Abstract

The radiation-induced photoluminescence (PL) properties of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fibers were investigated. The Bi/Al-related materials were doped into fiber core via atomic layer deposition. The pristine fiber samples were irradiated with different doses, and its absorption and PL properties were studied. A new absorption peak appeared at approximately 580 nm, and the intensity of absorption peaks is increased with the increasing of radiation doses. When the fiber samples were excited with a 532 nm pump, the intensity of the near infrared fluorescence decreased lightly. However, when the fiber samples were excited with a 980 nm pump the intensity of the fluorescence increased significantly with the increase of radiation doses (0-2.0 kGy). The intensity of fluorescence decreased when the radiation doses were increased up to 3.0 kGy. furthermore, the fluorescence intensity of the 1410 nm band increased much more than that the 1150 nm band. In addition, the microstructural characteristics of the Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fibers were analyzed using electron spin resonance (ESR). Many radiation-induced defect centers were present, and the intensity of the ESR signals also increased with the increase of radiation doses. The photoluminescence properties and microstructural characteristics were related in the radiated Bi-related silica optical fibers. A possible underlying mechanism for the radiation-induced photoluminescence enhancement process in the Bi/Al-doped silica fiber is discussed.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Bismuth-doped optical fibers, as a promising active medium for amplifying and lasing in the 1.1-1.8 μm range [1–4], have been extensively studied, since their broadband near infrared (NIR) fluorescence properties were firstly reported in 2001 [1]. A amplification at 1300 nm band in Bi-doped silica glass was then realized [2], and optical amplifier and laser generation were according achieved [4–6]. Previous investigations have also demonstrated that the valence state of Bi, which accounts for the NIR fluorescence, may be Bi5+, Bi2+, Bi+, Bi0, defect centers, Bi clusters, Bi-2, or Bi2-2 dimmers or Bi atom in glass [7–11]. However, the nature of the NIR fluorescence properties in Bi-doped glasses or silica optical fibers still remains controversial.

The radiation effect on the fluorescence properties of Bi-doped glasses or optical fibers has been studied in the literature [12–18]. The intensity of fluorescence was enhanced with UV-irradiation, which was attributed to the increase in the concentration of active Bi centers [11,12]. Shen et al. [13] achieved an fluorescence enhancement by exposing Bi borosilicate glasses to Gamma-ray irradiation. Recently, the photobleaching effect on Bi-related germanosilicate fiber with 532 nm laser radiation was also studied [15]. However,the causes of the luminescence intensity changes in Bi-related silica optical fiber with gamma-ray irradiated have not been investigated.

In this paper, for the first time, we investigated the radiation-induced photoluminescence effect of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fibers using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method, and further reported the relationship between the radiation-induced optical properties and defect centers in Bi/Al-codoped silica fiber with gamma-ray radiation. In addition, the radiation-induced photoluminescence enhancement process was also suggested. These findings help to provide deeper insight into the nature and formation mechanism of the PL properties in Bi-related silica optical fibers.

2. Experimental section

Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fibers were prepared via modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) combined with ALD (TFS-200, Beneq Inc., Finland.). The preparation process has been reported previously [19,20]. The fiber core and cladding diameters were approximately 9 and 120 μm, respectively. The test samples were prepared by cutting the same optical fiber preform into slices, which were drawn into silica optical fibers, with thicknesses of approximately 1.0 mm. The composition of the fiber preform materials was then tested using electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA, JEOL JXA-8100, University of Lille 1, France).

Irradiation was performed with gamma-ray from a Cobalt-60 radiation source (Radiation chamber, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, China). The optical fiber samples were irradiated with cumulative doses approximately 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kGy at room temperature. The radiation dose rate was 800 Gy/h.

The absorption spectra were measured using the cut-back technique with an optical spectrum analyzer (OSA, Yokogawa AQ-6315A) in the 400-1700 nm wavelength region, and resolution was 10 nm. Fluorescence spectra were measured with backward pumping system with 532 and 980 nm excitation at room temperature. The optical fiber lengths were approximately 20-300 cm. All the optical spectra were recorded before and after irradiation.

Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra were obtained using a Varian E112 spectrometer (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai), operating in the X-band frequency at 9.09 GHz and employing a modulation field of frequency fm = 100 kHz. The following parameters were used: center magnetic field strength of 326 mT, sweep range of 50 mT, response time constant of 0.25 s, and microwave power of 0.998 mW. The ESR spectra were obtained at room temperature and 77 K. The fiber samples were prepared by removing the coating material and cutting them into 90-120 pieces, approximately 2.0 cm in length.

3. Results and discussion

The composition of the fiber preform material was tested using an EPMA. The concentration of Si in the core layer region was approximately 28 mol%. The Ge-doping concentration was approximately 6 mol% in the core layer region, with the aim of increasing the refractive-index of the fiber core. The concentration of O in the fiber core and inner cladding region, was uniformly distributed, and approximately 66 mol%. The concentration of Bi was approximately 160 ppm, and the Al ion concentration was 400 ppm in the fiber core and inner cladding region. Therefore, the slight doping of Bi and Al ions in the fiber core was successful. These results are summarized in Table 1.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Composition of the Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fiber preform material

The absorption spectra of the optical fiber samples before and after irradiation are presented in Fig. 1. Before irradiation, there are four obvious absorption peaks at 460, 510, 700, and 800 nm, which correspond to the typical Bi ion absorption peaks [1]. After irradiation, because of the radiation-induced attenuation, higher radiation doses resulted in greater increases of the intensities of the absorption peaks. In addition, a new absorption peak appeared at approximately 580 nm after irradiation, and its intensity also increased with the increase of radiation doses (0-3.0 kGy). This phenomenon may have produced new radiation-induced defect centers, which resulted in strong absorption. According to the literature [21–24], we assume that the new absorption peak may be related to the role of an aluminum oxygen hole center (Al-OHC). The band at approximately 2.2 eV (570 nm) is also associated with Al-OHC.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Absorption spectra of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fibers before and after irradiation.

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The fluorescence spectra of the fiber samples, from 900 to 1650 nm, were measured with different radiation doses, excited by a 532 nm pump, as shown in Fig. 2. The sharp peak at 1064 nm band corresponds to a harmonic peak of 532 nm. In particular, an ultra-broadband NIR fluorescence spectrum exists. The intensity of the fluorescence peak at 1100 nm was up to −35 dBm when the pump power launched into the Bi-doped fiber sample was approximately 150 mW. The fluorescence band between 1065 and 1140 nm is marked with a blue rectangle, as observed in Fig. 2. The fluorescence peak mainly orignates from Al-related Bi active center (BAC-Al), which is similar to the experimental results reported in the literature [1, 25,26]. The main possible energy levels of the Bi/Al-codoped silica fiber excited with the 532 nm pump are presented in Fig. 3. However, when the fibers were irradiated with 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kGy, respectively, the intensity of the fluorescence peak decreased slightly with the increase of radiation doses. These are two main causes for this behavior. One explanation is that irradiated-induced loss was increased, which results in a larger background attenuation or a excess loss on the optical transmission. The other cause is that there is a new Al-OHC absorption band at 580 nm after the fiber samples were irradiated. Due to the Al-OHC role, a radiation-induced darkening effect occurs, which results in low fluorescence efficiency [27]. That is, larger radiated-induced background loss and low fluorescence efficiency result in weaker fluorescence intensity.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Fluorescence spectra of the Bi/Al-codoped silica fibers excited by 532 nm pump before and after irradiation.

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 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Possible energy levels of BAC-Al pumped by 532 nm, NRT: non radiative transition, GSA: ground state absorption.

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In addition, we also investigated the fluorescence characteristics of the irradiated optical fibers with 980 nm pumping (0.025 and 0.6 mW). The fluorescence spectra pumped with 0.025 mW are presented in Fig. 4(a). We can see that the intensity of fluorescence increased by 0.73, 2.25, and 1.35 dB at the ~1150 nm band with 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kGy irradiation compared with the pristine sample, respectively. And the intensity of fluorescence increased by 4.1, 5.0, and 4.0 dB at the ~1410 nm band with 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kGy irradiation compared with the pristine sample, respectively. However, the fluorescence intensity increases with the increase of radiation doses (0-2.0 kGy), and then decreases when the radiation doses exceed 2 kGy, as observed in Fig. 4(b).

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Fluorescence spectra of Bi-doped silica fibers excited with 980 nm pump before and after irradiation: (a) Pump power 0.025 mW; (b) Relationship between intensity of fluorescence peaks and different radiation doses with 0.025 mW pumping; (c) Pump power 0.06 mW; (d) Relationship between intensity of fluorescence peaks and different radiation doses with 0.6 mW pumping.

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When the launched pump power was 0.6 mW, the intensities of fluorescence spectra are higher than that for a power of 0.025 mW in the 1000-1600 nm region, as observed in Fig. 4(c). In addition, the fluorescence intensities increase by 3.0, 2.3 and 2.2 dB at the 1150 nm band with 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy, respectively, as observed in Fig. 4(d). The fluorescence intensities increased with the increase of radiation doses (0-1.0 kGy), and then decreased when the radiation doses exceed 1.0 kGy, as shown in Fig. 4(d). At the same time, we can see from Figs. 4(b) and 4(d), under two different launched pump powers, the fluorescence enhancement property of the irradiated fiber with 980 nm pump is the same trend, and then the fluorescence intensity at the 1410 nm band increased larger than that at the 1150 nm band, that is, the intensity of fluorescence peak at the 1410 nm band are increased obviously.

According to the literature [25, 28,29], the emissions at ~1150 and ~1410 nm correspond to the BAC-Al and the Si-related Bi active center (BAC-Si), respectively. The fluorescence bands related to BAC-Al and BAC-Si almost cover the 1085-1200 nm and 1275-1500 nm bands. In addition, we further propose that the emission at the 1150 nm band may be assigned to 3P1, 3P23P0 transition of Bi+ and 2D3/24S3/2 transition of Bi0 [8,9] and that the emission at 1410 nm band may be assigned to the mixed valence states of Bi3+/Bi5+ [1,3,30]. Its is different to the previous reported [31,32]. Moreover, the intensity of emission peak at ~1150 nm is much stronger than that at ~1410 nm. We suppose that BAC-Si is much more sensitive to radiation than BAC-Al. Because of the irradiation role, the concentration of Bi active center at 1275-1500 nm bands is greater than that of the pristine sample. Their possible energy levels are presented in Fig. 5.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Possible energy levels of BAC-Al (a) and BAC-Si (b) excited with 980 nm pumping.

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Based on the analysis above, the formation mechanism for emission peaks in the irradiated Bi/Al-codoped silica fibers may be related to valence state transfer of Bi ions, from Bi5+ to Bi3+, Bi+, or Bi0. There may exist in Eqs. (1) and (2), and will be discussed further.

Bi5++2ehvBi3+Bi5++4ehvBi+Bi5++5ehvBi0
Bi3++2ehvBi+Bi3++3ehvBi0

We analyzed the defect center characteristics of the fiber samples using the ESR method before and after irradiation at room and liquid-nitrogen (77 K) temperatures. Before irradiation, weak ESR signals at room temperature, or even almost no ESR signal at 77 K were observed in the pristine samples. After irradiation, ESR signals could be observed. All the g-values calculated from the observed ESR signals are marked in Fig. 6 and are also listed in Table 2. According to the literature [33–38], the ESR signals at g = 2.0015 clearly observed at both room temperature and 77 K can be assigned to the defect centers of SiE’(Si, g = 2.0018) and GeE’ (Ge, g = 2.0011) or nonbridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC,SiO or GeO, g = 2.0010) in a little g-value excursion range with experimental error. These results are also in consistent with our previous work [38].

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 ESR spectra of Bi/Al-codoped silica fibers before and after irradiation at room temperature (a) and 77 K (b).

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Tables Icon

Table 2. Principal g-values of the defect centers observed in the literature and our experiments (Expts.)

In addition, the formation process of the defect centers can be described using the following Eqs. (3)-(6):

SiOSihvSiO+Si
SiOGehvSiO+Ge
=Al(Bi)Si||OSihv=Al(Bi)Si||O+Si
=AlOSi||hv=AlO+Si

The upward peak in the region g∇2.0084 primarily agrees with that of a self-trapped hole center (STH, SiOSi, g = 2.0095). Electron-trapped centers associated with fourfold coordinated Ge ions, and STHs of bridging oxygens between Ge ions and Si or Ge ions are generated. We attribute this upward peak at g = 2.0084 to a STH defect center based on the slight negative excursion of the g-value within experimental error. Comparison of Figs. 6(a) and 6(b) clearly confirms the formation of STHs at 77 K but not at room temperature, which is in good agreement with the literature [35]. In addition, the ESR signals observed in the region with g = 1.9940 could be assigned to Ge-related defect centers [36,41]. There are four types of Ge electron centers (GECs), depending on the number of second nearest-neighboring Ge atoms (0-3). In Fig. 6, the downward peaks of g = 1.9940 agree with those of GeE’, Ge(0), Ge(1) and Ge(3) reported in a slight g-value excursion range.

NBOHCs can be formed by the processes described in Eqs. (3)-(4), and may also originate from the bond breaking inAl(Bi)Si||O, as descried in Eq. (5). For the low temperature condition (77 K), we can observe a value of g = 2.0035, which is assigned to the Al-OHC (=AlO, g = 2.0039) [34–36,39], as shown in Fig. 6(b) and listed in Table 2. Al-OHC is a defect center in which an Al ion replaces a silicon site and a hole is trapped at one of the four ligand oxygens. Its formation process can be described by Eq. (6) and is illustrated Fig. 1. The ESR signal of Al-OHC can be obtained at low temperatures more easily than at room temperature, which agrees a previous report [40]. Because of the radiation-reduced Al ion role, an Al-OHC exists, which results in an radiation-induced darkening effect on the optical transmission [27]. This behavior may be a main cause of the weakened fluorescence intensity when Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fiber was excited with a 532 nm pump.

In addition, according to the ESR experiments, there are no Bi-related defect centers in the pristine and irradiated fiber samples. Studies in literature [43,44] also reported that the possible valence states of Bi ion are Bi5+, Bi3+, Bi+, or Bi+/Bi3+/Bi5+. Therefore, the changes in the radiation-induced photofluorescence intensity at the 1150 nm and 1410 nm band may result from the valence state transfers among Bi5+, Bi3+, and Bi+. We suppose that Bi5+ ions may capture free electrons, which originate from defect centers, such as GECs, and transform into Bi3+, Bi+ or Bi0, accompanied by the production of more subvalence Bi ions, as described in Eqs. (1)-(2). After the Bi-doped silica fibers were irradiated, the fluorescence centers of the irradiated fiber mainly focus on the subvalence Bi ions. Then, the concentration of Bi active centers with subvalence Bi ions, which inckude Bi3+, Bi+, Bi3+/ Bi+, or Bi3+/ Bi+/Bi0 ions, is increased, which results in the radiation-induced photoluminescence enhancement. These findings are also consistent with the fluorescence properties reported in Ref [45].

4. Conclusions

We investigated the effect of irradiation on the optical properties of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fibers, and further reported the relationship between the radiation-induced defect centers and optical properties of the fiber. After irradiation, the intensity of the optical fiber absorption peaks at the 458, 510, 700 and 800 nm bands is clearly increased with the increase of the radiation doses (0-3.0 kGy). In particular, a new absorption peak appeared at approximately 580 nm, which may be associated with Al-OHCs. However, the intensity of NIR fluorescence peak decreased when the optical fibers were excited by a 532 nm pump, which may be due to the larger radiation-induced background loss and radiation-induced Al-OHC absorption. When the fiber samples were excited by a 980 nm pump, the intensity of the fluorescence peak increased with the increase of radiation doses (0-2.0 kGy). We believe that the radiation-induced photoluminescence enhancement may result from the formation of the radiation-induced subvalence Bi ions, which mainly originate from Bi5+ and Bi3+ ions trasfer.Moreover, the fluorescence intensity at approximately 1410 nm band increased more than that at the 1150 nm band. These findings indicate that the concentration of Bi active centers with subvalences Bi ions is larger. However, upon further increasing the radiation doses, the intensity of the fluorescence peak decreased.One explanation may be that the radiation-induced background loss was largely increased; another explanation may be the radiation-induced darkening effect of Al-OHC defect center in the irradiated silica optical fibers. These findings help to the understanding of the nature of the fluorescence properties in Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fibers. Next we will further investigate formation and tranfer of different valence states among Bi ions, and relationship between the active centers and valences states.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grant Nos:61177088, 61275051, 61227012, 61475096, 61422507, 61520106014), and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (14511105602,14DZ1201403, 15220721500). The authors are also granteful for the support received through the International Science Linkages project (CG130013) by the Department of Industry, Innovation, Science, and Research, Australia, and for two LIEF grants (LE0883038 and LE100100098) from the Australian Research Council to fund the National Fiber Facility at the University of New South Wales.

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44. V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, and E. M. Dianov, “Centres of broadband near-IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” J. Phys. D 42(9), 095410 (2009). [CrossRef]  

45. H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(2), L279–L281 (2001).
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  2. S. Firstov, S. Alyshev, M. Melkumov, K. Riumkin, A. Shubin, and E. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped optical fibers and fiber lasers for a spectral region of 1600-1800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6927–6930 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Fujimoto, “Local structure of the infrared bismuth luminescent center in bismuth-doped silica glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 581–589 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. M. Dianov, “Amplification in extended transmission bands using bismuth-doped optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 681–688 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
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  6. I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Zheng, M. Peng, F. Kang, R. Cao, Z. Ma, G. Dong, J. Qiu, and S. Xu, “Broadband NIR luminescence from a new bismuth doped Ba2B5O9Cl crystal: evidence for the Bi0 model,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22569–22578 (2012).
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  11. H. Xia and X. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3-GeO2-X (X=Na2O,BaO,Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051917 (2006).
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  16. Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the Optical Properties of PbO-B2O3-SiO2 and Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 338–341 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. H. ElBatal, M. A. Marzouk, and A. M. Abdel ghany, “Gamma rays interaction with bismuth borate glasses doped by transition metal ions,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(15), 5140–5152 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: Recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
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  22. S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
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  23. M. Leon, M. Lancry, N. Ollier, L. Bigot, H. E. Hamzaoui, I. Savelii, A. Pastouret, E. Burov, B. Poumellec, and M. Bouazaoui, “Influence of Al/Ge ratio on radiation-induced attenuation in nanostructured erbium-doped fibers preforms,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, 8, CLEO 2015, Paper SM3L.
  24. A. N. Trukhin, J. L. Jansons, and K. Truhins, “Luminescence of silica glass containing aluminum oxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347(1–3), 80–86 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  25. Z. M. Sathi, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, J. Canning, and G. D. Peng, “Spectral properties and role of aluminium-related bismuth active center (BAC-Al) in bismuth and erbium co-doped fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 1195–1209 (2015).
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  26. Y. Luo, J. Wen, J. Zhang, J. Canning, and G. D. Peng, “Bismuth and erbium codoped optical fiber with ultrabroadband luminescence across O-, E-, S-, C-, and L-bands,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3447–3449 (2012).
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  27. T. Deschamps, H. Vezin, C. Gonnet, and N. Ollier, “Evidence of AlOHC responsible for the radiation-induced darkening in Yb doped fiber,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8382–8392 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, K. E. Riumkin, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped optical fibers and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 20(5), 0903815 (2014).
  30. J. X. Wen, T. Y. Wang, F. F. Pang, X. L. Zeng, Z. Y. Chen, and G. D. Peng, “Photoluminescence characteristics of Bi (m+)-doped silica optical fiber: structural model and theoretical analysis,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(12R), 122501 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. Z. W. Yang, J. Y. Liao, S. F. Lai, H. J. Wu, Z. Z. Fan, J. B. Qiu, Z. G. Song, Y. Yang, and D. C. Zhou, “Energy transfer and photoluminescence properties in Bi3+ and Eu3+ co-doped ZnGa2O4,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 350–354 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  32. X. Lin Xu, X. B. Yu, L. H. Mao, S. P. Yang, and Z. F. Peng, “Preparation and photoluminescence of Bi3+-doped strontium chloroapatite nano-phosphor,” Mater. Lett. 58(29), 3665–3668 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  33. E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and G. H. Sigel., “Defect centers in a germanium-doped silica-core optical fiber,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(8), 3424–3428 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  34. J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, M. Kato, and K. Muta, “Pair generation of Ge electron centers and self-trapped hole centers in GeO2-SiO2 glasses by KrF excimer-laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 60(10), 7166–7169 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  35. S. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J. P. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “γ-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(8), 1915–1922 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  36. N. Imai, K. Shimokawa, and M. Hirota, “ESR dating of volcanic ash,” Nature 314(6006), 81–83 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  37. K. Chah, B. Boizot, B. Reynard, D. Ghaleb, and G. Petite, “Micro-Raman and EPR studies of β-radiation damages in aluminosilicate glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 191(1–4), 337–341 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  38. J. C. Lagomacini, D. Bravo, A. Martín, F. J. López, P. Martín, and Á. Ibarra, “Growth kinetics of AlOHC defects in γ-irradiated silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 403, 5–8 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  39. J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. Y. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044904 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  40. D. L. Griscom, “Trapped-electron centers in pure and doped glassy silica: A review and synthesis,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8), 1945–1962 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  41. A. N. Trukhina, J. Teterisa, A. Fedotova, D. L. Griscomb, and G. Buscarinoc, “Photosensitivity of SiO2-Al and SiO2-Na glasses under ArF laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(18), 1066–1074 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  42. K. L. Brower, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of AlE1’centers in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B 20(5), 1799–1811 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  43. Y. Fujimoto, “Local structure of the infrared bismuth luminescent center in bismuth-doped silica glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 581–589 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  44. V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, and E. M. Dianov, “Centres of broadband near-IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” J. Phys. D 42(9), 095410 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  45. H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (3)

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, K. E. Riumkin, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped optical fibers and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 20(5), 0903815 (2014).

J. C. Lagomacini, D. Bravo, A. Martín, F. J. López, P. Martín, and Á. Ibarra, “Growth kinetics of AlOHC defects in γ-irradiated silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 403, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Firstov, S. Alyshev, M. Melkumov, K. Riumkin, A. Shubin, and E. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped optical fibers and fiber lasers for a spectral region of 1600-1800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6927–6930 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

E. M. Dianov, “Amplification in extended transmission bands using bismuth-doped optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 681–688 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Shen, J. Ren, S. Baccaro, A. Cemmi, and G. Chen, “Broadband infrared luminescence in γ-ray irradiated bismuth borosilicate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 516–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Deschamps, H. Vezin, C. Gonnet, and N. Ollier, “Evidence of AlOHC responsible for the radiation-induced darkening in Yb doped fiber,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8382–8392 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: Recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. X. Wen, T. Y. Wang, F. F. Pang, X. L. Zeng, Z. Y. Chen, and G. D. Peng, “Photoluminescence characteristics of Bi (m+)-doped silica optical fiber: structural model and theoretical analysis,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(12R), 122501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. W. Yang, J. Y. Liao, S. F. Lai, H. J. Wu, Z. Z. Fan, J. B. Qiu, Z. G. Song, Y. Yang, and D. C. Zhou, “Energy transfer and photoluminescence properties in Bi3+ and Eu3+ co-doped ZnGa2O4,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 350–354 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

F. H. ElBatal, M. A. Marzouk, and A. M. Abdel ghany, “Gamma rays interaction with bismuth borate glasses doped by transition metal ions,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(15), 5140–5152 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Griscom, “Trapped-electron centers in pure and doped glassy silica: A review and synthesis,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8), 1945–1962 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

Y. Fujimoto, “Local structure of the infrared bismuth luminescent center in bismuth-doped silica glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 581–589 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. Y. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the Optical Properties of PbO-B2O3-SiO2 and Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 338–341 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Fujimoto, “Local structure of the infrared bismuth luminescent center in bismuth-doped silica glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 581–589 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, and E. M. Dianov, “Centres of broadband near-IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” J. Phys. D 42(9), 095410 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. N. Trukhina, J. Teterisa, A. Fedotova, D. L. Griscomb, and G. Buscarinoc, “Photosensitivity of SiO2-Al and SiO2-Na glasses under ArF laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(18), 1066–1074 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

J. J. Ren, J. R. Qiu, D. P. Chen, C. Wang, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 22(7), 1954–1958 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. Xia and X. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3-GeO2-X (X=Na2O,BaO,Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051917 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

A. N. Trukhin, J. L. Jansons, and K. Truhins, “Luminescence of silica glass containing aluminum oxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347(1–3), 80–86 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Lin Xu, X. B. Yu, L. H. Mao, S. P. Yang, and Z. F. Peng, “Preparation and photoluminescence of Bi3+-doped strontium chloroapatite nano-phosphor,” Mater. Lett. 58(29), 3665–3668 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J. P. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “γ-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(8), 1915–1922 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

K. Chah, B. Boizot, B. Reynard, D. Ghaleb, and G. Petite, “Micro-Raman and EPR studies of β-radiation damages in aluminosilicate glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 191(1–4), 337–341 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(2), L279–L281 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, M. Kato, and K. Muta, “Pair generation of Ge electron centers and self-trapped hole centers in GeO2-SiO2 glasses by KrF excimer-laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 60(10), 7166–7169 (1999).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

N. Imai, K. Shimokawa, and M. Hirota, “ESR dating of volcanic ash,” Nature 314(6006), 81–83 (1985).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

K. L. Brower, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of AlE1’centers in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B 20(5), 1799–1811 (1979).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and G. H. Sigel., “Defect centers in a germanium-doped silica-core optical fiber,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(8), 3424–3428 (1974).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

P. W. Levy, “Color centers and radiation-induced defects in Al2O3,” Phys. Rev. 123(4), 1226–1233 (1961).
[Crossref]

Abdel ghany, A. M.

F. H. ElBatal, M. A. Marzouk, and A. M. Abdel ghany, “Gamma rays interaction with bismuth borate glasses doped by transition metal ions,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(15), 5140–5152 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alyshev, S.

Baccaro, S.

W. Shen, J. Ren, S. Baccaro, A. Cemmi, and G. Chen, “Broadband infrared luminescence in γ-ray irradiated bismuth borosilicate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 516–518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the Optical Properties of PbO-B2O3-SiO2 and Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 338–341 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baggio, J.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[Crossref]

Berghmans, F.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bigot, L.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blackmore, E. W.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[Crossref]

Boizot, B.

K. Chah, B. Boizot, B. Reynard, D. Ghaleb, and G. Petite, “Micro-Raman and EPR studies of β-radiation damages in aluminosilicate glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 191(1–4), 337–341 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boukenter, A.

S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: Recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J. P. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “γ-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(8), 1915–1922 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bouwmans, G.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bravo, D.

J. C. Lagomacini, D. Bravo, A. Martín, F. J. López, P. Martín, and Á. Ibarra, “Growth kinetics of AlOHC defects in γ-irradiated silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 403, 5–8 (2014).
[Crossref]

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J. X. Wen, J. Wang, Y. H. Dong, N. Chen, Y. H. Luo, G. D. Peng, F. F. Pang, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Photoluminescence properties of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fiber based on atomic layer deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 349, 287–291 (2015).
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Dianov, E. M.

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Guryanov, A. N.

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, K. E. Riumkin, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped optical fibers and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 20(5), 0903815 (2014).

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
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S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: Recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
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S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
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J. C. Lagomacini, D. Bravo, A. Martín, F. J. López, P. Martín, and Á. Ibarra, “Growth kinetics of AlOHC defects in γ-irradiated silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 403, 5–8 (2014).
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J. J. Ren, J. R. Qiu, D. P. Chen, C. Wang, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 22(7), 1954–1958 (2007).
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Kato, M.

J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, M. Kato, and K. Muta, “Pair generation of Ge electron centers and self-trapped hole centers in GeO2-SiO2 glasses by KrF excimer-laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 60(10), 7166–7169 (1999).
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J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, M. Kato, and K. Muta, “Pair generation of Ge electron centers and self-trapped hole centers in GeO2-SiO2 glasses by KrF excimer-laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 60(10), 7166–7169 (1999).
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Khopin, V.

Khopin, V. F.

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, K. E. Riumkin, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped optical fibers and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 20(5), 0903815 (2014).

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
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J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, M. Kato, and K. Muta, “Pair generation of Ge electron centers and self-trapped hole centers in GeO2-SiO2 glasses by KrF excimer-laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 60(10), 7166–7169 (1999).
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V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, and E. M. Dianov, “Centres of broadband near-IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” J. Phys. D 42(9), 095410 (2009).
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Kuhnhenn, J.

S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: Recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
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J. C. Lagomacini, D. Bravo, A. Martín, F. J. López, P. Martín, and Á. Ibarra, “Growth kinetics of AlOHC defects in γ-irradiated silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 403, 5–8 (2014).
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Z. W. Yang, J. Y. Liao, S. F. Lai, H. J. Wu, Z. Z. Fan, J. B. Qiu, Z. G. Song, Y. Yang, and D. C. Zhou, “Energy transfer and photoluminescence properties in Bi3+ and Eu3+ co-doped ZnGa2O4,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 350–354 (2013).
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G. Violakis, H. G. Limberger, V. M. Mashinsky, and E. M. Dianov, “Dose dependence of luminescence increase in H2-loaded Bi-Al co-doped optical fibers by cw 244-nm and pulsed 193- nm laser irradiation,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC2013, P. OTh4C.2.
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Luo, W. Y.

J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. Y. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044904 (2010).
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Luo, Y. H.

J. X. Wen, J. Wang, Y. H. Dong, N. Chen, Y. H. Luo, G. D. Peng, F. F. Pang, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Photoluminescence properties of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fiber based on atomic layer deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 349, 287–291 (2015).
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Mao, L. H.

X. Lin Xu, X. B. Yu, L. H. Mao, S. P. Yang, and Z. F. Peng, “Preparation and photoluminescence of Bi3+-doped strontium chloroapatite nano-phosphor,” Mater. Lett. 58(29), 3665–3668 (2004).
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S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: Recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
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J. C. Lagomacini, D. Bravo, A. Martín, F. J. López, P. Martín, and Á. Ibarra, “Growth kinetics of AlOHC defects in γ-irradiated silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 403, 5–8 (2014).
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J. C. Lagomacini, D. Bravo, A. Martín, F. J. López, P. Martín, and Á. Ibarra, “Growth kinetics of AlOHC defects in γ-irradiated silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 403, 5–8 (2014).
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F. H. ElBatal, M. A. Marzouk, and A. M. Abdel ghany, “Gamma rays interaction with bismuth borate glasses doped by transition metal ions,” J. Mater. Sci. 46(15), 5140–5152 (2011).
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Mashinsky, V. M.

G. Violakis, H. G. Limberger, V. M. Mashinsky, and E. M. Dianov, “Dose dependence of luminescence increase in H2-loaded Bi-Al co-doped optical fibers by cw 244-nm and pulsed 193- nm laser irradiation,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OFC2013, P. OTh4C.2.
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Melkumov, M. A.

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, K. E. Riumkin, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped optical fibers and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 20(5), 0903815 (2014).

Meunier, J. P.

Meunier, J.-P.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
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J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, M. Kato, and K. Muta, “Pair generation of Ge electron centers and self-trapped hole centers in GeO2-SiO2 glasses by KrF excimer-laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 60(10), 7166–7169 (1999).
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Y. Fujimoto and M. Nakatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(2), L279–L281 (2001).
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J. Nishii, K. Kintaka, H. Hosono, H. Kawazoe, M. Kato, and K. Muta, “Pair generation of Ge electron centers and self-trapped hole centers in GeO2-SiO2 glasses by KrF excimer-laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 60(10), 7166–7169 (1999).
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Ou, Y.

Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the Optical Properties of PbO-B2O3-SiO2 and Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 338–341 (2010).
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S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: Recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
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S. S. Girard, J. Keurinck, Y. Ouerdane, J. P. Meunier, and A. Boukenter, “γ-rays and pulsed X-ray radiation responses of germanosilicate single-mode optical fibers: influence of cladding codopants,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(8), 1915–1922 (2004).
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S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
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Pang, F. F.

J. X. Wen, J. Wang, Y. H. Dong, N. Chen, Y. H. Luo, G. D. Peng, F. F. Pang, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Photoluminescence properties of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fiber based on atomic layer deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 349, 287–291 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. X. Wen, T. Y. Wang, F. F. Pang, X. L. Zeng, Z. Y. Chen, and G. D. Peng, “Photoluminescence characteristics of Bi (m+)-doped silica optical fiber: structural model and theoretical analysis,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(12R), 122501 (2013).
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Peng, G. D.

Z. M. Sathi, J. Zhang, Y. Luo, J. Canning, and G. D. Peng, “Spectral properties and role of aluminium-related bismuth active center (BAC-Al) in bismuth and erbium co-doped fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 1195–1209 (2015).
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J. X. Wen, J. Wang, Y. H. Dong, N. Chen, Y. H. Luo, G. D. Peng, F. F. Pang, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Photoluminescence properties of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fiber based on atomic layer deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 349, 287–291 (2015).
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J. X. Wen, T. Y. Wang, F. F. Pang, X. L. Zeng, Z. Y. Chen, and G. D. Peng, “Photoluminescence characteristics of Bi (m+)-doped silica optical fiber: structural model and theoretical analysis,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(12R), 122501 (2013).
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Y. Luo, J. Wen, J. Zhang, J. Canning, and G. D. Peng, “Bismuth and erbium codoped optical fiber with ultrabroadband luminescence across O-, E-, S-, C-, and L-bands,” Opt. Lett. 37(16), 3447–3449 (2012).
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Peng, M. Y.

L. L. Zhang, G. P. Dong, J. D. Wu, M. Y. Peng, and J. R. Qiu, “Excitation wavelength-dependent near-infrared luminescence from Bi-doped silica glass,” J. Alloys Compd. 531, 10–13 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peng, Z. F.

X. Lin Xu, X. B. Yu, L. H. Mao, S. P. Yang, and Z. F. Peng, “Preparation and photoluminescence of Bi3+-doped strontium chloroapatite nano-phosphor,” Mater. Lett. 58(29), 3665–3668 (2004).
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K. Chah, B. Boizot, B. Reynard, D. Ghaleb, and G. Petite, “Micro-Raman and EPR studies of β-radiation damages in aluminosilicate glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 191(1–4), 337–341 (2002).
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V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, and E. M. Dianov, “Centres of broadband near-IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” J. Phys. D 42(9), 095410 (2009).
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V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Origin of broadband near-infrared luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1488–1490 (2008).
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I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
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Qiu, J. B.

Z. W. Yang, J. Y. Liao, S. F. Lai, H. J. Wu, Z. Z. Fan, J. B. Qiu, Z. G. Song, Y. Yang, and D. C. Zhou, “Energy transfer and photoluminescence properties in Bi3+ and Eu3+ co-doped ZnGa2O4,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 350–354 (2013).
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Qiu, J. R.

L. L. Zhang, G. P. Dong, J. D. Wu, M. Y. Peng, and J. R. Qiu, “Excitation wavelength-dependent near-infrared luminescence from Bi-doped silica glass,” J. Alloys Compd. 531, 10–13 (2012).
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I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
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Ren, J. J.

J. J. Ren, J. R. Qiu, D. P. Chen, C. Wang, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 22(7), 1954–1958 (2007).
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K. Chah, B. Boizot, B. Reynard, D. Ghaleb, and G. Petite, “Micro-Raman and EPR studies of β-radiation damages in aluminosilicate glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 191(1–4), 337–341 (2002).
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Sakka, Y.

Sathi, Z. M.

Schwank, J. R.

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
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S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
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E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, and G. H. Sigel., “Defect centers in a germanium-doped silica-core optical fiber,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(8), 3424–3428 (1974).
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V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, V. V. Koltashev, and E. M. Dianov, “Centres of broadband near-IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” J. Phys. D 42(9), 095410 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Origin of broadband near-infrared luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1488–1490 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Z. W. Yang, J. Y. Liao, S. F. Lai, H. J. Wu, Z. Z. Fan, J. B. Qiu, Z. G. Song, Y. Yang, and D. C. Zhou, “Energy transfer and photoluminescence properties in Bi3+ and Eu3+ co-doped ZnGa2O4,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 350–354 (2013).
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Teterisa, J.

A. N. Trukhina, J. Teterisa, A. Fedotova, D. L. Griscomb, and G. Buscarinoc, “Photosensitivity of SiO2-Al and SiO2-Na glasses under ArF laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(18), 1066–1074 (2009).
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A. N. Trukhina, J. Teterisa, A. Fedotova, D. L. Griscomb, and G. Buscarinoc, “Photosensitivity of SiO2-Al and SiO2-Na glasses under ArF laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(18), 1066–1074 (2009).
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S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
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J. J. Ren, J. R. Qiu, D. P. Chen, C. Wang, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 22(7), 1954–1958 (2007).
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Wang, J.

J. X. Wen, J. Wang, Y. H. Dong, N. Chen, Y. H. Luo, G. D. Peng, F. F. Pang, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Photoluminescence properties of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fiber based on atomic layer deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 349, 287–291 (2015).
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Wang, T. Y.

J. X. Wen, J. Wang, Y. H. Dong, N. Chen, Y. H. Luo, G. D. Peng, F. F. Pang, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Photoluminescence properties of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fiber based on atomic layer deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 349, 287–291 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. X. Wen, T. Y. Wang, F. F. Pang, X. L. Zeng, Z. Y. Chen, and G. D. Peng, “Photoluminescence characteristics of Bi (m+)-doped silica optical fiber: structural model and theoretical analysis,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(12R), 122501 (2013).
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J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. Y. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044904 (2010).
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Wang, X.

H. Xia and X. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3-GeO2-X (X=Na2O,BaO,Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051917 (2006).
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Wen, J. X.

J. X. Wen, J. Wang, Y. H. Dong, N. Chen, Y. H. Luo, G. D. Peng, F. F. Pang, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Photoluminescence properties of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fiber based on atomic layer deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 349, 287–291 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. X. Wen, T. Y. Wang, F. F. Pang, X. L. Zeng, Z. Y. Chen, and G. D. Peng, “Photoluminescence characteristics of Bi (m+)-doped silica optical fiber: structural model and theoretical analysis,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(12R), 122501 (2013).
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J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. Y. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044904 (2010).
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Z. W. Yang, J. Y. Liao, S. F. Lai, H. J. Wu, Z. Z. Fan, J. B. Qiu, Z. G. Song, Y. Yang, and D. C. Zhou, “Energy transfer and photoluminescence properties in Bi3+ and Eu3+ co-doped ZnGa2O4,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 350–354 (2013).
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L. L. Zhang, G. P. Dong, J. D. Wu, M. Y. Peng, and J. R. Qiu, “Excitation wavelength-dependent near-infrared luminescence from Bi-doped silica glass,” J. Alloys Compd. 531, 10–13 (2012).
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Xia, H.

H. Xia and X. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3-GeO2-X (X=Na2O,BaO,Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051917 (2006).
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Xiao, Z. Y.

J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. Y. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044904 (2010).
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Xu, S.

Yang, S. P.

X. Lin Xu, X. B. Yu, L. H. Mao, S. P. Yang, and Z. F. Peng, “Preparation and photoluminescence of Bi3+-doped strontium chloroapatite nano-phosphor,” Mater. Lett. 58(29), 3665–3668 (2004).
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Z. W. Yang, J. Y. Liao, S. F. Lai, H. J. Wu, Z. Z. Fan, J. B. Qiu, Z. G. Song, Y. Yang, and D. C. Zhou, “Energy transfer and photoluminescence properties in Bi3+ and Eu3+ co-doped ZnGa2O4,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 350–354 (2013).
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Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the Optical Properties of PbO-B2O3-SiO2 and Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 338–341 (2010).
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Z. W. Yang, J. Y. Liao, S. F. Lai, H. J. Wu, Z. Z. Fan, J. B. Qiu, Z. G. Song, Y. Yang, and D. C. Zhou, “Energy transfer and photoluminescence properties in Bi3+ and Eu3+ co-doped ZnGa2O4,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 350–354 (2013).
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Yu, X. B.

X. Lin Xu, X. B. Yu, L. H. Mao, S. P. Yang, and Z. F. Peng, “Preparation and photoluminescence of Bi3+-doped strontium chloroapatite nano-phosphor,” Mater. Lett. 58(29), 3665–3668 (2004).
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Zeng, X. L.

J. X. Wen, T. Y. Wang, F. F. Pang, X. L. Zeng, Z. Y. Chen, and G. D. Peng, “Photoluminescence characteristics of Bi (m+)-doped silica optical fiber: structural model and theoretical analysis,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(12R), 122501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X. Y.

J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. Y. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044904 (2010).
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Zhang, J.

Zhang, L. L.

L. L. Zhang, G. P. Dong, J. D. Wu, M. Y. Peng, and J. R. Qiu, “Excitation wavelength-dependent near-infrared luminescence from Bi-doped silica glass,” J. Alloys Compd. 531, 10–13 (2012).
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Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the Optical Properties of PbO-B2O3-SiO2 and Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 338–341 (2010).
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Zhou, D. C.

Z. W. Yang, J. Y. Liao, S. F. Lai, H. J. Wu, Z. Z. Fan, J. B. Qiu, Z. G. Song, Y. Yang, and D. C. Zhou, “Energy transfer and photoluminescence properties in Bi3+ and Eu3+ co-doped ZnGa2O4,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 350–354 (2013).
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J. J. Ren, J. R. Qiu, D. P. Chen, C. Wang, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 22(7), 1954–1958 (2007).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Xia and X. Wang, “Near infrared broadband emission from Bi5+-doped Al2O3-GeO2-X (X=Na2O,BaO,Y2O3) glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051917 (2006).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. X. Wen, J. Wang, Y. H. Dong, N. Chen, Y. H. Luo, G. D. Peng, F. F. Pang, Z. Y. Chen, and T. Y. Wang, “Photoluminescence properties of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fiber based on atomic layer deposition method,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 349, 287–291 (2015).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, K. E. Riumkin, A. V. Shubin, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped optical fibers and fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 20(5), 0903815 (2014).

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (2)

S. Girard, B. Tortech, E. Regnier, M. Van Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, J. Baggio, P. Paillet, V. Ferlet-Cavrois, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, J. R. Schwank, M. R. Shaneyfelt, J. A. Felix, E. W. Blackmore, and H. Thienpont, “Proton-and gamma-induced effects on erbium- doped optical fibers,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 54(6), 2426–2434 (2007).
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S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: Recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
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J. Alloys Compd. (1)

L. L. Zhang, G. P. Dong, J. D. Wu, M. Y. Peng, and J. R. Qiu, “Excitation wavelength-dependent near-infrared luminescence from Bi-doped silica glass,” J. Alloys Compd. 531, 10–13 (2012).
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Y. Fujimoto, “Local structure of the infrared bismuth luminescent center in bismuth-doped silica glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 581–589 (2010).
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Y. Ou, S. Baccaro, Y. Zhang, Y. Yang, and G. Chen, “Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the Optical Properties of PbO-B2O3-SiO2 and Bi2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 338–341 (2010).
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Y. Fujimoto, “Local structure of the infrared bismuth luminescent center in bismuth-doped silica glass,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 93(2), 581–589 (2010).
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J. X. Wen, W. Y. Luo, Z. Y. Xiao, T. Y. Wang, Z. Y. Chen, and X. Y. Zeng, “Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(4), 044904 (2010).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Mater. Res. (1)

J. J. Ren, J. R. Qiu, D. P. Chen, C. Wang, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Infrared luminescence properties of bismuth-doped barium silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 22(7), 1954–1958 (2007).
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A. N. Trukhin, J. L. Jansons, and K. Truhins, “Luminescence of silica glass containing aluminum oxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347(1–3), 80–86 (2004).
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J. X. Wen, T. Y. Wang, F. F. Pang, X. L. Zeng, Z. Y. Chen, and G. D. Peng, “Photoluminescence characteristics of Bi (m+)-doped silica optical fiber: structural model and theoretical analysis,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 52(12R), 122501 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Absorption spectra of Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fibers before and after irradiation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fluorescence spectra of the Bi/Al-codoped silica fibers excited by 532 nm pump before and after irradiation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Possible energy levels of BAC-Al pumped by 532 nm, NRT: non radiative transition, GSA: ground state absorption.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fluorescence spectra of Bi-doped silica fibers excited with 980 nm pump before and after irradiation: (a) Pump power 0.025 mW; (b) Relationship between intensity of fluorescence peaks and different radiation doses with 0.025 mW pumping; (c) Pump power 0.06 mW; (d) Relationship between intensity of fluorescence peaks and different radiation doses with 0.6 mW pumping.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Possible energy levels of BAC-Al (a) and BAC-Si (b) excited with 980 nm pumping.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 ESR spectra of Bi/Al-codoped silica fibers before and after irradiation at room temperature (a) and 77 K (b).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Composition of the Bi/Al-codoped silica optical fiber preform material

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Table 2 Principal g-values of the defect centers observed in the literature and our experiments (Expts.)

Equations (6)

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B i 5+ +2e hv B i 3+ B i 5+ +4e hv B i + B i 5+ +5e hv B i 0
B i 3+ +2e hv B i + B i 3+ +3e hv B i 0
SiOSi hv Si O + Si
SiOGe hv Si O + Ge
=Al(Bi) Si | | OSi hv =Al(Bi) Si | | O + Si
=AlO Si | | hv =Al O + Si

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