Abstract

A low-loss suspended core As38Se62 fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μm and a zero-dispersion wavelength of 3.5 μm was used for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation. The dispersion of the fiber was measured from 2.9 to 4.2 μm and was in good correspondence with the calculated dispersion. An optical parametric amplifier delivering 320 fs pulses with a peak power of 14.8 kW at a repetition rate of 21 MHz was used to pump 18 cm of suspended core fiber at different wavelengths from 3.3 to 4.7 μm. By pumping at 4.4 μm with a peak power of 5.2 kW coupled to the fiber a supercontinuum spanning from 1.7 to 7.5 μm with an average output power of 15.6 mW and an average power >5.0 μm of 4.7 mW was obtained.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The mid-infrared spectral region is of great interest because virtually all organic compounds display distinctive spectral fingerprints therein that reveal information about their chemical structure [1]. The mid-infrared region is, therefore, of key importance to many applications including food quality control [2], gas sensing [3] and medical diagnostics [4]. Supercontinuum laser sources spanning the visible and near-infrared based on optical nonlinear effects in tailored photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are now commercially available [5]. However, the use of silica fibers as the generating medium has its limitations: the material absorption of silica increases drastically at wavelengths beyond 2 μm and this effectively prevents the spectral evolution of the supercontinuum generation (SCG) into the mid-infrared. Research into other nonlinear materials that can open the door to the mid-infrared spectral region has intensified in recent years. Several non-silica materials have been proposed as candidates for mid-infrared fibers, including tellurite [6], fluoride [7, 8], heavy metal oxide [9] and chalcogenide based materials [10]. However, the change of nonlinear material will inevitably change the fiber properties. Generally, efficient and broadband SCG is obtained by pumping close to the zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of the fiber. Silica fibers, especially PCFs, can be designed to have their ZDW at the wavelength of commercially available fiber lasers, such as ytterbium (1.06 μm) or erbium lasers (1.55 μm) [11]. The current state-of-the art in supercontinuum sources covering the near to mid-infrared region of the spectrum is based on fluoride or tellurite fibers which cover the 1–4.75 μm spectral range [8, 12, 13]. Again, the material absorption at the long wavelength edge dictates the upper limit. Chalcogenide glasses, on the other hand, have been shown to be promising candidates for highly-nonlinear photonic devices [10,14] including mid-infrared SCG as they can transmit light out to 25 μm [15] and they possess high nonlinear refractive indices, up to a factor of 1,000 more than silica [16]. For As2Se3 the ZDW of the material is around 7 μm, but it can be tailored using waveguide dispersion to 5μm in a 10 μm core step-index As2Se3 fiber [17, 18]. Recently, Hudson et al. generated a 1.6–5.9 ∼ μm SC in a step-index As2S3 fiber with a core diameter of 9 μm by pumping at 3.1 μm [19], Théberge et al. used a step-index As2S3 fiber with a 100 μm core to generate an SC spanning from 1.5 to 7.0 μm by pumping at 4.56 μm based on self-focusing and beam filamentation [20], and Petersen et al. used 100 fs pulses at 6.3 μm to generate SC spanning from 1.4 to 13.3 μm in 85 mm of ultra high NA As2Se3 step-index fiber with a 16 μm core [21]. Al-kadry et al. shifted the ZDW all the way down to 1.73 μm by tapering an As2Se3 fiber down to a diameter of 1.28 μm [22]. However, tapering to small dimensions comes with the cost of power handling and the second ZDW may eventually limit the SCG at longer wavelengths. An alternative approach to shift the ZDW to shorter wavelengths is to fabricate microstructured optical fibers (MOFs). Mouawad et al. succeeded in generating supercontinuum from 0.6 to 4.1 μm in an As2S3 suspended core fiber with a core diameter of 3.4 μm pumped at 2.5 μm [23], and Cheng et al. demonstrated a supercontinuum spanning from 1.3 to 5.4 μm in an AsSe2-As2S5 hybrid MOF [24]. Kubat et al. numerically demonstrated that by cascading a ZBLAN-based SC into a As2S3 grapefruit MOF with a core diameter of 5 μm it is possible to generate SC out to 9 μm [25]. Other types of waveguides and bulk materials have also been used for SCG, and Yu et al. recently reported on a supercontinuum spanning from 1.8 to 7.5 μm in a chalcogenide rib waveguide with a 2.5 μm thick core layer [26]. Liao et al. obtained an SC from 0.39–7.4 μm at -20 dB in a 32 mm ZBLAN sample [27] and Pigeon et al. generated a 2–20 μm supercontinuum in a 67 mm GaAs sample by pumping with a CO2 laser at 9.3 μm [28]. The drawback of using bulk samples for SCG is, however, the lack of confinement which will require higher power.

In this paper we present experimental results on SCG in a low-loss 18 cm As38Se62 suspended core fiber with a core diameter of 4.5 μm pumped at different wavelengths from 3.3 to 4.7 μm with 320 fs pulses from an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Pumping at 4.4 μm with a peak power of 5.2 kW coupled to the fiber we obtained a supercontinuum spanning from 1.7–7.5 μm with an average output power of 15.6 mW and an average power >5.0 μm of 4.7 mW. When pumping at 4.7 μm we obtained an average output power of 16.0 mW and an average power >5.0 μm of 7.5 mW. However the supercontinuum did in this case contain dips below -20 dB and this limited the total bandwidth. This is to our knowledge the furthest into the mid-infrared reported in a chalcogenide MOF. The presented experiment is entirely reproducible using components that can be purchased and represents a practical solution for e.g. mid-infrared spectroscopy.

2. Experimental setup and optical parameters of fiber

The experimental setup is shown schematically in Fig. 1(a). The mid-infrared OPA consists of a high power pulsed Yb fs laser which is used to pump a 10 mm long PPLN crystal. A tunable semiconductor laser was used as a seed to generate light from 3.3–4.7 μm. The average output power of the mid-infrared OPA was up to 250 mW at 4 μm with a pulse duration of 320 fs at a repetition rate of 21 MHz [26]. However, for SCG the maximum power was set to 100 mW, which corresponds to a peak power of 14.8 kW. The light from the mid-infrared OPA was sent through a chopper and a polarizer pair in order to control the polarization and power. The light was coupled with an NA = 0.85 molded chalcogenide lens to the 18 cm long suspended core fiber with a core diameter of 4.5 μm. The output from the fiber was collected by either a similar molded lens for insertion loss measurements, or a reflective objective lens for spectroscopic measurements that were performed using a Newport Cornerstone 1/4 m monochromator. Either a PbSe or a MCT detector connected to a lock-in amplifier was used to record the spectra in the range 1.5–4.0 μm and 4.0–8.5 μm, respectively. Filters were used to prevent higher order grating reflections from reaching the detectors. At wavelengths > 4.0 μm the data was corrected for the detector responsivity, which was provided by the manufacturer and shown in Fig. 1(b).

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the experimental setup. (b) MCT detector responsivity.

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The total insertion loss of the fiber plus the coupling lenses was measured to be 7.5 dB and thus the power delivered to the fiber was estimated to be 3.75 dB lower than the measured average power after the chopper. This corresponds to 118 W of peak power delivered to the fiber for every mW of average power measured after the chopper.

The As38Se62 suspended core fiber had a core diameter of 4.5 μm and was manufactured by Perfos. The fiber has been fabricated by the molding technique described in [29]. A SEM image of the fiber is shown in Fig. 2(a). Core transmission up to 8 μm was verified in an FTIR spectrometer, but due to the low intensity it was not possible to extract the loss from this measurement. However, to estimate the loss of the 4.5 μm suspended core fiber, the fiber loss of a 6-hole suspended core fiber with a core diameter of 20 μm was measured by the cut-back method in an FTIR from 1.4–8.5 μm and shown as the solid black curve in Fig. 2(a). It has been shown that by decreasing the core size the fiber loss will increase due to microdeformations [3032]. Troles et al. characterized the fiber loss in As38Se62 microstructured optical fibers that are similar to the one used here. They found that a 3 μm suspended core fiber had a 0.4 dB higher loss than a 20 μm suspended core fiber at a wavelength of 1.55 μm [33]. Adam et al. measured the material loss of bulk As2Se3 similar to the material used for the 4.5 μm suspended core fiber, and the material transmission window was from 1 to 8.5 μm [34]. To estimate the loss of the 4.5 μm suspended core fiber we added 0.4 dB to the fiber loss measurement of the 20 μm suspended core fiber and extrapolated the loss in both ends of the transmission window at 1 and 10 μm to be 100 dB/m. The total estimated fiber loss of the 4.5 μm suspended core fiber is shown as the dashed red line in Fig. 2(a). The absorption band at 4.3 μm and the bands at 2.9 and 6.2 μm are due to Se-H and water pollution, respectively [33].

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Optical properties of the suspended core fiber. (a) Measured fiber loss of a 6-hole suspended core fiber with a core diameter of a 20 μm (black solid) and estimated fiber loss of a suspended core fiber with a core diameter of 4.5 μm (red dashed). Inset: SEM image of the 4.5 μm suspended core fiber and a zoom-in on the core indication the fast and slow polarization axis. (b) Measured (red) and calculated dispersion for the slow (black) and fast (blue) axis.

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The fiber dispersion, and in particular the location of the ZDW, is of great importance for the SCG process [3537]. Based on the fiber geometry provided by Perfos and the As2Se3 material refractive index measurements from Amorphous Materials Inc. [38], which were in good agreement with the refractive index of As38Se62 [39], the fiber dispersions of the slow and fast axis were calculated in COMSOL Multiphysics and are shown in Fig. 2(b). Because of its geometry, the fiber is slightly birefringent with a birefringence of 4.2·10−4 at 3.5 μm. The effect of SCG in a birefringent fiber has been showed by Deng et al. [40], we did however not see any difference due to the fiber orientation neither when measuring the dispersion nor when generating supercontinuum. Thus, no special care was taken to orient the fiber to account for the birefringence. The fiber dispersion of the suspended core fiber was measured by means of spectral-domain white light interferometry using a ZBLAN-fiber-based supercontinuum source generating light from 1.5–4.5 μm. The dispersion measurement setup consisted of a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer wherein a 165 mm test fiber was placed in one arm and the reference arm could be varied in length by a translation stage. Matching the optical path delay of the two arms gives rise to an interference pattern. By fitting the position of fringe peaks and valleys to a modified Cauchy dispersion equation the dispersion of the fundamental mode can be extracted [41]. The measured dispersion from 2.9–4.2 μm, which represents the average over several measurements, is shown as the solid red curve in Fig. 2(b). There is a good agreement between the measured and calculated fiber dispersion. The measured ZDW was 3.50 μm while the calculated ZDW was 3.52 μm and 3.55 μm for the slow and fast axis, respectively.

3. Experimental results and simulations

Supercontinuum spectra at different input powers pumped at 3.3 μm and 3.5 μm are shown in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b), respectively. As expected the supercontinuum spectra are broadened for increasing powers both when pumping in the normal dispersion regime at 3.3 μm as well as at the ZDW at 3.5 μm.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Pumping at different input powers at (a) 3.3 μm and (b) 3.5 μm. The given powers are the estimated peak power delivered to the fiber.

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The SCG was modelled using the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE) for single mode and single-polarization with a chirp-free Gaussian-shaped pump pulse as the initial condition. A one-photon-per-mode noise model was used to model the spectral fluctuations from shot to shot in the input pulse [35, 42]. The GNLSE was solved in the frequency domain in the interaction picture and included the frequency dependence of the effective area as detailed in [43]. A wavelength dependent Kerr coefficient estimated by Romanova et al. [44] was used together with the Raman response measured by Ung and Skorobogatiy [45]. To account for any possible coupling to higher-order modes [46, 47] and coupling between the polarization states [48, 49] only 2/3 of the peak power was used in the simulations compared to the experiments. Figure 4 summarizes the experiments and simulations for varying pump wavelengths up to 4.7 μm. In the experiments we attempted to keep the input peak powers at the different pump wavelengths constant, however, because of different coupling efficiencies the input peak powers varied from 5.3 to 5.7 kW.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Comparison between simulations (black) and experiments (red) at six different pump wavelengths (vertical dotted line). The ZDW is indicated as the vertical solid line.

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When the pump wavelength was shifted from 3.5 to 4.7 μm the solitonic long wavelength edge moved to longer wavelengths in the simulated spectra, and accordingly the short wavelength edge, consisting of group-velocity matched dispersive waves was shifted to shorter wavelengths. As a result the broadest numerical spectrum spanning 1.65–7.70 μm was obtained when pumping at 4.7 μm. There was still a good agreement between the numerical and experimental results. However the same clear trend of the long wavelength edge moving to longer wavelengths when pumping at longer wavelengths was not observed in the experiments. In the experiments the supercontinuum spectrum was clearly broadened when the pump was shifted from 3.5 to 3.9 μm, while it was more or less constant with a pump wavelength between 3.9 and 4.7 μm. The absence of a long wavelength extension when pumping at longer wavelengths in the experiments can be explained by coupling instability, e.g. if coupling to the core is slightly off-centered a larger fraction of the power will be coupled to higher-order modes [47] thereby limiting the broadening process. The broadest experimental supercontinuum spectrum spanning from 1.7 to 7.5 μm was obtained when pumping at 4.4 μm, and the average output power was in this case 15.6 mW with a chalcogenide lens at the fiber output and the chopper off. Based on the spectrum and the average output power we calculated the average power >5.0 μm to be 4.7 mW. When pumping at 4.7 μm parts of the supercontinuum spectrum from 2.0 to 3.5 μm was below -20 dB. Here the average output power was 16.0 mW and with an average power >5.0 μm of 7.5 mW.

4. Numerical investigation of the supercontinuum generation process

The dynamics of SCG is well-known. Nonetheless, we will here make a numerical investigation of the initial SCG broadening process and the influence of the Raman contribution. Figure 5 compares numerically calculated density plots of the supercontinuum spectral and temporal evolution along the fiber length for different input powers pumped at 3.5 μm. The supercontinuum spectrum broadens as the input power is increased and there is a good correspondence between the measured and simulated results. The initial SCG is dominated by self-phase modulation (SPM) indicated by the symmetric (in frequency) spectral broadening and the z-independent temporal profile. The SPM is then followed by soliton dynamics in the long wavelength part, and the solitonic traces can be observed in the temporal density plots in Figs. 5(g)–5(i).

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Comparison between experiments and simulations (5 ensamble average) for three different input powers pumped at 3.5 μm. (a)–(c): Numerical (black) and experimental (red) spectrum after 18 cm of fiber. (d)–(f): Numerical spectral evolution as a function of the fiber length. (g)–(i): Numerical temporal evolution as a function of the fiber length.

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To verify that the spectral edges in fact are determined by a soliton and corresponding group-velocity matched dispersive waves the group-velocity matched short wavelength edge was determined from the measured long wavelength edge and compared to the measured short wavelength edge at different input powers in Table 1. In all cases there is a good agreement between the measured and the estimated short wavelength edge.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Pumping at 3.5 μm. Measured long and short wavelength edges at −20 dB, group-velocity matched short wavelength edges and the short wavelength edge difference at different input peak powers coupled to the fiber.

From Fig. 5 it can be difficult to determine whether soliton-self-frequency shift (SSFS) is present and influences the broadening process. In Fig. 6 we compare simulations for pumping at 3.5 μm including and excluding the Raman contribution, which is the driving force behind SSFS. Both the temporal and spectral density plots and the spectra in Fig. 6 indicate that SSFS plays a minor role when pumping at 3.5 μm. However, as we move the pump away from the ZDW the dispersion and nonlinearity of the fiber will change. This is illustrated in Fig. 7 where we compare simulations for pumping at 4.4 μm including and excluding the Raman contribution. Again, the supercontinuum broadening process is initiated by SPM. Compared to pumping at 3.5 μm the supercontinuum broadens faster and more. Furthermore, SSFS plays a more dominant role, which is clearly seen in the long-wavelength edges of the spectra in Fig. 7(a).

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Simulations with and without Raman contribution pumped at 3.5 μm. (a) Spectra after 18 cm of propagation. (b)–(c) Spectral evolution as a function of fiber length including and excluding the Raman contribution, respectively. (d)–(e) Temporal evolution as a function of fiber length including and excluding the Raman contribution, respectively.

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 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Simulations with and without Raman contribution pumped at 4.4 μm. (a) Spectra after 18 cm of propagation. (b)–(c) Spectral evolution as a function of fiber length including and excluding the Raman contribution, respectively. (d)–(e) Temporal evolution as a function of fiber length including and excluding the Raman contribution, respectively.

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5. Conclusion

We have presented experimental results on SCG in a low-loss As38Se62 suspended core fiber with a core diameter of 4.5 μm pumped at different wavelengths from 3.3 to 4.7 μm with 320 fs pulses from an OPA. When pumping at 4.4 μm with a peak power of 5.2 kW coupled to the fiber we obtained a supercontinuum spanning from 1.7–7.5 μm with an average output power of 15.6 mW and an average power >5.0 μm of 4.7 mW. The dispersion was measured from 2.9 to 4.2 μm and it was in good correspondence with the calculated dispersion. Simulations based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation were in good agreement with the measured spectra. Furthermore, simulations confirmed that the SCG was initiated by self-phase modulation, which were the main driving forces, followed by soliton dynamics and soliton self-frequency shift, which increased with increasing pump wavelength in the anomalous dispersion regime.

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the European Commission through the Framework Seven (FP7) project MINERVA: MId- to NEaR infrared spectro-scopy for improVed medical di-Agnostics ( 317803; www.minerva-project.eu); by Innovation Fund Denmark (Light & Food, j.no. 132-2012-3); and by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence grant CE110001018. Yi Yu acknowledges the financial support of the China Scholarship Council for PhD Scholarship No. 201206110048.

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39. C. Caillaud, G. Renversez, L. Brilland, D. Mechin, L. Calvez, J.-L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Photonic Bandgap Propagation in All-Solid Chalcogenide Microstructured Optical Fibers,” Materials 7, 6120–6129 (2014). [CrossRef]  

40. D. Deng, D. Sega, T. Cheng, W. Gao, X. Xue, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Dispersion characterization of two orthogonal modes in a birefringence tellurite microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22, 23920–23927 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

41. P. Hlubina, M. Kadulová, and D. Ciprian, “Spectral interferometry-based chromatic dispersion measurement of fibre including the zero-dispersion wavelength,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc, Rapid Publ. 7, 12017 (2012). [CrossRef]  

42. M. H. Frosz, “Validation of input-noise model for simulations of supercontinuum generation and rogue waves,” Opt. Express 18, 14778–14787 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

43. C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngsø, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 635–645 (2012). [CrossRef]  

44. E. A. Romanova, Y. S. Kuzyutkina, A. I. Konyukhov, N. Abdel-Moneim, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, S. Guizard, and A. Mouskeftaras, “Nonlinear optical response and heating of chalcogenide glasses upon irradiation by the ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 53, 071812 (2014). [CrossRef]  

45. B. Ung and M. Skorobogatiy, “Chalcogenide microporous fibers for linear and nonlinear applications in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18, 8647–8659 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

46. F. Poletti and P. Horak, “Dynamics of femtosecond supercontinuum generation in multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 6134–6147 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

47. I. Shavrin, S. Novotny, and H. Ludvigsen, “Mode excitation and supercontinuum generation in a few-mode suspended-core fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 32141–32150 (2013). [CrossRef]  

48. S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Su-percontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 753–764 (2002). [CrossRef]  

49. R. Khakimov, I. Shavrin, S. Novotny, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, “Numerical solver for supercontinuum generation in multimode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 14388–14398 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  43. C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngsø, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 635–645 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  48. S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Su-percontinuum generation by stimulated Raman scattering and parametric four-wave mixing in photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 753–764 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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2014 (15)

R. Buczynski, H. Bookey, M. Klimczak, D. Pysz, R. Stepien, T. Martynkien, J. McCarthy, A. Waddie, A. Kar, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Two Octaves Supercontinuum generation in lead-bismuth glass based photonic crystal fiber,” Materials 7, 4658–4668 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. G. Dantanarayana, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, L. Sojka, S. Sujecki, D. Furniss, A. B. Seddon, I. Kubat, O. Bang, and T. M. Benson, “Refractive index dispersion of chalcogenide glasses for ultra-high numerical-aperture fiber for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Mat. Express 4, 1444–1455 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Kubat, C. S. Agger, U. Møller, A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, D. Furniss, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, B. Napier, M. Farries, J. Ward, P. M. Moselund, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 12.5μm in large NA chalcogenide step-index fibres pumped at 4.5μm,” Opt. Express 22, 19169–19182 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, M. Baudisch, D. Werdehausen, B. J. Eggleton, and J. Biegert, “1.9 octave supercontinuum generation in a As2S3 step-index fiber driven by mid-IR OPCPA,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5752–5755 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Théberge, N. Thiré, J.-F. Daigle, P. Mathieu, B. E. Schmidt, Y. Messaddeq, R. Vallée, and F. Légaré, “Multi-octave infrared supercontinuum generation in large-core As2S3 fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39, 6474 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum covering the molecular fingerprint region from 2 μm to 13 μm using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8, 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Mouawad, J. Picot-Clémente, F. Amrani, C. Strutynski, J. Fatome, B. Kibler, F. Désévédavy, G. Gadret, J.-C. Jules, D. Deng, Y. Ohishi, and F. Smektala, “Multioctave midinfrared supercontinuum generation in suspended-core chalcogenide fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39, 2684–2687 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cheng, Y. Kanou, X. Xue, D. Deng, M. Matsumoto, T. Misumi, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a novel AsSe 2-As 2S 5 hybrid microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22, 23019–23025 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Kubat, C. R. Petersen, U. V. Møller, A. Seddon, T. Benson, L. Brilland, D. Méchin, P. M. David Moselund, and O. Bang, “Thulium pumped mid-infrared 0.9–9μm supercontinuum generation in concatenated fluoride and chalcogenide glass fibers,” Opt. Express 22, 3959–3967 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D.-Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 792–798 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. Pigeon, S. Y. Tochitsky, C. Gong, and C. Joshi, “Supercontinuum generation from 2 to 20 μm in GaAs pumped by picosecond CO2 laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 39, 3246–3249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Markos, I. Kubat, and O. Bang, “Hybrid polymer photonic crystal fiber with integrated chalcogenide glass nanofilms,” Sci. Rep. 4, 06057 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Caillaud, G. Renversez, L. Brilland, D. Mechin, L. Calvez, J.-L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Photonic Bandgap Propagation in All-Solid Chalcogenide Microstructured Optical Fibers,” Materials 7, 6120–6129 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Deng, D. Sega, T. Cheng, W. Gao, X. Xue, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Dispersion characterization of two orthogonal modes in a birefringence tellurite microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22, 23920–23927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Romanova, Y. S. Kuzyutkina, A. I. Konyukhov, N. Abdel-Moneim, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, S. Guizard, and A. Mouskeftaras, “Nonlinear optical response and heating of chalcogenide glasses upon irradiation by the ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 53, 071812 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

I. Shavrin, S. Novotny, and H. Ludvigsen, “Mode excitation and supercontinuum generation in a few-mode suspended-core fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 32141–32150 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Khakimov, I. Shavrin, S. Novotny, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, “Numerical solver for supercontinuum generation in multimode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 14388–14398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Shiryaev and M. Churbanov, “Trends and prospects for development of chalcogenide fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 225–230 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Liao, W. Gao, T. Cheng, X. Xue, Z. Duan, D. Deng, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032503 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Al-kadry, C. Baker, M. El Amraoui, Y. Messaddeq, and M. Rochette, “Broadband supercontinuum generation in As2Se3 chalcogenide wires by avoiding the two-photon absorption effects,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1185–1187 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5 μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

P. M. Moselund, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, C. Agger, O. Bang, and S. R. Keiding, “Supercontinuum: broad as a lamp, bright as a laser, now in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 8381, 83811A (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 40–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Hlubina, M. Kadulová, and D. Ciprian, “Spectral interferometry-based chromatic dispersion measurement of fibre including the zero-dispersion wavelength,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc, Rapid Publ. 7, 12017 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. T. Sørensen, U. Møller, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, T. V. Andersen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Deep-blue supercontinnum sources with optimum taper profiles verification of GAM,” Opt. Express 20, 10635–10645 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Agger, C. Petersen, S. Dupont, H. Steffensen, J. K. Lyngsø, C. L. Thomsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keiding, and O. Bang, “Supercontinuum generation in ZBLAN fibers - detailed comparison between measurement and simulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29, 635–645 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

2010 (4)

2009 (5)

F. Poletti and P. Horak, “Dynamics of femtosecond supercontinuum generation in multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 6134–6147 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, “Ten years of nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 3, 85–90 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Savage, “Supercontinuum sources,” Nat. Photonics 3, 114–115 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and Yasutake, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power did-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 422–434 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135–1184 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

M. D. Nielsen, G. Vienne, J. R. Folkenberg, and A. Bjarklev, “Investigation of microdeformation-induced attenuation spectra in a photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28, 236–238 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg, “Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A - Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 163–167 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

1999 (1)

R. Wilson and H. Tapp, “Mid-infrared spectroscopy for food analysis: recent new applications and relevant developments in sample presentation methods,” TRAC-Trend. Anal. Chem. 18, 85–93 (1999).
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D. Deng, D. Sega, T. Cheng, W. Gao, X. Xue, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Dispersion characterization of two orthogonal modes in a birefringence tellurite microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22, 23920–23927 (2014).
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R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5 μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
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C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum covering the molecular fingerprint region from 2 μm to 13 μm using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8, 830–834 (2014).
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R. Thapa, D. Rhonehouse, D. Nguyen, K. Wiersma, C. Smith, J. Zong, and A. Chavez-Pirson, “Mid-IR supercontinuum generation in ultra-low loss, dispersion-zero shifted tellurite glass fiber with extended coverage beyond 4.5 μm,” Proc. SPIE 8898, 889808 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Express (1)

M. Liao, W. Gao, T. Cheng, X. Xue, Z. Duan, D. Deng, H. Kawashima, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Five-octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in fluoride glass,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032503 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Qin, X. Yan, C. Kito, M. Liao, C. Chaudhari, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and Yasutake, “Ultrabroadband supercontinuum generation from ultraviolet to 6.28μm in a fluoride fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161103 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

C. Xia, Z. Xu, M. N. Islam, F. L. Terry, M. J. Freeman, A. Zakel, and J. Mauricio, “10.5 W time-averaged power did-IR supercontinuum generation extending beyond 4 μm with direct pulse pattern modulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 15, 422–434 (2009).
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J. Eur. Opt. Soc, Rapid Publ. (1)

P. Hlubina, M. Kadulová, and D. Ciprian, “Spectral interferometry-based chromatic dispersion measurement of fibre including the zero-dispersion wavelength,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc, Rapid Publ. 7, 12017 (2012).
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J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

V. Shiryaev and M. Churbanov, “Trends and prospects for development of chalcogenide fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 377, 225–230 (2013).
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J. Opt. A - Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

N. A. Mortensen and J. R. Folkenberg, “Low-loss criterion and effective area considerations for photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A - Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 163–167 (2003).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

Y. Yu, X. Gai, P. Ma, D.-Y. Choi, Z. Yang, R. Wang, S. Debbarma, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “A broadband, quasi-continuous, mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in a chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Laser Photon. Rev. 8, 792–798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Materials (2)

R. Buczynski, H. Bookey, M. Klimczak, D. Pysz, R. Stepien, T. Martynkien, J. McCarthy, A. Waddie, A. Kar, and M. R. Taghizadeh, “Two Octaves Supercontinuum generation in lead-bismuth glass based photonic crystal fiber,” Materials 7, 4658–4668 (2014).
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C. Caillaud, G. Renversez, L. Brilland, D. Mechin, L. Calvez, J.-L. Adam, and J. Troles, “Photonic Bandgap Propagation in All-Solid Chalcogenide Microstructured Optical Fibers,” Materials 7, 6120–6129 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (5)

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 141–148 (2011).

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, “Ten years of nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 3, 85–90 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Savage, “Supercontinuum sources,” Nat. Photonics 3, 114–115 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hansch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 40–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-IR supercontinuum covering the molecular fingerprint region from 2 μm to 13 μm using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8, 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

E. A. Romanova, Y. S. Kuzyutkina, A. I. Konyukhov, N. Abdel-Moneim, A. B. Seddon, T. M. Benson, S. Guizard, and A. Mouskeftaras, “Nonlinear optical response and heating of chalcogenide glasses upon irradiation by the ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Eng. 53, 071812 (2014).
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Opt. Express (16)

B. Ung and M. Skorobogatiy, “Chalcogenide microporous fibers for linear and nonlinear applications in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18, 8647–8659 (2010).
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F. Poletti and P. Horak, “Dynamics of femtosecond supercontinuum generation in multimode fibers,” Opt. Express 17, 6134–6147 (2009).
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I. Shavrin, S. Novotny, and H. Ludvigsen, “Mode excitation and supercontinuum generation in a few-mode suspended-core fiber,” Opt. Express 21, 32141–32150 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Deng, D. Sega, T. Cheng, W. Gao, X. Xue, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Dispersion characterization of two orthogonal modes in a birefringence tellurite microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22, 23920–23927 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Sørensen, U. Møller, C. Larsen, P. M. Moselund, C. Jakobsen, J. Johansen, T. V. Andersen, C. L. Thomsen, and O. Bang, “Deep-blue supercontinnum sources with optimum taper profiles verification of GAM,” Opt. Express 20, 10635–10645 (2012).
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M. Frosz, P. Falk, and O. Bang, “The role of the second zero-dispersion wavelength in generation of supercontinua and bright-bright solitonpairs across the zero-dispersion wavelength,” Opt. Express 13, 6181–6192 (2005).
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R. Khakimov, I. Shavrin, S. Novotny, M. Kaivola, and H. Ludvigsen, “Numerical solver for supercontinuum generation in multimode optical fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 14388–14398 (2013).
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M. H. Frosz, “Validation of input-noise model for simulations of supercontinuum generation and rogue waves,” Opt. Express 18, 14778–14787 (2010).
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I. Kubat, C. S. Agger, U. Møller, A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, S. Sujecki, T. M. Benson, D. Furniss, S. Lamrini, K. Scholle, P. Fuhrberg, B. Napier, M. Farries, J. Ward, P. M. Moselund, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 12.5μm in large NA chalcogenide step-index fibres pumped at 4.5μm,” Opt. Express 22, 19169–19182 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cheng, Y. Kanou, X. Xue, D. Deng, M. Matsumoto, T. Misumi, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a novel AsSe 2-As 2S 5 hybrid microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express 22, 23019–23025 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the experimental setup. (b) MCT detector responsivity.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical properties of the suspended core fiber. (a) Measured fiber loss of a 6-hole suspended core fiber with a core diameter of a 20 μm (black solid) and estimated fiber loss of a suspended core fiber with a core diameter of 4.5 μm (red dashed). Inset: SEM image of the 4.5 μm suspended core fiber and a zoom-in on the core indication the fast and slow polarization axis. (b) Measured (red) and calculated dispersion for the slow (black) and fast (blue) axis.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Pumping at different input powers at (a) 3.3 μm and (b) 3.5 μm. The given powers are the estimated peak power delivered to the fiber.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison between simulations (black) and experiments (red) at six different pump wavelengths (vertical dotted line). The ZDW is indicated as the vertical solid line.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison between experiments and simulations (5 ensamble average) for three different input powers pumped at 3.5 μm. (a)–(c): Numerical (black) and experimental (red) spectrum after 18 cm of fiber. (d)–(f): Numerical spectral evolution as a function of the fiber length. (g)–(i): Numerical temporal evolution as a function of the fiber length.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulations with and without Raman contribution pumped at 3.5 μm. (a) Spectra after 18 cm of propagation. (b)–(c) Spectral evolution as a function of fiber length including and excluding the Raman contribution, respectively. (d)–(e) Temporal evolution as a function of fiber length including and excluding the Raman contribution, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Simulations with and without Raman contribution pumped at 4.4 μm. (a) Spectra after 18 cm of propagation. (b)–(c) Spectral evolution as a function of fiber length including and excluding the Raman contribution, respectively. (d)–(e) Temporal evolution as a function of fiber length including and excluding the Raman contribution, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Pumping at 3.5 μm. Measured long and short wavelength edges at −20 dB, group-velocity matched short wavelength edges and the short wavelength edge difference at different input peak powers coupled to the fiber.

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