Abstract

A three dimensional (3D) pupil is an optical element, most commonly implemented on a volume hologram, that processes the incident optical field on a 3D fashion. Here we analyze the diffraction properties of a 3D pupil with finite lateral aperture in the 4-f imaging system configuration, using the Wigner Distribution Function (WDF) formulation. Since 3D imaging pupil is finite in both lateral and longitudinal directions, the WDF of the volume holographic 4-f imager theoretically predicts distinct Bragg diffraction patterns in phase space. These result in asymmetric profiles of diffracted coherent point spread function between degenerate diffraction and Bragg diffraction, elucidating the fundamental performance of volume holographic imaging. Experimental measurements are also presented, confirming the theoretical predictions.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The use of volume holographic (VH) pupils in imaging systems includes applications such as hyper-spectral image acquisition [1], profilometric imagers [2, 3], unhindered imaging capability under broadband illumination, and multi-focal microscopic imaging [4, 5]. Compared to conventional 2D imaging pupils such as thin gratings and lenses, the VH pupil at a 4-f imagers’ Fourier plane acts as a 3D optical element, providing unique opportunities to process the optical field in three spatial dimensions as well as wavelength [6, 7].

Utilizing holographic recording techniques and advances in material [5], the 3D VH imaging pupil can be further functionally engineered to achieve wavelength-coded [8] and phase-coded [9] VH imaging gratings. Several mathematical models, including coupled wave theory [10], k-sphere formulation [11], and weak diffraction approximation [12], have been used for 3D pupil analysis. Here we are interested in phase space (i.e. space-spatial frequency) information transport [13] between the object and image planes through the 3D pupil. Recent, prior work [14] introduced the Wigner Distribution Function (WDF) analysis method for that purpose; however, infinite lateral aperture was assumed and, therefore, several important features of the resulting diffraction patterns and point spread function (PSF) were missed.

In this paper, we analyze a weakly diffracting VH pupil of arbitrary thickness and width. We derive basic volume holographic properties of angular selectivity in phase space as well as phase space information of diffracted beams at various locations along the VH pupil, we also analyze of the relationship between the response of 3D pupils in phase space and point spread function as it impacts imaging performance we compare; the simulation results with experiments under different aperture conditions validating the theory.

2. Theory

Fig. 1 illustrates a 4-f imager consisting of a 3D pupil, recorded as a volume hologram by two mutually coherent plane waves with an inter-beam angle θs. Figure 1(a) shows the recording geometry, whereas Fig. 1(b) is the corresponding k-sphere diagram [11] illustrating the Bragg-matching relationship between the diffracted and probe wavevectors kd and kp, respectively, and the grating vectorK. The Bragg-matching condition allows the 3D VH pupil to perform its unique spatial-spectral filtering and imaging functions [8, 11, 12, 15].

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 . Illustration of (a) volume holographic recording geometry, (b) k-sphere diagram probed and recorded using wavevectors kp and kd, respectively, for the recorded grating vector K; (c) 4-f imaging system geometry with 3D pupil, where f is the focal length, a and L are the lateral and axial apertures, respectively, and red dash-line denotes the Fourier plane. To obtain a clear pupil, the VH would be removed from the system and be replaced by a simple aperture of the same size, located at the Fourier plane.

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To simplify the analysis of the 3D VH pupil onto Winger space, we rather consider the impulse response of a 4-f VH system based on Fig. 1(c). Although we are neglecting the un-diffracted (i.e. 0-order) beam for convenience, the geometry is convenient since its 3D spatial transfer function of the 4-f VH system has been reported previously without missing the general Bragg properties of the 3D pupil [12]. In Fig. 1(c), the 3D pupil is located at the Fourier plane and has finite aperture width a, and thickness L. In the vicinity of the Fourier plane, the input and output WDF W3,W4respectively to the VH pupil can be related to input and output WDF W1,W2, respectively as [14, 16-17]

W3(x3,u3)=W1(λfu3,L2fu3+x3λf),W4(x4,u4)=W2(λfu4,L2fu4x4λf),
where λ is the operation wavelength. As known in Wigner space through coordinate transforms, the WDF of W3 and W4 are related as [18]:
W4(x4,u4)=K3D(x4,u4;x3,u3)W3(x3,u3)dx3du3.
where K3D is the kernel describing the action of the 3D pupil.

For a volume hologram,

K3D(x4,u4;x3,u3)=KVHIS(λfu4,L2fu4x4λf;λfu3,L2fu3+x3λf),
KVHIS(x2,u2;x1,u1)=dx2dx1exp(i2π(u2x2u1x1))×hVHIS(x2+x22;x1+x12)hVHIS(x2x22;x1x12),
and hVHIS is the coherent PSF of the volume holographic imaging system. Assuming the 1st-order Born approximation [12], hVHIS is obtained as
hVHIS(x2;x1)=sinc(aλf(x1+x2fθs))×sinc(L2λf2(x12x22+f2θs2)),
Note that for L = 0, Eq. (5) becomes identical to the diffraction-limited PSF of a conventional 4-f imaging system with clear pupil. Substituting Eq. (5) into Eq. (4), we obtain
K3D(x4,u4;x3,u3)=du3du4exp{i2π[u4(Lλ2u4x4)+u3(Lλ2u3+x3)]}×sinc{a[u3+u4+12(u3+u4)θsλ]}sinc{a[u3+u412(u3+u4)θsλ]}×sinc{Lλ2[(u3+u32)2(u4+u42)2+(θsλ)2]}×sinc{Lλ2[(u3+u32)2(u4u42)2+(θsλ)2]}.
In the case of 2D clear pupil i.e. L = 0, the Wigner function K2D can be simplified as
K2D(x4,u4;x3,u3)=a2δ(x3x4)Λ(x4a/2)sinc{(2a4|x4|)(u3u4)},
where Λ denotes the triangle function.

3. Simulation and analysis

Fig. 2(i-iv) shows the x3u3 planar cross sections of the 4-dimensional K3D at various coordinates x4 at the back plane of 3D pupil. The width of the visible slit in the x3u3 space is proportional to the pupil thickness L indicating the Fourier-conjugate relationship with the width of the visible slit in the input x1 plane due to Bragg selectivity. On the contrary, this thickness-induced visible slit does not appear in the case of a clear pupil, as shown in Fig. 3, owing to δ(x3x4) in K2D. Moreover, there exists an offset between the center of probing location x3 and the maximum diffracted location x4 in VHIS; this is because of the Bragg-matching condition. For example, in case (i) of Fig. 2 its diffracted beam is from x4=0with its corresponding x3=0.25, while in case (iv) its diffracted beam originates from x4=0.8 (outside the recorded area) with its corresponding x3=0.375. This is true independent of the probe beam position, i.e. near the center or edge of the VH pupil. Due to the lateral extent along the x3 plane as well as finite lateral pupil width, while the probe beam moves towards the pupil boundary, peak values of the K3D kernel gradually reduce (right-hand side color-bar in Fig. 2). This indicates that Bragg diffraction effects become weaker at the vicinity of the pupil edge, which may be thought of as the grating having reduced effective thickness near the edges. Furthermore, Fig. 4 shows the cross section between x3 andx4 under Bragg match condition with u3 and u4=θs/λ at various coordinates. The projection along x4in Fig. 4(c) provides Gaussian-like shape, whose width is wider than that along x3, and there is an offset between the peak values. These show agreement with previous finding in Fig. 2.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Wigner function of input corresponding to different output location of diffracted beam. The output location (x4) is (i) 0, (ii) 0.25,(iii), 0.5,(iv) 0.8mm with same diffracted angle u4=θs/λ, where a=1mm, L=1mm,λ=500nm and θs=30 Red dash frame denotes the edge of the recorded region inside the holographic material.

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 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Wigner function of clear pupil, where a=1mm , L=0mm,λ=500nm Note that the spatial coordinates is defined as x3=x4 owing to δ(x3x4) in Eq. (7).

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 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 The illustration of Bragg match condition (a), (b) is the mapping against x3 and x4, where u3=0 and u4=θ/λ as well as Bragg match. (c) is the projection on x3(orange curve) and x4(blue curve). The grid white lines in (b) denote the locations of peak value mapping against x3 and x4.

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Rather than analyzing the Bragg selectivity of the 3D pupil at x1x2 spatial coordinates [12], u3u4 phase coordinates reveal a more detailed transformation relationship at various locations on the 3D pupil. Figs. 5(a-c) show the comparison among K2D at the center, K3D kernel at the center, and K3D kernel near the edge of the 3D pupil in u3u4 phase coordinates, respectively. The values along the diagonal lines (u3=u4)in Fig. 5 represent angular response under geometrical conjugate condition of x2=x1. Figure 5(a) shows a shift-invariant system with a 2D clear pupil so that the values along diagonal line are constant. Owing to the shift-variance property induced by strong Bragg angular selectivity in the 3D pupil, the values along diagonal line in Fig. 5(b) degrade significantly away from its centered Bragg-matched region. Note that the peak values along the output coordinate u4 in both Figs. 5(b, c) shift to u4=θs/λ, depending on the Bragg-matched angle. In addition, the bandwidth of K3D near the pupil center (in Fig. 5(b)) is narrower than that near the pupil edge (in Fig. 5 (c)), while maximum value on Fig. 5(b) (i.e. Bragg diffraction efficiency) of the kernel in the vicinity of the pupil center is much higher than that in Fig. 5(c). In other words, Bragg diffraction is weaker and angular selectivity is less sensitive near the edge, which show agreement with the previous findings in Fig. 2.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 The phase to phase representation as the beam illuminates on (a) 2D clear pupil, (b) vicinity of center of 3D pupil, where x3=0.25mm and x4=0mm, and (c) edge of 3D pupil, where x3=0.375mm and x4=0.8mm. Here, a=1mm ,λ=500nm and θs=30, and the thickness is (a) L=0mm for the clear pupil, (b, c) L=1mm for the volume hologram.

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Next, we investigate how the 3D pupil with thickness and finite width affects VHIS performance. Since WDF is a bilinear transform [19], its intensity projected along spatial frequency domain and the point spread function of a 4-f imager can be expressed as

I4(x4)=W4(x4,u4)du4,|PSF(x2)|2=W4(L2fx2λfu2,x2λf)du2,
where W4 is calculated at the condition of W3(x3,u3)=δ(u3) with coherent on-axis plane wave. W4 under different recording angles θs is plotted in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, respectively. When θsincreases, I4 decays faster and its full width at half maximum (FWHM) becomes narrower [Figs. 6(b), 7(b)]. This can be thought of as fringes near the 3D pupil edge with a larger slant, which may result in larger portion of smaller effective thickness as well as weaker Bragg diffraction effects inside the recorded area.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 (a) Wigner function of x4u4. (b) I4 for a 4-f imager with 3D pupil (marked in red line), and with 2D clear pupil (marked in blue line). (c) PSF of the 4-f imager with 3D (marked in red line), and 2D pupil (marked in blue line), with a=1mm , L=1mm,λ=500nm and θs=30.

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 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 (a) Wigner function of x4u4. (b) I4 for a 4-f imager with 3D pupil (marked in red line), and with 2D clear pupil (marked in blue line). (c) PSF of the 4-f imager with 3D (marked in red line), and 2D pupil (marked in blue line), with a=1mm , L=1mm,λ=500nm and θs=68.

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Compared to a conventional 4-f imager with 2D pupil in Figs. 6(b) and 7(b), I4 of the 3D pupil in VHIS has wider cut-off range and decays gradually towards the pupil boundary, while I4 with 2D pupil, as expected, has rectangular profile with narrower cut-off range. Therefore, Figs. 6(c) and 7(c) show that PSF in VHIS exhibits much fewer side-lobes than that in a conventional 4-f imager with 2D pupil. These PSF simulation results also indicate that in VHIS there exist fewer side-lobes along the degeneracy axis (i.e. red line in Figs. 6(c) and 7(c)), and more side-lobes along the non-degeneracy axis (i.e. blue line in Figs. 6(c) and 7(c)), which acts as a conventional 4-f imager with 2D pupil.

4. PSF measurements and conclusion

In addition, an experimental setup was built to further verify our theoretical analysis with PSF performance measurements. The 3D pupil implemented by VH was located in the Fourier plane based on Fig. 1(c). Thickness of the 3D pupil in the PSF measurements was ~1.2mm with θs=68, and Bragg-matched operation wavelength was 532nm (Millennia, Spectra-Physics). The 3D pupil was illuminated by a collimated beam, and an iris was placed in front of the VH to adjust the pupil width at will. The measured PSF performance at two different values of 3D pupil width is shown in Figs. 8(a) and 8(c). In the measurement, we deliberately saturated the intensity of main lobe in order to identify the clearer side lobe, and the simulated PSF was also saturated for fair comparison. Simulation results are shown respectively in Figs. 8(b) and 8(d), and show good agreement of the lobes’ distribution with the measurements. Indeed, both cases result in fewer side-lobes along the degeneracy axis (x2axis). The correlation coefficients between simulated and measured 1-D PSFs passing through peak of main lobe along x and y axis were also calculated according to

CM,S=i=1n(MiM)(SiS)i=1n(MiM)2i=1n(SiS)2,
where M and S denotes the measurements and simulations of 1-D PSFs, respectively. The i and n is the index and total pixel number of M and S, respectively, and is the average operator. For 1-D PSF along x2 axis, the correlation coefficients are 0.95 and 0.92, for a=0.57mm and a=1mm respectively. In case of 1-D PSF along y2 axis, the correlation coefficients are 0.93 and 0.97, for a=0.57mm and a=1mm respectively. The corresponding intensity profiles passing through the peak of the main lobe along x2 and y2 axis in both simulations and measurements are shown in Figs. 8(i-iv). The possible error could be occurred from neglecting aberration and absorption in our model. This proposed phase space derivation and simulation can be also potentially applied to analyze 3D pupils recorded by spherical reference wave. Future work will include a study of aberration in the imager, and absorption caused by the VH in VHIS.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 The measurement (a, c) and simulation (b, d) of PSF of VHIS, (a) and (b) is PSF for a=0.57mm; (c) and (d) is PSF for a=1mm. (i, ii) intensity profile passing through the peak of the main lobe along x2 and y2 for a=0.57mm, and (iii, iv) intensity profile passing through the peak of the main lobe along x2 and y2 for a=1mm.

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Acknowledgments

We acknowledge financial support from Ministry of Science and Technology (100-2218-E-002-026-MY3, 102-2218-E-002-013-MY3, 103-2221-E-002-156-MY3), funded by National Health Research Institutes (NHRI-EX103-10220EC), National Taiwan University (102R7832), and National Taiwan University Hospital (MP03, UN102-17). The authors are also grateful to the following sponsors: the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH RO1CA134424), National Research Foundation, Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's BioSystems and Micromechanics Inter-Disciplinary Research Group (015824-039).

References and links

1. W. Liu, D. Psaltis, and G. Barbastathis, “Real-time spectral imaging in three spatial dimensions,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 854–856 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. A. Sinha and G. Barbastathis, “Volume holographic imaging for surface metrology at long working distances,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3202–3209 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. W. Sun, “Profilometry with volume holographic imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006).

4. Y. Luo, J. Castro, J. K. Barton, R. K. Kostuk, and G. Barbastathis, “Simulations and experiments of aperiodic and multiplexed gratings in volume holographic imaging systems,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19273–19285 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. Y. Luo, P. J. Gelsinger, J. K. Barton, G. Barbastathis, and R. K. Kostuk, “Optimization of multiplexed holographic gratings in PQ-PMMA for spectral-spatial imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 566–568 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. C.-C. Sun, “Simplified model for diffraction analysis of volume holograms,” Opt. Eng. 42(5), 1184–1185 (2003). [CrossRef]  

7. H.-T. Hsieh, W. Liu, F. Havermeyer, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, “Beam-width-dependent filtering properties of strong volume holographic gratings,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3774–3780 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. Y. Luo, S. B. Oh, and G. Barbastathis, “Wavelength-coded multifocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 781–783 (2010). [PubMed]  

9. S. B. Oh, Z.-Q. J. Lu, J.-C. Tsai, H.-H. Chen, G. Barbastathis, and Y. Luo, “Phase-coded volume holographic gratings for spatial-spectral imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 477–479 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. H. W. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969). [CrossRef]  

11. P. Wissmann, S. B. Oh, and G. Barbastathis, “Simulation and optimization of volume holographic imaging systems in Zemax®,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7516–7524 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. G. Barbastathis, “The Transfer Function of Volume Holographic Optical Systems,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 3, P. Günter, and J.-P. Huignard, eds., pp. 51–76 (Springer, 2007).

13. G. Situ and J. T. Sheridan, “Holography: an interpretation from the phase-space point of view,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3492–3494 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. S. B. Oh and G. Barbastathis, “Wigner distribution function of volume holograms,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2584–2586 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014). [CrossRef]  

16. S. B. Oh, “Volume holographic pupils in ray, wave, statistical optics, and Wigner space,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009).

17. K. H. Brenner and J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “Ambiguity Function and Wigner Distribution Function Applied to Partially Coherent Imagery,” Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics 31(2), 213–223 (1984). [CrossRef]  

18. W. Pan, “Double Wigner distribution function of a first-order optical system with a hard-edge aperture,” Appl. Opt. 47(1), 45–51 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. M. J. Bastiaans, “Wigner distribution function and its application to first-order optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69(12), 1710–1716 (1979). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. W. Liu, D. Psaltis, and G. Barbastathis, “Real-time spectral imaging in three spatial dimensions,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 854–856 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Sinha and G. Barbastathis, “Volume holographic imaging for surface metrology at long working distances,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3202–3209 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. Sun, “Profilometry with volume holographic imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006).
  4. Y. Luo, J. Castro, J. K. Barton, R. K. Kostuk, and G. Barbastathis, “Simulations and experiments of aperiodic and multiplexed gratings in volume holographic imaging systems,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19273–19285 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Luo, P. J. Gelsinger, J. K. Barton, G. Barbastathis, and R. K. Kostuk, “Optimization of multiplexed holographic gratings in PQ-PMMA for spectral-spatial imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 566–568 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C.-C. Sun, “Simplified model for diffraction analysis of volume holograms,” Opt. Eng. 42(5), 1184–1185 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. H.-T. Hsieh, W. Liu, F. Havermeyer, C. Moser, and D. Psaltis, “Beam-width-dependent filtering properties of strong volume holographic gratings,” Appl. Opt. 45(16), 3774–3780 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Luo, S. B. Oh, and G. Barbastathis, “Wavelength-coded multifocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 781–783 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  9. S. B. Oh, Z.-Q. J. Lu, J.-C. Tsai, H.-H. Chen, G. Barbastathis, and Y. Luo, “Phase-coded volume holographic gratings for spatial-spectral imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 477–479 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. W. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  11. P. Wissmann, S. B. Oh, and G. Barbastathis, “Simulation and optimization of volume holographic imaging systems in Zemax®,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7516–7524 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. G. Barbastathis, “The Transfer Function of Volume Holographic Optical Systems,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 3, P. Günter, and J.-P. Huignard, eds., pp. 51–76 (Springer, 2007).
  13. G. Situ and J. T. Sheridan, “Holography: an interpretation from the phase-space point of view,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3492–3494 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. B. Oh and G. Barbastathis, “Wigner distribution function of volume holograms,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2584–2586 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. B. Oh, “Volume holographic pupils in ray, wave, statistical optics, and Wigner space,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009).
  17. K. H. Brenner and J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “Ambiguity Function and Wigner Distribution Function Applied to Partially Coherent Imagery,” Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics 31(2), 213–223 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. Pan, “Double Wigner distribution function of a first-order optical system with a hard-edge aperture,” Appl. Opt. 47(1), 45–51 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. J. Bastiaans, “Wigner distribution function and its application to first-order optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69(12), 1710–1716 (1979).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

1984 (1)

K. H. Brenner and J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “Ambiguity Function and Wigner Distribution Function Applied to Partially Coherent Imagery,” Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics 31(2), 213–223 (1984).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

1969 (1)

H. W. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).
[Crossref]

Barbastathis, G.

Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. B. Oh, Z.-Q. J. Lu, J.-C. Tsai, H.-H. Chen, G. Barbastathis, and Y. Luo, “Phase-coded volume holographic gratings for spatial-spectral imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 477–479 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, S. B. Oh, and G. Barbastathis, “Wavelength-coded multifocal microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 781–783 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y. Luo, J. Castro, J. K. Barton, R. K. Kostuk, and G. Barbastathis, “Simulations and experiments of aperiodic and multiplexed gratings in volume holographic imaging systems,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19273–19285 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Oh and G. Barbastathis, “Wigner distribution function of volume holograms,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2584–2586 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Luo, P. J. Gelsinger, J. K. Barton, G. Barbastathis, and R. K. Kostuk, “Optimization of multiplexed holographic gratings in PQ-PMMA for spectral-spatial imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 566–568 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wissmann, S. B. Oh, and G. Barbastathis, “Simulation and optimization of volume holographic imaging systems in Zemax®,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7516–7524 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sinha and G. Barbastathis, “Volume holographic imaging for surface metrology at long working distances,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3202–3209 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, D. Psaltis, and G. Barbastathis, “Real-time spectral imaging in three spatial dimensions,” Opt. Lett. 27(10), 854–856 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Bastiaans, M. J.

Bhattacharya, D.

Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brenner, K. H.

K. H. Brenner and J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “Ambiguity Function and Wigner Distribution Function Applied to Partially Coherent Imagery,” Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics 31(2), 213–223 (1984).
[Crossref]

Castro, J.

Chen, H.-H.

Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. B. Oh, Z.-Q. J. Lu, J.-C. Tsai, H.-H. Chen, G. Barbastathis, and Y. Luo, “Phase-coded volume holographic gratings for spatial-spectral imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 477–479 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gelsinger, P. J.

Havermeyer, F.

Hsieh, H.-T.

Kogelnik, H. W.

H. W. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).
[Crossref]

Kostuk, R. K.

Liu, W.

Lu, Z.-Q. J.

Luo, Y.

Matsudaira, P.

Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moser, C.

Oh, S. B.

Ojeda-Castañeda, J.

K. H. Brenner and J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “Ambiguity Function and Wigner Distribution Function Applied to Partially Coherent Imagery,” Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics 31(2), 213–223 (1984).
[Crossref]

Pan, W.

Psaltis, D.

Sheridan, J. T.

Singh, V. R.

Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sinha, A.

Situ, G.

So, P. T. C.

Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.-C.

C.-C. Sun, “Simplified model for diffraction analysis of volume holograms,” Opt. Eng. 42(5), 1184–1185 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tsai, J.-C.

Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. B. Oh, Z.-Q. J. Lu, J.-C. Tsai, H.-H. Chen, G. Barbastathis, and Y. Luo, “Phase-coded volume holographic gratings for spatial-spectral imaging filters,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 477–479 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wissmann, P.

Wong, J.-M.

Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yew, E. Y. S.

Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.-L.

Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. W. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48(9), 2909–2947 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Laser and Photonics Reviews (1)

Y. Luo, V. R. Singh, D. Bhattacharya, E. Y. S. Yew, J.-C. Tsai, S.-L. Yu, H.-H. Chen, J.-M. Wong, P. Matsudaira, P. T. C. So, and G. Barbastathis, “Talbot holographic illumination nonscanning (THIN) fluorescence microscopy,” Laser and Photonics Reviews 8(5), L71–L75 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C.-C. Sun, “Simplified model for diffraction analysis of volume holograms,” Opt. Eng. 42(5), 1184–1185 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics (1)

K. H. Brenner and J. Ojeda-Castañeda, “Ambiguity Function and Wigner Distribution Function Applied to Partially Coherent Imagery,” Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics 31(2), 213–223 (1984).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

W. Sun, “Profilometry with volume holographic imaging,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006).

G. Barbastathis, “The Transfer Function of Volume Holographic Optical Systems,” in Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 3, P. Günter, and J.-P. Huignard, eds., pp. 51–76 (Springer, 2007).

S. B. Oh, “Volume holographic pupils in ray, wave, statistical optics, and Wigner space,” Ph.D. dissertation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 . Illustration of (a) volume holographic recording geometry, (b) k-sphere diagram probed and recorded using wavevectors kp and kd, respectively, for the recorded grating vector K ; (c) 4-f imaging system geometry with 3D pupil, where f is the focal length, a and L are the lateral and axial apertures, respectively, and red dash-line denotes the Fourier plane. To obtain a clear pupil, the VH would be removed from the system and be replaced by a simple aperture of the same size, located at the Fourier plane.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Wigner function of input corresponding to different output location of diffracted beam. The output location ( x 4 ) is (i) 0, (ii) 0.25,(iii), 0.5,(iv) 0.8mm with same diffracted angle u 4 = θ s /λ , where a=1mm , L=1mm , λ=500nm and θ s = 30 Red dash frame denotes the edge of the recorded region inside the holographic material.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Wigner function of clear pupil, where a=1mm , L=0mm , λ=500nm Note that the spatial coordinates is defined as x 3 = x 4 owing to δ( x 3 x 4 ) in Eq. (7).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The illustration of Bragg match condition (a), (b) is the mapping against x 3 and x 4 , where u 3 =0 and u 4 =θ/λ as well as Bragg match. (c) is the projection on x 3 (orange curve) and x 4 (blue curve). The grid white lines in (b) denote the locations of peak value mapping against x 3 and x 4 .
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The phase to phase representation as the beam illuminates on (a) 2D clear pupil, (b) vicinity of center of 3D pupil, where x 3 =0.25mm and x 4 =0mm , and (c) edge of 3D pupil, where x 3 =0.375mm and x 4 =0.8mm . Here, a=1mm , λ=500nm and θ s = 30 , and the thickness is (a) L=0mm for the clear pupil, (b, c) L=1mm for the volume hologram.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Wigner function of x 4 u 4 . (b) I 4 for a 4-f imager with 3D pupil (marked in red line), and with 2D clear pupil (marked in blue line). (c) PSF of the 4-f imager with 3D (marked in red line), and 2D pupil (marked in blue line), with a=1mm , L=1mm , λ=500nm and θ s = 30 .
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Wigner function of x 4 u 4 . (b) I 4 for a 4-f imager with 3D pupil (marked in red line), and with 2D clear pupil (marked in blue line). (c) PSF of the 4-f imager with 3D (marked in red line), and 2D pupil (marked in blue line), with a=1mm , L=1mm , λ=500nm and θ s = 68 .
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The measurement (a, c) and simulation (b, d) of PSF of VHIS, (a) and (b) is PSF for a=0.57mm ; (c) and (d) is PSF for a=1mm . (i, ii) intensity profile passing through the peak of the main lobe along x 2 and y 2 for a=0.57mm , and (iii, iv) intensity profile passing through the peak of the main lobe along x 2 and y 2 for a=1mm .

Equations (9)

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W 3 ( x 3 , u 3 )= W 1 (λf u 3 , L 2f u 3 + x 3 λf ), W 4 ( x 4 , u 4 )= W 2 (λf u 4 , L 2f u 4 x 4 λf ),
W 4 ( x 4 , u 4 )= K 3D ( x 4 , u 4 ; x 3 , u 3 ) W 3 ( x 3 , u 3 )d x 3 d u 3 .
K 3D ( x 4 , u 4 ; x 3 , u 3 )= K VHIS (λf u 4 , L 2f u 4 x 4 λf ;λf u 3 , L 2f u 3 + x 3 λf ),
K VHIS ( x 2 , u 2 ; x 1 , u 1 )= d x 2 d x 1 exp(i2π( u 2 x 2 u 1 x 1 )) × h VHIS ( x 2 + x 2 2 ; x 1 + x 1 2 ) h VHIS ( x 2 x 2 2 ; x 1 x 1 2 ),
h VHIS ( x 2 ; x 1 )=sinc( a λf ( x 1 + x 2 f θ s ) )×sinc( L 2λ f 2 ( x 1 2 x 2 2 + f 2 θ s 2 ) ),
K 3D ( x 4 , u 4 ; x 3 , u 3 )= d u 3 d u 4 exp{ i2π[ u 4 ( Lλ 2 u 4 x 4 )+ u 3 ( Lλ 2 u 3 + x 3 ) ] }× sinc{ a[ u 3 + u 4 + 1 2 ( u 3 + u 4 ) θ s λ ] }sinc{ a[ u 3 + u 4 1 2 ( u 3 + u 4 ) θ s λ ] }× sinc{ Lλ 2 [ ( u 3 + u 3 2 ) 2 ( u 4 + u 4 2 ) 2 + ( θ s λ ) 2 ] }×sinc{ Lλ 2 [ ( u 3 + u 3 2 ) 2 ( u 4 u 4 2 ) 2 + ( θ s λ ) 2 ] }.
K 2D ( x 4 , u 4 ; x 3 , u 3 )= a 2 δ( x 3 x 4 )Λ( x 4 a/2 )sinc{ (2a4| x 4 |)( u 3 u 4 ) },
I 4 ( x 4 )= W 4 ( x 4 , u 4 )d u 4 , | PSF( x 2 ) | 2 = W 4 ( L 2f x 2 λf u 2 , x 2 λf ) d u 2 ,
C M,S = i=1 n ( M i M )( S i S ) i=1 n ( M i M ) 2 i=1 n ( S i S ) 2 ,

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