Abstract

We provide an overview of Fano resonance and plasmon induced transparency (PIT) as well as on plasmons coupling in planar structures, and we discuss their application in sensing and enhanced spectroscopy. Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures, which are known to support symmetric and anti-symmetric surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) arising from the coupling between two SPPs at the metal-insulator interfaces, exhibit anticrossing behavior of the dispersion relations arising from the coupling of the symmetric SPP and the metal/air SPP. Multilayer structures, formed by a metal film and a high-index dielectric waveguide (WG), separated by a low-index dielectric spacer layer, give narrow resonances of PIT and Fano line shapes. An optimized Fano structure shows a giant field intensity enhancement value of 106 in air at the surface of the high-index dielectric WG. The calculated field enhancement factor and the figure of merit for the sensitivity of the Fano structure in air can be 104 times as large as those of the conventional surface plasmon resonance and WG sensors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The coupling of resonances is of upmost importance in many physical systems. For example, the magnificent 509 m tall skyscraper Taipei 101, which we had the chance to visit during the ICNP2016 conference in Taipei, has a 680 tons steel ball placed at its top floors to counter balance possible mechanical movements; e.g. vibrations, that might be caused by strong winds, to damp the oscillation of the building and to enhance its mechanical stability. Indeed, the phenomenon of resonance – be it mechanical, acoustic or electromagnetic one – is a characteristic of many types of classical and quantum systems. Free electrons driven by electromagnetic light, for example surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), are no exception in this regard. In this paper, we will discuss the mutual coupling of SPPs, and the interaction of a SPP with an electromagnetic mode excited in a planar waveguide. The observations are made in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure for SPPs coupling, and in a layered structure of a metal film and a dielectric WG separated by a dielectrics spacer layer (Fig. 1). The coupling of such resonances, e.g. interference effects owing to interacting resonances, brings about interesting physical phenomena. For example, anticrossing of dispersion curves is observed when coupling between SPPs takes place; and the coupling between a SPP and a waveguide mode leads to the Fano resonance. The latter has generally been regarded as a feature entirely specific to quantum systems; however, wavefunction interference phenomena are also ubiquitous in classical optics. Fano resonance, which can be theoretically described by coupled harmonic oscillators [1,2], occurs in many systems, such as plasmonic nanostructures [3–15] and metamaterials [16–21]. We will discuss, in succession, the coupling of SPPs and anti-crossing behavior observed in MIM structures and experimental observation of the Fano line shapes in planar multilayer systems, which do not require the use of nanofabrication techniques. We will go on to discuss the giant field intensity enhancement (FE) that can be generated in a planar Fano structure and its possible use in enhanced spectroscopy and sensing.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) MIM structure and supported SPP modes. (b) Metal/Spacer/WG structure supporting the coupling of SPP and PWG modes.

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2. Plasmons Coupling in MIM Structures

SPPs are collective oscillations of free electrons in a metal that are driven by electromagnetic waves; e.g. light; and they are bound to an insulator-metal (I/M) interface and propagate along this interface, and fade away from it exponentially [22–28]. When a metal film is sandwiched from each side by a semi-finite insulator, the SPPs travelling at the I/M interfaces couple through degenerate dispersion when the metal is sufficiently thin (~100 nm) to allow coupling to occur and leads to symmetric and anti-symmetric SPP modes; i.e., S-SPP and AS-SPP, respectively [22–24,28–30]. The AS-SPP propagates for long distances along the I/M interface and penetrates deeper in the insulator, and it is referred to as long range SPP (LR-SPP) [31–33]; the optical excitation of which leads to enhanced sensitivity in surface plasmon resonance sensors; i.e. SPR sensors [34–37]. Besides, IMI structures, MIM structures support S-SPP and AS-SPP as well [28–30,38–42]. The latter should persist even when the insulator is ultra-thin (thickness close to zero)) [40,43]; thereby MIM structures have been intensively studied for realizing nanoscale plasmonic waveguides [44] and negative refraction of light [45].

Recently, tuning the dispersion curves of SPPs has gained increasing interest owing to the possibilities of controlling near-field light at the nano-cogent environment of structured metal. Coupled SPP modes may lead to anti-crossing, around the crossing zone, of folded dispersion curves [24,46–50], and researchers studied the coupling of SPPs with, for example, localized surface plasmons at nanostructured metals [51,52], as well as excitons at quantum dots [53–55] and fluorescent chromophores [55–58].

Next, we give evidence of the coupled-mode nature of SPP modes and the anticrossing behavior of their dispersion curves in layered MIM structures. Besides SPPs, MIM structures can support waveguide modes; e.g. transverse electric (TE) modes, similar to those observed in Fabry-Perot cavities [59,60]. Note that in those cavities, the metal layers are semi-infinite. The experiments we preformed on layered MIM structures of Ag and PMMA are angular and wavelength interrogation in attenuated total reflection (ATR) in a Kretschmann geometry. MIM structures were prepared by evaporating a ~45 nm thick Ag film on a cleaned glass substrate, followed by spin coating a ~220 nm thick PMMA layer, and another ~45 nm thick Ag film was evaporated on top of the PMMA layer. Angular ATR spectra as well as calculated electric-field profile (not shown) suggest that coupling of SPPs occurred in our MIM structure, and the wavelength ATR scan (not shown) allowed for the derivation of the dispersion curves [61]. Figure 2 shows that anti-crossing of the dispersion curves clearly occurs due to the coupling of the Ag/Air-SPP and S-SPP modes, and agrees fairly well with theoretical dispersion curves; a feature which may help develop novel optical devices based on MIM structures (vide infra). Next, we discuss the coupling of SPP and a waveguide mode that result in PIT and Fano resonance.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) Calculated dispersion curves of SPPs and TE0 supported by the MIM structure which is shown as an inset in the top left corner of the figure. In this figure the Ag layers are semi-infinite, and the light lines for air and PMMA are indicated by dashed lines. (b) Obsevation of anticrossing between the S-SPP and Ag/Air-SPP modes in the MIM structure which is indicated at the top of the figure. Scatters are experimental data and full lines are theoretical calculation of the dispersion curves of SPPs. Reproduced with permission from Ref. 61.

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3. Plasmon-Waveguide Mode Coupling: Fano Resonance and PIT

Eventhough Fano resonance has been regarded as a feature specific to quantum systems and has been observed in atomic physics together with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) [62,63], recently, Fano- and EIT-like resonances in plasmonic nanostructures witnessed intensive studies, and they are rationalized by the coupling between dark and bright resonances [64], and they present potential for sensing applications (vide infra) [65] - EIT in plasmonic systems is referred to as PIT [16] - and recently, PIT and Fano resonance have been observed in multilayer structures of a planar waveguide (PWG) deposited on a metal-dielectric stack in a Kretschmann configuration [66]. Such a structure is simple to prepare since it does not require nanofabrication processes. We performed numerical simulations that established a clear analogy between our optical system and a system of coupled oscillators, and revealed the true nature of the resonances; i.e. the coupling of the electromagnetic modes in our plasmonic planar structure, namely the PWG mode and the SPP at the metal-dielectric interface [67]. Such a coupling leads to narrow Fano and PIT resonances; a feature which may increase the sensing capability of refractive index changes by two orders of magnitude versus that of conventional SPR sensing.

The multilayer system; e.g. SPP-PWG hybrid samples, is a combination of a metal-dielectric interface that supports SPP modes and a stack of three dielectrics that supports PWG modes. The layered structures samples were prepared as follows: a ~45 nm thick film of Ag was vacuum evaporated on a SF10 glass substrate, and a fluoropolymer Cytop film was deposited on top of the Ag layer by spin-coating from a Cytop solution of ~6 wt. %. To complete the sample, a PMMA film was spin coated on top of the Cytop film from toluene solution with a PMMA concentration of ~7 wt.%. The thicknesses of the Cytop and PMMA films were controlled by the spin coating speed. The thicknesses and dielectric constants of the films were estimated by fitting theoretical ATR spectra with the experimental ones.

Experimental evidence of PIT and Fano line shapes in ATR spectra of planar multilayer systems can be seen in Fig. 3. The multilayer structure was put in contact with a SF11 glass prism (60°) with an index matching oil. In Fig. 3(a), an ATR spectrum obtained for an SPP-PWG hybrid sample with a Cytop intermediate layer at 632.8 nm wavelength is shown. A salient feature in the observed spectrum is the appearance of a very narrow asymmetric line shape around 55° denoted as TM0F. We also see a dip corresponding to the TM1 PWG mode at 50.32°. Figure 3(a) demonstrates that the experimental spectrum of the SPP-PWG hybrid sample exhibiting the asymmetric line shape can be reproduced fairly well by the EM calculation, and the asymmetric line shape can fit to a Fano line shape function (Fig. 3(b)). The experimental results agree fairly well with the results of the EM calculations, and the physical origin of the appearance of the Fano line shapes is unambiguously identified by the coupling between the broad SPP mode and narrow PWG mode.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a, b) Fano and (c) EIT-like line shapes in ATR spectrum for prism/Ag/Cytop/PMMA structure with PMMA waveguide of height (a, b) d = 920 nm and (c) d = 803 nm. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [68].

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Figures 3(a) and 3(c), as well as other ATR Spectra [66,67] (not shown), demonstrate clearly that the Fano resonance and the TM1 PWG mode shift to lower angles, as the PMMA WG thickness, d, decreases. In Fig. 3(c), the line shape of the sharp resonance which is located near the middle of the broad dip approaches that of EIT’s [1,62,63] or PIT’s [16] line shapes, which are characterized by a sharp peak at the middle of a broad resonance band. The giant FE, which can result from the Fano resonance, is discussed next.

4. Giant Field Enhancement for Sensing and Spectroscopy

Sensing is one of the most widely studied topics in the field of PIT and Fano resonance, and it is developing rapidely. Indeed, theoretical predictions showed a large sensitivity and figure of merit (FOM) for refractive index sensing for ring/disk nanocavities [69], plasmonic nanorices and nanobelts [70] and MIM coupled to resonators [71], and so on [72–75], with sensitivities and FOMs much larger than that of conventional SPR in some cases. This interest is driven by the development of high-sensitivity cost effective sensors.

In our recent work [76], we discussed theoretically the effect of resonance ATR line shapes, on the sensitivity to the bulk refractive index changes and FE of SPP-PWG structure in aqueous environment. It was demonstrated that the SPP-PWG structure can be optimized based on losses in the dielectric layers to achieve the maximum values of sensitivity and intensity enhancement. The optimal configurations with low loss spacer and WG layers exhibit deep and narrow resonances that result in a huge sensitivity. The sensitivity of ~105-fold higher than that of conventional SPR [77,78], and WG-SPR and guided-mode [79] sensors was estimated by FOM for s- and p- polarizations. Sharp resonances are accompanied by the giant FE of 107-fold on the surface of the WG.

The giant FE of the Fano resonance and PIT owing to the SPP-PWG hybrid structure is very much suited for applications. In our opinion, besides biosensing, enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy are the major potential applications of the SPP-PWG structures. Such planar structures do not require nanofabrication processes, and alleviate the problem of fluorescence quenching [80] because the fluorophore sits far away – more than a micron away – from the metal surface. Figure 4 shows the (x, z)-plane, z is perpendicular to the structure’s plane, electric FE spatial distribution for four planar resonance structures that support propagating modes in air. The resonance excitation of the modes is performed by a p-polarized plane wave at the wavelength of 632.8 nm under oblique incidence. The electric field distribution at the resonance conditions was calculated using 2 × 2 transfer matrix method [81]. The FE factor is calculated as a ratio of the intensity of total electric field to the electric field intensity of the incident wave for a particular position.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Maps of electric FE factor at resonance conditions for the experimental structures that support (a) SPP mode, (b) coupled S-SPP and SPP modes; (c) experimental; and (d) theoretical optimized structure that support coupled SPP and WG modes.

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The spatial distribution of the FE for a conventional SPR structure is shown in Fig. 4(a). The structure is a 47-nm thick Ag layer attached to a BK7 glass prism. The structure supports excitation of a SPP mode propagating along the metal-insulator interface. We used the values of refractive indices for BK7 glass found in a database [82], for Ag from Ref [83]. The intensity distribution cross-section is demonstrated for the incidence angle of 43.038°. The intensity of electric field on the surface of the structure is enhanced by a factor of 1.2 × 102. The intensity-sensitivity of bulk refractive index changes of the conventional SPR structure, estimated by a FOM defined in Ref [76], is 1.2 × 102 RIU−1.

The spatial distribution of the FE for a MIM structure is shown in Fig. 4(b). The MIM structure consists of a BK7 glass prism, a Ag layer, a PMMA film, and covering Ag layer. The refractive indices of the materials and the thicknesses of the layers are taken from our previous experimental work [61]. The MIM structure supports an SPP mode at the Ag/air interface. The resonance excitation of the SPP mode for the incidence angle of 42.56° is characterized by the surface intensity enhancement of a factor of 1.0 × 102. The FOM for the MIM structure is estimated as 1.4 × 102 RIU−1.

Figures 4(c) and 4(d) illustrate the intensity distribution for electric field of the experimental and theoretically optimized SPP-PWG hybrid structures, respectively. The considered SPP-PWG hybrid structure consists of a SF11 prism, Ag, Cytop, and PMMA layers. The structure supports an SPP mode at the Ag/Cytop interface and a PWG mode in the Cytop/PMMA/air waveguide. The coupling of the modes in the Cytop layer results in a narrow Fano resonance in the reflectivity spectrum. The properties of the Fano resonance depend strongly on the parameters of the structure. The parameters of the experimental structure are taken from our experimental work [68]. The structure was optimized to demonstrate a Fano resonance, which could be easily observed; a feature that resulted in a low FE and sensitivity. The intensity distribution across the experimental structure is shown in Fig. 4(c) for the incidence angle of 55.272° which corresponds to the maximal FE at the structure surface in the Fano resonance region shown in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b). In addition, the field penetration depth is lower as compared to the previous structures due to the higher propagation constant of the excited mode. The field which is mainly localized in the PMMA waveguide decays exponentially from the center.

The calculated maximum FE in air at the surface of the optimized SPP-PWG hybrid structure achieves 1.3 × 106 (Fig. 4(d)). For the dielectrics in the optimized structure, we used the following refractive indices, 1.488 + i1.0 × 10−8 for PMMA and 1.346 for Cytop. The field distribution is obtained for the incidence angle of 52.875406729°. The thicknesses of Ag, Cytop and PMMA layers are 40 nm, 2000 nm, and 500 nm, respectively. Changes (not shown) in calculated ATR spectra, corresponding to an angular shift of 1.32 × 10−6 deg. of the resonance spectrum, can be easily observed for the optimized SPP-PWG hybrid structure due to the increase in the ambient refractive index of 1.0 × 10−6 RIU. The angular width and height of the Fano line shape in the reflectivity spectrum are w = 1.38 × 10−6 deg. and h = 0.349, respectively. The sensitivity by intensity is estimated by the FOM of 3.4 × 105 RIU−1. Such values unambiguously and clearly demonstrate the huge potential of Fano-type SPP-PWG hybrid structures for ultra-sensing and enhanced spectroscopy.

5. Conclusions

The work discussed in this paper has important implications in the field of nanophotonics, including the possibility of tuning the optical properties in plasmonic devices based on the control of dispersion relations in MIM structures, and the potential of ultra-sensing and giantly enhanced spectroscopy using PIT and Fano resonances in SPP-PWG hybrid structures. We hope that researchers of the nanophotonics and plasmonics communities will adopt the study discussed in this paper for their future work.

Acknowledgments

Partial support to this work from an Osaka University International Joint Research Promotion Program, the Handai project, is acknowledged.

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61. S. Refki, S. Hayashi, A. Rahmouni, D. Nesterenko, and Z. Sekkat, “Anticrossing behavior of surface plasmon polariton dispersions in metal-insulator-metal structures,” Plasmonics 11, 1–8 (2015).

62. S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Today 50(7), 36 (1997). [CrossRef]  

63. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005). [CrossRef]  

64. U. Fano, “Effects of Configuration Interaction on Intensities and Phase Shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1866–1878 (1961). [CrossRef]  

65. M. I. Stockman, “Nanoscience: Dark-hot resonances,” Nature 467(7315), 541–542 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

66. S. Hayashi, D. V. Nesterenko, and Z. Sekkat, “Fano resonance and plasmon-induced transparency in waveguide-coupled surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022201 (2015). [CrossRef]  

67. S. Hayashi, D. V. Nesterenko, and Z. Sekkat, “Waveguide-coupled surface plasmon resonance sensor structures: Fano lineshape engineering for ultrahigh-resolution sensing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(32), 325303 (2015). [CrossRef]  

68. S. Hayashi, D. V. Nesterenko, A. Rahmouni, and Z. Sekkat, “Observation of Fano line shapes arising from coupling between surface plasmon polariton and waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051101 (2016). [CrossRef]  

69. F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

70. F. López-Tejeira, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “High-performance nanosensors based on plasmonic Fano-like interference: probing refractive index with individual nanorice and nanobelts,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8989–8996 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

71. J. Liu, B. Xu, J. Zhang, and G. Song, “Double plasmon-induced transparency in hybrid waveguide-plasmon system and its application for localized plasmon resonance sensing with high figure of merit,” Plasmonics 8(2), 995–1001 (2013). [CrossRef]  

72. N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

73. A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

74. K. Lodewijks, J. Ryken, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, L. Lagae, and P. Van Dorpe, “Tuning the Fano resonance between localized and propagating surface plasmon resonances for refractive index sensing applications,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1379–1385 (2013). [CrossRef]  

75. B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Rapid and highly sensitive detection using Fano resonances in ultrathin plasmonic nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 161106 (2014). [CrossRef]  

76. D. V. Nesterenko, S. Hayashi, and Z. Sekkat, “Extremely narrow resonances, giant sensitivity and field enhancement in low-loss waveguide sensors,” J. Opt. 18(6), 065004 (2016). [CrossRef]  

77. D. V. Nesterenko and Z. Sekkat, “Resolution estimation of the Au, Ag, Cu, and Al single- and double-layer surface plasmon sensors in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions,” Plasmonics 8(4), 1585–1595 (2013). [CrossRef]  

78. D. V. Nesterenko, Saif-ur-Rehman, and Z. Sekkat, “Surface plasmon sensing with different metals in single and double layer configurations,” Appl. Opt. 51(27), 6673–6682 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

79. D. V. Nesterenko, S. Hayashi, and Z. Sekkat, “Evanescent-field-coupled guided-mode sensor based on a waveguide grating,” Appl. Opt. 54(15), 4889–4894 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

80. H. Kano and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-excited fluorescence enhanced by a surface plasmon,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1848–1850 (1996). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

81. C. C. Katsidis and D. I. Siapkas, “General transfer-matrix method for optical multilayer systems with coherent, partially coherent, and incoherent interference,” Appl. Opt. 41(19), 3978–3987 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

82. M. N. Polyanskiy, “Refractive index database”, retrieved 09/09/2015, http://refractiveindex.info.

83. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

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  66. S. Hayashi, D. V. Nesterenko, and Z. Sekkat, “Fano resonance and plasmon-induced transparency in waveguide-coupled surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022201 (2015).
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  67. S. Hayashi, D. V. Nesterenko, and Z. Sekkat, “Waveguide-coupled surface plasmon resonance sensor structures: Fano lineshape engineering for ultrahigh-resolution sensing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(32), 325303 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  71. J. Liu, B. Xu, J. Zhang, and G. Song, “Double plasmon-induced transparency in hybrid waveguide-plasmon system and its application for localized plasmon resonance sensing with high figure of merit,” Plasmonics 8(2), 995–1001 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  72. N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  74. K. Lodewijks, J. Ryken, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, L. Lagae, and P. Van Dorpe, “Tuning the Fano resonance between localized and propagating surface plasmon resonances for refractive index sensing applications,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1379–1385 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  75. B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Rapid and highly sensitive detection using Fano resonances in ultrathin plasmonic nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 161106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  76. D. V. Nesterenko, S. Hayashi, and Z. Sekkat, “Extremely narrow resonances, giant sensitivity and field enhancement in low-loss waveguide sensors,” J. Opt. 18(6), 065004 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  77. D. V. Nesterenko and Z. Sekkat, “Resolution estimation of the Au, Ag, Cu, and Al single- and double-layer surface plasmon sensors in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions,” Plasmonics 8(4), 1585–1595 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  78. D. V. Nesterenko, Saif-ur-Rehman, and Z. Sekkat, “Surface plasmon sensing with different metals in single and double layer configurations,” Appl. Opt. 51(27), 6673–6682 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  79. D. V. Nesterenko, S. Hayashi, and Z. Sekkat, “Evanescent-field-coupled guided-mode sensor based on a waveguide grating,” Appl. Opt. 54(15), 4889–4894 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  80. H. Kano and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-excited fluorescence enhanced by a surface plasmon,” Opt. Lett. 21(22), 1848–1850 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  81. C. C. Katsidis and D. I. Siapkas, “General transfer-matrix method for optical multilayer systems with coherent, partially coherent, and incoherent interference,” Appl. Opt. 41(19), 3978–3987 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  82. M. N. Polyanskiy, “Refractive index database”, retrieved 09/09/2015, http://refractiveindex.info .
  83. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

2016 (2)

S. Hayashi, D. V. Nesterenko, A. Rahmouni, and Z. Sekkat, “Observation of Fano line shapes arising from coupling between surface plasmon polariton and waveguide modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051101 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. V. Nesterenko, S. Hayashi, and Z. Sekkat, “Extremely narrow resonances, giant sensitivity and field enhancement in low-loss waveguide sensors,” J. Opt. 18(6), 065004 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

D. V. Nesterenko, S. Hayashi, and Z. Sekkat, “Evanescent-field-coupled guided-mode sensor based on a waveguide grating,” Appl. Opt. 54(15), 4889–4894 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hayashi, D. V. Nesterenko, and Z. Sekkat, “Fano resonance and plasmon-induced transparency in waveguide-coupled surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(2), 022201 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Hayashi, D. V. Nesterenko, and Z. Sekkat, “Waveguide-coupled surface plasmon resonance sensor structures: Fano lineshape engineering for ultrahigh-resolution sensing,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(32), 325303 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Refki, S. Hayashi, A. Rahmouni, D. Nesterenko, and Z. Sekkat, “Anticrossing behavior of surface plasmon polariton dispersions in metal-insulator-metal structures,” Plasmonics 11, 1–8 (2015).

P. Törmä and W. L. Barnes, “Strong coupling between surface plasmon polaritons and emitters: a review,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78(1), 013901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zekriti, D. V. Nesterenko, and Z. Sekkat, “Long-range surface plasmons supported by a bilayer metallic structure for sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 54(8), 2151–2157 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

N. Verellen, F. López-Tejeira, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, D. Vercruysse, D. Denkova, L. Lagae, P. Van Dorpe, V. V. Moshchalkov, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Mode parity-controlled Fano- and Lorentz-like line shapes arising in plasmonic nanorods,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2322–2329 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Rapid and highly sensitive detection using Fano resonances in ultrathin plasmonic nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 161106 (2014).
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2013 (5)

D. V. Nesterenko and Z. Sekkat, “Resolution estimation of the Au, Ag, Cu, and Al single- and double-layer surface plasmon sensors in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared regions,” Plasmonics 8(4), 1585–1595 (2013).
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K. Lodewijks, J. Ryken, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, L. Lagae, and P. Van Dorpe, “Tuning the Fano resonance between localized and propagating surface plasmon resonances for refractive index sensing applications,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1379–1385 (2013).
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C. Forestiere, L. Dal Negro, and G. Miano, “Theory of coupled plasmon modes and Fano-like resonances in subwavelength metal structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Mater. Phys. 88(15), 155411 (2013).
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E. J. Osley, C. G. Biris, P. G. Thompson, R. R. Jahromi, P. A. Warburton, and N. C. Panoiu, “Fano resonance resulting from a tunable interaction between molecular vibrational modes and a double continuum of a plasmonic metamolecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 087402 (2013).
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J. Liu, B. Xu, J. Zhang, and G. Song, “Double plasmon-induced transparency in hybrid waveguide-plasmon system and its application for localized plasmon resonance sensing with high figure of merit,” Plasmonics 8(2), 995–1001 (2013).
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2012 (11)

F. López-Tejeira, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “High-performance nanosensors based on plasmonic Fano-like interference: probing refractive index with individual nanorice and nanobelts,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8989–8996 (2012).
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R. J. Moerland, H. T. Rekola, G. Sharma, A. P. Eskelinen, A. I. Vakevainen, and P. Torma, “Surface plasmon polariton-controlled tunable quantum-dot emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 221111 (2012).
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S. Hayashi, Y. Ishigaki, and M. Fujii, “Plasmonic effects on strong exciton-photon coupling in metal-insulator- metal microcavities,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Mater. Phys. 86(4), 045408 (2012).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
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P. Tassin, L. Zhang, R. Zhao, A. Jain, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in metamaterials: the radiating two-oscillator model and its experimental confirmation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(18), 187401 (2012).
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S. Hayashi and T. Okamoto, “Plasmonics: visit the past to know the future,” J. Phys. D 45(43), 433001 (2012).
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J. B. Lassiter, H. Sobhani, M. W. Knight, W. S. Mielczarek, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Designing and deconstructing the Fano lineshape in plasmonic nanoclusters,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 1058–1062 (2012).
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Y. Francescato, V. Giannini, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic systems unveiled by Fano resonances,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1830–1838 (2012).
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R. Taubert, M. Hentschel, J. Kästel, and H. Giessen, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced absorption in plasmonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1367–1371 (2012).
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A. Ishikawa, R. F. Oulton, T. Zentgraf, and X. Zhang, “Slow-light dispersion by transparent waveguide plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Mater. Phys. 85(15), 155108 (2012).
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D. V. Nesterenko, Saif-ur-Rehman, and Z. Sekkat, “Surface plasmon sensing with different metals in single and double layer configurations,” Appl. Opt. 51(27), 6673–6682 (2012).
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2011 (3)

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
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B. Gallinet and O. J. Martin, “Influence of electromagnetic interactions on the line shape of plasmonic Fano resonances,” ACS Nano 5(11), 8999–9008 (2011).
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K. Ooi, T. Okada, and K. Tanaka, “Mimicking electromagnetically induced transparency by spoof surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Mater. Phys. 84(11), 115405 (2011).
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2010 (7)

Y. Sonnefraud, N. Verellen, H. Sobhani, G. A. Vandenbosch, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Experimental realization of subradiant, superradiant, and fano resonances in ring/disk plasmonic nanocavities,” ACS Nano 4(3), 1664–1670 (2010).
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B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
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A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(3), 2257–2298 (2010).
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S. Hayashi, A. Maekawa, S. C. Kim, and M. Fujii, “Mechanism of enhanced light emission from an emitting layer embedded in metal-insulator-metal structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Mater. Phys. 82(3), 035441 (2010).
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D. E. Gómez, K. C. Vernon, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Surface plasmon mediated strong exciton-photon coupling in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 274–278 (2010).
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M. I. Stockman, “Nanoscience: Dark-hot resonances,” Nature 467(7315), 541–542 (2010).
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N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
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2009 (3)

T. K. Hakala, J. J. Toppari, A. Kuzyk, M. Pettersson, H. Tikkanen, H. Kunttu, and P. Törmä, “Vacuum Rabi splitting and strong-coupling dynamics for surface-plasmon polaritons and rhodamine 6G molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(5), 053602 (2009).
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T. Zentgraf, S. Zhang, R. F. Oulton, and X. Zhang, “Ultranarrow coupling-induced transparency bands in hybrid plasmonic systems,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Mater. Phys. 80(19), 195415 (2009).
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N. Liu, L. Langguth, T. Weiss, J. Kästel, M. Fleischhauer, T. Pfau, and H. Giessen, “Plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency at the Drude damping limit,” Nat. Mater. 8(9), 758–762 (2009).
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2008 (5)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
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N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
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L. Smith, M. Taylor, I. Hooper, and W. Barnes, “Field profiles of coupled surface plasmon-polaritons,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(18), 2929–2943 (2008).
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J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors for detection of chemical and biological species,” Chem. Rev. 108(2), 462–493 (2008).
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F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
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2007 (2)

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316(5823), 430–432 (2007).
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A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76(20), 201405 (2007).
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2006 (6)

Y. S. Joe, A. M. Satanin, and C. S. Kim, “Classical analogy of Fano resonances,” Phys. Scr. 74(2), 259–266 (2006).
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J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
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F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, and J. Takahara, “Confinement and guiding of two-dimensional optical waves by low-refractive-index cores,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5651–5656 (2006).
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A. P. Hibbins, W. A. Murray, J. Tyler, S. Wedge, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Resonant absorption of electromagnetic fields by surface plasmons buried in a multilayered plasmonic nanostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 073408 (2006).
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A. Christ, T. Zentgraf, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the interaction between localized and delocalized surface plasmon modes: experiment and numerical calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(15), 155435 (2006).
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K. Y. Kim, Y. K. Cho, H. S. Tae, and J. H. Lee, “Light transmission along dispersive plasmonic gap and its subwavelength guidance characteristics,” Opt. Express 14(1), 320–330 (2006).
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2005 (3)

J. Dintinger, S. Klein, F. Bustos, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Strong coupling between surface plasmon-polaritons and organic molecules in subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 71(3), 035424 (2005).
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M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77(2), 633–673 (2005).
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T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, J. J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Plasmonic band gaps and trapped plasmons on nanostructured metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 116802 (2005).
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2004 (2)

I. R. Hooper and J. R. Sambles, “Coupled surface plasmon polaritons on thin metal slabs corrugated on both surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 70(4), 045421 (2004).
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J. Bellessa, C. Bonnand, J. C. Plenet, and J. Mugnier, “Strong coupling between surface plasmons and excitons in an organic semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(3), 036404 (2004).
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2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
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2002 (2)

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Am. J. Phys. 70(1), 37 (2002).
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C. C. Katsidis and D. I. Siapkas, “General transfer-matrix method for optical multilayer systems with coherent, partially coherent, and incoherent interference,” Appl. Opt. 41(19), 3978–3987 (2002).
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2001 (1)

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1999 (1)

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
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P. Prêtre, L. M. Wu, R. A. Hill, and A. Knoesen, “Characterization of electro-optic polymer films by use of decal-deposited reflection Fabry Perot microcavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(1), 379 (1998).
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1997 (1)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Today 50(7), 36 (1997).
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1996 (1)

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

1981 (1)

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1979 (1)

M. Fukui, V. C. Y. So, and R. Normandin, “Lifetimes of surface plasmons in thin silver films,” Phys. Status Solidi 91(1), K61–K64 (1979).
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1975 (1)

I. Pockrand, “Coupling of surface plasma oscillations in thin periodically corrugated silver films,” Opt. Commun. 13(3), 311–313 (1975).
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1969 (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
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1968 (1)

R. Ritchie, E. Arakawa, J. Cowan, and R. Hamm, “Surface-plasmon resonance effect in grating diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(22), 1530–1533 (1968).
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1961 (1)

U. Fano, “Effects of Configuration Interaction on Intensities and Phase Shifts,” Phys. Rev. 124(6), 1866–1878 (1961).
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Abdelsalam, M.

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, J. J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Plasmonic band gaps and trapped plasmons on nanostructured metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 116802 (2005).
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Altug, H.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
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Arakawa, E.

R. Ritchie, E. Arakawa, J. Cowan, and R. Hamm, “Surface-plasmon resonance effect in grating diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(22), 1530–1533 (1968).
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Artar, A.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
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Atwater, H. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316(5823), 430–432 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W.

L. Smith, M. Taylor, I. Hooper, and W. Barnes, “Field profiles of coupled surface plasmon-polaritons,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(18), 2929–2943 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

P. Törmä and W. L. Barnes, “Strong coupling between surface plasmon polaritons and emitters: a review,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 78(1), 013901 (2015).
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A. P. Hibbins, W. A. Murray, J. Tyler, S. Wedge, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, “Resonant absorption of electromagnetic fields by surface plasmons buried in a multilayered plasmonic nanostructure,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 073408 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Dintinger, S. Klein, F. Bustos, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Strong coupling between surface plasmon-polaritons and organic molecules in subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 71(3), 035424 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
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W. L. Barnes, “Electromagnetic crystals for surface plasmon polaritons and the extraction of light from emissive devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2170–2182 (1999).
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Bartlett, P. N.

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, J. J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Plasmonic band gaps and trapped plasmons on nanostructured metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 116802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartoli, F. J.

B. Zeng, Y. Gao, and F. J. Bartoli, “Rapid and highly sensitive detection using Fano resonances in ultrathin plasmonic nanogratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(16), 161106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

T. A. Kelf, Y. Sugawara, J. J. Baumberg, M. Abdelsalam, and P. N. Bartlett, “Plasmonic band gaps and trapped plasmons on nanostructured metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 116802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellessa, J.

J. Bellessa, C. Bonnand, J. C. Plenet, and J. Mugnier, “Strong coupling between surface plasmons and excitons in an organic semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(3), 036404 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biris, C. G.

E. J. Osley, C. G. Biris, P. G. Thompson, R. R. Jahromi, P. A. Warburton, and N. C. Panoiu, “Fano resonance resulting from a tunable interaction between molecular vibrational modes and a double continuum of a plasmonic metamolecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(8), 087402 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonnand, C.

J. Bellessa, C. Bonnand, J. C. Plenet, and J. Mugnier, “Strong coupling between surface plasmons and excitons in an organic semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(3), 036404 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borghs, G.

K. Lodewijks, J. Ryken, W. Van Roy, G. Borghs, L. Lagae, and P. Van Dorpe, “Tuning the Fano resonance between localized and propagating surface plasmon resonances for refractive index sensing applications,” Plasmonics 8(3), 1379–1385 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bustos, F.

J. Dintinger, S. Klein, F. Bustos, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Strong coupling between surface plasmon-polaritons and organic molecules in subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 71(3), 035424 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cetin, A. E.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, Y. K.

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christ, A.

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76(20), 201405 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Christ, T. Zentgraf, S. G. Tikhodeev, N. A. Gippius, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “Controlling the interaction between localized and delocalized surface plasmon modes: experiment and numerical calculations,” Phys. Rev. B 74(15), 155435 (2006).
[Crossref]

Connor, J. H.

A. A. Yanik, A. E. Cetin, M. Huang, A. Artar, S. H. Mousavi, A. Khanikaev, J. H. Connor, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Seeing protein monolayers with naked eye through plasmonic Fano resonances,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(29), 11784–11789 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cowan, J.

R. Ritchie, E. Arakawa, J. Cowan, and R. Hamm, “Surface-plasmon resonance effect in grating diffraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21(22), 1530–1533 (1968).
[Crossref]

Dal Negro, L.

C. Forestiere, L. Dal Negro, and G. Miano, “Theory of coupled plasmon modes and Fano-like resonances in subwavelength metal structures,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Mater. Phys. 88(15), 155411 (2013).
[Crossref]

Davis, T. J.

D. E. Gómez, K. C. Vernon, P. Mulvaney, and T. J. Davis, “Surface plasmon mediated strong exciton-photon coupling in semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 274–278 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Denkova, D.

N. Verellen, F. López-Tejeira, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, D. Vercruysse, D. Denkova, L. Lagae, P. Van Dorpe, V. V. Moshchalkov, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Mode parity-controlled Fano- and Lorentz-like line shapes arising in plasmonic nanorods,” Nano Lett. 14(5), 2322–2329 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

J. Dintinger, S. Klein, F. Bustos, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Strong coupling between surface plasmon-polaritons and organic molecules in subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 71(3), 035424 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dionne, J. A.

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, and H. A. Atwater, “Negative refraction at visible frequencies,” Science 316(5823), 430–432 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dorpe, P. V.

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3983–3988 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

J. Dintinger, S. Klein, F. Bustos, W. L. Barnes, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Strong coupling between surface plasmon-polaritons and organic molecules in subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 71(3), 035424 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Economou, E. N.

E. N. Economou, “Surface plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182(2), 539–554 (1969).
[Crossref]

Eigenthaler, U.

N. Liu, T. Weiss, M. Mesch, L. Langguth, U. Eigenthaler, M. Hirscher, C. Sönnichsen, and H. Giessen, “Planar metamaterial analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency for plasmonic sensing,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1103–1107 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ekinci, Y.

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B 76(20), 201405 (2007).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) MIM structure and supported SPP modes. (b) Metal/Spacer/WG structure supporting the coupling of SPP and PWG modes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Calculated dispersion curves of SPPs and TE0 supported by the MIM structure which is shown as an inset in the top left corner of the figure. In this figure the Ag layers are semi-infinite, and the light lines for air and PMMA are indicated by dashed lines. (b) Obsevation of anticrossing between the S-SPP and Ag/Air-SPP modes in the MIM structure which is indicated at the top of the figure. Scatters are experimental data and full lines are theoretical calculation of the dispersion curves of SPPs. Reproduced with permission from Ref. 61.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a, b) Fano and (c) EIT-like line shapes in ATR spectrum for prism/Ag/Cytop/PMMA structure with PMMA waveguide of height (a, b) d = 920 nm and (c) d = 803 nm. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [68].
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Maps of electric FE factor at resonance conditions for the experimental structures that support (a) SPP mode, (b) coupled S-SPP and SPP modes; (c) experimental; and (d) theoretical optimized structure that support coupled SPP and WG modes.

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