Abstract

We first study the transmission property of red light in water in terms of extinction coefficient and channel bandwidth via Monte Carlo simulation, with an interesting finding that red light outperforms blue-green light in highly turbid water. We further propose and experimentally demonstrate a broadband underwater wireless optical communication system based on a simple and cost-effective TO56 red-light laser diode. We demonstrate a 1.324-Gb/s transmission at a bit error rate (BER) of 2.02 × 10−3 over a 6-m underwater channel, by using 128-QAM OFDM signals and a low-cost 150-MHz positive-intrinsic-negative photodetector, with a record spectral efficiency higher than 7.32 bits/Hz. By using an avalanche photodetector and 32-QAM OFDM signals, we have achieved a record bit rate of 4.883 Gb/s at a BER of 3.20 × 10−3 over a 6-m underwater channel.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The oceans, where life itself arose from, are a critical player in the basic elements indispensable for human life, like climate, weather, nourishment, and mineral resources, to name a few. For this reason, ocean exploration owns scientific, strategic and economic significance and has been attracting global attention. Among many vital technologies for ocean exploration, the underwater communication technology is a key enabler. While underwater cables may provide a straightforward realization of underwater communication, they make deployment and manipulation challenging [1]. Moreover, such a wired solution normally requires wet-mate connectors that are sophisticated and very expensive. On the other hand, its wireless counterpart, featuring high scalability and flexibility, has attracted more and more attention. Acoustic communication is traditionally the dominant technology for underwater wireless communications due to the low attenuation of acoustic wave in water [2]. However, it suffers from very limited bandwidth [3], large time latency, and bulky antennas, which make it less preferable in short-range yet bandwidth-intensive applications [4–6]. Inductively coupled loops (ICL) can also provide robust noncontact communication via electromagnetic induction [7]. However, the bit rate is normally as low as 10 Kb/s, and the transmission distance is normally less than 10 cm. Similarly, radio frequency-based terrestrial wireless technologies are also problematic to be directly employed underwater since radio waves are heavily attenuated in water, especially in conductive sea waters. Recently, underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) has gained a renewed interest from both academic and industrial communities [8–10]. UWOC features sufficient bandwidth, high security and low time latency, and consequently offers many intriguing opportunities for a variety of applications such as broadband communication with seafloor sensors during a “fly-by” mission of an underwater vehicle (e.g., underwater helicopter) [1], real-time video transmission, underwater sensor networks, etc.

It is still challenging for the elegant generation of high-speed optical signals in an UWOC system with a proper wavelength, normally in the blue-green band with relatively high transparency in water. Directly modulated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were first used to generate the optical signals [1, 11, 12], but with a limited bit rate of no more than 10 Mb/s. The impressive 1-Gb/s demonstration at 532 nm made by F. Hanson et al. [13], via wavelength conversion and external modulation, marked a major milestone in the field of UWOC. However, in this scheme the transmitter part is quite bulky, with high power consumption. On the other hand, directly modulated semiconductor lasers have the distinguishing advantages of compact size, low power consumption and much higher modulation bandwidth than LEDs [8–10, 14–17]. While directly modulated semiconductor lasers have been widely used for broadband optical fiber communications [14], their great potential for UWOC has not been fully explored due to the long-term challenge of stretching the emission wavelength of semiconductor lasers toward green [18]. Although attempts had been made since the 1960s to build semiconductor lasers emitting green light, the first truly green-light nitride laser at ~532 nm did not appear until 2009 [19], more than 20 years later than the first blue laser diode (LD). For this reason, directly modulated blue semiconductor lasers [8, 9], rather than the green ones, were normally used in reported UWOC systems, enabling a record demonstration with a bit rate of up to 4.8 Gbit/s (gross bit rate) over 5.4-m tap water [9]. Compared with green light, although blue light has a smaller absorption coefficient in pure water [8, 20], it suffers from larger absorption and scattering in some realistic waters with higher concentration of particulates [9, 21]. Thus, researchers have been making great efforts to investigate the feasibility of using directly modulated green-light LDs in UWOC systems [10], despite the fact that commercially available green-light LDs are very few. Until very recently, a special TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520-nm LD, with a relatively high price, was used for a 7-meter underwater transmission at a bit rate of 2.3 Gbit/s [10].

While blue-green light has become a common fixture for UWOC systems, in this work we investigate the feasibility of using directly modulated red-light LDs in UWOC systems based on the following two considerations. Firstly, in terms of optical power, compared with infancy green LDs, robust high-power red-light LDs are widely available with higher modulation bandwidth at a much lower price. That is due to the fact that red-light LDs have been invented by Nick Holonyak for more than 50 years and the manufacturing technology is very mature. In addition, for a common silicon photodetector, its responsivity at 650 nm is around 2-dB larger than that at 532 nm and 6-dB larger than that at 400 nm. Secondly, red light suffers from smaller scattering effect in water due to its longer wavelength. In this paper, we first numerically study the transmission performance of red light in water in terms of extinction coefficient and channel bandwidth, with an interesting finding that the extinction coefficient of red light can be smaller than that of the green light in turbid water. The channel bandwidth of red light is also larger as expected due to the smaller scattering effect. We further propose and experimentally demonstrate a broadband UWOC system based on a simple and cost-effective TO56 red-light LD. Spectrally efficient orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) [8–10, 22–27], together with high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), is employed in the demonstration. We have achieved a 6-m, 1.324-Gb/s underwater transmission at a bit error rate (BER) of 2.02 × 10−3, by using 128-QAM OFDM signals and a low-cost 150-MHz positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) photodetector, with a record spectral efficiency higher than 7.32 bits/Hz. By using an avalanche photodetector (APD) and 32-QAM OFDM signals, we have achieved a record bit rate of 4.883 Gb/s at a BER of 3.20 × 10−3 over a 6-m underwater channel.

2. Numerical study of the red-light transmission in water

As light propagates in water, absorption and scattering are two dominant impairing phenomena. The energy loss caused by absorption and scattering is generally evaluated by absorption coefficient a and scattering coefficient b, respectively. We can further use extinction coefficient c as defined by:

c=a+b
to describe the total effect on energy loss. The values of a, b and c vary with the water type and light’s wavelength λ. As a common practice, for simplicity different water types are modelled by waters with different values of chlorophyll concentration C [28, 29]. Thus, a and b can be modelled as a function of λ and C [28, 29]:
a(λ)=[aw(λ)+0.06ac(λ)C0.65][1+0.2exp(0.014(λ440))]
b(λ)=0.30550λC0.62
where aw is the absorption coefficient of pure water and ac is a nondimensional, statistically derived chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient. The values of aw and ac are given in [28]. For different water types, we properly set the corresponding chlorophyll concentration C to achieve that the calculated value of attenuation coefficient c at 530 nm, based on Eqs. (1)-(3), is close to the measured value provided in [29]. In this study, the value of chlorophyll concentration C (in mg.m−3) was set to be 1.01 for coastal water, and 19 for harbor water. With known C, according to Eqs. (1)-(3), we show in Fig. 1 curves of a, b, and c as a function of λ for these two types of water. As expected, scattering coefficient b decreases obviously as the wavelength increases, especially for the harbor water. In addition, scattering coefficient b of harbor water is much higher than that of coastal water. On the other hand, the difference between the absorption coefficients of two types of water is much smaller. Thus, for harbor water, the extinction coefficient c at red band (say at ~660 nm) is counterintuitively smaller than that at green band (say at ~520 nm). We then adopted the Monte Carlo simulation approach, as described in detail in [30], to numerically study the impact of scattering effect on channel bandwidth in harbor water for both the red and green lights. With known λ and C, we could further obtain the optical parameters of turbid harbor water based on Eq. (1)-(3), as shown in Table 1.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 a, b, and c as a function of λ for coastal water and harbor water.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical Parameters of Turbid Harbor Water at 520 nm and 660 nm

Other simulation parameters were as follows: the number of launching photons was 2 × 108, the divergence angle (full angle) was 20 degrees, the diameter of the detector was 20 cm and the field of view of the detector was 180 degrees. We adopted the HG function in [30] as the scattering phase function with the value of g being 0.924 [29, 30]. The channel impulse response was calculated by summing the normalized weight of photons with the same propagation time, with a resolution of 0.1ns.

The impulse response of an 8-m UWOC channel in harbor water is illustrated in Fig. 2. Compared with the green light, the red light suffers smaller timing spread, leading to a larger channel bandwidth as shown in Fig. 3. The frequency response of the channel was obtained through a Fourier transformation of the impulse response. Note that the frequency dips in Fig. 3 are induced by the randomness of the Monte Carlo simulation rather than the power fading effect as studied in [31, 32].

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Impulse response in harbor water with different wavelengths, the link distance is 8m.

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 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Frequency response in 8-m harbor water with different wavelengths.

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3. Experimental setup

We have conducted a proof-of-concept experiment, with a setup shown in Fig. 4, to evaluate the proposed UWOC system based on an OFDM modulated red-light LD. The OFDM transmitter module and the OFDM receiver module are shown in the insets of Fig. 4. Both a 150-MHz PIN (THORLABS PDA10A, active area diameter: 1 mm) photodetector and a 1-GHz APD (Menlo Systems, APD210, active area diameter: 0.5 mm) were used in this experiment. The noise-equivalent power (NEP) of the PIN photodetector is 0.40 pW/√Hz, and the NEP of the APD photodetector is 35 pW/√Hz. The PIN detector was used to realize a cost-effective UWOC system with high spectral efficiency, whereas the APD (the same type as used in [8–10]) was used to realize a high-speed transmission and make a direct comparison with previous results as reported in [8–10]. In the experiment, the OFDM parameters were separately optimized for both detectors. As shown in inset (a) of Fig. 4, a pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) with a length of 220-1 was converted into parallel binary data by serial-to-parallel (S/P) conversion. After being encoded into QAM symbols, these binary data were finally assigned to different subcarriers. Each OFDM frame consisted of 150 OFDM symbols. The first two (in the case of using PIN) or four (in the case of using APD) of the 150 OFDM symbols were used for channel estimation and equalization. The final channel estimation was obtained by averaging all the channel estimations from every training symbol. The averaging operation could suppress some random noises and hence improve the accuracy of channel estimation. Two training symbols (TS) were further added to the beginning of the 150 OFDM symbols for timing synchronization. The real OFDM signals were generated by using a complex conjugate extension for a 1024-point inverse fast Fourier transformation (IFFT) input. We set a frequency gap of 2 subcarriers near zero frequency and added a cyclic prefix (CP) of 100 (in the case of using PIN) or 50 (in the case of using APD) samples to the OFDM signals. After parallel-to-serial (P/S) conversion and amplification, the OFDM signals were fed to an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) (Tektronix 70002A) via a local area network (LAN). We set the sampling rate of the AWG at 1.25 GSamples/s in the case of using PIN detector and 5 GSamples/s in the case of using APD, respectively. The amplitude of the AWG output was clipped within 0.45 Vpp. We used an amplifier (AMP) and a variable electrical attenuator (ATT) to adjust the driving voltage of the baseband signals. A 500-MHz AMP (Mini-Circuits ZHL-6A-S + ) was used in the case of using PIN, whereas a 25-GHz AMP (SHF 100 AP) was used in the case of using APD. The ATT was set at 4dB. A red-light LD (HL6501MG) at 685 nm was driven by the baseband signals via a bias-tee. The bias current of the LD was set at 79.33 mA in the case of using PIN and 60 mA in the case of using APD. The optical powers injected into the system were 11.04 mW and 5.01 mW, respectively, for the two cases. A water tank (length: 2m, width: 0.3m, height: 0.3m) made of ordinary polymethyl methacrylate was filled with fresh tap water to emulate a 2-m underwater channel. In addition, a pair of mirrors were used to realize a 6-m transmission by means of mirror reflection, as shown in Fig. 4. Note that ordinary cosmetic mirrors were used here, which were very cheap but had a relatively large insertion loss. The water tank was sandwiched between a pair of focusing lenses (one after the LD, the other before the photodetector). The optical power coupled into the PIN detector was properly adjusted to avoid detector saturation. In the case of using the PIN detector, another AMP (Mini-Circuits ZHL-6A-S + ) and another ATT were used to adjust the signal amplitude inputting to an oscilloscope. When using the APD, such an adjustment was not required. The detected signals were captured by a mixed signal oscilloscope (MSO) (Tektronix MSO 71254C), and transmitted to a computer via the LAN for demodulation. The sampling rate of the MSO was set at 25 GSamples/s. The process of demodulation is presented in inset (b) of Fig. 4, which follows the process described in the transmitter in an opposite order. The signals went through the processes of synchronization, equalization and M-QAM demodulation, before error vector magnitude (EVM) and bit-error-rate (BER) being calculated. All measurements were taken under direct illumination of indoor lights. In the experiment, the indoor illumination light could induce low-frequency noise in the receiver. However, its impact on the experimental results was negligible since a frequency gap was reserved at the low-frequency region of the OFDM signal. For practical implementation, optical filtering can be further adopted if the ambient light is strong.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 The experimental setup of the proposed UWOC system using a red-light LD. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator, AMP: amplifier, ATT: attenuator, Bias-T: bias-tee, LD: laser diode, PIN: positive-intrinsic-negative photodetector, APD: avalanche photo detector, MSO: mixed signal oscilloscope. Inset (a) OFDM transmitter module, (b) OFDM receiver module.

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4. Experimental results

We first employed the PIN as the detector. We measured the back-to-back frequency response of the proposed UWOC system, as shown in Fig. 5. The frequency response is relatively flat within the 150-MHz bandwidth of the PIN detector, promising a high signal to noise ratio (SNR). Thus, high-order QAM, say 64-QAM and 128-QAM OFDM signals, were used in the experiment. Note that the frequency response shown in Fig. 3 accounts for the underwater channel itself, whereas the frequency response shown in Fig. 5 accounts for the transmitter and receiver parts only without considering the effect of the underwater channel. Power loading (PL) was further adopted to extend the signal bandwidth up to 191.7 MHz (using 155 subcarriers), beyond the 150-MHz bandwidth of the PIN detector. For subcarriers from the 90th to the 155th, the allocated power was linearly emphasized by 4dB using PL. With PL, the achieved gross data rate could be calculated as 1.324 Gb/s for the 128-QAM OFDM signal at a BER of 2.02 × 10−3, and 1.135 Gb/s for the 64-QAM OFDM signal at a BER of 3.34 × 10−4, respectively, over a 6-m underwater channel. Both BERs were below the FEC limit of 3.8 × 10−3. The corresponding net bit rates were 1.098 Gb/s and 0.941 Gb/s, respectively, after removing the overheads of CP, FEC (7%), and training symbols for synchronization and channel equalization. Considering the fact that the PIN detector’s bandwidth is 150 MHz, obviously the bandwidth of the whole UWOC system should be less than 150 MHz, implying that the proposed UWOC scheme features a record (compared with results in [8–10]) spectral efficiency (net bit rate/system bandwidth) that is higher than 7.32 bits/Hz when 128-QAM was employed. Note that spectral efficiency is important for systems where electrical bandwidth is crucial. Figure 6 and Fig. 7 illustrate the EVMs and the BERs, respectively, for the different subcarriers with PL over a 6-m underwater channel. From Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 we can estimate the overall bit error distribution among different subcarriers in one BER measurement.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 The back-to-back frequency response of the proposed UWOC system in the case of using PIN detector.

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 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 The EVMs for the different subcarriers in the case of using PIN detector after 6-m underwater transmission.

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 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 The BERs for the different subcarriers in the case of using PIN detector after 6-m underwater transmission.

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Figure 8 presents the constellations of 128-QAM OFDM signals employing PL over a 2-m/6-m underwater channel. Both of them are well converged. Figure 9 (a) shows the waveform of the captured 128-QAM OFDM signal with PL. The space part in the waveform corresponds to two training symbols for timing synchronization [33]. Figure 9 (b) is the corresponding spectrum. The effect of PL can be observed by comparing Fig. 9 (b) with the spectrum of the 128-QAM OFDM signal without PL as shown in Fig. 9 (c).

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Constellation maps of 128-QAM OFDM signals (a) over a 2-m underwater channel, and (b) over a 6-m underwater channel.

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 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 (a) the waveform of the captured 128-QAM OFDM signal with PL, (b) the spectrum of the 128-QAM OFDM signal with PL, (c) The spectrum of the 128-QAM OFDM signal without PL.

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We then employed the 1-GHz APD as the detector to achieve a higher bit rate. We extended the signal bandwidth up to 986.3 MHz (with 200 OFDM subcarriers). Over a 6-m underwater channel, we achieved a record gross bit rate (compared with reported results in [8–10]) of 4.883 Gb/s using 32-QAM at a BER of 3.20 × 10−3, while the net bit rate was 4.179 Gb/s. The EVMs and the BERs for the different subcarriers with and without PL over a 6-m underwater channel are shown in Fig. 10 and Fig. 11, respectively. For subcarriers from the 71th to the 200th, the allocated power was linearly emphasized by 9 dB using PL. With PL, the EVM and BER performance were obviously better, due to the enhanced SNR in high frequency region. Figure 12 shows the constellation map of the 32-QAM OFDM signal without and with PL over a 6-m underwater channel. Again, the effect of PL can be observed here. The spectrums of the captured 32-QAM OFDM signal with and without employing PL are shown in Fig. 13(a) and 13(b), respectively. The enhanced SNR in high frequency region (subcarriers from the 71th to the 200th) can be observed.

 figure: Fig. 10

Fig. 10 The EVMs for the different subcarriers in the case of using APD.

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 figure: Fig. 11

Fig. 11 The BERs for the different subcarriers in the case of using APD.

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 figure: Fig. 12

Fig. 12 The constellation map of the 32-QAM OFDM signal (a) without PL, and (b) with PL, over a 6-m underwater channel in the case of using APD.

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 figure: Fig. 13

Fig. 13 The spectrums of the captured 32-QAM OFDM signal (a) with PL, and (b) without PL.

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Finally, we measured the BER curves versus average received optical power for both the PIN and APD detectors, as shown in Fig. 14. In the measurement, optical signals propagated through the 2-m water tank, and a free-space variable optical attenuator was used ahead the detector to change the received optical power. From Fig. 14, we can estimate that for the PIN detector the receiver sensitivity (BER: 3.8 × 10−3, bit rate: 1.32 Gb/s) is around −15 dBm, and for the APD detector the receiver sensitivity (BER: 3.8 × 10−3, bit rate: 4.88 Gb/s) is around −5 dBm. Note that for both the PIN and APD detectors their active area diameters are smaller than that of the converged light spot, implying that part of the received optical power is wasted, leading to degraded receiver sensitivity (especially for the APD detector since its active area is only one-fourth of that of the PIN detector).

 figure: Fig. 14

Fig. 14 BER curves versus average received optical power for both the PIN and APD detectors.

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5. Discussion

Blue-green light has been the dominant information carrier in UWOC systems. In clean water, the red light suffers from larger absorption whereas its advantage on smaller scattering effect is not significant. Thus, for the transmission in clean water, especially when the transmission distance is relatively long, the blue-green light may outperform the red one. However, as red-light LDs enjoy very mature manufacturing technologies, high-power red-light LDs or LD arrays are widely available with higher modulation bandwidth and a much lower price. In addition, common silicon photodetectors also have higher responsivity for red light. We believe these two points would help, at least in part, compensate the larger absorption of red light in water. As an example, we have experimentally demonstrated a record transmission in clean water using a cheap red-light LD that is originally designed for large capacity optical disc memories. Even higher transmission speed can be expected by using communication class red-light lasers, such as broadband vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-lasers (VECSELs). We also have numerically demonstrated that red light outperforms the blue-green light in highly turbid water in terms of both extinction coefficient and channel bandwidth. Since the reliability of UWOC in highly turbid water is a hard nut to crack, we envision that the directly modulated red-light LD-based scheme is a strong candidate for the future broadband UWOC systems that are robust to different water types.

6. Conclusion

In this paper, we first numerically study the transmission property of red light in water in terms of extinction coefficient and channel bandwidth, with an interesting finding that red light outperforms the blue-green light in highly turbid water. We further propose and experimentally demonstrate a broadband UWOC system based on a simple and cost-effective TO56 red-light LD. We have achieved a 6-m, 1.324-Gb/s underwater transmission at a BER of 2.02 × 10−3, by using 128-QAM OFDM signals and a low-cost PIN photodetector, with a record spectral efficiency higher than 7.32 bits/Hz. By using an APD and 32-QAM OFDM signals, we have achieved a record bit rate of 4.883 Gb/s at a BER of 3.20 × 10−3 over a 6-m underwater channel.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Underwater Helicopter Program of Ocean College, Zhejiang University, directed by Prof. Ying Chen. This work was also supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61301141), by Qianjiang Talent Program of Zhejiang Province (QJD1402014), and by Open Foundation of the State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems (GZKF-201412). The authors would like to thank Prof. Lian-Kuan Chen and Prof. Chinlon Lin for valuable discussions. The authors would like to thank Ms. Li Chen and Ms. Wenjing Yuan for their great help in graduate student affairs. The authors would like to thank Ms. Shuai Hao, Mr. Yu Huang and Mr. Bo Ye for their great help in the equipment-related affairs.

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26. X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011). [CrossRef]  

27. J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, and K. A. Shore, “High-speed transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals over multimode fibers using directly modulated DFBs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 429–441 (2006). [CrossRef]  

28. L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981). [CrossRef]  

29. D. C. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

30. C. Gabriel, M. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, P. Léon, and V. Rigaud, “Monte-Carlo-based channel characterization for underwater optical communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(1), 1–12 (2013). [CrossRef]  

31. C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, and G. R. Lin, “Power fading mitigation of 40-Gbit/s 256-QAM OFDM carried by colorless laser diode under injection-locking,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29065–29078 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. Y. C. Chi and G. R. Lin, “A-factor enhanced optoelectronic oscillator for 40-Gbit/s pulsed RZ-OOK transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(12), 3216–3223 (2014). [CrossRef]  

33. T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 45(12), 1613–1621 (1997). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. M. Tivey, P. Fucile, and E. Sichel, “A low power, low cost, underwater optical communication system,” Ridge Events 1, 27–29 (2000).
  2. M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Oberg, B. Nilsson, N. Olofsson, M. L. Nordenvaad, and E. Sangfelt, “Underwater communication link with iterative equalization,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1–6.
  4. F. Pignieri, F. De Rango, F. Veltri, and S. Marano, “Markovian approach to model underwater acoustic channel: Techniques comparison,” in Proceedings of the Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–7.
    [Crossref]
  5. W. C. Cox, J. A. Simpson, C. P. Domizioli, J. F. Muth, and B. L. Hughes, “An underwater optical communication system implementing Reed-Solomon channel coding,” in Proceedings of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.
    [Crossref]
  6. B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. Fornari, A. Bradley, and S. Humphris, “Inductively Coupled Link(ICL) temperature probes for hot hydrothermal fluid sampling from ROV Jason and DSV Alvin,” Ridge Events 8(1), 26–31 (1997).
  8. K. Nakamura, I. Mizukoshi, and M. Hanawa, “Optical wireless transmission of 405 nm, 1.45 Gbit/s optical IM/DD-OFDM signals through a 4.8 m underwater channel,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1558–1566 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H. C. Kuo, J. H. He, M. S. Alouini, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. M. Oubei, C. Li, K. H. Park, T. K. Ng, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20743–20748 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.
  13. F. Hanson and S. Radic, “High bandwidth underwater optical communication,” Appl. Opt. 47(2), 277–283 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. T. Tadokoro, W. Kobayashi, T. Fujisawa, T. Yamanaka, and F. Kano, “High-Speed modulation lasers for 100GbE applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWD1.
  15. A. Lin, W. Lu, J. Xu, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, X. Gu, and J. Leng, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a directly modulated semiconductor Laser,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp.1–4.
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Huang, J. H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. R. Stevenson, “Lasers get the green light,” IEEE Spectr. 47(3), 34–39 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174–183 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. D. Ferguson, “Blue-green lasers for underwater applications,” Proc. SPIE 64, 18–22 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Xu, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, C. Ruprecht, R. Rath, and W. Rosenkranz, “Robust transmission of 29-Gb/s OFDM signal over 1-km OM1 MMF under center launching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 206–209 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Xu, C. Ruprecht, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, and W. Rosenkranz, “Transmission of 25.5-Gb/s OFDM signal over 200-m G62. 5/125 MMF using mode group diversity multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh4A. 2.
    [Crossref]
  25. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. van den Boom, A. M. Koonen, and N. Hanik, “24Gb/s transmission over 730m of Multimode Fiber by Direct Modulation of an 850nm VCSEL using discrete Mult-tone Modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper PDP6.
  26. X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, and K. A. Shore, “High-speed transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals over multimode fibers using directly modulated DFBs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 429–441 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  28. L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. C. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).
  30. C. Gabriel, M. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, P. Léon, and V. Rigaud, “Monte-Carlo-based channel characterization for underwater optical communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(1), 1–12 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, and G. R. Lin, “Power fading mitigation of 40-Gbit/s 256-QAM OFDM carried by colorless laser diode under injection-locking,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29065–29078 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. Y. C. Chi and G. R. Lin, “A-factor enhanced optoelectronic oscillator for 40-Gbit/s pulsed RZ-OOK transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(12), 3216–3223 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  33. T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 45(12), 1613–1621 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

K. Nakamura, I. Mizukoshi, and M. Hanawa, “Optical wireless transmission of 405 nm, 1.45 Gbit/s optical IM/DD-OFDM signals through a 4.8 m underwater channel,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1558–1566 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H. C. Kuo, J. H. He, M. S. Alouini, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Oubei, C. Li, K. H. Park, T. K. Ng, M. S. Alouini, and B. S. Ooi, “2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20743–20748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Huang, J. H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, and G. R. Lin, “Power fading mitigation of 40-Gbit/s 256-QAM OFDM carried by colorless laser diode under injection-locking,” Opt. Express 23(22), 29065–29078 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

Y. C. Chi and G. R. Lin, “A-factor enhanced optoelectronic oscillator for 40-Gbit/s pulsed RZ-OOK transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(12), 3216–3223 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Xu, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, C. Ruprecht, R. Rath, and W. Rosenkranz, “Robust transmission of 29-Gb/s OFDM signal over 1-km OM1 MMF under center launching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 206–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Gabriel, M. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, P. Léon, and V. Rigaud, “Monte-Carlo-based channel characterization for underwater optical communication systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(1), 1–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

R. Stevenson, “Lasers get the green light,” IEEE Spectr. 47(3), 34–39 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

F. Hanson and S. Radic, “High bandwidth underwater optical communication,” Appl. Opt. 47(2), 277–283 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2000 (1)

M. Tivey, P. Fucile, and E. Sichel, “A low power, low cost, underwater optical communication system,” Ridge Events 1, 27–29 (2000).

1997 (2)

D. Fornari, A. Bradley, and S. Humphris, “Inductively Coupled Link(ICL) temperature probes for hot hydrothermal fluid sampling from ROV Jason and DSV Alvin,” Ridge Events 8(1), 26–31 (1997).

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 45(12), 1613–1621 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174–183 (1994).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

G. D. Ferguson, “Blue-green lasers for underwater applications,” Proc. SPIE 64, 18–22 (1975).
[Crossref]

Adachi, M.

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Akita, K.

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alouini, M. S.

Bourennane, S.

Bradley, A.

D. Fornari, A. Bradley, and S. Humphris, “Inductively Coupled Link(ICL) temperature probes for hot hydrothermal fluid sampling from ROV Jason and DSV Alvin,” Ridge Events 8(1), 26–31 (1997).

Buiteveld, H.

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174–183 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. Y.

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Huang, J. H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chi, Y. C.

Chitre, M.

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

Cochenour, B.

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

Cochenour, B. M.

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cox, D. C.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 45(12), 1613–1621 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cox, W. C.

W. C. Cox, J. A. Simpson, C. P. Domizioli, J. F. Muth, and B. L. Hughes, “An underwater optical communication system implementing Reed-Solomon channel coding,” in Proceedings of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

De Rango, F.

F. Pignieri, F. De Rango, F. Veltri, and S. Marano, “Markovian approach to model underwater acoustic channel: Techniques comparison,” in Proceedings of the Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Huang, J. H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, N.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Detweiler, C.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

Domizioli, C. P.

W. C. Cox, J. A. Simpson, C. P. Domizioli, J. F. Muth, and B. L. Hughes, “An underwater optical communication system implementing Reed-Solomon channel coding,” in Proceedings of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Doniec, M.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

Donze, M.

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174–183 (1994).
[Crossref]

Duran, J. R.

Enya, Y.

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, G. D.

G. D. Ferguson, “Blue-green lasers for underwater applications,” Proc. SPIE 64, 18–22 (1975).
[Crossref]

Fornari, D.

D. Fornari, A. Bradley, and S. Humphris, “Inductively Coupled Link(ICL) temperature probes for hot hydrothermal fluid sampling from ROV Jason and DSV Alvin,” Ridge Events 8(1), 26–31 (1997).

Fucile, P.

M. Tivey, P. Fucile, and E. Sichel, “A low power, low cost, underwater optical communication system,” Ridge Events 1, 27–29 (2000).

Gabriel, C.

Giddings, R. P.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gu, X.

A. Lin, W. Lu, J. Xu, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, X. Gu, and J. Leng, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a directly modulated semiconductor Laser,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

Hakvoort, J. M. H.

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174–183 (1994).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Lin, W. Lu, J. Xu, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, X. Gu, and J. Leng, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a directly modulated semiconductor Laser,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

Hanawa, M.

Hanson, F.

He, J. H.

H. M. Oubei, J. R. Duran, B. Janjua, H. Y. Wang, C. T. Tsai, Y. C. Chi, T. K. Ng, H. C. Kuo, J. H. He, M. S. Alouini, G. R. Lin, and B. S. Ooi, “4.8 Gbit/s 16-QAM-OFDM transmission based on compact 450-nm laser for underwater wireless optical communication,” Opt. Express 23(18), 23302–23309 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Huang, J. H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffmann-Kuhnt, M.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

Hsieh, D. H.

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. T. Tsai, H. Y. Chen, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13051–13059 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Huang, J. H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, C. Y.

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Huang, J. H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, B. L.

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

W. C. Cox, J. A. Simpson, C. P. Domizioli, J. F. Muth, and B. L. Hughes, “An underwater optical communication system implementing Reed-Solomon channel coding,” in Proceedings of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

Humphris, S.

D. Fornari, A. Bradley, and S. Humphris, “Inductively Coupled Link(ICL) temperature probes for hot hydrothermal fluid sampling from ROV Jason and DSV Alvin,” Ridge Events 8(1), 26–31 (1997).

Ikegami, T.

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Janjua, B.

Jin, X. Q.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Katayama, K.

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Khalighi, M.

Kong, M. W.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Krier, J. R.

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Kyono, T.

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lane, P. M.

Laux, A. E.

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leng, J.

A. Lin, W. Lu, J. Xu, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, X. Gu, and J. Leng, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a directly modulated semiconductor Laser,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

Léon, P.

Li, C.

Lin, A.

A. Lin, W. Lu, J. Xu, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, X. Gu, and J. Leng, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a directly modulated semiconductor Laser,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

Lin, A. B.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. Y.

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Huang, J. H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, G. R.

Lu, W.

A. Lin, W. Lu, J. Xu, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, X. Gu, and J. Leng, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a directly modulated semiconductor Laser,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

Marano, S.

F. Pignieri, F. De Rango, F. Veltri, and S. Marano, “Markovian approach to model underwater acoustic channel: Techniques comparison,” in Proceedings of the Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Mizukoshi, I.

Mullen, L. J.

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

Muth, J. F.

W. C. Cox, J. A. Simpson, C. P. Domizioli, J. F. Muth, and B. L. Hughes, “An underwater optical communication system implementing Reed-Solomon channel coding,” in Proceedings of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

Nakamura, K.

Nakamura, S.

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Huang, J. H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, T.

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ng, T. K.

Nilsson, B.

T. Oberg, B. Nilsson, N. Olofsson, M. L. Nordenvaad, and E. Sangfelt, “Underwater communication link with iterative equalization,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1–6.

Nordenvaad, M. L.

T. Oberg, B. Nilsson, N. Olofsson, M. L. Nordenvaad, and E. Sangfelt, “Underwater communication link with iterative equalization,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1–6.

Oberg, T.

T. Oberg, B. Nilsson, N. Olofsson, M. L. Nordenvaad, and E. Sangfelt, “Underwater communication link with iterative equalization,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1–6.

Olofsson, N.

T. Oberg, B. Nilsson, N. Olofsson, M. L. Nordenvaad, and E. Sangfelt, “Underwater communication link with iterative equalization,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1–6.

Ooi, B.

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Huang, J. H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ooi, B. S.

Oubei, H. M.

Park, K. H.

Pignieri, F.

F. Pignieri, F. De Rango, F. Veltri, and S. Marano, “Markovian approach to model underwater acoustic channel: Techniques comparison,” in Proceedings of the Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

Prieur, L.

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
[Crossref]

Qu, F.

A. Lin, W. Lu, J. Xu, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, X. Gu, and J. Leng, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a directly modulated semiconductor Laser,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

Qu, F. Z.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Quinlan, T.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Radic, S.

Rath, R.

J. Xu, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, C. Ruprecht, R. Rath, and W. Rosenkranz, “Robust transmission of 29-Gb/s OFDM signal over 1-km OM1 MMF under center launching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 206–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rigaud, V.

Rosenkranz, W.

J. Xu, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, C. Ruprecht, R. Rath, and W. Rosenkranz, “Robust transmission of 29-Gb/s OFDM signal over 1-km OM1 MMF under center launching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 206–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ruprecht, C.

J. Xu, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, C. Ruprecht, R. Rath, and W. Rosenkranz, “Robust transmission of 29-Gb/s OFDM signal over 1-km OM1 MMF under center launching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 206–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rus, D.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

Sangfelt, E.

T. Oberg, B. Nilsson, N. Olofsson, M. L. Nordenvaad, and E. Sangfelt, “Underwater communication link with iterative equalization,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1–6.

Sathyendranath, S.

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
[Crossref]

Schmidl, T. M.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 45(12), 1613–1621 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shahabudeen, S.

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shore, K. A.

Sichel, E.

M. Tivey, P. Fucile, and E. Sichel, “A low power, low cost, underwater optical communication system,” Ridge Events 1, 27–29 (2000).

Simpson, J. A.

W. C. Cox, J. A. Simpson, C. P. Domizioli, J. F. Muth, and B. L. Hughes, “An underwater optical communication system implementing Reed-Solomon channel coding,” in Proceedings of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

A. Lin, W. Lu, J. Xu, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, X. Gu, and J. Leng, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a directly modulated semiconductor Laser,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

Song, Y. H.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stevenson, R.

R. Stevenson, “Lasers get the green light,” IEEE Spectr. 47(3), 34–39 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stojanovic, M.

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sumitomo, T.

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, J. M.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, and K. A. Shore, “High-speed transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals over multimode fibers using directly modulated DFBs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 429–441 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tivey, M.

M. Tivey, P. Fucile, and E. Sichel, “A low power, low cost, underwater optical communication system,” Ridge Events 1, 27–29 (2000).

Tokuyama, S.

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. T.

Ueno, M.

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vasilescu, I.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

Veltri, F.

F. Pignieri, F. De Rango, F. Veltri, and S. Marano, “Markovian approach to model underwater acoustic channel: Techniques comparison,” in Proceedings of the Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

von Hoyningen-Huene, J.

J. Xu, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, C. Ruprecht, R. Rath, and W. Rosenkranz, “Robust transmission of 29-Gb/s OFDM signal over 1-km OM1 MMF under center launching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 206–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

Walker, S.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. Y.

Wei, J. L.

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, C. Ruprecht, R. Rath, and W. Rosenkranz, “Robust transmission of 29-Gb/s OFDM signal over 1-km OM1 MMF under center launching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 206–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Lin, W. Lu, J. Xu, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, X. Gu, and J. Leng, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a directly modulated semiconductor Laser,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

Yoshizumi, Y.

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, X. Y.

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Enya, Y. Yoshizumi, T. Kyono, K. Akita, M. Ueno, M. Adachi, T. Sumitomo, S. Tokuyama, T. Ikegami, K. Katayama, and T. Nakamura, “531 nm green lasing of InGaN based laser diodes on semi-polar {202 −1} free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. (1)

B. M. Cochenour, L. J. Mullen, and A. E. Laux, “Characterization of the beam-spread function for underwater wireless optical communications links,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33(4), 513–521 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 500–511 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Xu, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, C. Ruprecht, R. Rath, and W. Rosenkranz, “Robust transmission of 29-Gb/s OFDM signal over 1-km OM1 MMF under center launching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(2), 206–209 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Spectr. (1)

R. Stevenson, “Lasers get the green light,” IEEE Spectr. 47(3), 34–39 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 45(12), 1613–1621 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

Y. C. Chi and G. R. Lin, “A-factor enhanced optoelectronic oscillator for 40-Gbit/s pulsed RZ-OOK transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 62(12), 3216–3223 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

L. Prieur and S. Sathyendranath, “An optical classification of coastal and oceanic waters based on the specific spectral absorption curves of phytoplankton pigments, dissolved organic matter, and other particulate materials,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 26(4), 671–689 (1981).
[Crossref]

Mar. Technol. Soc. J. (1)

M. Chitre, S. Shahabudeen, and M. Stojanovic, “Underwater acoustic communications and networking: Recent advances and future challenges,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42(1), 103–116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Xu, M. W. Kong, A. B. Lin, Y. H. Song, X. Y. Yu, F. Z. Qu, J. Han, and N. Deng, “OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED,” Opt. Commun. 369, 100–105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Proc. SPIE (2)

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 174–183 (1994).
[Crossref]

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M. Tivey, P. Fucile, and E. Sichel, “A low power, low cost, underwater optical communication system,” Ridge Events 1, 27–29 (2000).

D. Fornari, A. Bradley, and S. Humphris, “Inductively Coupled Link(ICL) temperature probes for hot hydrothermal fluid sampling from ROV Jason and DSV Alvin,” Ridge Events 8(1), 26–31 (1997).

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. C. Chi, D. H. Hsieh, C. Y. Lin, H. Y. Chen, C. Y. Huang, J. H. He, B. Ooi, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, H. C. Kuo, and G. R. Lin, “Phosphorous diffuser diverged blue laser diode for indoor lighting and communication,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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T. Tadokoro, W. Kobayashi, T. Fujisawa, T. Yamanaka, and F. Kano, “High-Speed modulation lasers for 100GbE applications,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWD1.

A. Lin, W. Lu, J. Xu, Y. Song, F. Qu, J. Han, X. Gu, and J. Leng, “Underwater wireless optical communication using a directly modulated semiconductor Laser,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2015), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.
[Crossref]

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

T. Oberg, B. Nilsson, N. Olofsson, M. L. Nordenvaad, and E. Sangfelt, “Underwater communication link with iterative equalization,” in Proceeding of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1–6.

F. Pignieri, F. De Rango, F. Veltri, and S. Marano, “Markovian approach to model underwater acoustic channel: Techniques comparison,” in Proceedings of the Military Communications Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–7.
[Crossref]

W. C. Cox, J. A. Simpson, C. P. Domizioli, J. F. Muth, and B. L. Hughes, “An underwater optical communication system implementing Reed-Solomon channel coding,” in Proceedings of the OCEANS Conference (IEEE, 2008), pp. 1–6.
[Crossref]

J. Xu, C. Ruprecht, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, and W. Rosenkranz, “Transmission of 25.5-Gb/s OFDM signal over 200-m G62. 5/125 MMF using mode group diversity multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh4A. 2.
[Crossref]

J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. van den Boom, A. M. Koonen, and N. Hanik, “24Gb/s transmission over 730m of Multimode Fiber by Direct Modulation of an 850nm VCSEL using discrete Mult-tone Modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper PDP6.

D. C. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a, b, and c as a function of λ for coastal water and harbor water.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Impulse response in harbor water with different wavelengths, the link distance is 8m.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Frequency response in 8-m harbor water with different wavelengths.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The experimental setup of the proposed UWOC system using a red-light LD. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator, AMP: amplifier, ATT: attenuator, Bias-T: bias-tee, LD: laser diode, PIN: positive-intrinsic-negative photodetector, APD: avalanche photo detector, MSO: mixed signal oscilloscope. Inset (a) OFDM transmitter module, (b) OFDM receiver module.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The back-to-back frequency response of the proposed UWOC system in the case of using PIN detector.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The EVMs for the different subcarriers in the case of using PIN detector after 6-m underwater transmission.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The BERs for the different subcarriers in the case of using PIN detector after 6-m underwater transmission.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Constellation maps of 128-QAM OFDM signals (a) over a 2-m underwater channel, and (b) over a 6-m underwater channel.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) the waveform of the captured 128-QAM OFDM signal with PL, (b) the spectrum of the 128-QAM OFDM signal with PL, (c) The spectrum of the 128-QAM OFDM signal without PL.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The EVMs for the different subcarriers in the case of using APD.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The BERs for the different subcarriers in the case of using APD.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The constellation map of the 32-QAM OFDM signal (a) without PL, and (b) with PL, over a 6-m underwater channel in the case of using APD.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 The spectrums of the captured 32-QAM OFDM signal (a) with PL, and (b) without PL.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 BER curves versus average received optical power for both the PIN and APD detectors.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Parameters of Turbid Harbor Water at 520 nm and 660 nm

Equations (3)

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c=a+b
a(λ)=[ a w (λ)+0.06 a c (λ) C 0.65 ][1+0.2exp(0.014(λ440))]
b(λ)=0.30 550 λ C 0.62

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