Abstract

A novel surface plasmon resonance (SPR) thermometer based on liquid crystal (LC) filled hollow fiber is demonstrated in this paper. A hollow fiber was internally coated with silver and then filled with LC. The SPR response to temperature was studied using modeling and verified experimentally. The results demonstrated that the refractive index of LC decreases with the increasing temperature and the variation can be detected by the resonance wavelength shift of the plasmon resonance. The temperature sensitivities were 4.72 nm/°C in the temperature range of 20 to 34.5 °C and 0.55 nm/°C in the temperature range of 36 to 50 °C, At the phase transition temperature between nematic and isotropic phases of the LC, the temperature sensitivity increased by one order of magnitude and a shift of more than 46 nm was observed with only a 1.5 °C temperature change. This sensor can be used for temperature monitoring and alarming, and can be extended for other physical parameter measurement.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has emerged as a highly powerful surface-sensitive analytical technique for chemical and biochemical sensing [1,2]. Most of the SPR sensors are based on a prism configuration. Although recent progress in portable SPR instrument is encouraging [3], the application of most SPR instruments for remote sensing is often limited by complex configuration and expensive instrument [4–6]. To address the limitations of traditional SPR devices, fiber-based SPR sensors are promising in many new and diversified applications because of their distinct advantages in portability, compactness, and low cost [7].

Conventional solid core fiber SPR sensors are sensitive to the refractive index (RI) of surrounding medium, which need to be lower than that of fiber core [8,9]. Therefore, it is difficult to detect a high RI medium. In order to demonstrate high refractive index measurement based on SPR, theoretical models of fiber SPR sensors have been proposed by holding a liquid medium inside the central holes of the photonics crystal fiber (PCF) or micro-structured optical fiber (MOF). One drawback of this configuration is the difficulty of evenly depositing the thin metal film on the internal face of the hollow cores [10–12]. Gratings and complicated PCF or MOF structures necessary for this configuration of SPR make the fabrication even more difficult [13,14]. Owing to its simple structure and low loss properties in the visible and infrared regions, hollow fiber has been widely studied and is now commonly used as a component in many applications [15–17]. Different from most fiber SPR sensors reported previously, the hollow fiber of several hundred microns diameter can be easily coated with a metal film on the inner wall. Then the hollow fiber SPR sensor holds the liquid medium inside the hollow core and the detection light is transmitted in the medium. To satisfy the condition of total reflection, the liquid medium should have a higher RI than the cladding of the fiber. Therefore, the application of hollow fiber provides a solution for detecting high RI liquids using SPR sensing. Additionally, the air-hole structure also broadens the potential applications of hollow fiber by introducing additional materials into the hollow fiber. Among these materials, LCs are ideal candidates with high RI. LCs are fluid materials with orientational order [18]. LC is of particular interest because its refractive index can be tuned by temperature or by electric field [19,20]. Hence, some LC-based photonic composite structures have been demonstrated by tuning the temperature [21,22], and large RI variations can be achieved by precisely controlling the thermotropic transition of LC [23–25]. In this paper, we present a novel SPR temperature sensor based on hollow fiber structure internally-coated with silver. Due to the strong change in RI of LC, a hollow fiber SPR sensor filled with LC is highly sensitive to temperature and offers a wide dynamic RI detection range. It also holds the advantage of an abrupt wavelength shift caused by the phase-transition of LC. When the temperature changed from 20 °C to 50 °C, we observed that the variation of LC RI is approximately 0.0345. As the temperature increased, the SPR wavelength of the SPR-based temperature sensor showed redshift and the total wavelength shift was up to 160 nm. From the linear fit, the temperature sensitivity was 4.72 nm/°C when the temperature was between 20 °C and 34.5 °C; while for temperature exceeding 34.5°C, the temperature sensitivity dropped to 0.55 nm/°C. This sensor is a good candidate for applications requiring temperature monitoring and alarming due to the abrupt wavelength shift and high temperature sensitivity of this LC SPR sensor.

2. Sensor preparation

In Fig. 1, we present the principle of this liquid crystal filled SPR thermometer. Figure 1(a) shows the configuration of the SPR-based temperature sensor. Here, the silver-coated hollow fiber filled with LC was connected to multi-mode fibers. Figures 1(b) and 1(c) depict the silver-coated hollow fiber and the cross sections of the sensor, respectively. The light beam from a halogen lamp was launched into the silver-coated hollow fiber via the multi-mode fiber. Then, the light beam propagated in the LC core and illuminated the mirror silver layer where surface plasmons wave were excited. The light beam underwent total internal reflection on the inner surface of the hollow fiber while passing through the sensor. Finally, the SPR wavelength was measured with a spectrophotometer (HORIBA, iHR550).

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Design of the SPR thermometer. (a) Schematic view of the hollow fiber filled with a liquid crystal medium, and temperature controlled by an external heat source. White light was launched into the hollow fiber and a spectrophotometer collected the response for different temperature values. (b) The structure of the silver coated hollow fiber. (c) The cross section of the hollow fiber filling with bulk homogeneous dielectric or a liquid crystal medium.

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To evaluate the effect of RI of LC with temperature, the sensor was subjected to external temperature perturbation and the SPR wavelength was tracked at different temperatures. Experimentally, in order to realize the temperature-induced RI change, the temperature was controlled by a heat bath, and a thermocouple was used for temperature calibration. Additionally, surface plasmon waves were excited on the interface between the silver layer and the supporting tube when appropriate light transmits in the liquid core of the hollow fiber. The RI of the liquid core had to be higher than that of the supporting tube (the RI for borosilicate glass is 1.4714) to satisfy the condition of total reflection [26]. Therefore, the RI of the bulk homogeneous dielectric and the LC medium were higher than 1.4714.

The structure of the silver-coated hollow fiber is shown in Fig. 1(b). A hollow fiber with 500 μm inner diameter was selected to implement the SPR-based temperature sensor. A segment of 5 cm length was cleaved and coated with a silver layer on its inner surface by using an improved liquid phase deposition method [27]. Specifically, the silver mirror reaction was an optimum selection of a fast chemical liquid phase deposition method to coat the tube inner surface, in which the thickness and smoothness of silver layer can be precisely controlled by tuning the deposition time, reaction temperature and flow rate of solution to meet the SPR sensing requirement. Before deposition, the inner wall was sensitized by SnCl2 solution (0.01 g/ml SnCl2, 5% HCl) for about 20 s, which was beneficial to obtain stronger and smoother silver layer. It also improved the adhesion between the glass surface and the silver particles, which were reduced in the silver mirror reaction. Furthermore, the Sn2+ ions that remained on the glass surface shortened the plating time. Generally, silver nitrate and glucose solution are used as the plating and reducing agent, respectively, and in order to increase the reaction speed, high temperature as 80 °C is mandatory in silver mirror reaction. However, in our experiment, the thoroughly mixed silver nitrate and glucose (silver nitrate was 0.02 g/ml and glucose was 0.01 g/ml, then mixed with the volume proportion of 1:1) flowed through the glass capillary in an alkaline solution (0.03 g/ml NaOH). Hence, with the temperature set at 20 °C, the deposition speed also fast, 12 seconds deposition time and 0.05ml/s flow rate were satisfactory for obtaining thickness of silver necessary for the SPR sensing. A shorter plating time avoided large silver particles, which were growing as the reaction time increased. Therefore, a smoother silver surface was obtained in this way.

The LC was 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB), which is a nematic thermotropic LC [28]. The mesophases of 5CB depend on the temperature, and Fig. 2 shows the schematic diagram of different liquid crystal phases. The phase of 5CB tuned with the increasing temperature, and the endothermic transition from nematic to isotropic phase proceeded at nearly 35.5°C. In order to demonstrate the thermally-induced phase transition, we used a thermal platform polarizing microscope (DM4500P, Leica Inc.) to observe the whole phase transition process in Fig. 2(b). We fabricated a drop of LC between two parallel glass slides, and laid it on the thermal platform. These observations showed that 5CB maintained a liquid crystal phase under a broad temperature range of about 22.5 °C to 35.5 °C.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the liquid crystal phases changing with temperature. (a) Schematic view of different liquid crystal phases. (b) Liquid crystal phase transition process observed under the polarizing microscope.

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The bulk homogeneous dielectric media were mixtures of polymethylphenyl siloxane fluid and kerosene with different volume ratios, and the RIs of the mixed liquids were varied from 1.5251 to 1.5734 and verified with an Abbe refractometer. The volume ratios for different RIs are listed in Table 1.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Volume Ratios between Polymethylphenyl Siloxane Fluid and Kerosene for Different RIs

3. Results and discussion

The resonance wavelength of the SPR-based sensor strongly depends on the RI of 5CB liquid core, which is strongly sensitive to temperature in Fig. 3. As temperature increased, the resonant wavelength red shifted by 71.98 nm for a temperature increase from 20 °C to 34.5 °C. This temperature range corresponds to the nematic molecular order. Therefore, the temperature sensitivity was measured at 4.72 nm/°C [Fig. 3(a)]. For temperatures from 36 °C to 50 °C, exceeding the transition temperature, the resonant wavelength moved toward longer wavelength at lower sensitivity as temperature increased. The resonance wavelength maintained a linear relationship with temperature, with temperature sensitivity of 0.55 nm/°C. The different temperature response for the two temperature ranges was due to the thermally-induced phase transition of LC. In addition, when temperature was close to the nematic to isotropic phase transition temperature (35.5 °C), an abrupt wavelength shift of about 46 nm was observed for a temperature change of only 1.5 °C. This high temperature sensitivity coincided with thermally-induced phase transition. We repeated the measurement process for three times by using the same sensor, and good repeatability was shown in Fig. 3(b). This good repeatability of the experiment demonstrated the feasibility of using this SPR-based temperature sensor.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) Normalized intensity transmission spectra with liquid crystal core for different temperature values. (b) Correlation of the resonance wavelength for different temperatures. The linear relationship is shown by the two red lines for the temperature ranges of 20~34.5 °C and 36~50°C, respectively. The blue dashed line represents the transition temperature between nematic and isotropic phases.

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Different bulk homogeneous dielectric media were analysed to calibrate the RI sensitivity of this SPR sensor. The RI of 5CB was then estimated at different temperatures. The bulk homogeneous dielectric media were mixtures of polymethylphenyl siloxane fluid and kerosene, and the RI was varied from 1.5251 to 1.6100 by modifying the components. The ray transmission model was calculated to compare the performance of this sensor with experimental data [Fig. 4(a)]. The theoretical results revealed that the SPR resonance dip shows a blue shift when the RI of the filled medium increased. In these calculations, it was assumed that the inner diameter of hollow fiber was 500 μm, the fiber length was 5 cm, the RI of the hollow fiber was 1.4714, and the thickness of the silver layer was 75 nm.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Normalized intensity transmission spectra of hollow fiber SPR sensor with different RIs of the bulk homogeneous dielectric medium. (a) Theoretical. (b) Experimental. (c) Linear relationship between the resonance wavelength of the hollow fiber SPR sensor (λ) and the refractive index of the bulk solutions (n). (d) The RI for the liquid crystal medium calculated from the linear relationship shown in Fig. 4(c). Experimental data correlate to the RI calculated from the calibration in Fig. 3(b).

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The spectral response to different RIs was also investigated experimentally in Fig. 4(b). It illustrates that, as the surrounding RI increases, the dip wavelength showed blue shift, which is in agreement with the theoretical model. Usually, the resonance wavelength shifts towards longer wavelength as the RI increases for a solid core fiber SPR sensor [29]; however, we observed the precise opposite in our hollow fiber SPR sensor, the resonance wavelength shifts towards shorter wavelength when the RI increases.

Figure 4(c) presents the dip wavelength shift versus the RI. The experimental dip wavelengths decreased linearly as the RI increased from 1.5251 to 1.5734, which is consistent with its theoretical calculation. The maximum RI of the bulk homogeneous dielectric media we used for calibration was only 1.5734. Therefore, we had to extrapolate the theoretical dip wavelengths of different RIs from 1.5800 to 1.6100 to predict the RI of the LC. We observed that the experimental resonance wavelength results agreed well with the theoretical calculation in the RI range of 1.5251 to 1.5734. From the experimental linear fit, the RI sensitivity is 4.68 × 103 nm/RIU for the SPR sensor. This was again in good agreement with the expected RI sensitivity from the theoretical model at 4.38 × 103 nm/RIU. Through the comparative experiments and spectroscopic analysis, we calculated the corresponding RIs of 5CB under different temperature as shown in Fig. 4(d). Ultimately, when the temperature changed from 20 °C to 34.5 °C, the RI of 5CB changing from n20°C = 1.6098 to n34.5°C = 1.5945; while when the temperature was close to the transition temperature, the RI of 5CB varied about 0.01 for only 1.5 °C temperature change, and when temperature exceeded the transition temperature, the RI shows slow variation from n36°C = 1.5846 to n50°C = 1.5827.

The morphology of the interface between silver and the hollow fiber has been investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the surface structure of the silver layer is shown in Fig. 5. The whole cross section is shown in Fig. 5(a), and the measured silver layer thickness from the SEM images is 70 nm. It deviated marginally from the calculated thickness in Fig. 4(c), which is mainly arising from the fluctuation in the silver layer thickness. Figure 5(b) shows the partial enlarged view of the silver layer, we can clearly observe the interface between glass and silver. The nicks should be fragments of the fiber in the cutting process.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 SEM pictures of the cross section of the silver layer. (a) Surface structure of the silver and the hollow fiber. (b) Enlarged image of the silver layer.

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4. Conclusions

In conclusion, we demonstrated a novel hollow fiber SPR temperature sensor based on silver coated and liquid crystal filled structure. The RI of LC decreasing with temperature increasing and the variation can be calibrated by resonance wavelength shift of this SPR-based temperature sensor. The temperature sensitivities were measured at 4.72 nm/°C and 0.55 nm/°C for the temperature ranges of 20 to 34.5 °C and 36 to 50 °C, respectively. An abrupt wavelength shift of more than 46 nm was caused by the transition between nematic and isotropic phase. These results demonstrate the suitability of the design for temperature monitoring. Moreover, the demonstrated sensor with simple structure is low cost (about 1 dollar for each silver-coated hollow fiber) and easily prepared. By filling liquid crystal inside the hollow core, the damageable and easily oxidizable silver layer can be protected which is beneficial to improve the service life. We keep the silver layer between the supporting tube and LC and close the two ends, which can protect the silver layer to isolate the air. This sensor can be further developed for many other physical parameter monitoring including thermal diffusion, electric field and magnetic field etc.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant Nos. 61520106013 and 61137005), the Doctoral Scientific Fund Project of the State Education Committee of China (Grant No. SRFDP-20120041110040) for financial support.

References and links

1. M. Couture, S. S. Zhao, and J. F. Masson, “Modern surface plasmon resonance for bioanalytics and biophysics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(27), 11190–11216 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. H. R. Jang, A. W. Wark, S. H. Baek, B. H. Chung, and H. J. Lee, “Ultrasensitive and ultrawide range detection of a cardiac biomarker on a surface plasmon resonance platform,” Anal. Chem. 86(1), 814–819 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. S. S. Zhao, N. Bukar, J. L. Toulouse, D. Pelechacz, R. Robitaille, J. N. Pelletier, and J. F. Masson, “Miniature multi-channel SPR instrument for methotrexate monitoring in clinical samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 64, 664–670 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. R. Jha and A. K. Sharma, “High-performance sensor based on surface plasmon resonance with chalcogenide prism and aluminum for detection in infrared,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 749–751 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. S. Isaacs and I. Abdulhalim, “Long range surface plasmon resonance with ultra-high penetration depth for self-referenced sensing and ultra-low detection limit using diverging beam approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 571–606 (2015). [CrossRef]  

6. L. L. Kegel, D. Boyne, and K. S. Booksh, “Sensing with prism-based near-infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy on nanohole array platforms,” Anal. Chem. 86(7), 3355–3364 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatanand, and C. Li, “A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. 12(1), 74–77 (2010). [CrossRef]  

8. Y. C. Kim, W. Peng, S. Banerji, and K. S. Booksh, “Tapered fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor for analyses of vapor and liquid phases,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2218–2220 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Hetero-core structured fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor with silver film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 101(3), 368–372 (2004). [CrossRef]  

10. B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5974–5986 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. L. Xia, Y. Zhang, C. Zhou, B. Shuai, and D. Liu, “Numerical analysis of plasmon polarition refractive index fiber sensors with hollow core and a long period grating,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2835–2838 (2011). [CrossRef]  

12. Y. Zhao, Z. Q. Deng, and J. Li, “Photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 202(4), 557–567 (2014). [CrossRef]  

13. G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, “Modeling of plasmon-polariton refractive-index hollow core fiber sensors assisted by a fiber brag grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(10), 3789–3796 (2006). [CrossRef]  

14. X. X. Liu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, X. T. Gao, and W. Peng, “Surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor based on light guiding flexible fused silica capillary tubing,” Opt. Commun. 356, 212–217 (2015). [CrossRef]  

15. J. Y. Lee, S. K. Byeon, and M. H. Moon, “Profiling of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins from patients with coronary artery disease by hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 1266–1273 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. N. Luan, R. Wang, W. Lv, and J. Yao, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on D-shaped microstructured optical fiber with hollow core,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8576–8582 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. Y. Liu, S. Chen, Q. Liu, and W. Peng, “Micro-capillary-based evanescent field biosensor for sensitive, label-free DNA detection,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20686–20695 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. J. Alogorri, B. G. Camara, A. G. Garcia, and V. Urruchi, “Fiber optic temperature sensor based on amplitude modulation of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles in a liquid crystal mixture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(12), 2451–2455 (2015). [CrossRef]  

19. G. M. Russell, B. J. A. Paterson, C. T. Imrie, and S. K. Heeks, “Thermal characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals by differential scanning calorimetry,” Chem. Mater. 7(11), 2185–2189 (1995). [CrossRef]  

20. D. Ahmadian, C. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia, “Tunable plasmonic sensor with metal–liquid crystal–metal structure,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–10 (2015). [CrossRef]  

21. M. Moritsugu, T. Ishikawa, T. Kawata, T. Ogata, Y. Kuwahara, and S. Kurihara, “Thermal and photochemical control of molecular orientation of azo-functionalized polymer liquid crystals and application for photo-rewritable paper,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 32(19), 1546–1550 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. K. Kristiansen, H. Zeng, B. Zappone, and J. N. Israelachvili, “Simultaneous measurements of molecular forces and electro-optical properties of a confined 5CB liquid crystal film using a surface forces apparatus,” Langmuir 31(13), 3965–3972 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. O. Tsutsumi, T. Kitsunai, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical phase transition behavior of polymer azobenzene liquid crystals with Electron-Donating and accepting substituents at the 4,4′-Positions,” Macromolecules 31(2), 355–359 (1998). [CrossRef]  

24. B. H. Liu, Y. X. Jiang, X. S. Zhu, X. L. Tang, and Y. W. Shi, “Hollow fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor for the detection of liquid with high refractive index,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32349–32357 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. S. D. Evans, H. Allinson, N. Boden, T. M. Flynn, and J. R. Henderson, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of liquid crystal anchoring on patterned self-assembled monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(12), 2143–2148 (1997). [CrossRef]  

26. Y. X. Jiang, B. H. Liu, X. S. Zhu, X. L. Tang, and Y. W. Shi, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance sensor based on dielectric/silver coated hollow fiber with enhanced figure of merit,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 744–747 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. Y. W. Shi, K. Ito, L. Ma, T. Yoshida, Y. Matsuura, and M. Miyagi, “Fabrication of a polymer-coated silver hollow optical fiber with high performance,” Appl. Opt. 45(26), 6736–6740 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. A. E. Cetin, A. Mertiri, M. Huang, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Thermal tuning of surface plasmon polaritons using liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(12), 915–920 (2013). [CrossRef]  

29. W. Peng, Y. Liu, P. Fang, X. Liu, H. Wang, and F. Cheng, “Compact surface plasmon resonance imaging sensing system based on general optoelectronic components,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20540–20548 (2015). [PubMed]  

References

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  1. M. Couture, S. S. Zhao, and J. F. Masson, “Modern surface plasmon resonance for bioanalytics and biophysics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(27), 11190–11216 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. R. Jang, A. W. Wark, S. H. Baek, B. H. Chung, and H. J. Lee, “Ultrasensitive and ultrawide range detection of a cardiac biomarker on a surface plasmon resonance platform,” Anal. Chem. 86(1), 814–819 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. S. Zhao, N. Bukar, J. L. Toulouse, D. Pelechacz, R. Robitaille, J. N. Pelletier, and J. F. Masson, “Miniature multi-channel SPR instrument for methotrexate monitoring in clinical samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 64, 664–670 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. Jha and A. K. Sharma, “High-performance sensor based on surface plasmon resonance with chalcogenide prism and aluminum for detection in infrared,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 749–751 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. Isaacs and I. Abdulhalim, “Long range surface plasmon resonance with ultra-high penetration depth for self-referenced sensing and ultra-low detection limit using diverging beam approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 571–606 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. L. Kegel, D. Boyne, and K. S. Booksh, “Sensing with prism-based near-infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy on nanohole array platforms,” Anal. Chem. 86(7), 3355–3364 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatanand, and C. Li, “A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. 12(1), 74–77 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. C. Kim, W. Peng, S. Banerji, and K. S. Booksh, “Tapered fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor for analyses of vapor and liquid phases,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2218–2220 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Hetero-core structured fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor with silver film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 101(3), 368–372 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5974–5986 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. L. Xia, Y. Zhang, C. Zhou, B. Shuai, and D. Liu, “Numerical analysis of plasmon polarition refractive index fiber sensors with hollow core and a long period grating,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2835–2838 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Zhao, Z. Q. Deng, and J. Li, “Photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 202(4), 557–567 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Nemova and R. Kashyap, “Modeling of plasmon-polariton refractive-index hollow core fiber sensors assisted by a fiber brag grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(10), 3789–3796 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. X. X. Liu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, X. T. Gao, and W. Peng, “Surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor based on light guiding flexible fused silica capillary tubing,” Opt. Commun. 356, 212–217 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Y. Lee, S. K. Byeon, and M. H. Moon, “Profiling of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins from patients with coronary artery disease by hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 1266–1273 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. N. Luan, R. Wang, W. Lv, and J. Yao, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on D-shaped microstructured optical fiber with hollow core,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8576–8582 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Liu, S. Chen, Q. Liu, and W. Peng, “Micro-capillary-based evanescent field biosensor for sensitive, label-free DNA detection,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20686–20695 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Alogorri, B. G. Camara, A. G. Garcia, and V. Urruchi, “Fiber optic temperature sensor based on amplitude modulation of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles in a liquid crystal mixture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(12), 2451–2455 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. M. Russell, B. J. A. Paterson, C. T. Imrie, and S. K. Heeks, “Thermal characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals by differential scanning calorimetry,” Chem. Mater. 7(11), 2185–2189 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. Ahmadian, C. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia, “Tunable plasmonic sensor with metal–liquid crystal–metal structure,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–10 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Moritsugu, T. Ishikawa, T. Kawata, T. Ogata, Y. Kuwahara, and S. Kurihara, “Thermal and photochemical control of molecular orientation of azo-functionalized polymer liquid crystals and application for photo-rewritable paper,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 32(19), 1546–1550 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. K. Kristiansen, H. Zeng, B. Zappone, and J. N. Israelachvili, “Simultaneous measurements of molecular forces and electro-optical properties of a confined 5CB liquid crystal film using a surface forces apparatus,” Langmuir 31(13), 3965–3972 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. O. Tsutsumi, T. Kitsunai, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical phase transition behavior of polymer azobenzene liquid crystals with Electron-Donating and accepting substituents at the 4,4′-Positions,” Macromolecules 31(2), 355–359 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  24. B. H. Liu, Y. X. Jiang, X. S. Zhu, X. L. Tang, and Y. W. Shi, “Hollow fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor for the detection of liquid with high refractive index,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32349–32357 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S. D. Evans, H. Allinson, N. Boden, T. M. Flynn, and J. R. Henderson, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of liquid crystal anchoring on patterned self-assembled monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(12), 2143–2148 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. X. Jiang, B. H. Liu, X. S. Zhu, X. L. Tang, and Y. W. Shi, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance sensor based on dielectric/silver coated hollow fiber with enhanced figure of merit,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 744–747 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Y. W. Shi, K. Ito, L. Ma, T. Yoshida, Y. Matsuura, and M. Miyagi, “Fabrication of a polymer-coated silver hollow optical fiber with high performance,” Appl. Opt. 45(26), 6736–6740 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. A. E. Cetin, A. Mertiri, M. Huang, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Thermal tuning of surface plasmon polaritons using liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(12), 915–920 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. W. Peng, Y. Liu, P. Fang, X. Liu, H. Wang, and F. Cheng, “Compact surface plasmon resonance imaging sensing system based on general optoelectronic components,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20540–20548 (2015).
    [PubMed]

2015 (11)

S. S. Zhao, N. Bukar, J. L. Toulouse, D. Pelechacz, R. Robitaille, J. N. Pelletier, and J. F. Masson, “Miniature multi-channel SPR instrument for methotrexate monitoring in clinical samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 64, 664–670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Isaacs and I. Abdulhalim, “Long range surface plasmon resonance with ultra-high penetration depth for self-referenced sensing and ultra-low detection limit using diverging beam approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 571–606 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. X. Liu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, X. T. Gao, and W. Peng, “Surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor based on light guiding flexible fused silica capillary tubing,” Opt. Commun. 356, 212–217 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Lee, S. K. Byeon, and M. H. Moon, “Profiling of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins from patients with coronary artery disease by hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 1266–1273 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Luan, R. Wang, W. Lv, and J. Yao, “Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on D-shaped microstructured optical fiber with hollow core,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8576–8582 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, S. Chen, Q. Liu, and W. Peng, “Micro-capillary-based evanescent field biosensor for sensitive, label-free DNA detection,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20686–20695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Alogorri, B. G. Camara, A. G. Garcia, and V. Urruchi, “Fiber optic temperature sensor based on amplitude modulation of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles in a liquid crystal mixture,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(12), 2451–2455 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Ahmadian, C. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia, “Tunable plasmonic sensor with metal–liquid crystal–metal structure,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Kristiansen, H. Zeng, B. Zappone, and J. N. Israelachvili, “Simultaneous measurements of molecular forces and electro-optical properties of a confined 5CB liquid crystal film using a surface forces apparatus,” Langmuir 31(13), 3965–3972 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. X. Jiang, B. H. Liu, X. S. Zhu, X. L. Tang, and Y. W. Shi, “Long-range surface plasmon resonance sensor based on dielectric/silver coated hollow fiber with enhanced figure of merit,” Opt. Lett. 40(5), 744–747 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Peng, Y. Liu, P. Fang, X. Liu, H. Wang, and F. Cheng, “Compact surface plasmon resonance imaging sensing system based on general optoelectronic components,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20540–20548 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (3)

Y. Zhao, Z. Q. Deng, and J. Li, “Photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 202(4), 557–567 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. L. Kegel, D. Boyne, and K. S. Booksh, “Sensing with prism-based near-infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy on nanohole array platforms,” Anal. Chem. 86(7), 3355–3364 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Jang, A. W. Wark, S. H. Baek, B. H. Chung, and H. J. Lee, “Ultrasensitive and ultrawide range detection of a cardiac biomarker on a surface plasmon resonance platform,” Anal. Chem. 86(1), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

M. Couture, S. S. Zhao, and J. F. Masson, “Modern surface plasmon resonance for bioanalytics and biophysics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(27), 11190–11216 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Cetin, A. Mertiri, M. Huang, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Thermal tuning of surface plasmon polaritons using liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(12), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. H. Liu, Y. X. Jiang, X. S. Zhu, X. L. Tang, and Y. W. Shi, “Hollow fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor for the detection of liquid with high refractive index,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32349–32357 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

L. Xia, Y. Zhang, C. Zhou, B. Shuai, and D. Liu, “Numerical analysis of plasmon polarition refractive index fiber sensors with hollow core and a long period grating,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2835–2838 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Moritsugu, T. Ishikawa, T. Kawata, T. Ogata, Y. Kuwahara, and S. Kurihara, “Thermal and photochemical control of molecular orientation of azo-functionalized polymer liquid crystals and application for photo-rewritable paper,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 32(19), 1546–1550 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatanand, and C. Li, “A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. 12(1), 74–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Hetero-core structured fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor with silver film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 101(3), 368–372 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

O. Tsutsumi, T. Kitsunai, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical phase transition behavior of polymer azobenzene liquid crystals with Electron-Donating and accepting substituents at the 4,4′-Positions,” Macromolecules 31(2), 355–359 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. D. Evans, H. Allinson, N. Boden, T. M. Flynn, and J. R. Henderson, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of liquid crystal anchoring on patterned self-assembled monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(12), 2143–2148 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

G. M. Russell, B. J. A. Paterson, C. T. Imrie, and S. K. Heeks, “Thermal characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals by differential scanning calorimetry,” Chem. Mater. 7(11), 2185–2189 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abdulhalim, I.

S. Isaacs and I. Abdulhalim, “Long range surface plasmon resonance with ultra-high penetration depth for self-referenced sensing and ultra-low detection limit using diverging beam approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 571–606 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ahmadian, D.

D. Ahmadian, C. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia, “Tunable plasmonic sensor with metal–liquid crystal–metal structure,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Allinson, H.

S. D. Evans, H. Allinson, N. Boden, T. M. Flynn, and J. R. Henderson, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of liquid crystal anchoring on patterned self-assembled monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(12), 2143–2148 (1997).
[Crossref]

Alogorri, J.

Altug, H.

A. E. Cetin, A. Mertiri, M. Huang, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Thermal tuning of surface plasmon polaritons using liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(12), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baek, S. H.

H. R. Jang, A. W. Wark, S. H. Baek, B. H. Chung, and H. J. Lee, “Ultrasensitive and ultrawide range detection of a cardiac biomarker on a surface plasmon resonance platform,” Anal. Chem. 86(1), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banerji, S.

Boden, N.

S. D. Evans, H. Allinson, N. Boden, T. M. Flynn, and J. R. Henderson, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of liquid crystal anchoring on patterned self-assembled monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(12), 2143–2148 (1997).
[Crossref]

Booksh, K. S.

L. L. Kegel, D. Boyne, and K. S. Booksh, “Sensing with prism-based near-infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy on nanohole array platforms,” Anal. Chem. 86(7), 3355–3364 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Kim, W. Peng, S. Banerji, and K. S. Booksh, “Tapered fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor for analyses of vapor and liquid phases,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2218–2220 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyne, D.

L. L. Kegel, D. Boyne, and K. S. Booksh, “Sensing with prism-based near-infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy on nanohole array platforms,” Anal. Chem. 86(7), 3355–3364 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bukar, N.

S. S. Zhao, N. Bukar, J. L. Toulouse, D. Pelechacz, R. Robitaille, J. N. Pelletier, and J. F. Masson, “Miniature multi-channel SPR instrument for methotrexate monitoring in clinical samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 64, 664–670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byeon, S. K.

J. Y. Lee, S. K. Byeon, and M. H. Moon, “Profiling of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins from patients with coronary artery disease by hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 1266–1273 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camara, B. G.

Cetin, A. E.

A. E. Cetin, A. Mertiri, M. Huang, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Thermal tuning of surface plasmon polaritons using liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(12), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

Cheng, F.

Chung, B. H.

H. R. Jang, A. W. Wark, S. H. Baek, B. H. Chung, and H. J. Lee, “Ultrasensitive and ultrawide range detection of a cardiac biomarker on a surface plasmon resonance platform,” Anal. Chem. 86(1), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Couture, M.

M. Couture, S. S. Zhao, and J. F. Masson, “Modern surface plasmon resonance for bioanalytics and biophysics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(27), 11190–11216 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, Z. Q.

Y. Zhao, Z. Q. Deng, and J. Li, “Photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 202(4), 557–567 (2014).
[Crossref]

Erramilli, S.

A. E. Cetin, A. Mertiri, M. Huang, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Thermal tuning of surface plasmon polaritons using liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(12), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Evans, S. D.

S. D. Evans, H. Allinson, N. Boden, T. M. Flynn, and J. R. Henderson, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of liquid crystal anchoring on patterned self-assembled monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(12), 2143–2148 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fang, P.

Flynn, T. M.

S. D. Evans, H. Allinson, N. Boden, T. M. Flynn, and J. R. Henderson, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of liquid crystal anchoring on patterned self-assembled monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(12), 2143–2148 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gao, X. T.

X. X. Liu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, X. T. Gao, and W. Peng, “Surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor based on light guiding flexible fused silica capillary tubing,” Opt. Commun. 356, 212–217 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garcia, A. G.

Ghobadi, C.

D. Ahmadian, C. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia, “Tunable plasmonic sensor with metal–liquid crystal–metal structure,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Heeks, S. K.

G. M. Russell, B. J. A. Paterson, C. T. Imrie, and S. K. Heeks, “Thermal characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals by differential scanning calorimetry,” Chem. Mater. 7(11), 2185–2189 (1995).
[Crossref]

Henderson, J. R.

S. D. Evans, H. Allinson, N. Boden, T. M. Flynn, and J. R. Henderson, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of liquid crystal anchoring on patterned self-assembled monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(12), 2143–2148 (1997).
[Crossref]

Huang, M.

A. E. Cetin, A. Mertiri, M. Huang, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Thermal tuning of surface plasmon polaritons using liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(12), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Iga, M.

M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Hetero-core structured fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor with silver film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 101(3), 368–372 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, T.

O. Tsutsumi, T. Kitsunai, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical phase transition behavior of polymer azobenzene liquid crystals with Electron-Donating and accepting substituents at the 4,4′-Positions,” Macromolecules 31(2), 355–359 (1998).
[Crossref]

Imrie, C. T.

G. M. Russell, B. J. A. Paterson, C. T. Imrie, and S. K. Heeks, “Thermal characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals by differential scanning calorimetry,” Chem. Mater. 7(11), 2185–2189 (1995).
[Crossref]

Isaacs, S.

S. Isaacs and I. Abdulhalim, “Long range surface plasmon resonance with ultra-high penetration depth for self-referenced sensing and ultra-low detection limit using diverging beam approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 571–606 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, T.

M. Moritsugu, T. Ishikawa, T. Kawata, T. Ogata, Y. Kuwahara, and S. Kurihara, “Thermal and photochemical control of molecular orientation of azo-functionalized polymer liquid crystals and application for photo-rewritable paper,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 32(19), 1546–1550 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Israelachvili, J. N.

K. Kristiansen, H. Zeng, B. Zappone, and J. N. Israelachvili, “Simultaneous measurements of molecular forces and electro-optical properties of a confined 5CB liquid crystal film using a surface forces apparatus,” Langmuir 31(13), 3965–3972 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ito, K.

Jang, H. R.

H. R. Jang, A. W. Wark, S. H. Baek, B. H. Chung, and H. J. Lee, “Ultrasensitive and ultrawide range detection of a cardiac biomarker on a surface plasmon resonance platform,” Anal. Chem. 86(1), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jha, R.

Jiang, Y. X.

Kanazawa, A.

O. Tsutsumi, T. Kitsunai, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical phase transition behavior of polymer azobenzene liquid crystals with Electron-Donating and accepting substituents at the 4,4′-Positions,” Macromolecules 31(2), 355–359 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kashyap, R.

Kawata, T.

M. Moritsugu, T. Ishikawa, T. Kawata, T. Ogata, Y. Kuwahara, and S. Kurihara, “Thermal and photochemical control of molecular orientation of azo-functionalized polymer liquid crystals and application for photo-rewritable paper,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 32(19), 1546–1550 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kegel, L. L.

L. L. Kegel, D. Boyne, and K. S. Booksh, “Sensing with prism-based near-infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy on nanohole array platforms,” Anal. Chem. 86(7), 3355–3364 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. C.

Kitsunai, T.

O. Tsutsumi, T. Kitsunai, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical phase transition behavior of polymer azobenzene liquid crystals with Electron-Donating and accepting substituents at the 4,4′-Positions,” Macromolecules 31(2), 355–359 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kristiansen, K.

K. Kristiansen, H. Zeng, B. Zappone, and J. N. Israelachvili, “Simultaneous measurements of molecular forces and electro-optical properties of a confined 5CB liquid crystal film using a surface forces apparatus,” Langmuir 31(13), 3965–3972 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kurihara, S.

M. Moritsugu, T. Ishikawa, T. Kawata, T. Ogata, Y. Kuwahara, and S. Kurihara, “Thermal and photochemical control of molecular orientation of azo-functionalized polymer liquid crystals and application for photo-rewritable paper,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 32(19), 1546–1550 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuwahara, Y.

M. Moritsugu, T. Ishikawa, T. Kawata, T. Ogata, Y. Kuwahara, and S. Kurihara, “Thermal and photochemical control of molecular orientation of azo-functionalized polymer liquid crystals and application for photo-rewritable paper,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 32(19), 1546–1550 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. J.

H. R. Jang, A. W. Wark, S. H. Baek, B. H. Chung, and H. J. Lee, “Ultrasensitive and ultrawide range detection of a cardiac biomarker on a surface plasmon resonance platform,” Anal. Chem. 86(1), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. Y.

J. Y. Lee, S. K. Byeon, and M. H. Moon, “Profiling of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins from patients with coronary artery disease by hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 1266–1273 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leviatanand, Y.

X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatanand, and C. Li, “A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. 12(1), 74–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatanand, and C. Li, “A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. 12(1), 74–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Y. Zhao, Z. Q. Deng, and J. Li, “Photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 202(4), 557–567 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, B. H.

Liu, D.

B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5974–5986 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xia, Y. Zhang, C. Zhou, B. Shuai, and D. Liu, “Numerical analysis of plasmon polarition refractive index fiber sensors with hollow core and a long period grating,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2835–2838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

X. X. Liu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, X. T. Gao, and W. Peng, “Surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor based on light guiding flexible fused silica capillary tubing,” Opt. Commun. 356, 212–217 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, S. Chen, Q. Liu, and W. Peng, “Micro-capillary-based evanescent field biosensor for sensitive, label-free DNA detection,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20686–20695 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Liu, X. X.

X. X. Liu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, X. T. Gao, and W. Peng, “Surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor based on light guiding flexible fused silica capillary tubing,” Opt. Commun. 356, 212–217 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Luan, N.

Lv, W.

Ma, L.

Masson, J. F.

S. S. Zhao, N. Bukar, J. L. Toulouse, D. Pelechacz, R. Robitaille, J. N. Pelletier, and J. F. Masson, “Miniature multi-channel SPR instrument for methotrexate monitoring in clinical samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 64, 664–670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Couture, S. S. Zhao, and J. F. Masson, “Modern surface plasmon resonance for bioanalytics and biophysics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(27), 11190–11216 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsuura, Y.

Mertiri, A.

A. E. Cetin, A. Mertiri, M. Huang, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Thermal tuning of surface plasmon polaritons using liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(12), 915–920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miyagi, M.

Moon, M. H.

J. Y. Lee, S. K. Byeon, and M. H. Moon, “Profiling of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins from patients with coronary artery disease by hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 1266–1273 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moritsugu, M.

M. Moritsugu, T. Ishikawa, T. Kawata, T. Ogata, Y. Kuwahara, and S. Kurihara, “Thermal and photochemical control of molecular orientation of azo-functionalized polymer liquid crystals and application for photo-rewritable paper,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 32(19), 1546–1550 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nemova, G.

Nourinia, J.

D. Ahmadian, C. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia, “Tunable plasmonic sensor with metal–liquid crystal–metal structure,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–10 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ogata, T.

M. Moritsugu, T. Ishikawa, T. Kawata, T. Ogata, Y. Kuwahara, and S. Kurihara, “Thermal and photochemical control of molecular orientation of azo-functionalized polymer liquid crystals and application for photo-rewritable paper,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 32(19), 1546–1550 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, S. S.

X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatanand, and C. Li, “A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. 12(1), 74–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paterson, B. J. A.

G. M. Russell, B. J. A. Paterson, C. T. Imrie, and S. K. Heeks, “Thermal characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals by differential scanning calorimetry,” Chem. Mater. 7(11), 2185–2189 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pelechacz, D.

S. S. Zhao, N. Bukar, J. L. Toulouse, D. Pelechacz, R. Robitaille, J. N. Pelletier, and J. F. Masson, “Miniature multi-channel SPR instrument for methotrexate monitoring in clinical samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 64, 664–670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelletier, J. N.

S. S. Zhao, N. Bukar, J. L. Toulouse, D. Pelechacz, R. Robitaille, J. N. Pelletier, and J. F. Masson, “Miniature multi-channel SPR instrument for methotrexate monitoring in clinical samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 64, 664–670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, W.

Robitaille, R.

S. S. Zhao, N. Bukar, J. L. Toulouse, D. Pelechacz, R. Robitaille, J. N. Pelletier, and J. F. Masson, “Miniature multi-channel SPR instrument for methotrexate monitoring in clinical samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 64, 664–670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, G. M.

G. M. Russell, B. J. A. Paterson, C. T. Imrie, and S. K. Heeks, “Thermal characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals by differential scanning calorimetry,” Chem. Mater. 7(11), 2185–2189 (1995).
[Crossref]

Seki, A.

M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Hetero-core structured fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor with silver film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 101(3), 368–372 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sharma, A. K.

Shi, Y. W.

Shiono, T.

O. Tsutsumi, T. Kitsunai, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical phase transition behavior of polymer azobenzene liquid crystals with Electron-Donating and accepting substituents at the 4,4′-Positions,” Macromolecules 31(2), 355–359 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shuai, B.

B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5974–5986 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xia, Y. Zhang, C. Zhou, B. Shuai, and D. Liu, “Numerical analysis of plasmon polarition refractive index fiber sensors with hollow core and a long period grating,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2835–2838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shum, P.

X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatanand, and C. Li, “A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. 12(1), 74–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, X. L.

Toulouse, J. L.

S. S. Zhao, N. Bukar, J. L. Toulouse, D. Pelechacz, R. Robitaille, J. N. Pelletier, and J. F. Masson, “Miniature multi-channel SPR instrument for methotrexate monitoring in clinical samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 64, 664–670 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsutsumi, O.

O. Tsutsumi, T. Kitsunai, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical phase transition behavior of polymer azobenzene liquid crystals with Electron-Donating and accepting substituents at the 4,4′-Positions,” Macromolecules 31(2), 355–359 (1998).
[Crossref]

Urruchi, V.

Wang, H.

Wang, R.

Wark, A. W.

H. R. Jang, A. W. Wark, S. H. Baek, B. H. Chung, and H. J. Lee, “Ultrasensitive and ultrawide range detection of a cardiac biomarker on a surface plasmon resonance platform,” Anal. Chem. 86(1), 814–819 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Hetero-core structured fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor with silver film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 101(3), 368–372 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xia, L.

B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5974–5986 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xia, Y. Zhang, C. Zhou, B. Shuai, and D. Liu, “Numerical analysis of plasmon polarition refractive index fiber sensors with hollow core and a long period grating,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2835–2838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, M.

X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatanand, and C. Li, “A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. 12(1), 74–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Yoshida, T.

Yu, X.

X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatanand, and C. Li, “A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. 12(1), 74–77 (2010).
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Zappone, B.

K. Kristiansen, H. Zeng, B. Zappone, and J. N. Israelachvili, “Simultaneous measurements of molecular forces and electro-optical properties of a confined 5CB liquid crystal film using a surface forces apparatus,” Langmuir 31(13), 3965–3972 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

K. Kristiansen, H. Zeng, B. Zappone, and J. N. Israelachvili, “Simultaneous measurements of molecular forces and electro-optical properties of a confined 5CB liquid crystal film using a surface forces apparatus,” Langmuir 31(13), 3965–3972 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

B. Shuai, L. Xia, Y. Zhang, and D. Liu, “A multi-core holey fiber based plasmonic sensor with large detection range and high linearity,” Opt. Express 20(6), 5974–5986 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xia, Y. Zhang, C. Zhou, B. Shuai, and D. Liu, “Numerical analysis of plasmon polarition refractive index fiber sensors with hollow core and a long period grating,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2835–2838 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatanand, and C. Li, “A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. 12(1), 74–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S. S.

S. S. Zhao, N. Bukar, J. L. Toulouse, D. Pelechacz, R. Robitaille, J. N. Pelletier, and J. F. Masson, “Miniature multi-channel SPR instrument for methotrexate monitoring in clinical samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 64, 664–670 (2015).
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M. Couture, S. S. Zhao, and J. F. Masson, “Modern surface plasmon resonance for bioanalytics and biophysics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(27), 11190–11216 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, Z. Q. Deng, and J. Li, “Photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 202(4), 557–567 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

L. Xia, Y. Zhang, C. Zhou, B. Shuai, and D. Liu, “Numerical analysis of plasmon polarition refractive index fiber sensors with hollow core and a long period grating,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2835–2838 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

A. E. Cetin, A. Mertiri, M. Huang, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Thermal tuning of surface plasmon polaritons using liquid crystals,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(12), 915–920 (2013).
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Anal. Chem. (3)

H. R. Jang, A. W. Wark, S. H. Baek, B. H. Chung, and H. J. Lee, “Ultrasensitive and ultrawide range detection of a cardiac biomarker on a surface plasmon resonance platform,” Anal. Chem. 86(1), 814–819 (2014).
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L. L. Kegel, D. Boyne, and K. S. Booksh, “Sensing with prism-based near-infrared surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy on nanohole array platforms,” Anal. Chem. 86(7), 3355–3364 (2014).
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J. Y. Lee, S. K. Byeon, and M. H. Moon, “Profiling of oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins from patients with coronary artery disease by hollow fiber flow field-flow fractionation and nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 87(2), 1266–1273 (2015).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Isaacs and I. Abdulhalim, “Long range surface plasmon resonance with ultra-high penetration depth for self-referenced sensing and ultra-low detection limit using diverging beam approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(19), 571–606 (2015).
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Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

S. S. Zhao, N. Bukar, J. L. Toulouse, D. Pelechacz, R. Robitaille, J. N. Pelletier, and J. F. Masson, “Miniature multi-channel SPR instrument for methotrexate monitoring in clinical samples,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 64, 664–670 (2015).
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Chem. Mater. (1)

G. M. Russell, B. J. A. Paterson, C. T. Imrie, and S. K. Heeks, “Thermal characterization of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals by differential scanning calorimetry,” Chem. Mater. 7(11), 2185–2189 (1995).
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D. Ahmadian, C. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia, “Tunable plasmonic sensor with metal–liquid crystal–metal structure,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(2), 1–10 (2015).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. (1)

X. Yu, Y. Zhang, S. S. Pan, P. Shum, M. Yan, Y. Leviatanand, and C. Li, “A selectively coated photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance sensor,” J. Opt. 12(1), 74–77 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

S. D. Evans, H. Allinson, N. Boden, T. M. Flynn, and J. R. Henderson, “Surface plasmon resonance imaging of liquid crystal anchoring on patterned self-assembled monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101(12), 2143–2148 (1997).
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K. Kristiansen, H. Zeng, B. Zappone, and J. N. Israelachvili, “Simultaneous measurements of molecular forces and electro-optical properties of a confined 5CB liquid crystal film using a surface forces apparatus,” Langmuir 31(13), 3965–3972 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macromol. Rapid Commun. (1)

M. Moritsugu, T. Ishikawa, T. Kawata, T. Ogata, Y. Kuwahara, and S. Kurihara, “Thermal and photochemical control of molecular orientation of azo-functionalized polymer liquid crystals and application for photo-rewritable paper,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 32(19), 1546–1550 (2011).
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Macromolecules (1)

O. Tsutsumi, T. Kitsunai, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, and T. Ikeda, “Photochemical phase transition behavior of polymer azobenzene liquid crystals with Electron-Donating and accepting substituents at the 4,4′-Positions,” Macromolecules 31(2), 355–359 (1998).
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Opt. Commun. (2)

X. X. Liu, Y. Liu, Q. Liu, X. T. Gao, and W. Peng, “Surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensor based on light guiding flexible fused silica capillary tubing,” Opt. Commun. 356, 212–217 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Xia, Y. Zhang, C. Zhou, B. Shuai, and D. Liu, “Numerical analysis of plasmon polarition refractive index fiber sensors with hollow core and a long period grating,” Opt. Commun. 284(12), 2835–2838 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Couture, S. S. Zhao, and J. F. Masson, “Modern surface plasmon resonance for bioanalytics and biophysics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15(27), 11190–11216 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (2)

M. Iga, A. Seki, and K. Watanabe, “Hetero-core structured fiber optic surface plasmon resonance sensor with silver film,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 101(3), 368–372 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Z. Q. Deng, and J. Li, “Photonic crystal fiber based surface plasmon resonance chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 202(4), 557–567 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Design of the SPR thermometer. (a) Schematic view of the hollow fiber filled with a liquid crystal medium, and temperature controlled by an external heat source. White light was launched into the hollow fiber and a spectrophotometer collected the response for different temperature values. (b) The structure of the silver coated hollow fiber. (c) The cross section of the hollow fiber filling with bulk homogeneous dielectric or a liquid crystal medium.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the liquid crystal phases changing with temperature. (a) Schematic view of different liquid crystal phases. (b) Liquid crystal phase transition process observed under the polarizing microscope.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Normalized intensity transmission spectra with liquid crystal core for different temperature values. (b) Correlation of the resonance wavelength for different temperatures. The linear relationship is shown by the two red lines for the temperature ranges of 20~34.5 °C and 36~50°C, respectively. The blue dashed line represents the transition temperature between nematic and isotropic phases.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalized intensity transmission spectra of hollow fiber SPR sensor with different RIs of the bulk homogeneous dielectric medium. (a) Theoretical. (b) Experimental. (c) Linear relationship between the resonance wavelength of the hollow fiber SPR sensor (λ) and the refractive index of the bulk solutions (n). (d) The RI for the liquid crystal medium calculated from the linear relationship shown in Fig. 4(c). Experimental data correlate to the RI calculated from the calibration in Fig. 3(b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM pictures of the cross section of the silver layer. (a) Surface structure of the silver and the hollow fiber. (b) Enlarged image of the silver layer.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Volume Ratios between Polymethylphenyl Siloxane Fluid and Kerosene for Different RIs

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