Abstract

Transition-metal dichalcogenides, such as tungsten disulfide (WS2) and molybdenium disulfide (MoS2), are highly anisotropic layered materials and have attracted growing interest from basic research to practical applications due to their exotic physical property that may complement graphene and other semiconductor materials. WS2 nanosheets are found to exhibit broadband nonlinear saturable absorption property, and saturable absorbers (SAs) are fabricated by depositing WS2 nanosheets on side-polished fibers. Attributing to the weak evanescent field and long interaction length, the WS2 nanosheets are not exposed to large optical intensity, which allows the SA to work at the high-power regime. The SAs are used to mode lock erbium- and ytterbium-doped fiber lasers with normal dispersion, producing trains of dissipative soliton at 1.55 and 1.06 µm respectively. Simulations show that the bandgap of WS2 nanosheets decreases from 1.18 to 0.02 and 0.65 eV by introducing W and S defects respectively, which may contribute to the broadband saturable absorption property of the WS2.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Two-dimensional layered materials have attracted growing interest from fundamental research to practical application owing to their unique electronic band structure and large nonlinearity [1–4 ]. The first type of such materials, graphene, is a monolayer of carbon atoms packed into a dense honeycomb crystal structure that can be viewed as an individual atomic plane extracted from graphite [5,6 ]. Motivated by the progress of graphene, topological insulator, a new type of quantum matter with an insulating bulky gap and gapless edge or surface states, has been developed and in-depth investigated in the condensed-matter physics and laser photonics [7,8 ]. Graphene and topological insulator are proved to exhibit saturable absorption property, in which the optical absorbance decreases with the increase of light intensity and becomes saturated above the threshold value. Such saturable absorption at photon energies higher than the material bandgap arises from Pauli blocking, where the conduction band is filled under intense illumination intensity, and further absorption is blocked according to the Pauli exclusion principle [9]. Attributing to the inherent features of narrow bandgap and high flexibility, graphene and topological insulator can act as broadband saturable absorbers (SAs) in mode-locked and Q-switched lasers [10–15 ].

Currently, transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as tungsten disulfide (WS2) and molybdenium disulfide (MoS2), have captured great research interest due to their exotic physical properties that may complement that of graphene or other semiconductor materials [16]. In TMD materials, the atoms within the layer are held together by strong covalent bond while weak van der Waals interaction enables stacking of the layers, and thus they can be easily exfoliated into thin nanosheets. As electrons are restricted in two-dimensional space and the interlayer perturbation is suppressed, mono- or few-layer TMD shows significant enhancement in photoluminescence efficiency and nonlinear coefficient compared with that of bulk counterparts [17, 18 ]. A great deal of experimental and theoretic study has focused on the ultrafast nonlinear saturable property of MoS2 nanosheets [19–22 ]. J. Wang et al. demonstrated that MoS2 nanosheets exhibit saturable absorption property with an intraband relaxation time of 30 fs at 800 nm [19]. Then, H. Yu et al. showed that broadband MoS2 SAs operating at 1.06, 1.42, and 2.1 µm can be achieved by introducing suitable defects into the MoS2 nanosheets [20]. H. Zhang et al. demonstrated an yttrium-doped fiber (YDF) laser passively mode locked with a broadband MoS2 SA [21]. R. I. Woodward et al. inferred that the wideband saturable absorption below the material bandgap can be attributed to saturation of edge states of few-layer MoS2 nanosheets [22]. Up till now, film-like MoS2 SAs, MoS2-deposited side-polished fibers (SPFs) or tapered fibers have been fabricated to realize passive mode-locking or Q-switching in fiber lasers [23–26 ].

More recently, X. Fu et al. demonstrated that vertically stood WS2 nanosheets exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption property at the wavelength of 532 nm [27]. Several groups also found that WS2 nanosheets exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption property at 1.55 µm, and observed soliton mode-locking or Q-switching operations in erbium-doped fiber (EDF) lasers [28–30 ]. The aforementioned studies were mainly concentrated on the anomalous-dispersion regime, and mode-locking operation based on WS2 SA has not been reported in normal-dispersion fiber lasers. More importantly, the saturable absorption mechanism of WS2 nanosheets at sub-bandgap photon energies remains untapped until now. Here, we show that WS2 nanosheets exhibit broadband nonlinear saturable absorption property, and demonstrate dissipative soliton fiber lasers at 1.55 and 1.06 µm based on evanescent field interaction with WS2 nanosheets. The absorption property at sub-bandgap photon energies could be attributed to the imperfections of WS2 nanosheets, for instance, the bandgap of WS2 nanosheets decreases from 1.18 to 0.02 and 0.65 eV when the ratio of W to S changes from 1:2 to 1:2.12 and 1:1.88 respectively.

2. Fabrication and characterization of SPF-based WS2 SA

Several approaches have been developed to prepare mono- or few-layer TMD materials, including pulsed laser deposition [20], micromechanical exfoliation [31], chemical synthesis [4, 32 ], two-step expansion and intercalation [33], and liquid exfoliation [34]. In our experiment, the WS2 dispersions are synthesized by the liquid exfoliation method, similar to that of other layered materials [34]. First, the WS2 crystals are put in the solvent that is prepared by mixing ethanol and water at the volume ratio of 35:75. Then, the initial dispersions are treated by a high-power ultrasonic cleaner for 120 min, and then they are allowed to settle for several hours. Attributing to ultrasound-induced local pressure variations, the weak interlayer van der Waals forces in the bulk crystals is overcame and mono- and few-layer nanosheets can be produced. To remove unwanted large agglomeration, the WS2 dispersions are centrifuged at a rate of 3000 rpm for 30 min and the upper supernatant is collected. As shown in the inset of Fig. 1(a) , the typical dispersion shows a faint yellow-green color. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image in Fig. 1(a) illustrates that the width and length of samples are in the range from 500 to 1000 nm. The thickness of most nanosheets is in the range of 9~16 nm, as shown in Fig. 1(b) and Ref [28]. The WS2 nanosheets are further characterized by the Raman spectroscopy using a 514 nm argon laser. As shown in Fig. 1(c), two peaks located at 350.8 and 420.5 cm−1 are related to the in-plane (E 2g) and out-of-plane (A 1g) vibrational modes, which agrees well with the previously reports [34, 35 ]. By mixing the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with WS2 nanosheets, we has prepared WS2-PVA films and investigated its transmission by a spectrometer (Hitachi UV4100). The linear transmission spectra of the WS2-PVA and pure PVA films are depicted in Fig. 1(d). The dip at 630 nm on the transmission spectrum coincides with the previous reports [34, 35 ]. Based on SEM profile, AFM image, Raman spectrum, and linear transmission curve, we confirm the existence of WS2 nanosheets in the dispersions.

 

Fig. 1 Characterization of WS2 nanosheets. (a) SEM image, the inset shows the WS2 dispersions; (b) AFM image; (c) Raman spectrum; (d) linear transmission spectrum of the WS2-PVA film in comparison with pure PVA-film.

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Based on a balanced twin-detector measurement system that has been elaborated previously [21], we measure the nonlinear saturable absorption property of two WS2 SAs. As illustrated in Fig. 2(a) , the first illumination pulse is delivered by a home-made EDF laser (repetition rate: 12.8 MHz, pulse duration: 950 fs, central wavelength: 1555 nm), and the second illumination pulse is generated by a home-made YDF laser (repetition rate: 26.9 MHz, pulse duration: 15 ps, central wavelength: 1053 nm). In the experiment, the SPF works as a host to realize interaction of WS2 nanosheets with evanescent field. The SPF is prepared by polishing a bent standard single-mode fiber (SMF) on one side. For the EDF and YDF lasers, the SPFs are based on SMFs at 1.55 and 1.06 µm, respectively. Correspondingly, the inset loss is also different for two SAs. By employing the optical deposition method [36], the WS2 nanosheets are closely adhered on the surface of SPF. The insets of Figs. 2(b) and 2(c) show the optical micrographs of 1.55 and 1.06 µm SPF-WS2 SAs, respectively. Compared with the film-like SA coated on the fiber facet, this approach possesses inherent feature of the long interaction length. As extra heating is rapidly dissipated from the SPF, it can work as a high-power SA avoiding damage at the strong pump regime. As illustrated in Figs. 2(b) and 2(c), both SAs exhibit typical characteristics of saturable absorption that the transmission increases with the pulse intensity. The modulation depths of SAs at 1.55 and 1.06 µm are given as 5.1% and 2.9%, respectively. Compared with carbon nanotube, the WS2 SA exhibits a broader optical response and a smaller modulation depth [37]. Additionally, the WS2 SA is independent of the polarization state, which is also different from the nonlinear polarization rotation technique [38]. During the experiment, we have not observed nonlinear response from other fiber devices, indicating that the saturable absorption originates from WS2 nanosheets alone.

 

Fig. 2 (a) Experimental setup for nonlinear absorption measurement of SPF WS2 SA. Nonlinear transmission of SPF-WS2 SAs at (b) 1.55 and (c) 1.06 µm. The inset shows the corresponding micrograph of SPF-WS2 SA.

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3. Laser design and characterization

Fiber lasers exhibit features of high gain coefficient, excellent heat dissipation, and robust mode confinement and thus provide ideal platforms for testing the nonlinear absorption of the samples [39]. We constructed EDF and YDF lasers with normal dispersion to investigate performances of two SPF-WS2 SAs respectively, as shown in Fig. 3 . Both fiber lasers are pumped by 976 nm laser diodes with the maximum power of 610 mW. A polarization-insensitive isolator is used to ensure the unidirectional propagation of light. Here, the polarization controller (PC) can adjust the polarization state within the cavity, but it is not fundamental to the mode locking action. The output signal is delivered through a 10:90 fused-fiber optical coupler. The EDF laser consists of 18 m EDF and 7.5 m SMF with dispersion parameters D = –16 ps nm−1 km−1 and 17 ps nm−1 km−1, respectively. The total length and the net dispersion of the cavity are given as 25.5 m and 0.2 ps2, respectively. The YDF laser is composed of 0.8 m YDF with the absorption of 1200 dB/m, 36 m SMF, and a 2 nm spectral filter centered at 1064 nm. The dispersion parameters D for YDF and SMF are –33 ps nm−1 km−1 and –37 ps nm−1 km−1, respectively, and the net dispersion is given as 1.19 ps2. As both fiber lasers possess normal dispersion, dissipative solitons tend to be formed by inserting SA1 and SA2 in EDF and YDF lasers respectively. Compared with chirp-free soliton, dissipative soliton is strongly chirped with pulse energy up to several nanojoules [40, 41 ].

 

Fig. 3 Experimental setup of fiber lasers. For EDF laser, SA1 and fiber components operate at 1.55 µm; For YDF laser, SA2, spectral filter, and the fiber components operate at 1.06 µm. LD: laser diode; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; OC: optical coupler; SMF: single-mode fiber; PC: polarization controller; PI-ISO: polarization-insensitive isolator.

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In the EDF laser, continuous wave emission is achieved at the pump power of 13 mW utilizing SA1. Self-starting single-pulse mode locking is observed when the pump power is further increased to 85 mW. As demonstrated in Fig. 4(a) , the spectrum of output pulse has a bandwidth of 14.5 nm with steep spectral edges, which is the typical property of dissipative soliton. The formation of the quasi-rectangular spectrum could be attributed to the combined effects of gain filtering effect, normal dispersion, and saturable absorption [42, 43 ]. Figure 4(b) shows the autocorrelation trace of the dissipative soliton, which can be well fitted by a Gaussian function. The full width at half maximum of the autocorrelation trace is measured as 29.7 ps, which gives a pulse duration of 21.1 ps. The corresponding time bandwidth product is calculated as 38.2, indicating that the pulse is highly chirped. The pulse-pulse separation is given as 123.8 ns from the oscilloscope trace, as demonstrated in Fig. 4(c). The radio frequency (RF) spectrum in Fig. 4(d) shows that the fundamental repetition rate of the pulse is 8.05 MHz, corresponding to the cavity length of 25.5 m. The output power of dissipative soliton is measured as 1.8 mW, which gives the pulse energy of 0.22 nJ. Considering the output ratio of 10%, the pulse energy in the cavity is estimated as 2.2 nJ. When the pump power is higher than 230 mW, a train of noise-like pulse with a broadband spectrum is observed in the proposed fiber laser. There is a transitional state between the two operations, in which the optical spectrum has a hat-like profile and the intensity between peak and shoulder of the autocorrelation trace is about 4:3 (less than 2:1), indicating that the pulse contains a part of noise-like components [44]. By cutting the EDF to 6 m, the fiber laser operates at the net-anomalous dispersion regime and standard soliton with spectral sidebands can also be achieved.

 

Fig. 4 Output testing of the mode-locked EDF laser. (a) Spectrum; (b) autocorrelation trace; (c) pulse train; (d) RF spectrum.

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In the all-normal dispersion YDF laser, we also realize dissipative soliton mode locking using SA2. Figure 5(a) shows the spectrum of the dissipative soliton at the pump power of 450 mW. Attributing to the confinement of the spectral filter [45], the spectral bandwidth and central wavelength of the mode-locked pulse are 0.77 and 1063.6 nm, respectively. Indeed, the spectral filtering effect can cut off the pulse edge both in temporal and spectral domains in the all-normal dispersion regime [46], and mode locking operation is not obtained when the spectral filter is removed. Figure 5(b) shows the pulse profile measured by a 6 GHz oscilloscope (resolution: ~160 ps), which gives a pulse duration of 630 ps. The corresponding time bandwidth product is calculated as 128.5, which suggests that the pulse is highly chirped. The large frequency chirp may arise from the combined actions of normal dispersion and self-phase modulation at the high pump regime [40–43 ]. The oscilloscope trace in Fig. 5(c) shows that the pulse interval is 179.5 ns, which equals the cavity round-trip time. The RF spectrum in Fig. 5(d) shows that the repetition rate of the pulse is 5.57 MHz. In this case, single-pulse mode locking is maintained at the pump power of 610 mW, and the maximum average power and pulse energy in the laser cavity are measured as 76 mW and 13.6 nJ, respectively.

 

Fig. 5 Output testing of the mode-locked YDF laser. (a) Spectrum; (b) pulse profile; (c) pulse train; (d) RF spectrum.

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Our experimental results indicate that dissipative solitons at 1.55 and 1.06 µm can be generated in normal-dispersion fiber lasers utilizing two SPF-WS2 SAs respectively. Attributing to the lateral interaction between few-layer WS2 and evanescent field in SPF, the light intensity imposed on the SA has been significantly reduced, which avoids the thermal damage on the SA. During the experiment, mode locking operations can always be observed in EDF (YDF) laser when the pump power is in the range of 85 (400) and 610 mW. As shown in Figs. 6(a) and 6(b) , the intracavity power of EDF laser almost linearly increases with the pump power. However, the intracavity power of the YDF laser changes slightly at first and then increases linearly with the pump power, which may be attributed to the high absorption of the gain fiber. This type of SPF-WS2 SA can find important applications in areas of harmonic mode locking, high-power pulsed laser, and materials processing.

 

Fig. 6 Intracavity power as a function of pump for (a) EDF laser and (b) YDF laser.

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4. Discussion and analysis

We have purposely replaced the SPF-WS2 SA with a pure SPF to confirm whether the formation of dissipative soliton is purely caused by WS2 nanosheets. During the experiment, mode locking operation is not observed with the pure SPF at any conditions. By depositing the WS2 solution on SPF and adjusting the pump power, mode locking operations are easily obtained again in the EDF and YDF lasers. The mode locking operation can be maintained even the WS2 dispersions is dried. However, when the SPF is coated with air, water, alcohol, or the mixture of water with alcohol, mode locking operation cannot be obtained despite that the pump and PC are tuned over a full range. Consequently, we conclude that the dissipative soliton mode locking is purely induced by WS2 nanosheets rather than other nonlinear effects.

Our experiments show that WS2 nanosheets exhibit broadband saturable absorption at 1.55 and 1.06 µm (0.8 and 1.16 eV), where the photon energy is lower than the bandgap of the perfect monolayer (2 eV) [47] or bulk WS2 (1.34 eV) [48]. This sub-bandgap saturable absorption property has also recently been confirmed by a number of other groups [28–30 ]. Despite these growing experimental observations, a full explanation of the governing physical mechanism has not been fully established. Previous reports have demonstrated that the deviation from perfection in 2D materials is inevitable and will renovate their electronic and optical properties. For example, the deviation from perfection in MoS2 or graphene has been used to adjust the bandgap and achieve new functionality [49, 50 ]. To reveal the broadband saturable absorption mechanism, we investigate the electronic structure of WS2 by introducing suitable defects based on first-principle calculations. In our simulation, they are point defects with W or S missing atoms in the two-dimensional layered WS2.

Figures 7(a) and 7(b) show the AB stacked WS2 observed from the top and side respectively. Each WS2 monolayer consists of two hexagonal planes of S atoms and an intermediate hexagonal plane of W atoms coordinated through ionic-covalent interactions with the S atoms in a trigonal prismatic arrangement. Our first-principles calculations were performed using the Cambridge Sequential Total Energy Package (CASTEP) codes [51], implementing density functional theory (DFT). The electron exchange-correlation functional was treated using a generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with PW91 parameterization [52]. The Van der Waals correction within the gradient-corrected density functional of Perdew and Wang (PW91) proposed by OBS [53] was employed in dealing with the interaction between the WS2 layers. The kinetic energy cutoff of the plane waves was set to as high as 720 eV for the primitive cell. The Brillouin zone was sampled using Γ-centered Monkhorst-Pack grids: 9 × 9 × 2 for the primitive cell and 2 × 2 × 2 for the supercell. Test calculations showed that the results are fully converged with respect to the k- points.

 

Fig. 7 Theoretical bandgap of WS2 samples. Schematic of AB stacked WS2 observed from the top (a) and side (b). Calculated band structure of bulk WS2 as a function of R (c). Calculated band structure of bulk WS2 with R = 1:2.12 (d), 1:2.04 (e), 1:2 (f), 1:1.97 (g), 1:1.94 (h) and 1:1.88 (i).

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When the ratio (R) between W and S is 1:2, the bandgap of bulk WS2 is 1.18 eV in good agreement with the previously calculated results [47, 48 ], as shown in Fig. 7(c). However, by introducing W or S defects, the bandgap of WS2 changes significantly for both cases. Figures 7(d)-(i) show the corresponding calculated band structure of WS2 with R = 1:2.12, 1:2.04, 1:2, 1:1.97, 1:1.94, and 1:1.88, respectively. It is demonstrated that bulk WS2 is an indirect semiconductor and the bandgap decreases from 1.18 to 0.02 eV when R is decreased from 1:2 to 1:2.12 (W defects). On the other hand, when R is increased from 1:2 to 1:1.88 (S defects), the bandgap of WS2 decreases from 1.18 to 0.65 eV, corresponding to an absorption wavelength of 1.90 µm (0.65 eV). In this case, a photon can excite an electron from the valence band to the conduction band when the light wavelength is shorter than 1.90 µm. In practice, both types of defects may be introduced during the fabrication of nanosheets. However, S defects tend to be formed when the SA interacts with high-power laser since low-mass S is evaporated more easily than metal atoms [19, 54 ].

Based on a two level saturable absorption model [13], when the WS2 semiconductor is excited by light with photon energy higher than gap energy, electrons are transferred from valance band to conduction band. Under strong excitation, electrons at valence band are excited into conduction band and the states in valence band become depleted, while the finial states in the conduction band are partially occupied. Further excitation from valence band is prevented and no absorption is induced, leading to a saturable absorption condition that low-intensity (high-intensity) light experiences large (small) loss. Based on the experimental and simulation results, one may infer that the broadband saturable absorption property arises from the defect-induced bandgap decrease of WS2 nanosheets.

5. Conclusions

We have demonstrated that WS2 nanosheets exhibit broadband saturable absorption property at 1.55 and 1.06 µm, respectively. By depositing the WS2 solutions on SPFs, we fabricated two SPF-WS2 SAs that can work stably at mode-locking state under the maximum pump of 610 mW. Utilizing the proposed SAs, dissipative solitons were achieved in the EDF and YDF lasers, respectively. The broadband saturable absorption of the WS2 can be attributed to the narrow bandgap induced by the W or S defects. For instance, the bandgap of WS2 decreases from 1.18 to 0.65 eV when R is increased from 1:2 to 1:1.88, corresponding to an absorption wavelength of 1.90 µm (0.65 eV). Based on the numerical simulation, we also infer that WS2 can work as a SA to realize passive mode-locking or Q-switching at 1.9 µm. Numerous applications may benefit from the exotic feature of the WS2 SA, such as high-power pulsed laser, materials processing, and frequency comb spectroscopy.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61575162, 61405161, 61377035, 61377055), the 973 Program (2012CB921900), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (3102014JCQ01101). H. B. Z. acknowledges the support provided by the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB931700), and NSFC (21403109). We also acknowledge Computer Network Information Center (Supercomputing center) of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) for allocation of computing resource.

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28. D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS₂ as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. L. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015). [CrossRef]  

31. K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(8), 494–498 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. Y. H. Lee, X. Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M. T. Chang, C. T. Lin, K. D. Chang, Y. C. Yu, J. T. Wang, C. S. Chang, L. J. Li, and T. W. Lin, “Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

33. J. Zheng, H. Zhang, S. Dong, Y. Liu, C. T. Nai, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, B. Liu, and K. P. Loh, “High yield exfoliation of two-dimensional chalcogenides using sodium naphthalenide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 2995 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. N. Perea-López, A. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013). [CrossRef]  

36. Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

37. X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Yu, Z. Sun, X. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “Nonlinear absorption of SWNT film and its effects to the operation state of pulsed fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17227–17235 (2014). [PubMed]  

38. X. Li, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, and W. Zhao, “Experimental observation of soliton molecule evolution in Yb-doped passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(7), 075103 (2014). [CrossRef]  

39. X. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Han, X. Yao, and Z. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

40. A. Chong, J. Buckley, W. Renninger, and F. Wise, “All-normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10095–10100 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

41. J. R. Buckley, S. W. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of ten-cycle pulses from an ytterbium fiber laser with cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1340–1342 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

42. X. Liu, “Dynamic evolution of temporal dissipative-soliton molecules in large normal path-averaged dispersion fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063834 (2010). [CrossRef]  

43. D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011). [CrossRef]  

44. S. Smirnov, S. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and A. Ivanenko, “Three key regimes of single pulse generation per round trip of all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers mode-locked with nonlinear polarization rotation,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27447–27453 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

45. D. Mao, B. Jiang, W. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Pulse-state switchable fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 253–256 (2015).

46. X. Li, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. H. Tsang, W. Zhang, X. Hu, Z. Yang, C. Gao, C. Li, and D. Shen, “All-fiber dissipative solitons evolution in a compact passively Yb-doped mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2502–2507 (2012). [CrossRef]  

47. W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

48. A. Klein, S. Tiefenbacher, V. Eyert, C. Pettenkofer, and W. Jaegermann, “Electronic band structure of single-crystal and single-layer WS2: influence of interlayer van der Waals interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 205416 (2001). [CrossRef]  

49. F. Banhart, J. Kotakoski, and A. V. Krasheninnikov, “Structural defects in graphene,” ACS Nano 5(1), 26–41 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

50. J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

51. M. D. Segall, P. J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).

52. J. P. Perdew and Y. Wang, “Accurate and simple analytic representation of the electron-gas correlation energy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(23), 13244–13249 (1992). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

53. F. Ortmann, F. Bechstedt, and W. G. Schmidt, “Semiempirical van der Waals correction to the density functional description of solids and molecular structures,” Phys. Rev. B 73(20), 205101 (2006). [CrossRef]  

54. V. Y. Fominski, V. N. Nevolin, R. I. Romanov, and I. Smurov, “Ion-assisted deposition of MoSx films from laser-generated plume under pulsed electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 1449–1457 (2001). [CrossRef]  

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  41. J. R. Buckley, S. W. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of ten-cycle pulses from an ytterbium fiber laser with cubic phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1340–1342 (2006).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  47. W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. A. Klein, S. Tiefenbacher, V. Eyert, C. Pettenkofer, and W. Jaegermann, “Electronic band structure of single-crystal and single-layer WS2: influence of interlayer van der Waals interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 205416 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  50. J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  52. J. P. Perdew and Y. Wang, “Accurate and simple analytic representation of the electron-gas correlation energy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(23), 13244–13249 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2015 (9)

S. Zhang, Z. Yan, Y. Li, Z. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Atomically thin arsenene and antimonene: semimetal-semiconductor and indirect-direct band-gap transitions,” Angew. Chem. 54(10), 3112–3115 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yan, Y. Tang, B. Sun, T. Liu, X. Li, P. S. Ping, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “Switchable multi-wavelength Tm-doped mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 1916–1919 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS₂ as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. L. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Han, X. Yao, and Z. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, W. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Pulse-state switchable fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 253–256 (2015).

J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (13)

X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Yu, Z. Sun, X. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “Nonlinear absorption of SWNT film and its effects to the operation state of pulsed fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17227–17235 (2014).
[PubMed]

X. Li, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, and W. Zhao, “Experimental observation of soliton molecule evolution in Yb-doped passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(7), 075103 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, H. Zhang, S. Dong, Y. Liu, C. T. Nai, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, B. Liu, and K. P. Loh, “High yield exfoliation of two-dimensional chalcogenides using sodium naphthalenide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 2995 (2014).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
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R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
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H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
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H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014).
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R. Khazaeizhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, D. I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using a multilayer MoS2 thin film as a saturable absorber in both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23732–23742 (2014).
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J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
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X. Fu, J. Qian, X. Qiao, P. Tan, and Z. Peng, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of vertically stood WS₂ nanoplates,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6450–6453 (2014).
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C. Cong, J. Shang, X. Wu, B. Cao, N. Peimyoo, C. Qiu, L. Sun, and T. Yu, “Synthesis and optical properties of large-area single-crystalline 2D semiconductor WS2 monolayer from chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(2), 131–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (10)

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
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M. Xu, T. Liang, M. Shi, and H. Chen, “Graphene-like two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Rev. 113(5), 3766–3798 (2013).
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M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L. J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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B. Radisavljevic and A. Kis, “Mobility engineering and a metal-insulator transition in monolayer MoS₂,” Nat. Mater. 12(9), 815–820 (2013).
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Y. Chen, J. Xi, D. O. Dumcenco, Z. Liu, K. Suenaga, D. Wang, Z. Shuai, Y. S. Huang, and L. Xie, “Tunable band gap photoluminescence from atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenide alloys,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4610–4616 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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N. Perea-López, A. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
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W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
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2012 (5)

S. Smirnov, S. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and A. Ivanenko, “Three key regimes of single pulse generation per round trip of all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers mode-locked with nonlinear polarization rotation,” Opt. Express 20(24), 27447–27453 (2012).
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X. Li, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. H. Tsang, W. Zhang, X. Hu, Z. Yang, C. Gao, C. Li, and D. Shen, “All-fiber dissipative solitons evolution in a compact passively Yb-doped mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2502–2507 (2012).
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K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(8), 494–498 (2012).
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Y. H. Lee, X. Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M. T. Chang, C. T. Lin, K. D. Chang, Y. C. Yu, J. T. Wang, C. S. Chang, L. J. Li, and T. W. Lin, “Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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2011 (3)

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
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F. Banhart, J. Kotakoski, and A. V. Krasheninnikov, “Structural defects in graphene,” ACS Nano 5(1), 26–41 (2011).
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2010 (3)

X. Liu, “Dynamic evolution of temporal dissipative-soliton molecules in large normal path-averaged dispersion fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 82(6), 063834 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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H. S. S. R. Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
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2009 (2)

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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2008 (1)

L. Fu and C. L. Kane, “Superconducting proximity effect and Majorana fermions at the surface of a topological insulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(9), 096407 (2008).
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2006 (3)

2005 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
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2002 (1)

M. D. Segall, P. J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).

2001 (2)

V. Y. Fominski, V. N. Nevolin, R. I. Romanov, and I. Smurov, “Ion-assisted deposition of MoSx films from laser-generated plume under pulsed electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 1449–1457 (2001).
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A. Klein, S. Tiefenbacher, V. Eyert, C. Pettenkofer, and W. Jaegermann, “Electronic band structure of single-crystal and single-layer WS2: influence of interlayer van der Waals interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 205416 (2001).
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1992 (1)

J. P. Perdew and Y. Wang, “Accurate and simple analytic representation of the electron-gas correlation energy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 45(23), 13244–13249 (1992).
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Analytis, J. G.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arora, S. K.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assefa, S.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Banhart, F.

F. Banhart, J. Kotakoski, and A. V. Krasheninnikov, “Structural defects in graphene,” ACS Nano 5(1), 26–41 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Bechstedt, F.

F. Ortmann, F. Bechstedt, and W. G. Schmidt, “Semiempirical van der Waals correction to the density functional description of solids and molecular structures,” Phys. Rev. B 73(20), 205101 (2006).
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Bergin, S. D.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berkdemir, A.

N. Perea-López, A. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boland, J. J.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buckley, J.

Buckley, J. R.

Cao, B.

C. Cong, J. Shang, X. Wu, B. Cao, N. Peimyoo, C. Qiu, L. Sun, and T. Yu, “Synthesis and optical properties of large-area single-crystalline 2D semiconductor WS2 monolayer from chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(2), 131–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, G.

Castro-Beltran, A.

N. Perea-López, A. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. S.

Y. H. Lee, X. Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M. T. Chang, C. T. Lin, K. D. Chang, Y. C. Yu, J. T. Wang, C. S. Chang, L. J. Li, and T. W. Lin, “Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, K. D.

Y. H. Lee, X. Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M. T. Chang, C. T. Lin, K. D. Chang, Y. C. Yu, J. T. Wang, C. S. Chang, L. J. Li, and T. W. Lin, “Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, M. T.

Y. H. Lee, X. Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M. T. Chang, C. T. Lin, K. D. Chang, Y. C. Yu, J. T. Wang, C. S. Chang, L. J. Li, and T. W. Lin, “Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012).
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Chen, H.

Chen, J.

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. L. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Xi, D. O. Dumcenco, Z. Liu, K. Suenaga, D. Wang, Z. Shuai, Y. S. Huang, and L. Xie, “Tunable band gap photoluminescence from atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenide alloys,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4610–4616 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

S. Zhang, Z. Yan, Y. Li, Z. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Atomically thin arsenene and antimonene: semimetal-semiconductor and indirect-direct band-gap transitions,” Angew. Chem. 54(10), 3112–3115 (2015).
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Cheng, X.

Chhowalla, M.

M. Chhowalla, H. S. Shin, G. Eda, L. J. Li, K. P. Loh, and H. Zhang, “The chemistry of two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets,” Nat. Chem. 5(4), 263–275 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chong, A.

Chu, J. H.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, L.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, S. J.

M. D. Segall, P. J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).

Clark, S. W.

Coleman, J. N.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cong, C.

C. Cong, J. Shang, X. Wu, B. Cao, N. Peimyoo, C. Qiu, L. Sun, and T. Yu, “Synthesis and optical properties of large-area single-crystalline 2D semiconductor WS2 monolayer from chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(2), 131–136 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

X. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Han, X. Yao, and Z. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
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Dai, X.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Datta, R.

H. S. S. R. Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
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De, S.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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Donegan, J. F.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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Dong, S.

J. Zheng, H. Zhang, S. Dong, Y. Liu, C. T. Nai, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, B. Liu, and K. P. Loh, “High yield exfoliation of two-dimensional chalcogenides using sodium naphthalenide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 2995 (2014).
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Du, J.

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
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J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duesberg, G. S.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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Dumcenco, D. O.

Y. Chen, J. Xi, D. O. Dumcenco, Z. Liu, K. Suenaga, D. Wang, Z. Shuai, Y. S. Huang, and L. Xie, “Tunable band gap photoluminescence from atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenide alloys,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4610–4616 (2013).
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W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
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N. Perea-López, A. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
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Englund, D.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
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A. Klein, S. Tiefenbacher, V. Eyert, C. Pettenkofer, and W. Jaegermann, “Electronic band structure of single-crystal and single-layer WS2: influence of interlayer van der Waals interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 205416 (2001).
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Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Fang, Z.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Feng, Q.

J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015).
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Feng, S.

N. Perea-López, A. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
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Feng, Y.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, I. R.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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V. Y. Fominski, V. N. Nevolin, R. I. Romanov, and I. Smurov, “Ion-assisted deposition of MoSx films from laser-generated plume under pulsed electric field,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(2), 1449–1457 (2001).
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Fox, D.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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L. Fu and C. L. Kane, “Superconducting proximity effect and Majorana fermions at the surface of a topological insulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(9), 096407 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, X.

Gan, X.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, C.

Gao, Y.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
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Gaucher, A.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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Geim, A. K.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghorannevis, Z.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

N. Perea-López, A. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gomathi, A.

H. S. S. R. Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grieveson, E. M.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grunlan, J. C.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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Gu, L.

J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015).
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Guo, C.

Gutiérrez, H. R.

N. Perea-López, A. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hallam, T.

J. N. Coleman, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, S. D. Bergin, P. J. King, U. Khan, K. Young, A. Gaucher, S. De, R. J. Smith, I. V. Shvets, S. K. Arora, G. Stanton, H. Y. Kim, K. Lee, G. T. Kim, G. S. Duesberg, T. Hallam, J. J. Boland, J. J. Wang, J. F. Donegan, J. C. Grunlan, G. Moriarty, A. Shmeliov, R. J. Nicholls, J. M. Perkins, E. M. Grieveson, K. Theuwissen, D. W. McComb, P. D. Nellist, and V. Nicolosi, “Two-dimensional nanosheets produced by liquid exfoliation of layered materials,” Science 331(6017), 568–571 (2011).
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Han, D.

X. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Han, X. Yao, and Z. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
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Han, L.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

Hasnip, P. J.

M. D. Segall, P. J. D. Lindan, M. J. Probert, C. J. Pickard, P. J. Hasnip, S. J. Clark, and M. C. Payne, “First-principles simulation: ideas, illustrations and the CASTEP code,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 14, 2717–2744 (2002).

Hayashi, T.

N. Perea-López, A. Elías, A. Berkdemir, A. Castro-Beltran, H. R. Gutiérrez, S. Feng, R. Lv, T. Hayashi, F. López-Urías, S. Ghosh, B. Muchharla, S. Talapatra, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Photosensor device based on few-layered WS2 films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 23(44), 5511–5517 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, K.

K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(8), 494–498 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(8), 494–498 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hone, J.

X. Gan, R. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, J.

J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howe, R. C. T.

Hu, G.

Hu, J.

Hu, X.

Hu, X. H.

D. Mao, X. M. Liu, L. R. Wang, X. H. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, Z.

J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, S.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. S.

Y. Chen, J. Xi, D. O. Dumcenco, Z. Liu, K. Suenaga, D. Wang, Z. Shuai, Y. S. Huang, and L. Xie, “Tunable band gap photoluminescence from atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenide alloys,” ACS Nano 7(5), 4610–4616 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hussain, Z.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanenko, A.

Jaegermann, W.

A. Klein, S. Tiefenbacher, V. Eyert, C. Pettenkofer, and W. Jaegermann, “Electronic band structure of single-crystal and single-layer WS2: influence of interlayer van der Waals interactions,” Phys. Rev. B 64(20), 205416 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.

Jeong, H. Y.

J. Zheng, H. Zhang, S. Dong, Y. Liu, C. T. Nai, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, B. Liu, and K. P. Loh, “High yield exfoliation of two-dimensional chalcogenides using sodium naphthalenide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 2995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ji, W.

J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, B.

D. Mao, B. Jiang, W. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Pulse-state switchable fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 253–256 (2015).

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, G.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, C.

J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kane, C. L.

L. Fu and C. L. Kane, “Superconducting proximity effect and Majorana fermions at the surface of a topological insulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(9), 096407 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kassani, S. H.

Katsnelson, M. I.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

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X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Yu, Z. Sun, X. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “Nonlinear absorption of SWNT film and its effects to the operation state of pulsed fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17227–17235 (2014).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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Zhang, H.

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A43–A46 (2015).
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J. Zheng, H. Zhang, S. Dong, Y. Liu, C. T. Nai, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, B. Liu, and K. P. Loh, “High yield exfoliation of two-dimensional chalcogenides using sodium naphthalenide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 2995 (2014).
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J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Zhang, J.

J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Z. Yan, Y. Li, Z. Chen, and H. Zeng, “Atomically thin arsenene and antimonene: semimetal-semiconductor and indirect-direct band-gap transitions,” Angew. Chem. 54(10), 3112–3115 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S. C.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, W. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Pulse-state switchable fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 253–256 (2015).

X. Li, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, and W. Zhao, “Experimental observation of soliton molecule evolution in Yb-doped passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(7), 075103 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. H. Tsang, W. Zhang, X. Hu, Z. Yang, C. Gao, C. Li, and D. Shen, “All-fiber dissipative solitons evolution in a compact passively Yb-doped mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2502–2507 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Lee, X. Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M. T. Chang, C. T. Lin, K. D. Chang, Y. C. Yu, J. T. Wang, C. S. Chang, L. J. Li, and T. W. Lin, “Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS₂ as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015).
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J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. Q.

Y. H. Lee, X. Q. Zhang, W. Zhang, M. T. Chang, C. T. Lin, K. D. Chang, Y. C. Yu, J. T. Wang, C. S. Chang, L. J. Li, and T. W. Lin, “Synthesis of large-area MoS2 atomic layers with chemical vapor deposition,” Adv. Mater. 24(17), 2320–2325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z.

J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hong, Z. Hu, M. Probert, K. Li, D. Lv, X. Yang, L. Gu, N. Mao, Q. Feng, L. Xie, J. Zhang, D. Wu, Z. Zhang, C. Jin, W. Ji, X. Zhang, J. Yuan, and Z. Zhang, “Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6293 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, B. Jiang, W. Zhang, and J. Zhao, “Pulse-state switchable fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27, 253–256 (2015).

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, Y. Feng, C. Chang, J. Zhan, C. Wang, Q. Zhao, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, W. J. Blau, and J. Wang, “Broadband ultrafast nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of layered molybdenum dichalcogenide semiconductors,” Nanoscale 6(18), 10530–10535 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

X. Li, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, and W. Zhao, “Experimental observation of soliton molecule evolution in Yb-doped passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(7), 075103 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Yu, Z. Sun, X. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “Nonlinear absorption of SWNT film and its effects to the operation state of pulsed fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17227–17235 (2014).
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W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, Y. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Liu, Y. Wang, Y. H. Tsang, W. Zhang, X. Hu, Z. Yang, C. Gao, C. Li, and D. Shen, “All-fiber dissipative solitons evolution in a compact passively Yb-doped mode-locked fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(15), 2502–2507 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zheng, H. Zhang, S. Dong, Y. Liu, C. T. Nai, H. S. Shin, H. Y. Jeong, B. Liu, and K. P. Loh, “High yield exfoliation of two-dimensional chalcogenides using sodium naphthalenide,” Nat. Commun. 5, 2995 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, X. W.

ACS Nano (5)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Characterization of WS2 nanosheets. (a) SEM image, the inset shows the WS2 dispersions; (b) AFM image; (c) Raman spectrum; (d) linear transmission spectrum of the WS2-PVA film in comparison with pure PVA-film.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Experimental setup for nonlinear absorption measurement of SPF WS2 SA. Nonlinear transmission of SPF-WS2 SAs at (b) 1.55 and (c) 1.06 µm. The inset shows the corresponding micrograph of SPF-WS2 SA.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup of fiber lasers. For EDF laser, SA1 and fiber components operate at 1.55 µm; For YDF laser, SA2, spectral filter, and the fiber components operate at 1.06 µm. LD: laser diode; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; OC: optical coupler; SMF: single-mode fiber; PC: polarization controller; PI-ISO: polarization-insensitive isolator.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Output testing of the mode-locked EDF laser. (a) Spectrum; (b) autocorrelation trace; (c) pulse train; (d) RF spectrum.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Output testing of the mode-locked YDF laser. (a) Spectrum; (b) pulse profile; (c) pulse train; (d) RF spectrum.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Intracavity power as a function of pump for (a) EDF laser and (b) YDF laser.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Theoretical bandgap of WS2 samples. Schematic of AB stacked WS2 observed from the top (a) and side (b). Calculated band structure of bulk WS2 as a function of R (c). Calculated band structure of bulk WS2 with R = 1:2.12 (d), 1:2.04 (e), 1:2 (f), 1:1.97 (g), 1:1.94 (h) and 1:1.88 (i).

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