Abstract

In this paper, a magnetically controllable wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) fiber coupler has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A theoretical model has been established to analyze the influences of the weak as well as strong couplings to the wavelength tunability of this coupler. Experimental results show that the operation wavelength tunability of the proposed WDM coupler could be fulfilled for an applied magnetic field intensity range of 0 Oe to 500 Oe, and particularly it possesses high operation performances within the magnetic field intensity ranging from 25 Oe to 125 Oe when additional transmission loss and isolation are both considered. Within this range, the two selected channels show the wavelength tunability of 0.05 nm/Oe and 0.0744 nm/Oe, respectively, and the isolation between the two branches is higher than 24.089 dB. Owing to its high isolation, good splitting ratio stability, and high wavelength tunability, the proposed controllable WDM coupler is anticipated to find potential applications in such fields as fiber laser, fiber sensing and fiber-optic communications. Moreover, the fiber coupler integrated with the magnetic fluid would be valuable for the design of magnetically controllable mode-division-multiplexing devices.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

As one of the most efficient methods to expand the transmission spectral window, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is one of the key technologies for optical communications as well as optical sensing systems [1]. Due to the great demands of data exchange applications in multi-channel optical networks, much efforts have been put on the development of multiplexing/demultiplexing components, including diffraction grating [2], dielectric film filter [3], fiber Bragg grating [4], long period fiber grating [5], and fiber coupler [6]. Amongst these components, fiber coupler plays a particularly significant role in building up all-fiber optical systems and have attracted increasing research interests in the past few decades [7~12]. The wavelength tunability of fiber couplers provides convenient, fiber-compatible and hence low loss approaches for wavelength channel selection and add/drop in fiber-optic systems, and they have found various applications in such ever-growing fields as fiber laser, fiber sensor, and fiber-optic communications technologies. In the past few years, wavelength tunability of fiber couplers has been fulfilled by employing the micro-mechanical platform or thermo-optical medium [13–17]. Fiber-optic couplers could be generally classified into two categories: the mechanically tunable [13, 14] and evanescent-field-assisted ones [15–17]. The latter would be of special attraction as the evanescent field is highly sensitive to the environmental medium. This property makes it possible to achieve a tunable WDM coupler with high performances by integrating the fiber-optic coupler with various functional materials.

As an attractive functional material, the magnetic fluid (MF) possesses many intriguing magneto-optical properties such as tunable refractive index [18], tunable transmission [19], tunable birefringence and dichroism [20], etc. By using these properties, a good variety of magneto-optical devices have been proposed, including magnetic field sensors [21–24], optical switches [25, 26], and optical modulators [27, 28], etc. The variation in refractive index of the MF could normally reach a magnitude of 10−2 when external magnetic field is applied [29]. This property could be exploited to tune the coupling coefficient of fiber-optic couplers.

Actually some works have been engaged on the design of MF-based tunable couplers [30, 31]. These works aim to theoretically design the magnetically controlled coupler operating at one particular wavelength. In the work presented in this paper, we have theoretically proposed and experimentally validated a magnetically controllable wavelength-selective fiber coupler for WDM applications. Its wavelength tunability is achieved by integrating the fiber coupler with the MF. A theoretical model has been set up to analyze the operation principle of the proposed WDM coupler, which is verified by our experimental observation on the transmission spectral evolution in response to the applied magnetic field intensity. Our proposed magnetically controllable WDM coupler has high channel wavelength tunability and splitting ratio with high isolation, which ensures its applicability for potential applications in fiber laser and fiber-optic communications systems, as well as fiber sensing occasions. Furthermore, our proposed schemes also support the magnetically controllable mode division multiplexing by using the MF-integrated fiber coupler.

2. Theory

2.1 Fundamental principle

Several schemes have been proposed to analyze the coupling mathematically of tapered fiber couplers [10–12]. According to the fusion degree, the coupling region of the fiber coupler can be classified into weakly coupling and strong coupling regions, as shown in Fig. 1. Under weakly coupling condition, the two fibers are not fused together. When the light propagating through the two fibers is constrained inside the core area, the coupling between the two fibers is rather weak and could be actually neglected. As the fiber radius further reduces during the pulling process and the fiber core would no longer thoroughly constrain the light, and the fiber cladding would turn to serve as the waveguide core with ambient medium working as the waveguide cladding. In this case the coupling coefficient could be expressed as [12]:

CWC=2r(Δ2πD)1/2UV5/2eV(2D2)=λ2πr2n2πDUV32eV(2D2)
where, Δ = (n22-n32)/2n22 and V = 2πr(n22-n32)1/2/λ refer to the relative refractive index difference and normalized propagation constant, respectively. Here n2 and n3 represent the refractive indices of the cladding and the external medium, respectively, and r is the fiber radius which depends on the fusion degree and length of the tapering region. The eigenvalue U, is 2.405 when the fundamental core mode is far from cut-off region. D is defined as D = d/2r to describe the fusion degree, where d is the inter-core distance.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of a symmetrical 2 × 2 tapered coupler.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

For the strong coupling case, the fibers are fused together and Eq. (1) is no longer valid. Under this condition, the coupler could be considered as a hybrid waveguide and the coupling coefficient can be calculated by half of the propagation constant difference between the even and odd modes. In other words, the fiber fusion region is simplified as a rectangular waveguide and the coupling coefficient can be described as [12]:

CSC=β0β12=3πλ32n2r21(1+1/V)2

Therefore, the phase difference between the light at the two output ports can be calculated by integrating the coupling efficient along z-axis over the coupling region, as expressed by the following equation [12]:

φ(λ,n3)=WCCWC(λ,n3,z)dz+SCCSC(λ,n3,z)dz=φWC(λ,n3)+φSC(λ,n3)

Thus the normalized powers of the output ports could be acquired using PC (λ) = 1- sin2 φ (λ, n3) and PD (λ) = sin2 φ (λ, n3) [12]. It should be noted that the transmission loss is neglected in the above calculation. However, with the reduction of fiber radius, stronger evanescent field would be excited and will be absorbed or scattered by ambient medium, causing considerable transmission loss when the light propagates though the fiber fusion region. Besides, the modal phase difference between the two fibers should be also taken into account as it is rather difficult to maintain identical fiber geometry during the pulling process. Considering these factors, the output powers normalized to the input power should be modified as:

PC(λ)=10α(1Fsin2φ(λ,n3))
PD(λ)=10αFsin2φ(λ,n3)
where, α = α0 + αext (H) is the transmission loss introduced during the pulling process and the ambient medium, and F≡|κ|2/φ2 (0≤F≤1) is the phase matching degree. Here, κ is the coupling coefficients between the two fibers. For an ideal fiber coupler, the phase is well matched and in practical applications it is reasonable to assume that F≈1. The performance of the coupler can be theoretically evaluated by the following parameters, including insertion loss L, additional loss Ladd, and splitting ratio SR, which could be expressed below:

LX=10lgPXPin=10lgPX(λ);X=CorD
Ladd=10lgPout,totalPin=10lg(PC(λ)+PD(λ))=α=10lg[10(LC/10)+10(LD/10)]
SRX=PXPout,total×100%=10(LLadd)/10×100%;X=CorD

When sin2 φ (λ, n3) = 1, the minimum PC (λ) could be reached while the maximum could be acquired when sin2 φ (λ, n3) = 0. Thus, for port C, the band-pass or band-rejection operations can be achieved when the following conditions are respectively satisfied:

φ(λ,n3)={π/2+kπkπband-rejectionchannelband-passchannel;kisinteger
SRCchannel={(1F)×100%1band-rejectionchannelband-passchannel

2.2 Theoretical analysis

As the applied magnetic field intensity varies, the refractive index and transmission loss of the magnetic fluid would change accordingly [18, 19]. And therefore, the phase difference of the coupler φ (λ, n3), the phase matching degree F as well as the transmission loss α would change accordingly. Since the transmission loss increases with the increment of the magnetic field intensity, the additional loss would increase according to Eq. (7) [19]. While, the insertion losses are affected by the transmission loss α, the phase difference φ (λ, n3) and the phase matching degree F. However, the channel splitting ratio SR only depends on the phase matching degree F.

Additionally, the channel wavelength would also shift with the variation in the refractive index of the magnetic fluid, and the corresponding sensitivity can be expressed as:

λn3=φn3φλ=(φWCn3+φSCn3)φWCλ+φSCλ

According to Eqs. (1) and (2), it is easy to deduce that ∂φSC/∂n3 <0, ∂φWC/∂λ>0 and ∂φWC/∂n3>0. And in order to ensure good light constraint ability, the eigenvalues V of the tapered fiber should be larger than 2.045, which means that ∂φSC/∂λ >0. Thus, if weak coupling is the major factor that account for the coupling mechanism, ∂λ/∂n3<0 and the channel wavelength would exhibit blue shift with the increment of the external refractive index. While when strong coupling plays more significant role, the channel wavelength would show red shift.

The splitting ratios (SR) as functions of operation wavelength for port A ~D have been calculated for different ambient refractive indices n3, as shown in Fig. 2. It should be mentioned that in our calculation process, the strong coupling region is considered as a cylindrical waveguide with a waist radius of rmin and the fusion degree D as well as tapered fiber radius r are assumed to increase linearly with the increment of the distance from the taper waist. The lengths of weak coupling and strong coupling regions are lwc = 23 mm and lsc = 5mm, respectively. The waist radius rmin = 20 μm. The maximum and minimum of D are 2 and 1, respectively. The diameter of the un-tapered SMF is 125μm. The transmission loss α = 0 and the phase matching degree F = 1.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Calculated splitting ratio as functions of operation wavelength for port A ~D when n3 = 1.4, 1.405, 1.41, 1.415 and 1.42.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

As shown in Fig. 2, the operation channel wavelength move towards longer wavelength region with the increment of n3. According to [32], Chen et al…, the refractive index of the MF would increase with the increment of the applied magnetic field intensity. And consequently, as the applied magnetic field intensity increases, the operation channel wavelength would exhibit some red shift.

3. Experimental setup

Figure 3 shows the schematic diagram of the proposed magnetically controllable WDM coupler. It is fabricated by a homemade fiber coupler immersed into the MF (EMG605, Ferrotec) though a capillary. The fiber coupler is fabricated using a fiber taper machine (produced by E-Otron, Shanghai, China). Single-mode fibers (SMFs) with coating stripped off are wound together and stretched using the oxyhydrogen flame scanning method until the tapered section length is about 23 mm. The flame is about 5 mm in width and stands still during the tapering process. The coupler is kept straightly inside a capillary, and the MF is infiltrated into the capillary to completely immerse the WDM coupler. To prevent the MF from leaking off the silica tube, the capillary is sealed with paraffin at its both ends.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the proposed magnetically controllable WDM coupler.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

A test system is employed to investigate the performances of the magnetically controllable WDM coupler under a room temperature of 19 °C. As shown in Fig. 4(a), the SMF-based magnetically controllable WDM coupler is spliced between a supercontinuum broadband light source (SBLS) and an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA: Yokogawa AQ6370C, operation wavelength ranges from 600 nm to 1700 nm) using a commercially available fiber fusion splicer. A supercontinuum broadband source based on the nonlinear spectral expansion of a segment of ~20 m photonic crystal fiber pumped by a 1060 nm pulsed laser is employed in out experiment. The SBLS is able to provide a broadband wavelength range from 600nm to 1700nm and its optical spectrum is shown in Fig. 4(b). A pair of electromagnets is used to apply external magnetic field perpendicular to the fiber axis. The electromagnets are placed oppositely with a distance of about 4 cm in order to apply uniform magnetic field between the electromagnets. The proposed WDM coupler is placed around the central region and its environmental temperature fluctuates less than 1.5 °C as the electromagnets keep operating for 60 mins. The intensity of the external magnetic field is measured by a Tesla meter with a resolution of 0.1 Oe. Figure 4(c) shows the additional loss and insertion loss of the WDM before and after immersion into the MF. It can be seen that four channels are present within the spectral range of 975nm to 1700nm. When the fiber coupler is immersed into the MF, all of these operation channels would move toward longer wavelength region and the insertion loss increases in the meanwhile, which implies that strong coupling should be the major factor that accounts for the coupling mechanism. The additional loss of the initial WDM α0 introduced during the pulling process is around 0.6 dB, and it could be reduced by further improving the pulling technique. The additional loss increases when the coupler is immersed into the MF and its variation becomes larger in the longer wavelength region.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) Experimental setup of the test system (b) Optical spectrum of the SBLS (c) Additional loss of the WDM before and after immersion into the MF; the inset shows the wavelength-dependent insertion loss of the WDM before and after the WDM is immersed into the MF for port A to port C and D, respectively.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

4. Experimental results and discussion

The magnetic field intensity could be controlled by tuning the voltage applied on the electromagnets. While the applied magnetic field intensity increases from 0 Oe to 500 Oe, all of the insertion losses for port A to port C and D (LC and LD), increase gradually with the increment of the magnetic field intensity, as shown in Fig. 5. The spectral channels of the magnetically controllable WDM coupler move toward longer wavelength region, as shown in inset (a) and (b) of Fig. 5, respectively. According to Eq. (7), the additional loss Ladd can be calculated. This figure indicates that Ladd increases with the increment of applied magnetic field intensity which is in agreement of our theoretical analysis.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Additional loss as functions of wavelength for different applied magnetic field intensities; insets show the insertion loss in response to the applied magnetic field intensity for (a) port A to port C, (b) port A to port D, respectively.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The splitting ratio SR could be calculated according to Eq. (8) and it is obvious that SRC + SRD = 1. Figure 6 gives the calculated SRs under different magnetic field intensities. It can be seen that the SRs of the magnetically controllable WDM coupler exhibits gradual red shift behavior when the applied magnetic field intensity increases, which is in agreement with the above theoretical analysis. The difference between the calculated SR as functions of operation wavelength and the experimental measurement results may be caused by the above assumptions and the deviation of the calculation parameters from the actual fabricated WDM coupler geometry.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 (a), (b) Wavelength-dependent splitting ratio of the magnetically controllable WDM coupler under different magnetic field intensities for port A to C and port A to D respectively

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Four channels from port A to port C are selected to evaluate the wavelength tunability of the magnetically controllable WDM coupler. Channel 1 and 3 are band-rejection channels, while Channel 2 and 4 correspond to band-pass channels. The dependences of the selected channel wavelengths on the applied magnetic field intensity have been experimentally investigated, as illustrated in Fig. 7. For band-rejection channels, as the applied magnetic intensity increases from 0 Oe to 500 Oe, the channel wavelength moves from 1069.9 nm to 1080.3 nm for Channel 1and its SR varies from 0.349% to 0.766%. And for Channel 3, the channel wavelength increases from 1400.5 nm to 1417.9nm and its SR increases from 0.283% to 5.6%. The respectively wavelength of the band-pass channels increase by 13.6 nm and 24 nm within an applied magnetic field intensity range from 0 Oe to 500 Oe for Channel 2 and 4. And their SRs decrease form 99.875% to 96.981% and 98.242% to 82.153% respectively. The channel wavelengths show red shift and exhibit the Langevin-function-governed nonlinear behavior, which is similar to the results in in Hong’s Work [33]. The channel wavelengths show little shift when the applied magnetic field intensity is lower than 25 Oe or larger than 250 Oe, while exhibit considerable shift as the applied magnetic field intensity increases from 25 Oe to 250 Oe. This phenomenon could attribute to the initial magnetization and saturation magnetization of the MF. According to the above theoretical analysis, the shift directions of the channel wavelength indicate that strong coupling plays a significant role in the WDM coupling mechanism. In addition, the asymmetry of the coupler increases in a high external magnetic field owing to the influence of the birefringence of MF, which induces the reduction of the phase matching degree F. And as a result, according to Eq. (10), the SR of the band-rejection channels for port C increases with the increment of applied magnetic field intensity. However, for band-pass channels, the SRs would decrease with the increment of the magnetic field intensity, which reflects the influence of the polarization-dependent property of our proposed coupler. When no magnetic field is applied, the polarization property of the coupler is very low and SR of port C only depends on sin2 φ (λ, n3). When the applied external magnetic field increases, the increasing birefringence of the surrounding MF would enhance the polarization-dependent property of the coupler, causing the increment of the phase differences along two polarization directions: Δφ (λ, n3) = φx (λ, n3)- φy (λ, n3). As a result, according to Lacroix’s work, SRs of the band-pass channels would decrease with the increment of the applied magnetic field intensity [34].

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Wavelength and Splitting ratio as functions of the applied magnetic field intensity for the four selected channels

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Considering the influences of additional losses on its practical performances, the proposed tunable WDM could operate with high spectral quality for a magnetic field intensity ranging from 25 Oe to 125 Oe. Compared with the results shown in Figs. 7(c) and 7(d), the SRs of Channel 1 and 2 would be more stable than those of Channel 3 and 4. Thus, Channel 1 and 2 are selected to evaluate the wavelength tunability of the proposed WDM within the above range, as shown in Fig. 8.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Channel wavelength as applied magnetic field intensity for the two selected channels within a magnetic field intensity ranging from 25 Oe to 125 Oe; Inset (a) shows the additional losses of the two channels within this range, black symbol: channel 1, red symbol: channel 2; Inset (b) shows the isolations for these two channels, black symbol: channel 1, red symbol: channel 2.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 8 illustrates the wavelength tunability of the magnetically controllable WDM coupler for a magnetic field intensity range of 25 Oe to 125 Oe. As shown in Fig. 8, the wavelength shifts increase from 0.6 nm to 5.3 nm and from 0.3 nm to 7.6 nm for Channel 1 and 2, respectively. And their wavelength sensitivities reach 0.05 nm/Oe and 0.0744 nm/Oe, respectively. The magnetic field sensitivity and the wavelength tuning range of the WDM coupler could be further improved by using the MF with higher concentration whose refractive index is closer to silica. Inset (a) illustrates the additional loss as functions of the applied magnetic field intensity for the two selected channels. Within this range, the additional losses increase from 2.263 dB to 2.840 and 1.616 dB to 2.578 dB with the increment of magnetic field intensity for Channel 1 and Channel 2, respectively. The additional losses of the channels are lower than 3 dB and could be further reduced by using the MF with lower concentration. However, this method may sacrifice the wavelength tunability of the proposed tunable WDM. Inset (b) of Fig. 8 shows the isolations between the selected channels, which could be calculated by Iso = 10∙|lg (SR/(1-SR))|. From 25 Oe to 125 Oe, the isolation varies only a little around 24.2 dB for Channel 1, while it decreases from 29.168 dB to 24.089 dB for Channel 2. These results indicate that the channels of the tunable WDM could operation with high isolation within this particular magnetic field intensity range.

The temperature effect on the proposed WDM coupler has also been experimentally investigated, as shown in Fig. 9. It could be seen that the operation channel wavelength shifts a little with the increment of environmental temperature. As temperature increases from 20 °C to 40 °C, a wavelength shift of only 1 nm occurs. And in considerations of the experimentally measured magnetic field sensitivities of 0.05 nm/Oe and 0.0744 nm/Oe for Channel 1 and Channel 2 and the environmental temperature fluctuation of less than 1.5 °C, the temperature-induced uncertainty of the applied magnetic field intensity should be no more than 1.5 Oe. This indicates that the proposed WDM coupler could operate with low temperature effect.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 Temperature response of the selected two channels, black squares: Channel 1, red circles: Channel 2; the inset shows the wavelength-dependent splitting ratios of the WDM coupler for port A to port C under different temperatures.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

5. Conclusion

In this paper, a magnetically controllable WDM fiber coupler has been theoretical analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The WDM coupler is fabricated by immersing the fiber fused coupler into the MF. The tunable properties of the WDM coupler have been demonstrated for a magnetic field intensity from 0 Oe to 500 Oe. The tunable WDM could particularly operate with high spectral quality from 25 Oe to 125 Oe. The high wavelength sensitivities of 0.05 nm/Oe and 0.0744 nm/Oe have been achieved for Channel 1 and Channel 2, respectively, and the channel isolations are higher than 24.089 dB in this range. Besides, the number of operation channels and the wavelength tunability of the WDM coupler could be controlled by adjusting the tapering length and the flame scanning length during the fiber tapering process. As an important photonic component, our proposed tunable WDM coupler would find potential applications in fiber laser and optical communications systems as well as fiber sensing occasions. And moreover, the employed tunable coupling approach presented in this work would be valuable for the design of magnetically controllable fiber couplers for mode-division-multiplexing applications.

Appendix

An analysis on the contributions of weakly as well as strong couplings in the proposed fiber fused coupler to the channel wavelength shift would be presented in the following section. The channel wavelength tunability in response to ambient refractive index can be calculated according to Eq. (11). Before that, it is necessary to acquire ∂φWC/∂λ, ∂φSC/∂λ, ∂φWC/∂n3 and ∂φSC/∂n3. According to Eqs. (1) and (2), their respective derivations could be described as following equations:

φWCλ=λWCCWC(λ,n3,z)dz=WCCWC(λ,n3,z)λdz=WC{U2πr2n2πDV32eV(2D2)+Uλ2πr2n2πD[32V52eV(2D2)V32(2D2)eV(2D2)]Vλ}dz=WCU2πr2n2πD[52V32eV(2D2)+V12(2D2)eV(2D2)]dz
φSCλ=λSCCSC(λ,n3,z)dz=SCCSC(λ,n3,z)λdz=SC[3π32n2r2·V2(V+1)2+3πλ32n2r2[2V(V+1)22V2(V+1)3](Vλ)]dz=SC[3π32n2r2·V2(V1)(V+1)3]dz
φWCn3=n3WCCWC(λ,n3,z)dz=WCCWC(λ,n3,z)n3dz=WCλ2πr2n2πDU[32V52V12(2D2)]eV(2D2)·(Vn3)dz=WC2πn3Uλn2πD[32V72+V32(2D2)]eV(2D2)dz
φSCn3=n3SCCSC(λ,n3,z)dz=SCCSC(λ,n3,z)n3dz=SC3πλ32n2r2[2V(V+1)22V2(V+1)3](Vn3)dz=SC3π3n34n2λ1(V+1)3dz

It is easy to find that ∂φSC/∂n3 is less than 0. In addition, D should be higher than 1 because the two fibers are spatially separate. Therefore, we have ∂φWC/∂λ>0 and ∂φWC/∂n3>0. Under the strong coupling condition, in order to maintain good light constraint ability, the eigenvalue V of the tapered fiber should be larger than 2.045, and ∂φSC/∂λ is larger than 0. Hence according to Eqs. (11)-(15), the channel wavelength would shift toward longer wavelength region with the increment of ambient refractive index when -∂φSC/∂n3>∂φWC/∂n3, while it will turn out blue shift when -∂φSC/∂n3<∂φWC/∂n3. In addition, the tapered fiber radius can be calculated according to Yang’s work reported in [10], Yang et al…, where both of the strong coupling and weakly coupling lengths were measured. And thus the wavelength tunability of the WDM coupler can be completely calculated.

Acknowledgments

This work was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61377095, 61322510, 11274182, and 11204212, the 863 National High Technology Program of China under Grant No. 2013AA014201, Key Natural Science Foundation Project of Tianjin (Grant No.13JCZDJC26100), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project under Grant No. 2012M520024, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

References and links

1. H. Ishio, J. Minowa, and K. Nosu, “Review and status of wavelength-division-multiplexing technology and its application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(4), 448–463 (1984). [CrossRef]  

2. Y. Zhang and C. Zhou, “High-efficiency reflective diffraction gratings in fused silica as (de)multiplexers at 1.55microm for dense wavelength division multiplexing application,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(2), 331–334 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. M. Lequime, R. Parmentier, F. Lemarchand, and C. Amra, “Toward tunable thin-film filters for wavelength division multiplexing applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(16), 3277–3284 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. H. G. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(7), 1217–1221 (1999). [CrossRef]  

5. U. Tiwari, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, V. Mishra, S. C. Jain, N. Singh, and P. Kapur, “Tunable wavelength division multiplexing channel isolation filter based on dual chirped long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3747–3749 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. J. B. Eom, H. R. Lim, K. S. Park, and B. H. Lee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexing fiber coupler based on bending-insensitive holey optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2726–2728 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, and R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-taper single-mode fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett. 6(7), 327–328 (1981). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. M. Eisenmann and E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical couplers for wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 113–119 (1988). [CrossRef]  

9. M. N. McLandrich, R. J. Orazi, and H. R. Marlin, “Polarization independent narrow channel wavelength division multiplexing fiber couplers for 1.55 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(4), 442–447 (1991). [CrossRef]  

10. S. W. Yang, T. L. Wu, C. W. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “Numerical modeling of weakly fused fiber-optic polarization beamsplitters—part ii: the three-dimensional electromagnetic model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(4), 691–696 (1998). [CrossRef]  

11. K. Morishita and K. Yamazaki, “Wavelength and polarization dependences of fused fiber couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(3), 330–334 (2011). [CrossRef]  

12. J. Teng, J. Yang, C. Lv, T. Chen, J. Guo, J. Feng, and P. Wu, “Guidelines for design and fabrication of fused fiber coupler based wavelength division multiplexings,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(3), 239–244 (2014). [CrossRef]  

13. M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 746–754 (1982). [CrossRef]  

14. H. Choi, Y. Jeong, and K. Oh, “Wide, tunable band rejection filter based on micro-optical waveguide on microactuating platform covering O, E, S, C, L, and U bands,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 484–486 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. R. G. Lamont, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, “Power transfer in fused biconical-taper single-mode fiber couplers: dependence on external refractive index,” Appl. Opt. 24(3), 327–332 (1985). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. K. T. Kim, K. J. Cho, and B. H. Lee, “Empirical analysis of widely tunable fused fiber coupler assisted by external medium of high thermo-optic coefficient,” Fiber Integrated Opt. 30(1), 61–72 (2011). [CrossRef]  

17. M. Velazquez-Benitez and J. Hernandez-Cordero, “Optically Controlled Wavelength Tunable Fused Fiber Coupler,” in Workshop on Specialty Optical Fibers and their Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper W3.25. [CrossRef]  

18. S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004). [CrossRef]  

19. S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin of field-dependent optical transmission of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(15), 2372–2374 (2001). [CrossRef]  

20. P. C. Scholten, “The origin of magnetic birefringence and dichroism in magnetic fluids,” IEEE T. Magn. 16(2), 221–225 (1980). [CrossRef]  

21. R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and S. Abdelaziz, “All-fiber magnetic field sensors based on magnetic fluid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1539–1541 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014). [CrossRef]  

23. Y. Zhao, R. Lv, D. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot magnetic field sensor with temperature compensation using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 63(9), 2210–2214 (2014). [CrossRef]  

24. J. Zheng, X. Dong, P. Zu, J. Ji, H. Su, and P. S. Perry, “Intensity-modulated magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid and optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183511 (2013). [CrossRef]  

25. H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004). [CrossRef]  

26. Y. Gu, G. Valentino, and E. Mongeau, “Ferrofluid-based reconfigurable optofluidic switches for integrated sensing and digital data storage,” Appl. Opt. 53(4), 537–543 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093516 (2006). [CrossRef]  

29. T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007). [CrossRef]  

30. S. Dutt, S. K. Varshney, and S. Mahapatra, “Design of tunable couplers using magnetic fluid filled three-core optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(3), 164–166 (2012). [CrossRef]  

31. W. Lu, Z. Chen, and Q. Guo, “A fiber magneto-optical switch for NGN,” in Proceedings of IET International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, (IET, 2006), pp. 1–4.

32. Y. Chen, Q. Han, T. Liu, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode structure and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3999–4001 (2013). [PubMed]  

33. C. Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7), 1604–1609 (2004). [CrossRef]  

34. S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Bures, “Modeling of symmetric 2 × 2 fused-fiber couplers,” Appl. Opt. 33(36), 8361–8369 (1994). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Ishio, J. Minowa, and K. Nosu, “Review and status of wavelength-division-multiplexing technology and its application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(4), 448–463 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Zhang and C. Zhou, “High-efficiency reflective diffraction gratings in fused silica as (de)multiplexers at 1.55microm for dense wavelength division multiplexing application,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(2), 331–334 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Lequime, R. Parmentier, F. Lemarchand, and C. Amra, “Toward tunable thin-film filters for wavelength division multiplexing applications,” Appl. Opt. 41(16), 3277–3284 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. G. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(7), 1217–1221 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. U. Tiwari, S. M. Tripathi, K. Thyagarajan, M. R. Shenoy, V. Mishra, S. C. Jain, N. Singh, and P. Kapur, “Tunable wavelength division multiplexing channel isolation filter based on dual chirped long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3747–3749 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. B. Eom, H. R. Lim, K. S. Park, and B. H. Lee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexing fiber coupler based on bending-insensitive holey optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2726–2728 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, and R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-taper single-mode fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett. 6(7), 327–328 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Eisenmann and E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical couplers for wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 113–119 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. N. McLandrich, R. J. Orazi, and H. R. Marlin, “Polarization independent narrow channel wavelength division multiplexing fiber couplers for 1.55 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(4), 442–447 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. W. Yang, T. L. Wu, C. W. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “Numerical modeling of weakly fused fiber-optic polarization beamsplitters—part ii: the three-dimensional electromagnetic model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(4), 691–696 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. Morishita and K. Yamazaki, “Wavelength and polarization dependences of fused fiber couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(3), 330–334 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Teng, J. Yang, C. Lv, T. Chen, J. Guo, J. Feng, and P. Wu, “Guidelines for design and fabrication of fused fiber coupler based wavelength division multiplexings,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(3), 239–244 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 746–754 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Choi, Y. Jeong, and K. Oh, “Wide, tunable band rejection filter based on micro-optical waveguide on microactuating platform covering O, E, S, C, L, and U bands,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 484–486 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. R. G. Lamont, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, “Power transfer in fused biconical-taper single-mode fiber couplers: dependence on external refractive index,” Appl. Opt. 24(3), 327–332 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. K. T. Kim, K. J. Cho, and B. H. Lee, “Empirical analysis of widely tunable fused fiber coupler assisted by external medium of high thermo-optic coefficient,” Fiber Integrated Opt. 30(1), 61–72 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Velazquez-Benitez and J. Hernandez-Cordero, “Optically Controlled Wavelength Tunable Fused Fiber Coupler,” in Workshop on Specialty Optical Fibers and their Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper W3.25.
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin of field-dependent optical transmission of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(15), 2372–2374 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. C. Scholten, “The origin of magnetic birefringence and dichroism in magnetic fluids,” IEEE T. Magn. 16(2), 221–225 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and S. Abdelaziz, “All-fiber magnetic field sensors based on magnetic fluid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1539–1541 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Zhao, R. Lv, D. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot magnetic field sensor with temperature compensation using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 63(9), 2210–2214 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. J. Zheng, X. Dong, P. Zu, J. Ji, H. Su, and P. S. Perry, “Intensity-modulated magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid and optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183511 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. Gu, G. Valentino, and E. Mongeau, “Ferrofluid-based reconfigurable optofluidic switches for integrated sensing and digital data storage,” Appl. Opt. 53(4), 537–543 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093516 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. Dutt, S. K. Varshney, and S. Mahapatra, “Design of tunable couplers using magnetic fluid filled three-core optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(3), 164–166 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  31. W. Lu, Z. Chen, and Q. Guo, “A fiber magneto-optical switch for NGN,” in Proceedings of IET International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, (IET, 2006), pp. 1–4.
  32. Y. Chen, Q. Han, T. Liu, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode structure and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3999–4001 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  33. C. Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7), 1604–1609 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, and J. Bures, “Modeling of symmetric 2 × 2 fused-fiber couplers,” Appl. Opt. 33(36), 8361–8369 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

J. Teng, J. Yang, C. Lv, T. Chen, J. Guo, J. Feng, and P. Wu, “Guidelines for design and fabrication of fused fiber coupler based wavelength division multiplexings,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(3), 239–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, R. Lv, D. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot magnetic field sensor with temperature compensation using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 63(9), 2210–2214 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Gu, G. Valentino, and E. Mongeau, “Ferrofluid-based reconfigurable optofluidic switches for integrated sensing and digital data storage,” Appl. Opt. 53(4), 537–543 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

S. Dutt, S. K. Varshney, and S. Mahapatra, “Design of tunable couplers using magnetic fluid filled three-core optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(3), 164–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093516 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7), 1604–1609 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin of field-dependent optical transmission of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(15), 2372–2374 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

M. N. McLandrich, R. J. Orazi, and H. R. Marlin, “Polarization independent narrow channel wavelength division multiplexing fiber couplers for 1.55 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(4), 442–447 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

M. Eisenmann and E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical couplers for wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 113–119 (1988).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

H. Ishio, J. Minowa, and K. Nosu, “Review and status of wavelength-division-multiplexing technology and its application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(4), 448–463 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 746–754 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

P. C. Scholten, “The origin of magnetic birefringence and dichroism in magnetic fluids,” IEEE T. Magn. 16(2), 221–225 (1980).
[Crossref]

Abdelaziz, S.

Amra, C.

Argyros, A.

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bennion, I.

Bures, J.

Candiani, A.

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. C.

Chang, H. C.

Chen, C. S.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093516 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

J. Teng, J. Yang, C. Lv, T. Chen, J. Guo, J. Feng, and P. Wu, “Guidelines for design and fabrication of fused fiber coupler based wavelength division multiplexings,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(3), 239–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093516 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Q. Han, T. Liu, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode structure and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3999–4001 (2013).
[PubMed]

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093516 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chieh, J. J.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chisholm, K. E.

Chiu, Y. P.

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin of field-dependent optical transmission of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(15), 2372–2374 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cho, K. J.

K. T. Kim, K. J. Cho, and B. H. Lee, “Empirical analysis of widely tunable fused fiber coupler assisted by external medium of high thermo-optic coefficient,” Fiber Integrated Opt. 30(1), 61–72 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

Di, Z.

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 746–754 (1982).
[Crossref]

Dong, X.

J. Zheng, X. Dong, P. Zu, J. Ji, H. Su, and P. S. Perry, “Intensity-modulated magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid and optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183511 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dutt, S.

S. Dutt, S. K. Varshney, and S. Mahapatra, “Design of tunable couplers using magnetic fluid filled three-core optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(3), 164–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eisenmann, M.

M. Eisenmann and E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical couplers for wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 113–119 (1988).
[Crossref]

Eom, J. B.

Everall, L. A.

Fang, K. L.

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fen, L. H.

Feng, J.

J. Teng, J. Yang, C. Lv, T. Chen, J. Guo, J. Feng, and P. Wu, “Guidelines for design and fabrication of fused fiber coupler based wavelength division multiplexings,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(3), 239–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, R.

Gonthier, F.

Gu, Y.

Guo, J.

J. Teng, J. Yang, C. Lv, T. Chen, J. Guo, J. Feng, and P. Wu, “Guidelines for design and fabrication of fused fiber coupler based wavelength division multiplexings,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(3), 239–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, Q.

Hill, K. O.

Hong, C. Y.

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7), 1604–1609 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin of field-dependent optical transmission of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(15), 2372–2374 (2001).
[Crossref]

Horng, H. E.

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7), 1604–1609 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin of field-dependent optical transmission of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(15), 2372–2374 (2001).
[Crossref]

Iocco, H. G.

Ishio, H.

H. Ishio, J. Minowa, and K. Nosu, “Review and status of wavelength-division-multiplexing technology and its application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(4), 448–463 (1984).
[Crossref]

Jain, S. C.

Jeang, B. Y.

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin of field-dependent optical transmission of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(15), 2372–2374 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jeong, Y.

Ji, J.

J. Zheng, X. Dong, P. Zu, J. Ji, H. Su, and P. S. Perry, “Intensity-modulated magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid and optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183511 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y.

Jin, Y.

Johnson, D. C.

Kapur, P.

Kawasaki, B. S.

Kim, K. T.

K. T. Kim, K. J. Cho, and B. H. Lee, “Empirical analysis of widely tunable fused fiber coupler assisted by external medium of high thermo-optic coefficient,” Fiber Integrated Opt. 30(1), 61–72 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lacroix, S.

Lamont, R. G.

Lan, X.

Lee, B. H.

K. T. Kim, K. J. Cho, and B. H. Lee, “Empirical analysis of widely tunable fused fiber coupler assisted by external medium of high thermo-optic coefficient,” Fiber Integrated Opt. 30(1), 61–72 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. B. Eom, H. R. Lim, K. S. Park, and B. H. Lee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexing fiber coupler based on bending-insensitive holey optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2726–2728 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lemarchand, F.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lequime, M.

Li, X.

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liao, W.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093516 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lim, H. R.

Limberger, H. G.

Liu, T.

Y. Chen, Q. Han, T. Liu, X. Lan, and H. Xiao, “Optical fiber magnetic field sensor based on single-mode-multimode-single-mode structure and magnetic fluid,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3999–4001 (2013).
[PubMed]

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lv, C.

J. Teng, J. Yang, C. Lv, T. Chen, J. Guo, J. Feng, and P. Wu, “Guidelines for design and fabrication of fused fiber coupler based wavelength division multiplexings,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(3), 239–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lv, R.

Y. Zhao, R. Lv, D. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot magnetic field sensor with temperature compensation using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 63(9), 2210–2214 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lwin, R.

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mahapatra, S.

S. Dutt, S. K. Varshney, and S. Mahapatra, “Design of tunable couplers using magnetic fluid filled three-core optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(3), 164–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Marlin, H. R.

M. N. McLandrich, R. J. Orazi, and H. R. Marlin, “Polarization independent narrow channel wavelength division multiplexing fiber couplers for 1.55 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(4), 442–447 (1991).
[Crossref]

McLandrich, M. N.

M. N. McLandrich, R. J. Orazi, and H. R. Marlin, “Polarization independent narrow channel wavelength division multiplexing fiber couplers for 1.55 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(4), 442–447 (1991).
[Crossref]

Minowa, J.

H. Ishio, J. Minowa, and K. Nosu, “Review and status of wavelength-division-multiplexing technology and its application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(4), 448–463 (1984).
[Crossref]

Mishra, V.

Mongeau, E.

Morishita, K.

Nosu, K.

H. Ishio, J. Minowa, and K. Nosu, “Review and status of wavelength-division-multiplexing technology and its application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(4), 448–463 (1984).
[Crossref]

Oh, K.

Orazi, R. J.

M. N. McLandrich, R. J. Orazi, and H. R. Marlin, “Polarization independent narrow channel wavelength division multiplexing fiber couplers for 1.55 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(4), 442–447 (1991).
[Crossref]

Park, K. S.

Parmentier, R.

Perry, P. S.

J. Zheng, X. Dong, P. Zu, J. Ji, H. Su, and P. S. Perry, “Intensity-modulated magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid and optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183511 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pissadakis, S.

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pu, S.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093516 (2006).
[Crossref]

Salathe, R. P.

Scholten, P. C.

P. C. Scholten, “The origin of magnetic birefringence and dichroism in magnetic fluids,” IEEE T. Magn. 16(2), 221–225 (1980).
[Crossref]

Selleri, S.

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shaw, H. J.

M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 746–754 (1982).
[Crossref]

Shenoy, M. R.

Siang, L. W.

Singh, N.

Su, H.

J. Zheng, X. Dong, P. Zu, J. Ji, H. Su, and P. S. Perry, “Intensity-modulated magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid and optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183511 (2013).
[Crossref]

Teng, J.

J. Teng, J. Yang, C. Lv, T. Chen, J. Guo, J. Feng, and P. Wu, “Guidelines for design and fabrication of fused fiber coupler based wavelength division multiplexings,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(3), 239–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thyagarajan, K.

Tiwari, U.

Tripathi, S. M.

Valentino, G.

Varshney, S. K.

S. Dutt, S. K. Varshney, and S. Mahapatra, “Design of tunable couplers using magnetic fluid filled three-core optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(3), 164–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.

Y. Zhao, R. Lv, D. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot magnetic field sensor with temperature compensation using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 63(9), 2210–2214 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Y. Zhao, R. Lv, D. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot magnetic field sensor with temperature compensation using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 63(9), 2210–2214 (2014).
[Crossref]

Weidel, E.

M. Eisenmann and E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical couplers for wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 113–119 (1988).
[Crossref]

Williams, J. A. R.

Wu, C. W.

Wu, P.

J. Teng, J. Yang, C. Lv, T. Chen, J. Guo, J. Feng, and P. Wu, “Guidelines for design and fabrication of fused fiber coupler based wavelength division multiplexings,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(3), 239–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, T. L.

Xia, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093516 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xiao, H.

Xu, Y.

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093516 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yamazaki, K.

Yang, H. C.

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin of field-dependent optical transmission of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(15), 2372–2374 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Teng, J. Yang, C. Lv, T. Chen, J. Guo, J. Feng, and P. Wu, “Guidelines for design and fabrication of fused fiber coupler based wavelength division multiplexings,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(3), 239–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. W.

Yang, S. Y.

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7), 1604–1609 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin of field-dependent optical transmission of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(15), 2372–2374 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, R. Lv, D. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot magnetic field sensor with temperature compensation using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 63(9), 2210–2214 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, X. Dong, P. Zu, J. Ji, H. Su, and P. S. Perry, “Intensity-modulated magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid and optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183511 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

Zu, P.

J. Zheng, X. Dong, P. Zu, J. Ji, H. Su, and P. S. Perry, “Intensity-modulated magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid and optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183511 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Zu, C. C. Chan, L. W. Siang, Y. Jin, Y. Zhang, L. H. Fen, L. Chen, and X. Dong, “Magneto-optic fiber Sagnac modulator based on magnetic fluids,” Opt. Lett. 36(8), 1425–1427 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

T. Liu, X. Chen, Z. Di, J. Zhang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, X. Dong, P. Zu, J. Ji, H. Su, and P. S. Perry, “Intensity-modulated magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid and optical fiber gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 183511 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. E. Horng, C. S. Chen, K. L. Fang, S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Tunable optical switch using magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(23), 5592–5594 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Candiani, A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, R. Lwin, S. Selleri, and S. Pissadakis, “A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 111106 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin of field-dependent optical transmission of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(15), 2372–2374 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fiber Integrated Opt. (1)

K. T. Kim, K. J. Cho, and B. H. Lee, “Empirical analysis of widely tunable fused fiber coupler assisted by external medium of high thermo-optic coefficient,” Fiber Integrated Opt. 30(1), 61–72 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. F. Digonnet and H. J. Shaw, “Analysis of a tunable single mode optical fiber coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(4), 746–754 (1982).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Dutt, S. K. Varshney, and S. Mahapatra, “Design of tunable couplers using magnetic fluid filled three-core optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(3), 164–166 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE T. Magn. (1)

P. C. Scholten, “The origin of magnetic birefringence and dichroism in magnetic fluids,” IEEE T. Magn. 16(2), 221–225 (1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

Y. Zhao, R. Lv, D. Wang, and Q. Wang, “Fiber optic Fabry-Perot magnetic field sensor with temperature compensation using a fiber Bragg grating,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 63(9), 2210–2214 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Pu, X. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, W. Liao, L. Chen, and Y. Xia, “Fiber-optic evanescent field modulator using a magnetic fluid as the cladding,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(9), 093516 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

H. Ishio, J. Minowa, and K. Nosu, “Review and status of wavelength-division-multiplexing technology and its application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(4), 448–463 (1984).
[Crossref]

H. G. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathe, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisholm, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, “Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(7), 1217–1221 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Eisenmann and E. Weidel, “Single-mode fused biconical couplers for wavelength division multiplexing with channel spacing between 100 and 300 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(1), 113–119 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. N. McLandrich, R. J. Orazi, and H. R. Marlin, “Polarization independent narrow channel wavelength division multiplexing fiber couplers for 1.55 μm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(4), 442–447 (1991).
[Crossref]

S. W. Yang, T. L. Wu, C. W. Wu, and H. C. Chang, “Numerical modeling of weakly fused fiber-optic polarization beamsplitters—part ii: the three-dimensional electromagnetic model,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(4), 691–696 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Morishita and K. Yamazaki, “Wavelength and polarization dependences of fused fiber couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(3), 330–334 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. Teng, J. Yang, C. Lv, T. Chen, J. Guo, J. Feng, and P. Wu, “Guidelines for design and fabrication of fused fiber coupler based wavelength division multiplexings,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 20(3), 239–244 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

C. Y. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(7), 1604–1609 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

W. Lu, Z. Chen, and Q. Guo, “A fiber magneto-optical switch for NGN,” in Proceedings of IET International Conference on Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, (IET, 2006), pp. 1–4.

M. Velazquez-Benitez and J. Hernandez-Cordero, “Optically Controlled Wavelength Tunable Fused Fiber Coupler,” in Workshop on Specialty Optical Fibers and their Applications, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper W3.25.
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of a symmetrical 2 × 2 tapered coupler.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated splitting ratio as functions of operation wavelength for port A ~D when n3 = 1.4, 1.405, 1.41, 1.415 and 1.42.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the proposed magnetically controllable WDM coupler.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Experimental setup of the test system (b) Optical spectrum of the SBLS (c) Additional loss of the WDM before and after immersion into the MF; the inset shows the wavelength-dependent insertion loss of the WDM before and after the WDM is immersed into the MF for port A to port C and D, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Additional loss as functions of wavelength for different applied magnetic field intensities; insets show the insertion loss in response to the applied magnetic field intensity for (a) port A to port C, (b) port A to port D, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a), (b) Wavelength-dependent splitting ratio of the magnetically controllable WDM coupler under different magnetic field intensities for port A to C and port A to D respectively
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Wavelength and Splitting ratio as functions of the applied magnetic field intensity for the four selected channels
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Channel wavelength as applied magnetic field intensity for the two selected channels within a magnetic field intensity ranging from 25 Oe to 125 Oe; Inset (a) shows the additional losses of the two channels within this range, black symbol: channel 1, red symbol: channel 2; Inset (b) shows the isolations for these two channels, black symbol: channel 1, red symbol: channel 2.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Temperature response of the selected two channels, black squares: Channel 1, red circles: Channel 2; the inset shows the wavelength-dependent splitting ratios of the WDM coupler for port A to port C under different temperatures.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C WC = 2 r ( Δ 2πD ) 1/2 U V 5/2 e V(2D2) = λ 2π r 2 n 2 πD U V 3 2 e V(2D2)
C SC = β 0 β 1 2 = 3πλ 32 n 2 r 2 1 (1+1/V) 2
φ(λ, n 3 )= WC C WC (λ, n 3 ,z) dz+ SC C SC (λ, n 3 ,z)dz = φ WC (λ, n 3 )+ φ SC (λ, n 3 )
P C (λ)= 10 α (1F sin 2 φ(λ, n 3 ))
P D (λ)= 10 α F sin 2 φ(λ, n 3 )
L X =10lg P X P in =10lg P X (λ) ; X=C or D
L add =10lg P out,total P in =10lg( P C (λ)+ P D (λ)) =α=10lg[ 10 ( L C /10 ) + 10 ( L D /10 ) ]
S R X = P X P out,total ×100%= 10 (L L add )/10 ×100% ; X=C or D
φ(λ, n 3 )={ π/2 +kπ kπ band-rejection channel band-pass channel ; k is integer
S R Cchannel ={ (1F)×100% 1 band-rejection channel band-pass channel
λ n 3 = φ n 3 φ λ = ( φ WC n 3 + φ SC n 3 ) φ WC λ + φ SC λ
φ WC λ = λ WC C WC (λ, n 3 ,z) dz= WC C WC (λ, n 3 ,z) λ dz = WC { U 2π r 2 n 2 πD V 3 2 e V(2D2) + U λ 2π r 2 n 2 πD [ 3 2 V 5 2 e V(2D2) V 3 2 (2D2) e V(2D2) ] V λ }dz = WC U 2π r 2 n 2 πD [ 5 2 V 3 2 e V(2D2) + V 1 2 (2D2) e V(2D2) ] dz
φ SC λ = λ SC C SC (λ, n 3 ,z) dz= SC C SC (λ, n 3 ,z) λ dz = SC [ 3π 32 n 2 r 2 · V 2 (V+1) 2 + 3πλ 32 n 2 r 2 [ 2V (V+1) 2 2 V 2 (V+1) 3 ]( V λ ) ] dz = SC [ 3π 32 n 2 r 2 · V 2 (V1) (V+1) 3 ] dz
φ WC n 3 = n 3 WC C WC (λ, n 3 ,z) dz= WC C WC (λ, n 3 ,z) n 3 dz = WC λ 2π r 2 n 2 πD U [ 3 2 V 5 2 V 1 2 (2D2) ] e V(2D2) ·( V n 3 )dz = WC 2π n 3 U λ n 2 πD [ 3 2 V 7 2 + V 3 2 (2D2) ] e V(2D2) dz
φ SC n 3 = n 3 SC C SC (λ, n 3 ,z) dz= SC C SC (λ, n 3 ,z) n 3 dz = SC 3πλ 32 n 2 r 2 [ 2V ( V+1 ) 2 2 V 2 ( V+1 ) 3 ]( V n 3 )dz = SC 3 π 3 n 3 4 n 2 λ 1 (V+1) 3 dz

Metrics