Abstract

A dynamically wavelength tunable multispectral plasmon induced transparency (PIT) device based on graphene metamaterials, which is composed of periodically patterned graphene double layers separated by a dielectric layer, is proposed theoretically and numerically in the terahertz frequency range. Considering the near-field coupling of different graphene layers and the bright-dark mode coupling in the same graphene layer, the coupled Lorentz oscillator model is adapted to explain the physical mechanism of multispectral EIT-like responses. The simulated transmission based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions indicates that the shifting and depth of the EIT resonances in multiple PIT windows are controlled by different geometrical parameters and Fermi energies distributions. A design scheme with graphene integration is employed, which allows independent tuning of resonance frequencies by electrostatically changing the Fermi energies of graphene double layer. Active control of the multispectral EIT-like responses enables the proposed device to be widely applied in optical information processing as tunable sensors, switches, and filters.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a quantum interference effect, which is first studied in a laser-driven atomic system and realized in a three-level system [1], causing a narrow transparency window within a broad absorption spectrum. The EIT effect dramatically modifies the effective refractive index of the medium, which can slow down photons and enhance nonlinear characteristics. In order to overcome the scathing experimental requirements of realizing the EIT effect [2], analogues of EIT-like behaviour in classical systems, such as coupled optical resonators [3], electric circuits [4], and metallic plasmonic structures [5–9], have attracted tremendous interest. In particular, plasmonic analogues of EIT based on metamaterial structures, including cut wires [5, 10], split-ring resonators (SRR) [6, 11–15], and coupled waveguide resonators [16], highlight the realization of EIT analogues because of the effective media characteristics [17]. Due to the giant effective refractive index and enhanced nonlinear properties in metamaterials, the EIT-like systems provide great possibilities in developing novel devices, such as slow light photonic components, integrated chip scale buffers and highly sensitive sensors [18–20]. Although active controlling the EIT resonance of the metamaterials is highly desirable for practical applications, it is difficult to be realized in classical EIT-like systems of which EIT resonance can be tuned only by carefully changing geometric parameters of the structures [7, 21].

Graphene has attracted worldwide interests as a promising platform for plasmonics [22–24] due to its unique properties such as electrical tunability [25], strong light confinement [26], and relatively low plasmonic losses [27, 28]. Graphene metamaterials is a promising candidate to design active tunable EIT-like systems [29]. The EIT resonance of the graphene metamaterials structure, such as graphene nanostrips [30, 31] and graphene nanoribbons [32], can be easily tuned by varying the Fermi energy of the graphene through altering the bias voltage, which makes the EIT-like effect in the graphene metamaterials more active than that in metallic systems, indicating great potential applications in tunable sensors, switchers, and slow light devices.

In this paper, the wavelength-tunable multispectral EIT-like responces are investigated for the terahertz frequency range in periodically patterned graphene double layers separated by a dielectric layer. The coupled Lorentz oscillator model is introduced to explain the multispectral PIT phenomena resulting from the near-field coupling in different graphene layers and the dark-bright mode coupling in graphene single layer. The transmission and electric field distributions of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different geometrical parameters and Fermi energies are simulated by the the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions. By varying the Fermi energy of graphene, the tunability of multispectral EIT-like responces can be realized without changing the structure, which offers a promising approach to designing compact elements, such as tunable sensors, switchers, and filters.

2. Theory

The graphene-based multispectral PIT device is composed of periodically patterned graphene double layers deposited on both sides of the dielectric (SiO2) substrate [22]. The unit cell of the proposed device is shown in Fig. 1(a)–(c). Periodically patterned graphene double layers have the same structural parameters, and each layer has a horizontal cut-out (the slot dipole antenna) and a vertical cut-out pair (the slot quadrupole antenna). The periods of the unit cell are 800nm on x direction and 600nm on y direction. The horizontal cut-out has 540nm length and 40nm width, and the vertical cut-out pair has 360nm length and 40nm width. The in-plane separation between the dipole and quadrupole antennas is 10nm on both sides. The offset in y direction of the dipole antenna from the geometrical center of the structure is denoted as parameter s. The gap between the periodically patterned graphene double layers (that is, the dielectric layer thicknesses) is denoted as parameter d. The carrier concentration in patterned graphene layers is controlled using an ion-gel top gate [22], which is shown in Fig. 1(d).

 

Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the unit cell of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device and the incident light polarization configuration. (b) Top view of the unit cell. The geometrical parameters are: L1 = 540nm, w1 = 40nm, L2 = 360nm, w2 = 40nm, Px = 800nm and Py = 600nm, respectively. The small in-plane separation between the horizontal cut-out and the vertical cut-out pair is 10nm on both sides. Parameter s is defined as the offset in y direction of the horizontal cut-out from the geometrical center of the structure. (c) Side view of the unit cell. Parameter d is defined as the gap size between the graphene double layers. (d) Side view of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device.

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The transmissions of the horizontal cut-out only structure and the vertical cut-out pair only structure for the Fermi energy of the graphene EF = 0.15eV based on the FDTD simulation are shown in Fig. 2. The black curve shows that the horizontal cut-out only structure can support a typical localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance, which acts as the bright mode, at 13.66THz with the incident electric field E along the y axis. An inductivecapacitive (LC) resonance is supported, shown by the red curve in Fig. 2, at 15.91THz with the incident electric field E along the x axis in the vertical cut-out pair only structure, which cannot be excited directly by the incident electric field E along x axis, demonstrating that the vertical cut-out pair only structure is considered as the dark mode. The structural asymmetry (s ≠ 0) causes near-field coupling between the dark and bright modes in the same graphene layer and leads to the indirect excitation of dark mode with E along the x axis, which results in a EIT-like response in the periodically patterned graphene single layer(s = 30nm) shown by the blue curve in Fig. 2. The EIT-like response caused by the phonon damping is omitted in the terahertz frequency range [28].

 

Fig. 2 Simulated transmission spectra of the horizontal cut-out only structure, the vertical cut-out pair only structure and the periodically patterned graphene single layer(s = 30nm) when Fermi energy EF = 0.15eV. Different geometric structures with the direction of incident electrical field are shown in the insets from top to bottom, respectively.

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For periodically patterned graphene double layers, strong near-field coupling between cutouts in different layers causes splitting of the resonance notches, leading to multiple PIT windows. The bright and dark modes in the graphene-based multispectral PIT device can be expressed as |Dt/b〉 and |Qt/b〉. The superscript t and b represent the top and bottom layers, respectively. The strong near-field coupling of the bright modes in different layers causes the hybrid bright modes in the in-phase and out-of-phase hybridized states, which are expressed as |Di=12[|Dt+|Db] and |Do=12[|Dt|Db], respectively. The subscript i and o represent the in-phase and out-of-phase hybridized states, respectively. In the same way, the strong near-field coupling of the dark modes in different layers causes the hybrid dark modes of the in-phase and out-of-phase hybridized states, which are expressed as |Qi=12[|Qt+|Qb] and |Qo=12[|Qt|Qb], respectively. The cross couplings among the bright and dark modes of different graphene layers are assumed to be weak, which can be neglected.

The coupled Lorentz oscillator model is adapted to explain multispectral EIT-like phenomena in the proposed device. The external driving field is denoted as E0eiωt. The hybrid bright and dark modes are expressed as |Di/o〉 = i/oeiωt and |Qi/o〉 = i/oeiωt, respectively. The field amplitude of (|Di,o〉, |Qi,o〉) is obtained [21]

[ωωD,i+iγD,iκ00κiωωQ,i+iγD,i0000ωωD,o+iγD,oκo00κoωωQ,o+iγD,o][D˜iQ˜iD˜oQ˜o]=[giE˜00goE˜00]
where ωD,i/o, ωQ,i/o, κi/o, gi/o, γD,i/o, and γQ,i/o are the resonance frequencies of the hybrid bright modes, the resonance frequencies of the hybrid dark modes, the coupling parameters, the geometrical parameters, the damping rates of the hybrid bright modes, and the damping rates of the hybrid bright modes in the in-phase and out-of-phase hybridized states, respectively. The amplitudes of the hybrid bright mode in both hybridized states are derived as
D˜i/o=gi/oE˜0(ωωQ,i/o+iγQ,i/o)(ωωD,i/o+iγD,i/o)(ωωQ,i/o+iγQ,i/o)(κi/o)2
The transmission of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device is obtained [30, 33]
T(ω)=1|D˜iE˜0|2|D˜0E˜0|2.
The coupling parameters κi/o indicating the coupling between the hybrid bright and dark modes, increase with the structural asymmetry s [30]. When the structure is symmetrical s = 0, the resonance notches arise at the resonance frequencies ωD,i/o in the transmission. As the structural asymmetry s increases, the transmission at the resonance frequencies ωQ,i/o increases due to the excitation of the hybrid dark mode, resulting in the emerging of the EIT peaks in the resonance notches. The resonance frequencies ωD,i/o and ωQ,i/o can be tuned by the Fermi energy of the graphene double layers [30]. Though the proposed device are based on graphene double layers, the physical mechanism of the multispectral EIT-like responses can be easily extended to a larger number of graphene layers.

3. Simulation and results

The transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device is simulated by the FDTD solutions (Lumerical Solutions, Inc.). In the three-dimensional simulations, a y-polarized TEM beam normally incidents on the unit cell in z direction with periodic boundary conditions in x–z plane and symmetric conditions in y–z plane. The index of the dielectric (SiO2) layer is considered to be 1.45. The surface conductivity of graphene σ is computed from the Kubo formula [34]

σ(ω)=ie2(ω2iΓ)πh¯2[1(ω2iΓ)20ε(fd(ε)εfd(ε)ε)dε0fd(ε)fd(ε)(ω2iΓ)24(ε/h¯)2dε]
where, fd(ε) = (e(εEF)/(kBT) +1)−1, EF is the Fermi energy of graphene, ω is the angular frequency, Γ = 1.98THz is a phenomenological scattering rate [35], and T = 300K is temperature. The quantum finite-size effects associated with the structure edges can be ignored due to the width of the graphene nanostrips above 10nm [36].

The transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different gap sizes by employing the FDTD solutions are demonstrated in Fig. 3(a) (s = 0nm and EF = 0.15eV for graphene double layers). For the periodically patterned graphene double layer, two resonance notches are supported owing to the strong near-field coupling between the different graphene layers, which is denoted as the out-of-phase(OP) and in-phase(IP) hybridized states respectively, shown in Fig. 3(a), instead of only one resonance notch for the periodically patterned graphene single layer shown by the black curve in Fig. 3(a). As the gap size d decreases, the resonance notch of the in-phase hybridized state is gradually enhanced and blue shifted, and the resonance notch of the out-of-phase hybridized state is gradually weakened and red shifted, for the increase of coupling between different graphene layers. The cross-sectional electrical field distributions of the coupled graphene double layers at the resonance frequencies in the out-of-phase and in-phase hybridized states are shown in Fig. 3(b) at the position marked with the black dashed line in the inset of Fig. 3(a) for d = 130nm. The hybrid bright modes in the out-of-phase and in-phase hybridized state are radiant as a result of the symmetric and antisymmetric combination of electrical field distributions in graphene double layers, respectively, shown in Fig. 3(b) A and B. The resonance notch in the in-phase hybridized state is easier to excite due to the overall superposition of the electrical field and blue-shifted with the decrease of gap d, and that of the out-of-phase hybridized state is harder to excite due to the partial detraction and red-shifted with the decrease of gap d [37].

 

Fig. 3 (a) Simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different gap sizes d for s = 0nm and EF = 0.15eV. The out-of-phase(OP) and in-phase(IP) hybridized states are demonstrated. (b) The cross-sectional electrical field distributions of the graphene double layers (d = 130nm) at the resonance notches in the out-of-phase and in-phase hybridized states are shown in A and B for d = 130nm, respectively, which are observed at a position marked with the black dashed line in the inset of (a).

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The simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different Fermi energies for graphene double layers are demonstrated in Fig. 4 (s = 0nm and d = 130nm). As the Fermi energy EF increases, the resonance notches of the out-of-phase and in-phase hybridized states are both enhanced and blue shifted. The difference between the resonance wavelengths in the out-of-phase and in-phase hybridized states remains about the same. The resonance wavelength is written as λres ∝ [2π22c2L/(e2EF)]1/2 (where L represents the length of the graphene nanostrips) [30], which can be controlled by the Fermi energy of graphene.

 

Fig. 4 Simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different Fermi energies for graphene double layers (s = 0nm and d = 130nm).

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The difference between the resonance wavelengths in the out-of-phase and in-phase hybridized states are tuned by varying the Fermi energies of the top and bottom periodically patterned graphene layers respectively. The simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different Fermi energies of the top and bottom graphene layers (s = 0nm and d = 130nm) are shown in Fig. 5. The Fermi energies of the top and bottom graphene layers are: 0.2/0.1, 0.175/0.125, 0.15/0.15 and 0.125/0.175 for different curves, respectively. As the Fermi energy of top graphene layer increases and bottom one decreases, the resonance notch of the in-phase hybridized state is gradually blue shifted, and the resonance notch of out-of-phase hybridized state is gradually red shifted. Therefore, the frequency difference between the in-phase and out-of-phase hybridized states is tunable.

 

Fig. 5 Simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different Fermi energies of the top and bottom graphene layers (s = 0nm and d = 130nm).

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The transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different offsets s of the horizontal cut-out from the geometrical center by employing the FDTD solutions are shown in Fig. 6(a) (d = 130nm and EF = 0.15eV). As s increases, two EIT peaks emerge in the resonance notches of the in-phase and out-of-phase hybridized states, respectively, resulting from the increase of coupling between the dark and bright modes in the same graphene layer. The top view electrical field distributions at the EIT peaks (s = 30nm) in both out-of-phase and in-phase hybridized states are shown in Fig. 6(b) A and B, respectively, demonstrating strong excitation of the hybrid dark modes in both hybridized states. By introducing the structural asymmetry (s ≠ 0), the electromagnetic field is coupled back and forth between the hybrid bright and dark mode, leading to a destructive interference, resulting in multispectral EIT-like behavior. The analytic fitting of Eq. 3 to the transmission spectrum (s = 30nm) is shown by the blue circles, which traces the numerical results very well. The fitting parameters are ωD,iD,o = 6.64/5.08THz, ωQ,iQ,o = 6.50/4.96THz, gi/go = 0.36/0.10, γD,iD,o = 0.34/0.20THz, γQ,iQ,o = 0.34/0.44THz and κio = 0.30/0.38THz.

 

Fig. 6 (a) Simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different offsets s for d = 130nm and EF = 0.15eV. The analytic fitting based on Lorentzian harmonic oscillators mode to the simulated transmission (s = 30nm) is shown by the blue circles. (b) The top view electrical field distributions of the device at the EIT peaks (s = 30nm) in the out-of-phase and in-phase hybridized states are shown in A and B, respectively.

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The multiple PIT windows are realized in the proposed device by introducing the near-field coupling caused by the periodically patterned graphene double layers. The EIT peaks emerge in the multiple PIT windows through the structural asymmetry (s ≠ 0) which leads to the coupling between the bright and dark modes in the same graphene layer. The multispectral EIT-like responses are actively controlled by varying the Fermi energy via altering the voltage on graphene, showing advantages in the applications of optical components, such as tunable sensors, switches and filters.

4. Summary

In summary, periodically patterned graphene double layers separated by a dielectric layer are adapted to support multispectral EIT-like responses in the terahertz frequency range. The coupled Lorentz oscillator model, incorporating the near-field coupling in different graphene layers and the bright-dark coupling in the same graphene layer, is employed to explain multispectral EIT-like responses. The resonances in multiple PIT windows are controlled by changing the Fermi energy of graphen or the structural parameters, which is demonstrated by the simulated transmission based on the FDTD solutions. The dynamic tunability of multispectral EIT-like responses are realized via varying the Fermi energy of graphene without changing the geometric parameters, which makes the proposed graphene-based multispectral PIT device more active than the metallic ones.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61378067, 61178050).

References and links

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2. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 96, 123901 (2006). [CrossRef]  

4. C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” American Journal of Physics 70, 37 (2002). [CrossRef]  

5. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Physical Review Letters 101, 035104 (2008).

6. J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, and H.-T. Chen et al., “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat Comms 3, 1151 (2012). [CrossRef]  

7. C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Physical Review Letters 107, 043901 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Physical Review B 80, 035104 (2009). [CrossRef]  

9. X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Cheng, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency by planar hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 38, 483 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012). [CrossRef]  

11. Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Optics Express 19, 8912 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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13. X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 131101 (2012). [CrossRef]  

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References

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  1. S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physics Today 50, 36 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 96, 123901 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” American Journal of Physics 70, 37 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Physical Review Letters 101, 035104 (2008).
  6. J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and et al., “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat Comms 3, 1151 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Physical Review Letters 107, 043901 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Physical Review B 80, 035104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Cheng, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency by planar hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 38, 483 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Optics Express 19, 8912 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Guo, L. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (eit)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Optics Express 20, 24348 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 131101 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Optics Express 17, 5595 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 102, 053901 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. L. Zhou, T. Ye, and J. Chen, “Coherent interference induced transparency in self-coupled optical waveguide-based resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36, 13 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Physical Review Letters 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C.-Y. Chen, I.-W. Un, N.-H. Tai, and T.-J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Optics Express 17, 15372 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 114101 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and et al., “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. A. Maier, “Graphene plasmonics: All eyes on flatland,” Nature Physics 8, 581–582 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications, ACS Nano 8, 1086–1101 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene, Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6, 7806–7813 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧci, “A dynamically reconfigurable fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Scientific Reports 3, 2105 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. X. Shi, X. Su, and Y. Yang, “Enhanced tunability of plasmon induced transparency in graphene strips,” Journal of Applied Physics 117, 143101 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. H. Yan, T. Low, F. Guinea, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 14, 4581–4586 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic eit-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Optics Express 19, 5970 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” Journal of Applied Physics 103, 064302 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  35. P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341, 620–621 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Manjavacas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Quantum finite-size effects in graphene plasmons,” ACS Nano 6, 1766–1775 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

X. Shi, X. Su, and Y. Yang, “Enhanced tunability of plasmon induced transparency in graphene strips,” Journal of Applied Physics 117, 143101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. Yan, T. Low, F. Guinea, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 14, 4581–4586 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications, ACS Nano 8, 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧci, “A dynamically reconfigurable fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Scientific Reports 3, 2105 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341, 620–621 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Cheng, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency by planar hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 38, 483 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and et al., “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat Comms 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, L. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (eit)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Optics Express 20, 24348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Manjavacas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Quantum finite-size effects in graphene plasmons,” ACS Nano 6, 1766–1775 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6, 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, “Graphene plasmonics: All eyes on flatland,” Nature Physics 8, 581–582 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and et al., “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic eit-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Optics Express 19, 5970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Physical Review Letters 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Optics Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

L. Zhou, T. Ye, and J. Chen, “Coherent interference induced transparency in self-coupled optical waveguide-based resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36, 13 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

C.-Y. Chen, I.-W. Un, N.-H. Tai, and T.-J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Optics Express 17, 15372 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Optics Express 17, 5595 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 102, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Physical Review B 80, 035104 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Physical Review Letters 101, 035104 (2008).

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene, Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” Journal of Applied Physics 103, 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” American Journal of Physics 70, 37 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Physical Review Letters 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physics Today 50, 36 (1997).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amin, M.

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧci, “A dynamically reconfigurable fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Scientific Reports 3, 2105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anlage, S. M.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Physical Review Letters 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artar, A.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications, ACS Nano 8, 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, T. Low, F. Guinea, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 14, 4581–4586 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and et al., “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat Comms 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bagci, H.

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧci, “A dynamically reconfigurable fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Scientific Reports 3, 2105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and et al., “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, J.-X.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic eit-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Optics Express 19, 5970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chen, I.-W. Un, N.-H. Tai, and T.-J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Optics Express 17, 15372 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and et al., “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat Comms 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic eit-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Optics Express 19, 5970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, T. Ye, and J. Chen, “Coherent interference induced transparency in self-coupled optical waveguide-based resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36, 13 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Cheng, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency by planar hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 38, 483 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Cheng, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency by planar hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 38, 483 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Christensen, J.

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Crommie, M.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene, Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, Z.-G.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Duan, X.

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Cheng, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency by planar hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 38, 483 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 102, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Optics Express 17, 5595 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Farhat, M.

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧci, “A dynamically reconfigurable fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Scientific Reports 3, 2105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Freitag, M.

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, W.

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6, 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Manjavacas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Quantum finite-size effects in graphene plasmons,” ACS Nano 6, 1766–1775 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Garrido Alzar, C. L.

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” American Journal of Physics 70, 37 (2002).
[Crossref]

Geng, B.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and et al., “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Physical Review Letters 101, 035104 (2008).

Girit, C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and et al., “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene, Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, C.

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gu, J.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and et al., “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat Comms 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Optics Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guinea, F.

H. Yan, T. Low, F. Guinea, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 14, 4581–4586 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, L. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (eit)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Optics Express 20, 24348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

Y. Guo, L. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (eit)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Optics Express 20, 24348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, J.

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Optics Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” Journal of Applied Physics 103, 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z.

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C.-Y. Chen, I.-W. Un, N.-H. Tai, and T.-J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Optics Express 17, 15372 (2009).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
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J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic eit-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Optics Express 19, 5970 (2011).
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H. Yan, T. Low, F. Guinea, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 14, 4581–4586 (2014).
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H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
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W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6, 7806–7813 (2012).
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H. Yan, T. Low, F. Guinea, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 14, 4581–4586 (2014).
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Yen, T.-J.

C.-Y. Chen, I.-W. Un, N.-H. Tai, and T.-J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Optics Express 17, 15372 (2009).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
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H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
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Nature Nanotechnology (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the unit cell of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device and the incident light polarization configuration. (b) Top view of the unit cell. The geometrical parameters are: L1 = 540nm, w1 = 40nm, L2 = 360nm, w2 = 40nm, Px = 800nm and Py = 600nm, respectively. The small in-plane separation between the horizontal cut-out and the vertical cut-out pair is 10nm on both sides. Parameter s is defined as the offset in y direction of the horizontal cut-out from the geometrical center of the structure. (c) Side view of the unit cell. Parameter d is defined as the gap size between the graphene double layers. (d) Side view of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulated transmission spectra of the horizontal cut-out only structure, the vertical cut-out pair only structure and the periodically patterned graphene single layer(s = 30nm) when Fermi energy EF = 0.15eV. Different geometric structures with the direction of incident electrical field are shown in the insets from top to bottom, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different gap sizes d for s = 0nm and EF = 0.15eV. The out-of-phase(OP) and in-phase(IP) hybridized states are demonstrated. (b) The cross-sectional electrical field distributions of the graphene double layers (d = 130nm) at the resonance notches in the out-of-phase and in-phase hybridized states are shown in A and B for d = 130nm, respectively, which are observed at a position marked with the black dashed line in the inset of (a).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different Fermi energies for graphene double layers (s = 0nm and d = 130nm).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different Fermi energies of the top and bottom graphene layers (s = 0nm and d = 130nm).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different offsets s for d = 130nm and EF = 0.15eV. The analytic fitting based on Lorentzian harmonic oscillators mode to the simulated transmission (s = 30nm) is shown by the blue circles. (b) The top view electrical field distributions of the device at the EIT peaks (s = 30nm) in the out-of-phase and in-phase hybridized states are shown in A and B, respectively.

Equations (4)

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[ ω ω D , i + i γ D , i κ 0 0 κ i ω ω Q , i + i γ D , i 0 0 0 0 ω ω D , o + i γ D , o κ o 0 0 κ o ω ω Q , o + i γ D , o ] [ D ˜ i Q ˜ i D ˜ o Q ˜ o ] = [ g i E ˜ 0 0 g o E ˜ 0 0 ]
D ˜ i / o = g i / o E ˜ 0 ( ω ω Q , i / o + i γ Q , i / o ) ( ω ω D , i / o + i γ D , i / o ) ( ω ω Q , i / o + i γ Q , i / o ) ( κ i / o ) 2
T ( ω ) = 1 | D ˜ i E ˜ 0 | 2 | D ˜ 0 E ˜ 0 | 2 .
σ ( ω ) = i e 2 ( ω 2 i Γ ) π h ¯ 2 [ 1 ( ω 2 i Γ ) 2 0 ε ( f d ( ε ) ε f d ( ε ) ε ) d ε 0 f d ( ε ) f d ( ε ) ( ω 2 i Γ ) 2 4 ( ε / h ¯ ) 2 d ε ]

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