Abstract

In present study, the intense sensitized three photon near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence of Tm3+ ion activator in Tm3+Bi3+:YNbO4 powder phosphor is reported. It is induced both by [{1G43H4, 3H63H5} or {1G43H5, 3H63H4}] and {3H43F4, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfer. We found that the 1820.0 nm 3F43H6 luminescence intensity of Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphor excited by 302.0 nm is 151 and 8.38 times larger, compared to Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 excited by 302.0 and 468.0 nm, in which the quantum cutting takes place between Tm3+ ions and Bi3+ ion only acts as sensitizer. To the knowledge of the authors, it is the first time that the effective Bi3+ sensitized near-infrared quantum cutting of Tm3+ ion activator has been reported. It can facilitate the probing of the next-generation environmentally friendly germanium solar cell.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The sun, whose spectrum energy of AM 1.5G is ranged from 280 nm to 2500 nm, provides the Earth with as much energy every hour as human uses every year [1,2]. If a small fraction of sunlight could be collected by solar cells that convert it directly into electricity, there would be no need to burn fossil fuels, the supplies of which are nearly exhausted and which cause high levels of pollution, to generate sufficient energy to meet the long-term worldwide energy demand [1–5]. Solar electric power is praised as the most ideal source of energy because it is inexhaustible and very clean. But the efficiency of normal single junction silicon solar cells nowadays is limited to 30% of the Schockley–Queisser limit, the losses of more than 70% are due to spectral mismatch losses of transmission loss and thermalization loss. Luminescent materials doped with lanthanide rare earth ions have shown the potential for application to photovoltaic systems where they may improve solar cell efficiency by better matching the solar spectrum recent years [5–12]. M. A. Green and T. Trupke have found in 2002 that the maximum theoretical efficiency of two-photon quantum cutting silicon solar cell, whose sensitive photo-response is range from 280 nm to 1100 nm, can reach 39.6% [10]. Since first report of the experimental near-infrared quantum cutting phenomenon of A. Meijerink [1] in 2005, there have been about 200 literatures [10–28] published on near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence phenomena of Sentitizer-Yb3+ ion codoped materials by the groups of A. Meijerink [1,9,19], J. R. Qiu and J. J. Zhou [7,12], Y. S. Wang and D. Q. Chen [5,6], X. Y. Huang [20], and Q. Y. Zhang et al. [22,23,26], which is used to develop two-photon quantum cutting silicon solar cells. The importance, application and significance of the near-infrared quantum cutting phenomenon have been well-known recognized [1,8–28]. Q. Y. Zhang [14,27] and our group [8,28] et al. [7,12,20] have reported experimental researches of multi-photon near-infrared quantum cutting of Tm3+ ion activator or Er3+ ion activator doped materials from 2009. This further improvement is the multi-photon quantum cutting germanium Ge or silicon-germanium Si-Ge solar cells [5,8,28], whose sensitive photo-response is in the range from 280 nm to 1850 nm or from 280 nm to about 1650 nm. Its maximum efficiency can be much larger than 39.6% by using multi-photon infrared quantum cutting to significantly reduce transmission loss because the band-gap energy Eg of the Ge is about 1850nm (0.67eV:300K) [8,9]. The Tm3+ ion is an attractive new candidate for a near-infrared quantum cutting activator because its quantum cutting process is a first-order process. First-order process is usefulness just as A. Meijerink [9,19] et al. [28] have point out that first-order energy transfer mechanisms generally have a much higher probability (typically a factor of 1000) of occurrence than second-order mechanisms such as Tb3+-Yb3+ et al. system. However, regarding near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence at about 1800 nm from a Tm3+ ion activator center, only eight manuscripts have so far been reported [8,14,27]. The multi photon downconversion quantum cutting germanium Ge solar cell does not present an environmental risk. Therefore, it is urgent to thoroughly research the multi-photon infrared quantum cutting luminescence phenomenon of the Tm3+ ion activator center. Meanwhile, although the physics of energy-matching allows for that the quantum cutting efficiency can be clear larger than 100%, the near-infrared luminescence of rare earth ion activators is still weak because their intra-4f forbidden transitions are not efficient [5,7]. It results in the narrow absorption bands and low absorption cross sections of about 10−21 cm2. The absorption transition of the Bi3+ ion has a very high absorption cross section on the order of 10−18 cm2 in the UV region [7,11,25] because of its allowed electric dipole transition from the 6s2 ground state to the 6s6p excited electronic configuration state. It makes the Bi3+ ion a potentially ideal broadband sensitizer for the Tm3+ ion [11,25]. The present study reports the effective sensitized three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence phenomena of the Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 phosphor material. To the knowledge of the authors, it is the first time that the effective Bi3+ sensitized near-infrared quantum cutting of the Tm3+ ion activator has been reported. We found that the near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence intensity of Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 when excited by 302.0 nm light is 151 and 8.38 times larger than that of Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 when excited by 302.0nm and 468.0nm light, and it is also 3.25 times larger than that of Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 when excited by 468.0nm light. These results are expected to be valuable in aiding the probing of new generation environmentally friendly germanium Ge solar cells [5,10], currently a popular topic of optical science globally.

2. Experimental samples and experimental devices

The samples used in our experiment are (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4, (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 and (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 powder phosphors. The Tm3+Bi3+:YNbO4 powder samples were prepared through a solid-state reaction. The starting materials were high-purity Tm2O3 (99.99%), Bi2O3 (99.99%), Y2O3 (99.99%), and Nb2O5 (99.99%). The raw powders were weighted according to the stoichiometric compositions, and then they were mixed, ground and pressed into pellets. Finally, the powders were sintered at 1400°C for 5 h in a furnace in air.

The experimental equipment used was the FL3-2iHR fluorescence spectrometer, produced by the Horiba-JY Company(United State of the America, Japan, and France). The pumping light source was a Xenon (Xe) lamp. The visible detector used was an R2658p photomultiplier, which has a very high sensitivity in the range from 250 to 1000 nm. The infrared detector used was a DSS-IS020L solid state indium antimony detector, which has a high sensitivity in the range from 1000 to 5000 nm. For all of the experimental results, the experimental curves at the same wavelength in the same figure can be compared directly already in terms of fluorescence intensity.

3. X-ray diffraction spectra and absorption spectrum

The XRD data for lattice parameter refinements were collected by a Philips (Holland) X’Pert PW-3040 diffractometer (45 kV × 40mA) with Cu Kα radiation (λ = 0.15406 nm) in the range of 2θ = 10–80°. Figure 1(a) shows the representative X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphor. It can be seen that all diffraction peaks can be fit well to the corresponding peaks in the reported data of YNbO4 (PDF#72-2077).

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) XRD pattern (red) and (b) the absorption spectrum (blue) of the Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphor sample.

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Figure 1(b) shows the absorption spectrum of the Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphor, which was measured by a UV-3100 spectrophotometer (Shimadzu). We found that there were a series of absorption peaks positioned at (1795.0, 1722.0, 1658.0), 1205.0, 792.0, 686.0, 469.0, 356.0 and 308.0 nm, respectively. It is easy to recognize that these are the absorption transitions of the 3F4, 3H5, 3H4, 3F3, 1G4, 1D2 energy levels from the 3H6 level of the Tm3+ ion [16,18] and the 1S03P1 absorption transition of the Bi3+ ion respectively [11,25]. From Fig. 1(b), it is easy also to calculate that the gravity center of the 3F4, 3H5, 3H4, 3F3, 3F2, 1G4, and 1D2 energy levels of the Tm3+ ion are positioned at 5805, 8299, 12658, 14577, 15186, 21345, and 27878 cm−1 wave-number respectively.

4. Experimental excitation spectra

First, the visible excitation spectra of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 and (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 powder phosphors in the wavelength range of 250-710 nm are measured, when the fluorescence received wavelength is positioned at 802.5 nm, as shown in the Fig. 2(a). It is found that the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 and (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 powder phosphors have one group of excitation spectra signal peaks of the Bi3+ ion [11,25] and three groups of peaks of the Tm3+ ion from ultraviolet to visible, the main peaks of these groups are located at 312.0, 356.5, 461.0 and 682.5 nm. It is easy to recognize that these are respectively the 1S03P1 absorption transition of the Bi3+ ion [11] and the 3H61D2, 3H61G4, and 3H63F3 absorption transitions of the Tm3+ ion [8,16,18]. It is easy to calculate from Fig. 2(a) that the 302.0, 356.5, 461.0, and 682.5 nm peak intensities of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 excitation spectrum are 39.1, 0.685, 0.225, and 0.088 times larger than those of the (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 powder phosphor.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) Visible and (b) infrared excitation spectra of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 (blue) and (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 (red) powder phosphors, when the fluorescence received wavelength is positioned at 802.5 nm (a) and 1820.0nm (b) wavelength.

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Then, the excitation spectra of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 and (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 powder phosphors in the wavelength range of 275-850 nm are measured, when the fluorescence received wavelength is positioned at 1820.0 nm near-infrared wavelength, as shown in the Fig. 2(b). We found that the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 and (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 powder phosphors have one group of excitation spectra signal peaks of the Bi3+ ion [11,25] and four groups of peaks of the Tm3+ ion from 275 to 850 nm, the main peaks of these group are positioned at 310.0, 362.0, 468.0, 682.5, and 789.0 nm. It is easy to recognize that they respectively are the 1S03P1 absorption transition of the Bi3+ ion and the 3H61D2, 3H61G4, 3H63F3, and 3H63H4 absorption transitions of the Tm3+ ion [16,18]. It is easy to calculate from Fig. 2(b) that the 302.0, 356.5, 461.0, 682.5, and 789.0 nm peak intensities of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 excitation spectrum are 278, 8.51, 8.46, 3.12, and 3.57 times larger than those of the (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 powder phosphor. It is easy also to calculate that the 302.0nm peak intensity of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 excitation spectrum is 2.39 times larger than that of 789.0 nm for the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4.

5. Experimental luminescence spectra

The visible luminescence spectra of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4, (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 and (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 powder phosphors are measured. The 302.0 nm 1S03P1 absorption transition of the Bi3+ ion is selected as the excitation wavelength to measure the luminescence spectra in the range of 370-700 nm for the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4, (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 and (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 powder phosphors, as shown in Fig. 3. We found that there is a very broad intense luminescence peak at 458.5 nm, which is the 3P11S0 fluorescence of the Bi3+ ion [11,25] for the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 and (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 powder phosphors. The normalized intensity of the 458.5 nm 3P11S0 luminescence of the Bi3+ ion for (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4, (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 and (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 powder phosphors can be calculated to be 2.31 × 10−1, 1.82 × 10−3 and 1.00. The 461.0 nm 3H61G4 excitation peak of the Tm3+ ion of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 and (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 powder phosphors is selected as the excitation wavelength to measure the luminescence spectra from 510 to 850 nm, as shown in Fig. 4. We found that there are two medium-sized luminescence peaks at 648.0nm and (791.0, 802.5 nm) of 1G43F4 and 3H43H6 fluorescence for the Tm3+ ion [8,16,18].

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Luminescence spectra of (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 (blue), (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 (red) and (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 (green) powder phosphors, when the 302.0 nm 1S03P1 absorption transition of the Bi3+ ion is selected as the excitation wavelength.

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 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Luminescence spectra of (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 (blue) and (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 (red) powder phosphors, when the 461.0 nm 3H61G4 excitation peak of the Tm3+ ion is selected as the excitation wavelength.

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Sequentially, the infrared luminescence spectra of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4, (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 and (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 powder phosphors are measured. In the same manner, the 302.0 nm 1S03P1 absorption transition of the Bi3+ ion [11] is selected as the excitation wavelength to measure the infrared luminescence spectra of 1200-2800 nm, as shown in Fig. 3. We found that there is a group of strong 1820.0 nm luminescence peaks for the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphor. It is easy to recognize that it is the 3F43H6 luminescence transition of the Tm3+ ion [8,16,18]. The normalized intensity of the 1820.0 nm 3F43H6 luminescence of the Tm3+ ion for (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4, (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 and (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 powder phosphors can be calculated to be 1.00, 6.61 × 10−3 and 5.82 × 10−4, respectively. The 468.0 nm 3H61G4 excitation peak of the Tm3+ ion is also selected as the excitation wavelength to measure the luminescence spectra of 1200-2800 nm, as shown in Fig. 4. It is found that the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 and (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 powder phosphors have two groups of luminescence peaks positioned at 1496.0 nm and 1820.0 nm. It is easy to recognize that these are respectively the 3H43F4 and 3F43H6 luminescence transitions [8,16,18]. The 1820.0 nm 3F43H6 near-infrared luminescence signal intensity of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphor is 8.38 times larger than that of (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4.

6. Experimental fluorescence lifetime measurement results

The fluorescence lifetimes of the 458.5, 648.0 and 802.5 nm visible fluorescence of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4, (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 and (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 powder phosphors, as shown in Fig. 5, are measured by the FL3-2iHR fluorescence spectrometer, produced by the Horiba-JY Company. In the measurements, the pumping sources are the 280 nm NanoLED semiconductor quasi-laser and the pulsed Xe lamp. The fluorescence lifetime values of the 458.5, 648.0 and 802.5 nm fluorescences are obtained from curve fits to the measured fluorescence lifetime curves [1,5–12]. The fitting method is the tail fit. The origin points are set after the equipment response. We found from the measurements that the fluorescence lifetime values of the 458.5, 648.0 and 802.5 nm peaks of (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 are τA(458.5nm) = 0.852 μs, τA(648.0nm) = 63.9 μs, and τA(802.5nm) = 110 μs, respectively; those of (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 are τB(648.0nm) = 102 μs and τB(802.5nm) = 230 μs; and that of (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 is τC(458.5nm) = 1.08 μs.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Fluorescence lifetime of the (a) 648.0 nm(left) visible luminescence of (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 (blue) and (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 (red), and (b) 458.5 nm(right) visible luminescence of (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 (blue) and (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 (red) powder phosphor, when excited by (a) 461.0 nm (left) and (b) 302.0 nm (right) pulsed light respectively.

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According to well-known reports about infrared quantum cutting in the literature, the energy transfer efficiency of the Tm3+ ion caused by cross-relaxation energy transfer is determined by Eq. (1) [2,5–12]:

ηtr,x%Tm1Ix%TmdtI0%Tmdt.
where I denotes intensity, and x%Tm represents the Tm3+ concentration. In Eq. (1), it is assumed that the energy transfer among the Tm3+ ions is very small when x is approximately 0%, which can represent the case of no-energy transfer.

Therefore it can be calculated that the energy transfer efficiencies of the 458.5, 648.0 and 802.5 nm fluorescences are respectively ηtr,8%Tm,1%Bi(458.5nm)=21.3%, ηtr,8%Tm,1%Bi(648.0nm)=37.7% and ηtr,8%Tm,1%Bi(802.5nm)=52.0%.

7. Analysis

A schematic diagram of the energy level structure and quantum cutting process are shown in Fig. 6. From excitation spectra of Fig. 2, it is obviously that the visible excitation spectra intensities of 356.5, 461.0 and 682.5 nm peaks of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphor are much smaller than that of (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 when the fluorescence received wavelength is positioned at 802.5 nm. However, it is obviously that the infrared excitation spectra intensities of 362.0, 468.0, 682.5, and 789.0 nm peaks of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphor are much larger than that of (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 when the fluorescence received wavelength is positioned at 1820.0nm wavelength. It illustrates that the populations of high excited state of 1D2, 1G4, 3F3, and 3H4 of the Tm3+ ion are transferred to first excited state 3F4 of the Tm3+ ion by cross-energy transfer process when the concentration of the Tm3+ ion is enhanced from 0.5 mol % to 8 mol %. It illustrates that the quantum cutting downconversion processes take place between the Tm3+ ions and that the Bi3+ ion only acts as sensitizer. Moreover, it can be calculated from Fig. 2(b) that the proportion β between Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 and Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 powder phosphor of relative line intensities in the excitation spectra of 1D2, 1G4, 3F3, and 3H4 level of the Tm3+ ion, when the fluorescence received wavelength is positioned at 1820.0nm, are 8.51, 8.46, 3.12, and 3.57. β(3F3)/β(3H4) = 0.87, β(1G4)/β(3H4) = 2.37, β(1D2)/β(3H4) = 2.38. It strongly indicates that the 1D2 and 1G4 level have more cross-relaxation processes than the 3F3 and 3H4 level. It means that the 1D2 and 1G4 level have higher order quantum cutting process than the 3F3 and 3H4 level [9,19].

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of the energy level structure and quantum cutting process of Tm3+Bi3+:YNbO4 powder phosphor. The blue line, red line and lake-blue line represent the absorption, energy transfer and luminescence respectively.

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The main processes of quantum cutting downconversion originating from the 3H4 energy level are as follows:

When the 3H4, 3F3, and 3F2 energy levels are excited, many populations of Tm3+ ion may be populated at the 3H4 energy level owing to the rapid multiphonon non-radiative relaxation from 3F3 and 3F2 energy levels to 3H4. The Tm3+ ion possesses a very effective {3H43F4, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfer process. Although its transition mismatch of + 858.5 cm−1 is large, the reduced matrix elements U2 (0.1275, 0.1311, 0.2113) and (0.5375, 0.7261, 0.2382) of the Tm3+ ion are extremely large [16,18] such that the cross energy transfer rate of {3H43F4, 3H63F4} is also very large. For (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphor, the population of the 3H4 energy level may directly transfer to the first excited state 3F4 energy level through the {3H43F4, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfer process. This results in the very effective two-photon near-infrared quantum cutting of the 3F43H6 fluorescence.

The main processes of quantum-cutting downconversion originating from the 1G4 energy level are as follows:

When the 1G4 energy level is excited, many Tm3+ ions may populate at the 1G4 energy level because the 1G4 energy level is a metastable energy state. In this case, the Tm3+ ion possesses a very effective {1G43H4, 3H63H5} cross-energy transfer process. Its transition mismatch of + 51.5 cm−1 is small, and the reduced matrix elements U2 (0.1645, 0.0052, 0.4114) and (0.1074, 0.2314, 0.6385) of Tm3+ ion are very large [16,18], therefore the cross-energy transfer rate of {1G43H4, 3H63H5} is very large.

The Tm3+ ion also possesses a weak {1G43F4, 3H63F3} cross-energy transfer process. Its transition mismatch of + 626.1 cm−1 is large, and the reduced matrix elements U2 (0.0020,0.0182,0.0693) and (0,0.3164,0.8413) of Tm3+ ion are moderate [16,18], thus the cross-energy transfer rate of {1G43F4, 3H63F3} is small.

The Tm3+ ion possesses an effective {1G43F2, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfer process. Its transition mismatch of + 17.2 cm−1 is very small, the reduced matrix elements U2 (0.0095,0.0784,0.0432) and (0.5375,0.7261,0.2382) of the Tm3+ ion are moderate [16,18], therefore the cross-energy transfer rate of {1G43F2, 3H63F4} is large.

The Tm3+ ion also possesses an effective {1G43F3, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfer process. Although its transition mismatch of + 626.1 cm−1 is large, however the reduced matrix elements U2 (0.0117,0.0808,0.3253) and (0.5375,0.7261,0.2382) of the Tm3+ ion are large [16,18], therefore the cross-energy transfer rate of {1G43F3, 3H63F4} is large.

The Tm3+ ion also possesses a weak {1G43F4, 3H63F2} cross-energy transfer process. Its transition mismatch of + 17.2 cm−1 is very small, but its reduced matrix elements U2 (0.0020,0.0182,0.0693) and (0,0,0.2550) of Tm3+ ion are small [16,18], therefore the cross-energy transfer rate of {1G43F4, 3H63F2} is small.

The Tm3+ ion also possesses a very effective {1G43H5, 3H63H4} cross-energy transfer process. Its transition mismatch of + 51.5 cm−1 is small, and its reduced matrix elements U2 (0.0773,0.0078,0.5633) and (0.2357,0.1081,0.5916) of Tm3+ ion are very large [16,18], therefore the cross-energy transfer rate of {1G43H5, 3H63H4} is very large.

In conclusion, for the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphor, the population of the 1G4 energy level may directly transfer to the lower energy level mainly through the {1G43H4, 3H63H5} and {1G43H5, 3H63H4} cross-energy transfer processes, i.e. one population of the 1G4 energy level may very effectively lead to two populations, which are positioned at the 3H4 and 3H5 energy levels, respectively, mainly through the {1G43H4, 3H63H5} and {1G43H5, 3H63H4} cross-energy transfer processes. This may also very effectively lead to three populations of the 3F4 energy level through the {3H43F4, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfer process from the 3H4 level and multi-phonon non-radiative relaxation from the 3H5 level, respectively. This results in the effective three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting of the 3F43H6 fluorescence of Tm3+ ion.

Therefore the three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiencies of the 1820.0 nm 3F43H6 fluorescence when the 1G4 energy level is excited by 461.0 nm light can be expressed as follows [1,7,12]:

ηCR,x%Tm(1G4)={η1G4·[1ηtr,x%Tm(1G4)]+η3H4ηtr,x%Tm(1G4)}·{η3H4·[1ηtr,x%Tm(3H4)]+2η3F4ηtr,x%Tm(3H4)}+η3H53F4·η3F4ηtr,x%Tm(1G4),
where ηCR,x%Tm(1G4) is the three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiency, ηtr,x%Tm(1G4) is the energy transfer efficiency of the {1G43H4, 3H63H5} and {1G43H5, 3H63H4} cross-energy transfers, and η1G4,η3H4, and η3F4 are the luminescent efficiencies of the 1G4, 3H4 and 3F4 energy levels of the Tm3+ ion respectively. We assume that η1G4=η3H4=η3F4=1, as is also assumed in most near-infrared quantum cutting literatures [1,5–12,19–28]. We also assume that the multi-phonon relaxation efficiency, from the 3H5 to the 3F4 energy level, equal to 1 η3H53F4=1. In formula (2), the concentration quenching effect is neglected.

Therefore, the up-limit of the three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiency of the Tm3+ ion induced both by [{1G43H4, 3H63H5} or {1G43H5, 3H63H4}] and {3H43F4, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfers can be expressed as follows:

ηCR,x%Tm(1G4)=1+ηtr,x%Tm(1G4)+ηtr,x%Tm(3H4).
It is then easy to calculate that ηCR,8%Tm,1%Bi(1G4)=ηCR,8%Tm,1%Bi(461.0nm)=190%.

8. Conclusion

In present manuscript, the x-ray diffraction spectra, visible to near-infrared excitation and luminescence spectra, and fluorescence lifetimes have been measured. We found that the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphors possess intense sensitized three-photon quantum cutting luminescence induced both by [{1G43H4, 3H63H5} or {1G43H5, 3H63H4}] and {3H43F4, 3H63F4} cross-energy transfer. We found that the 1820.0 nm 3F43H6 near-infrared luminescence signal intensity of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphor when excited by 302.0 nm light is 151 and 8.38 times larger than that of (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 when excited by 302.0 and 468.0 nm light, and is also the 3.25 times larger than that of (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 when excited by 468.0 nm light. The excitation spectra of 1820.0nm near-infrared luminescence emerge a very broad intense band positioned at ultra-violet waverange because of the sensitization action of the Bi3+ ion. We also found that the 302.0, 356.5, 461.0, 682.5, and 789.0 nm peak intensities of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 excitation spectrum are 278, 8.51, 8.46, 3.12, and 3.57 times larger than those of the (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 powder phosphor for 1820.0nm near-infrared luminescence receiving wavelength. The sensitization action is quite excellent. Moreover, we found that their up-limit of the three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting efficiencies is approximately 190%. We found that the energy transfer efficiency from the Bi3+ ion to the Tm3+ ion is about 21.3%. It means that the sensitization action of the Bi3+ ion for on the near-infrared quantum cutting of the Tm3+ ion can be enhanced much further for more appropriate materials even (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 already has intense sensitized three-photon quantum cutting luminescence.

Acknowledgment

The present project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(51472028) and the significant project of Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China(212-105560GK). The author thanks very much for the help of Academician Prof. Jingkui Liang, Academician Prof. Bingkun Zhou, Prof. Kexin Chen, Dr. Yu Ye, Prof. Qihuang Gong, Prof. Zhiyong Tang, Prof. Yongfen Zhou, Prof. Shuguang Wang, Prof. Nan Xiao, Prof. Xiaojuan Lin, Prof. Lin Zhai, and Prof. Jinguang Wu.

References and links

1. P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. Den Hertog, J. P. J. M. Van Der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005).

2. R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, K. D. Oskam, and A. Meijerink, “Visible quantum cutting in LiGdF4: Eu3+ through downconversion,” Science. 283(5402), 663-666 (1999). [CrossRef]  

3. B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006). [CrossRef]  

4. M. M. Hung, H. V. Han, C. Y. Hong, K. H. Hong, T. T. Yang, P. C. Yu, Y. R. Wu, H. Y. Yeh, and H. C. Huang, “Compound biomimetic structures for efficiency enhancement of Ga₀.₅In₀.₅P/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells,” Opt. Express 22(5Suppl 2), A295–A300 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, and M. C. Hong, “Lanthanide nanomaterials with photon management characteristics for photovoltaic application,” Nano Energy 1(1), 73–90 (2012). [CrossRef]  

6. W. J. Zhu, D. Q. Chen, L. Lei, J. Xu, and Y. S. Wang, “An active-core/active-shell structure with enhanced quantum-cutting luminescence in Pr-Yb co-doped monodisperse nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10500–10504 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. F. Liu, S. Ye, X. Q. Xu, Z. J. Ma, and J. R. Qiu, “Intense infrared emission of Er3+ in Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2 phosphor from energy transfer of Eu2+ by broadband down-conversion,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21663–21668 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. X. B. Chen, G. J. Salamo, G. J. Yang, Y. L. Li, X. L. Ding, Y. Gao, Q. L. Liu, and J. H. Guo, “Multiphoton near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence phenomena of Tm3+ ion in (Y1-xTmx)3Al5O12 powder phosphor,” Opt. Express 21(18Suppl 5), A829–A840 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009). [CrossRef]  

10. T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1668–1674 (2002). [CrossRef]  

11. H. T. Sun, J. J. Zhou, and J. R. Qiu, “Recent advances in bismuth activated photonic materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 64, 1–72 (2014). [CrossRef]  

12. J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Broadband spectral modification from visible light to near-infrared radiation using Ce3+-Er3+ codoped yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13759–13762 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. G. W. Shu, J. Y. Lin, H. T. Jian, J. L. Shen, S. C. Wang, C. L. Chou, W. C. Chou, C. H. Wu, C. H. Chiu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical coupling from InGaAs subcell to InGaP subcell in InGaP/InGaAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A123–A130 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. D. C. Yu, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and L. Wondraczek, “Sequential three-step three-photon near-infrared quantum splitting in beta-NaYF4:Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191911 (2012). [CrossRef]  

15. D. K. G. De Boer, D. J. Broer, M. G. Debije, W. Keur, A. Meijerink, C. R. Ronda, R. Cees, and P. P. C. Verbunt, “Progress in phosphors and filters for luminescent solar concentrators,” Opt. Express 20(10), A395–A405 (2012).

16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

17. T. Förster, “Zwischenmolekulare energiewanderung und fluoreszenz,” Ann. Phys. 437(1–2), 55–75 (1948). [CrossRef]  

18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

19. B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. S. V. Eliseeva and J. C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. M. V. Shestakov, V. K. Tikhomirov, D. Kirilenko, A. S. Kuznetsov, L. F. Chibotaru, A. N. Baranov, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Quantum cutting in Li (770 nm) and Yb (1000 nm) co-dopant emission bands by energy transfer from the ZnO nano-crystalline host,” Opt. Express 19(17), 15955–15964 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. W. L. Zhou, J. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, X. J. Kuang, J. K. Tang, and H. B. Liang, “Study on the effects of 5d energy locations of Ce3+ ions on NIR quantum cutting process in Y2SiO5:Ce3+Yb3+,” Opt. Express 20(14), A510–A518 (2012).

24. D. L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescent quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108(3), 630–633 (1957). [CrossRef]  

25. R. Zhou, Y. Kou, X. Wei, C. Duan, Y. Chen, and M. Yin, “Broadband downconversion based near-infrared quantum cutting via cooperative energy transfer in YNbO4:Bi3+Yb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. B 107(2), 483–487 (2012). [CrossRef]  

26. X. J. Wu, F. Z. Meng, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. N. Yu, X. J. Liu, and J. Meng, “Broadband down-conversion for silicon solar cell by ZnSe/phosphor heterostructure,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A735–A741 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. Y. Z. Wang, D. C. Yu, H. H. Lin, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Broadband three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting in Tm3+ singly doped YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203510 (2013). [CrossRef]  

28. X. B. Chen, J. G. Wu, X. L. Xu, Y. Z. Zhang, N. Sawanobori, C. L. Zhang, Q. H. Pan, and G. J. Salamo, “Three-photon infrared quantum cutting from single species of rare-earth Er3+ ions in Er0.3Gd0.7VO4 crystalline,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 887–889 (2009).

References

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  1. P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. Den Hertog, J. P. J. M. Van Der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005).
  2. R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, K. D. Oskam, and A. Meijerink, “Visible quantum cutting in LiGdF4: Eu3+ through downconversion,” Science. 283(5402), 663-666 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. M. Hung, H. V. Han, C. Y. Hong, K. H. Hong, T. T. Yang, P. C. Yu, Y. R. Wu, H. Y. Yeh, and H. C. Huang, “Compound biomimetic structures for efficiency enhancement of Ga₀.₅In₀.₅P/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells,” Opt. Express 22(5Suppl 2), A295–A300 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, and M. C. Hong, “Lanthanide nanomaterials with photon management characteristics for photovoltaic application,” Nano Energy 1(1), 73–90 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. W. J. Zhu, D. Q. Chen, L. Lei, J. Xu, and Y. S. Wang, “An active-core/active-shell structure with enhanced quantum-cutting luminescence in Pr-Yb co-doped monodisperse nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10500–10504 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. F. Liu, S. Ye, X. Q. Xu, Z. J. Ma, and J. R. Qiu, “Intense infrared emission of Er3+ in Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2 phosphor from energy transfer of Eu2+ by broadband down-conversion,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21663–21668 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. X. B. Chen, G. J. Salamo, G. J. Yang, Y. L. Li, X. L. Ding, Y. Gao, Q. L. Liu, and J. H. Guo, “Multiphoton near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence phenomena of Tm3+ ion in (Y1-xTmx)3Al5O12 powder phosphor,” Opt. Express 21(18Suppl 5), A829–A840 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1668–1674 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. T. Sun, J. J. Zhou, and J. R. Qiu, “Recent advances in bismuth activated photonic materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 64, 1–72 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Broadband spectral modification from visible light to near-infrared radiation using Ce3+-Er3+ codoped yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13759–13762 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. W. Shu, J. Y. Lin, H. T. Jian, J. L. Shen, S. C. Wang, C. L. Chou, W. C. Chou, C. H. Wu, C. H. Chiu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical coupling from InGaAs subcell to InGaP subcell in InGaP/InGaAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A123–A130 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. D. C. Yu, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and L. Wondraczek, “Sequential three-step three-photon near-infrared quantum splitting in beta-NaYF4:Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191911 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. K. G. De Boer, D. J. Broer, M. G. Debije, W. Keur, A. Meijerink, C. R. Ronda, R. Cees, and P. P. C. Verbunt, “Progress in phosphors and filters for luminescent solar concentrators,” Opt. Express 20(10), A395–A405 (2012).
  16. R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).
  17. T. Förster, “Zwischenmolekulare energiewanderung und fluoreszenz,” Ann. Phys. 437(1–2), 55–75 (1948).
    [Crossref]
  18. G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).
  19. B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. S. V. Eliseeva and J. C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. V. Shestakov, V. K. Tikhomirov, D. Kirilenko, A. S. Kuznetsov, L. F. Chibotaru, A. N. Baranov, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Quantum cutting in Li (770 nm) and Yb (1000 nm) co-dopant emission bands by energy transfer from the ZnO nano-crystalline host,” Opt. Express 19(17), 15955–15964 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. W. L. Zhou, J. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, X. J. Kuang, J. K. Tang, and H. B. Liang, “Study on the effects of 5d energy locations of Ce3+ ions on NIR quantum cutting process in Y2SiO5:Ce3+Yb3+,” Opt. Express 20(14), A510–A518 (2012).
  24. D. L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescent quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108(3), 630–633 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. Zhou, Y. Kou, X. Wei, C. Duan, Y. Chen, and M. Yin, “Broadband downconversion based near-infrared quantum cutting via cooperative energy transfer in YNbO4:Bi3+Yb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. B 107(2), 483–487 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. X. J. Wu, F. Z. Meng, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. N. Yu, X. J. Liu, and J. Meng, “Broadband down-conversion for silicon solar cell by ZnSe/phosphor heterostructure,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A735–A741 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Y. Z. Wang, D. C. Yu, H. H. Lin, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Broadband three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting in Tm3+ singly doped YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203510 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. X. B. Chen, J. G. Wu, X. L. Xu, Y. Z. Zhang, N. Sawanobori, C. L. Zhang, Q. H. Pan, and G. J. Salamo, “Three-photon infrared quantum cutting from single species of rare-earth Er3+ ions in Er0.3Gd0.7VO4 crystalline,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 887–889 (2009).

2014 (4)

M. M. Hung, H. V. Han, C. Y. Hong, K. H. Hong, T. T. Yang, P. C. Yu, Y. R. Wu, H. Y. Yeh, and H. C. Huang, “Compound biomimetic structures for efficiency enhancement of Ga₀.₅In₀.₅P/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells,” Opt. Express 22(5Suppl 2), A295–A300 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Zhu, D. Q. Chen, L. Lei, J. Xu, and Y. S. Wang, “An active-core/active-shell structure with enhanced quantum-cutting luminescence in Pr-Yb co-doped monodisperse nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10500–10504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Sun, J. J. Zhou, and J. R. Qiu, “Recent advances in bismuth activated photonic materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 64, 1–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. J. Wu, F. Z. Meng, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. N. Yu, X. J. Liu, and J. Meng, “Broadband down-conversion for silicon solar cell by ZnSe/phosphor heterostructure,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A735–A741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (6)

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, and M. C. Hong, “Lanthanide nanomaterials with photon management characteristics for photovoltaic application,” Nano Energy 1(1), 73–90 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. C. Yu, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and L. Wondraczek, “Sequential three-step three-photon near-infrared quantum splitting in beta-NaYF4:Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191911 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. K. G. De Boer, D. J. Broer, M. G. Debije, W. Keur, A. Meijerink, C. R. Ronda, R. Cees, and P. P. C. Verbunt, “Progress in phosphors and filters for luminescent solar concentrators,” Opt. Express 20(10), A395–A405 (2012).

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhou, Y. Kou, X. Wei, C. Duan, Y. Chen, and M. Yin, “Broadband downconversion based near-infrared quantum cutting via cooperative energy transfer in YNbO4:Bi3+Yb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. B 107(2), 483–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. L. Zhou, J. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, X. J. Kuang, J. K. Tang, and H. B. Liang, “Study on the effects of 5d energy locations of Ce3+ ions on NIR quantum cutting process in Y2SiO5:Ce3+Yb3+,” Opt. Express 20(14), A510–A518 (2012).

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Broadband spectral modification from visible light to near-infrared radiation using Ce3+-Er3+ codoped yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13759–13762 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. F. Liu, S. Ye, X. Q. Xu, Z. J. Ma, and J. R. Qiu, “Intense infrared emission of Er3+ in Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2 phosphor from energy transfer of Eu2+ by broadband down-conversion,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21663–21668 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. V. Eliseeva and J. C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. B. Chen, J. G. Wu, X. L. Xu, Y. Z. Zhang, N. Sawanobori, C. L. Zhang, Q. H. Pan, and G. J. Salamo, “Three-photon infrared quantum cutting from single species of rare-earth Er3+ ions in Er0.3Gd0.7VO4 crystalline,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 887–889 (2009).

2006 (1)

B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. Den Hertog, J. P. J. M. Van Der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005).

2002 (1)

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1668–1674 (2002).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

D. L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescent quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108(3), 630–633 (1957).
[Crossref]

1948 (1)

T. Förster, “Zwischenmolekulare energiewanderung und fluoreszenz,” Ann. Phys. 437(1–2), 55–75 (1948).
[Crossref]

Aarts, L.

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baranov, A. N.

Broer, D. J.

Bünzli, J. C. G.

S. V. Eliseeva and J. C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cees, R.

Chen, D. Q.

W. J. Zhu, D. Q. Chen, L. Lei, J. Xu, and Y. S. Wang, “An active-core/active-shell structure with enhanced quantum-cutting luminescence in Pr-Yb co-doped monodisperse nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10500–10504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, and M. C. Hong, “Lanthanide nanomaterials with photon management characteristics for photovoltaic application,” Nano Energy 1(1), 73–90 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. B.

Chen, Y.

R. Zhou, Y. Kou, X. Wei, C. Duan, Y. Chen, and M. Yin, “Broadband downconversion based near-infrared quantum cutting via cooperative energy transfer in YNbO4:Bi3+Yb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. B 107(2), 483–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chibotaru, L. F.

Chiu, C. H.

Chou, C. L.

Chou, W. C.

De Boer, D. K. G.

Debije, M. G.

Den Hertog, M. I.

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. Den Hertog, J. P. J. M. Van Der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005).

Dexter, D. L.

D. L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescent quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108(3), 630–633 (1957).
[Crossref]

Ding, X. L.

Duan, C.

R. Zhou, Y. Kou, X. Wei, C. Duan, Y. Chen, and M. Yin, “Broadband downconversion based near-infrared quantum cutting via cooperative energy transfer in YNbO4:Bi3+Yb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. B 107(2), 483–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eliseeva, S. V.

S. V. Eliseeva and J. C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Förster, T.

T. Förster, “Zwischenmolekulare energiewanderung und fluoreszenz,” Ann. Phys. 437(1–2), 55–75 (1948).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

Green, M. A.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1668–1674 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guo, J. H.

Han, H. V.

Han, S. Y.

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, C. Y.

Hong, K. H.

Hong, M. C.

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, and M. C. Hong, “Lanthanide nanomaterials with photon management characteristics for photovoltaic application,” Nano Energy 1(1), 73–90 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. C.

Huang, W.

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, X. Y.

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hung, M. M.

Jian, H. T.

Keur, W.

Kirilenko, D.

Kou, Y.

R. Zhou, Y. Kou, X. Wei, C. Duan, Y. Chen, and M. Yin, “Broadband downconversion based near-infrared quantum cutting via cooperative energy transfer in YNbO4:Bi3+Yb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. B 107(2), 483–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kox, M. H. F.

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. Den Hertog, J. P. J. M. Van Der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005).

Kuang, X. J.

Kuo, H. C.

Kuznetsov, A. S.

Lei, L.

W. J. Zhu, D. Q. Chen, L. Lei, J. Xu, and Y. S. Wang, “An active-core/active-shell structure with enhanced quantum-cutting luminescence in Pr-Yb co-doped monodisperse nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10500–10504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Li, Y. L.

Liang, H. B.

Lin, H. H.

Y. Z. Wang, D. C. Yu, H. H. Lin, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Broadband three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting in Tm3+ singly doped YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

Liu, Q. L.

Liu, X.

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Broadband spectral modification from visible light to near-infrared radiation using Ce3+-Er3+ codoped yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13759–13762 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X. F.

Liu, X. G.

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X. J.

Ma, Z.

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Broadband spectral modification from visible light to near-infrared radiation using Ce3+-Er3+ codoped yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13759–13762 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Z. J.

Meijerink, A.

D. K. G. De Boer, D. J. Broer, M. G. Debije, W. Keur, A. Meijerink, C. R. Ronda, R. Cees, and P. P. C. Verbunt, “Progress in phosphors and filters for luminescent solar concentrators,” Opt. Express 20(10), A395–A405 (2012).

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. Den Hertog, J. P. J. M. Van Der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005).

Meng, F. Z.

Meng, J.

Moshchalkov, V. V.

Pan, Q. H.

Peng, M. Y.

Y. Z. Wang, D. C. Yu, H. H. Lin, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Broadband three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting in Tm3+ singly doped YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203510 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. C. Yu, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and L. Wondraczek, “Sequential three-step three-photon near-infrared quantum splitting in beta-NaYF4:Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191911 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Broadband spectral modification from visible light to near-infrared radiation using Ce3+-Er3+ codoped yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13759–13762 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, J. R.

Richards, B. S.

B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ronda, C. R.

Salamo, G. J.

Sawanobori, N.

Shen, J. L.

Shestakov, M. V.

Shu, G. W.

Sun, H. T.

H. T. Sun, J. J. Zhou, and J. R. Qiu, “Recent advances in bismuth activated photonic materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 64, 1–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, J. K.

Teng, Y.

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Broadband spectral modification from visible light to near-infrared radiation using Ce3+-Er3+ codoped yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13759–13762 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. F. Liu, S. Ye, X. Q. Xu, Z. J. Ma, and J. R. Qiu, “Intense infrared emission of Er3+ in Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2 phosphor from energy transfer of Eu2+ by broadband down-conversion,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21663–21668 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tikhomirov, V. K.

Trupke, T.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1668–1674 (2002).
[Crossref]

Van Der Eerden, J. P. J. M.

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. Den Hertog, J. P. J. M. Van Der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005).

van der Ende, B. M.

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Tendeloo, G.

Verbunt, P. P. C.

Vergeer, P.

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. Den Hertog, J. P. J. M. Van Der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005).

Vlugt, T. J. H.

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. Den Hertog, J. P. J. M. Van Der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005).

Wang, J.

Wang, S. C.

Wang, Y. S.

W. J. Zhu, D. Q. Chen, L. Lei, J. Xu, and Y. S. Wang, “An active-core/active-shell structure with enhanced quantum-cutting luminescence in Pr-Yb co-doped monodisperse nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10500–10504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, and M. C. Hong, “Lanthanide nanomaterials with photon management characteristics for photovoltaic application,” Nano Energy 1(1), 73–90 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Wang, D. C. Yu, H. H. Lin, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Broadband three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting in Tm3+ singly doped YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, X.

R. Zhou, Y. Kou, X. Wei, C. Duan, Y. Chen, and M. Yin, “Broadband downconversion based near-infrared quantum cutting via cooperative energy transfer in YNbO4:Bi3+Yb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. B 107(2), 483–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wondraczek, L.

D. C. Yu, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and L. Wondraczek, “Sequential three-step three-photon near-infrared quantum splitting in beta-NaYF4:Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191911 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. H.

Wu, J. G.

Wu, X. J.

Wu, Y. R.

Wurfel, P.

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1668–1674 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

W. J. Zhu, D. Q. Chen, L. Lei, J. Xu, and Y. S. Wang, “An active-core/active-shell structure with enhanced quantum-cutting luminescence in Pr-Yb co-doped monodisperse nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10500–10504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X. L.

Xu, X. Q.

Yang, G. J.

Yang, J.

Yang, T. T.

Ye, S.

Y. Z. Wang, D. C. Yu, H. H. Lin, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Broadband three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting in Tm3+ singly doped YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203510 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. C. Yu, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and L. Wondraczek, “Sequential three-step three-photon near-infrared quantum splitting in beta-NaYF4:Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191911 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Broadband spectral modification from visible light to near-infrared radiation using Ce3+-Er3+ codoped yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13759–13762 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. F. Liu, S. Ye, X. Q. Xu, Z. J. Ma, and J. R. Qiu, “Intense infrared emission of Er3+ in Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2 phosphor from energy transfer of Eu2+ by broadband down-conversion,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21663–21668 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, H. Y.

Yin, M.

R. Zhou, Y. Kou, X. Wei, C. Duan, Y. Chen, and M. Yin, “Broadband downconversion based near-infrared quantum cutting via cooperative energy transfer in YNbO4:Bi3+Yb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. B 107(2), 483–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, D. C.

Y. Z. Wang, D. C. Yu, H. H. Lin, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Broadband three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting in Tm3+ singly doped YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203510 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. C. Yu, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and L. Wondraczek, “Sequential three-step three-photon near-infrared quantum splitting in beta-NaYF4:Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191911 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, P. C.

Yu, Y. N.

Zhang, C. L.

Zhang, Q. Y.

Y. Z. Wang, D. C. Yu, H. H. Lin, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Broadband three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting in Tm3+ singly doped YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203510 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. C. Yu, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and L. Wondraczek, “Sequential three-step three-photon near-infrared quantum splitting in beta-NaYF4:Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191911 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. Z.

Zhang, Z. Z.

Zhou, J. J.

H. T. Sun, J. J. Zhou, and J. R. Qiu, “Recent advances in bismuth activated photonic materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 64, 1–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Broadband spectral modification from visible light to near-infrared radiation using Ce3+-Er3+ codoped yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13759–13762 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. F. Liu, S. Ye, X. Q. Xu, Z. J. Ma, and J. R. Qiu, “Intense infrared emission of Er3+ in Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2 phosphor from energy transfer of Eu2+ by broadband down-conversion,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21663–21668 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, R.

R. Zhou, Y. Kou, X. Wei, C. Duan, Y. Chen, and M. Yin, “Broadband downconversion based near-infrared quantum cutting via cooperative energy transfer in YNbO4:Bi3+Yb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. B 107(2), 483–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W. L.

Zhu, W. J.

W. J. Zhu, D. Q. Chen, L. Lei, J. Xu, and Y. S. Wang, “An active-core/active-shell structure with enhanced quantum-cutting luminescence in Pr-Yb co-doped monodisperse nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10500–10504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Near-infrared quantum cutting for photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 21(30), 3073–3077 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ann. Phys. (1)

T. Förster, “Zwischenmolekulare energiewanderung und fluoreszenz,” Ann. Phys. 437(1–2), 55–75 (1948).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Zhou, Y. Kou, X. Wei, C. Duan, Y. Chen, and M. Yin, “Broadband downconversion based near-infrared quantum cutting via cooperative energy transfer in YNbO4:Bi3+Yb3+ phosphor,” Appl. Phys. B 107(2), 483–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. C. Yu, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and L. Wondraczek, “Sequential three-step three-photon near-infrared quantum splitting in beta-NaYF4:Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(19), 191911 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (2)

X. Y. Huang, S. Y. Han, W. Huang, and X. G. Liu, “Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 42(1), 173–201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Eliseeva and J. C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Z. Wang, D. C. Yu, H. H. Lin, S. Ye, M. Y. Peng, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Broadband three-photon near-infrared quantum cutting in Tm3+ singly doped YVO4,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203510 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Trupke, M. A. Green, and P. Wurfel, “Improving solar cell efficiencies by down-conversion of high-energy photons,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(3), 1668–1674 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nano Energy (1)

D. Q. Chen, Y. S. Wang, and M. C. Hong, “Lanthanide nanomaterials with photon management characteristics for photovoltaic application,” Nano Energy 1(1), 73–90 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

W. J. Zhu, D. Q. Chen, L. Lei, J. Xu, and Y. S. Wang, “An active-core/active-shell structure with enhanced quantum-cutting luminescence in Pr-Yb co-doped monodisperse nanoparticles,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10500–10504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. F. Liu, S. Ye, X. Q. Xu, Z. J. Ma, and J. R. Qiu, “Intense infrared emission of Er3+ in Ca8Mg(SiO4)4Cl2 phosphor from energy transfer of Eu2+ by broadband down-conversion,” Opt. Express 18(21), 21663–21668 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. B. Chen, G. J. Salamo, G. J. Yang, Y. L. Li, X. L. Ding, Y. Gao, Q. L. Liu, and J. H. Guo, “Multiphoton near-infrared quantum cutting luminescence phenomena of Tm3+ ion in (Y1-xTmx)3Al5O12 powder phosphor,” Opt. Express 21(18Suppl 5), A829–A840 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. M. Hung, H. V. Han, C. Y. Hong, K. H. Hong, T. T. Yang, P. C. Yu, Y. R. Wu, H. Y. Yeh, and H. C. Huang, “Compound biomimetic structures for efficiency enhancement of Ga₀.₅In₀.₅P/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells,” Opt. Express 22(5Suppl 2), A295–A300 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Shu, J. Y. Lin, H. T. Jian, J. L. Shen, S. C. Wang, C. L. Chou, W. C. Chou, C. H. Wu, C. H. Chiu, and H. C. Kuo, “Optical coupling from InGaAs subcell to InGaP subcell in InGaP/InGaAs/Ge multi-junction solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A123–A130 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. G. De Boer, D. J. Broer, M. G. Debije, W. Keur, A. Meijerink, C. R. Ronda, R. Cees, and P. P. C. Verbunt, “Progress in phosphors and filters for luminescent solar concentrators,” Opt. Express 20(10), A395–A405 (2012).

X. J. Wu, F. Z. Meng, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. N. Yu, X. J. Liu, and J. Meng, “Broadband down-conversion for silicon solar cell by ZnSe/phosphor heterostructure,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A735–A741 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Shestakov, V. K. Tikhomirov, D. Kirilenko, A. S. Kuznetsov, L. F. Chibotaru, A. N. Baranov, G. Van Tendeloo, and V. V. Moshchalkov, “Quantum cutting in Li (770 nm) and Yb (1000 nm) co-dopant emission bands by energy transfer from the ZnO nano-crystalline host,” Opt. Express 19(17), 15955–15964 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Zhou, J. Yang, J. Wang, Y. Li, X. J. Kuang, J. K. Tang, and H. B. Liang, “Study on the effects of 5d energy locations of Ce3+ ions on NIR quantum cutting process in Y2SiO5:Ce3+Yb3+,” Opt. Express 20(14), A510–A518 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (2)

B. M. van der Ende, L. Aarts, and A. Meijerink, “Lanthanide ions as spectral converters for solar cells,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 11(47), 11081–11095 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. J. Zhou, Y. Teng, X. Liu, S. Ye, Z. Ma, and J. Qiu, “Broadband spectral modification from visible light to near-infrared radiation using Ce3+-Er3+ codoped yttrium aluminium garnet,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12(41), 13759–13762 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. L. Dexter, “Possibility of luminescent quantum yields greater than unity,” Phys. Rev. 108(3), 630–633 (1957).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Vergeer, T. J. H. Vlugt, M. H. F. Kox, M. I. Den Hertog, J. P. J. M. Van Der Eerden, and A. Meijerink, “Quantum cutting by cooperative energy transfer in YbxY1-xPO4: Tb3+,” Phys. Rev. B 71(1), 014119 (2005).

Prog. Mater. Sci. (1)

H. T. Sun, J. J. Zhou, and J. R. Qiu, “Recent advances in bismuth activated photonic materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 64, 1–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

B. S. Richards, “Luminescent layers for enhanced silicon solar cell performance: Down-conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90(9), 1189–1207 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, K. D. Oskam, and A. Meijerink, “Visible quantum cutting in LiGdF4: Eu3+ through downconversion,” Science. 283(5402), 663-666 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Reisfeld, Lasers and Excited States of Rare-Earth (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

G. X. Xu, Rare Earth (Metallurgical Industry, 1995) (in Chinese).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) XRD pattern (red) and (b) the absorption spectrum (blue) of the Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 powder phosphor sample.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Visible and (b) infrared excitation spectra of the (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 (blue) and (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 (red) powder phosphors, when the fluorescence received wavelength is positioned at 802.5 nm (a) and 1820.0nm (b) wavelength.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Luminescence spectra of (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 (blue), (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 (red) and (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 (green) powder phosphors, when the 302.0 nm 1S03P1 absorption transition of the Bi3+ ion is selected as the excitation wavelength.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Luminescence spectra of (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 (blue) and (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 (red) powder phosphors, when the 461.0 nm 3H61G4 excitation peak of the Tm3+ ion is selected as the excitation wavelength.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fluorescence lifetime of the (a) 648.0 nm(left) visible luminescence of (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 (blue) and (B) Tm0.005Y0.995NbO4 (red), and (b) 458.5 nm(right) visible luminescence of (A) Tm0.08Bi0.01Y0.91NbO4 (blue) and (C) Bi0.01Y0.99NbO4 (red) powder phosphor, when excited by (a) 461.0 nm (left) and (b) 302.0 nm (right) pulsed light respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic diagram of the energy level structure and quantum cutting process of Tm3+Bi3+:YNbO4 powder phosphor. The blue line, red line and lake-blue line represent the absorption, energy transfer and luminescence respectively.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η tr,x%Tm 1 I x%Tm dt I 0%Tm dt .
η CR,x%Tm ( 1 G 4 )={ η 1 G 4 ·[1 η tr,x%Tm ( 1 G 4 )]+ η 3 H 4 η tr,x%Tm ( 1 G 4 )} ·{ η 3 H 4 ·[1 η tr,x%Tm ( 3 H 4 )]+2 η 3 F 4 η tr,x%Tm ( 3 H 4 )} + η 3 H 5 3 F 4 · η 3 F 4 η tr,x%Tm ( 1 G 4 ),
η CR,x%Tm ( 1 G 4 )=1+ η tr,x%Tm ( 1 G 4 )+ η tr,x%Tm ( 3 H 4 ).

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