds to a raw spectrum. (b) CO2 exhalation profiles simultaneously obtained by capnography are shown for comparison.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Sequences of eCO expirograms from a healthy occasional smoker before smoking (19 h after the last cigarette) and 15 s after smoking; (a) e12CO profiles, (b) e13CO expirograms recorded 30 s after e12CO. Gray – raw data, colored lines – smoothed raw data.

Metrics