Abstract

Reflection type subtractive tri-color filters, enabling metal-thickness tolerant high color saturation, were proposed and demonstrated capitalizing on a nanoporous metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) resonant structure, which comprises a cavity made of self-assembled nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), sandwiched between an Al film of the same nanoporous configuration and a highly reflective aluminum (Al) substrate. For the proposed filter, the output color was easily determined by controlling the resonance wavelength via the thickness of the porous AAO cavity. In particular, the spectral response was deemed to exhibit a near-zero resonant dip, thereby achieving enhanced color saturation, which was stably maintained irrespective of the thickness of the porous Al film, due to its reduced effective refractive index. In order to manufacture the proposed color filters on a large scale, a porous Al film of hexagonal lattice configuration was integrated with an identically porous self-assembled AAO layer, which has been grown on an Al substrate. For the realized tri-color filters for cyan, magenta, and yellow (CMY), having a 15-nm Al film, near-zero reflection dips were observed to be centered at the wavelengths of 436, 500, and 600 nm, respectively. The resulting enhanced color saturation was stably maintained even though the variations were as large as 10 nm in the metal thickness.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Nanophotonic structural color filters are widely perceived to be indispensable in a variety of applications, such as display/imaging devices, photovoltaic cells, biosensors, and light modulators [1–8]. An asymmetric metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) configuration based on the Fabry-Perot resonance, which consists of a dielectric cavity sandwiched between a thin metal film and highly reflective substrate, is regarded as a leading candidate for constructing subtractive color filters. Subtractive colors, including cyan, magenta, and yellow (CMY), can be selected by simply controlling the thickness of the dielectric cavity [9–11]. For conventional filters relying on triple uniform layers, the depth of the dip in connection with the reflection is known to be somewhat dependent on the thickness of the top metal film [12, 13]. Under the critical coupling condition, where no power is reflected back from the resonant structure, incident optical power is completely transferred to the resonator. In order to achieve high color saturation, the filter is designed to exhibit a near-zero reflection dip by adjusting the thickness of the top metal film. The color saturation is an attribute of visual perception, indicating the degree to which color sensation differs from achromatic sensation at a constant brightness level, while the excitation purity represents a measure of the color saturation [14]. The thickness of the metal film required for fulfilling the reflection dip is usually several nanometers [10–13], which is extremely delicate for precise control. Therefore color saturation is critically susceptible to metal thickness. In a bid to mitigate this issue, we proposed and realized a set of subtractive color filters that exploit a nanoporous MDM resonant structure, enabling metal-thickness tolerant color saturation. The device is composed of a cavity made up of self-assembled nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), sandwiched between a highly reflective aluminum (Al) substrate and thin Al film perforated with the same pores as the dielectric cavity. A hexagonal lattice of pores was previously cost effectively created in AAO on a large scale, via non-lithographic anodization process, taking into account its potential applications to biosensors and functional nanostructures [15–18]. The nanoporous structure embedded in the Al film, as well as the AAO cavity, is deemed to mimic a quasi-homogeneous medium with an effective refractive index, which can be customized by the volume fraction of the pores [18–21]. For the proposed filters based on a nanoporous structure, the resonance wavelength is expected to be efficiently tuned by tailoring the thickness of the porous AAO layer, so as to generate the CMY colors. The targeted subtractive color filters with a near-zero reflection dip, which is essential for attaining high color saturation, have been rigorously designed and analyzed using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The sensitivity of the color saturation to the thickness of the porous Al film was explored for the proposed filters, in comparison with a typical filter with uniform layers.

2. Proposed nanoporous color filters featuring a stable reflection response

In this work, we aim to develop CMY color filters that employ a nanoporous MDM resonant configuration, giving rise to highly structure tolerant color saturation. Prior to pursuing the principle of the operation underlying the devices, a typical etalon filter involving no nanoporous structure is first discussed, as illustrated in Fig. 1(a), which comprises a thin metallic film at the top (layer 1), a dielectric cavity in the middle (layer 2), and an optically thick metal substrate at the base (layer 3). Al was selected for both the top and bottom metallic layers, due to its salient features of high reflectance and good process compatibility [22]. For the typical filter, the intensity reflectance R for the normal incidence is given by [23–26]:

R=|r01+re2jk11+r01re2jk1|2wherer=r12+r23e2jk21+r12r23e2jk2.
r' is the reflection coefficient corresponding to the combination of layers 2 and 3, below layer 1, which is enclosed in the dotted red box shown in Fig. 1(a). ki and ri(i+1) are given by ki=2πniti/λ and ri(i+1)=(nini+1)/(ni+ni+1), respectively, where ti and ni are the thickness and the refractive index of layer i. Here i is an integer that varies from 0 to 2. Layer 0 (air) and layer 2 (SiO2) are assumed to have refractive indices of n0 = 1 and n2 = 1.48, respectively. The refractive index of layer 1 (Al) is given by n1=nAl=nRejnIm [27]. For the typical filter displayed in Fig. 1(a), the spectral reflection is intended to exhibit a resonance dip, the depth of which primarily determines the color saturation. It is well known that a zero-reflection dip can be obtained under the condition of critical coupling, where a complete deconstructive interference occurs between the directly reflected wave at the top air-metal interface and the resonantly coupled wave within the cavity belonging to the MDM etalon. According to Eq. (1), no reflection is obtained under the critical coupling when r01+re2jk1=0, resulting in the following condition:
t1=λln(|r01|/|r|)4πnIm=λ(2m1)π+ϕϕ014πnRe.
Here, m as an integer represents the mode corresponding to the order of the resonance dip. ϕ01 and ϕ' denote the phases of r01 and r', respectively, which are calculated using a transfer matrix method based simulation tool, Essential MacLeod from Thin Film Center, USA [28]. For the resonance dip, the first order mode was solely considered in the visible spectral band. The thickness of the top Al film associated with the critical coupling was estimated from Eq. (2), as a function of the thickness of the dielectric cavity t2. As plotted in Fig. 1(b), t1 decreased from 7.2 to 4.7 nm when t2 increased from 250 to 340 nm in increments of 30 nm, so that the resonance dip shifted from 424 to 573 nm. The spectral reflection, resulting from the application of the calculated t1 and t2 to the Eq. (1), was observed to produce a zero-dip at the predicted wavelengths. It is remarked that a uniformly thick metal film should be preferably exploited to build three subtractive color filters.

 

Fig. 1 (a) Configuration of an asymmetric MDM structure. (b) Calculation of the required thickness of the top Al film (t1) leading to a zero reflection dip based on Eq. (2), with t2 changing from 250 to 340 nm. The spectral reflection was calculated according to Eq. (1). (c) Reflection characteristics in terms of t1 for t2 = 310 nm and n2 = 1.48. (d) Relative depth of the reflection dip with t1, to vary refractive indices of the metallic film, which is determined by n1 = nAla, for a ranging from 0.6 to 1.4.

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We then examined the dependence of the spectral response on the properties of the top metal film, in terms of n1 and t1. For the dielectric cavity, the refractive index and the thickness were respectively set at n2 = 1.48 and t2 = 310 nm. As shown in Fig. 1(c), when t1 changed from 5 to 30 nm, the depth of the dip was seriously susceptible to t1. It is stated that a near-zero reflection dip was earned for t1 = 5 nm, which is close to the thickness imposed by the critical coupling condition. However, the depth of the dip tends to deviate drastically from zero depending on the Al thickness, which is difficult to accurately control. As a result, the color saturation becomes unstable. According to Eq. (2), the tolerance of t1, allowing for the negligibly small deviations from the zero-dip, can be readily enhanced by diminishing the imaginary part of index nIm. Thus, the reflection dip was monitored by effectively manipulating the refractive index of the metallic film with respect to its true value, in accordance with n1=anAl, where a, acting as a scaling factor, was varied from 0.6 to 1.4. As plotted in Fig. 1(d), the depth of the reflection dip was monitored in terms of t1 for different values of n1. The sensitivity of the dip to the metal thickness was substantially relaxed when n1 was diminished to below nAl, (for a < 1.0).

In this work, as illustrated in Fig. 2(a), we mainly endeavored to propose and construct subtractive color filters by incorporating a nanoporous structure into a top metallic film in conjunction with a dielectric cavity. The nanoporous Al film, behaving as a quasi-homogeneous medium, is expected to both elevate the transmission and lower the reflection, due to its small effective refractive index compared with the uniform Al film [29]. In light of the above analysis, the suggested filter is anticipated to offer a reflection dip, which is highly tolerant of the thickness of the Al film. In order to conduct the device fabrication on a large scale in a cost effective manner, we resorted to a non-lithographic process, where the nanoporous Al film was created via a self-assembled AAO layer with a hexagonal lattice of nanopores, serving as the dielectric cavity. The nanoporous AAO layer, which is directly grown from a thick Al substrate through the anodization process, has a fundamental pitch of Λ = 100 nm, defined as the distance between two adjacent pores, and a pore diameter size of d = 65 nm. The effective medium theory has been commonly utilized to elucidate the properties of such a nanoporous structure [18–21]. As depicted in Fig. 2(a), t1 signifies the thickness of the top Al film while t2C, t2M, and t2Y refer to the cavity thicknesses of the CMY filters, respectively. The proposed filters have been rigorously designed and assessed using the FDTD method based tool, FDTD Solutions from Lumerical, Canada [30]. The dispersion characteristics of the materials of concern, encompassing Al and Al2O3 constituting the AAO layer, were derived from the multi-coefficient model offered by the simulation tool. The thickness of the AAO cavity was pertinently determined to be t2C = 160 nm, t2M = 310 nm, and t2Y = 250 nm for the CMY colors, respectively. For the perforated Al film, the thickness t1 leading to a near-zero resonance dip was as thick as 15 nm, as plotted in Fig. 2(b). The corresponding near-zero dip was nearly centered at λ = 436, 526, and 612 nm for the CMY color filters, respectively. The corresponding color coordinates are presented in the 1931 CIE color diagram, as shown in Fig. 2(c), where appropriately enhanced color saturation was acquired for the three devices.

 

Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the proposed CMY color filters with a nanoporous cavity inclusive of a hexagonal lattice of pores. (b) Observed optical responses for the proposed CMY color filters, with the near-zero reflection dip marked with a red circle. (c) Corresponding 1931 CIE color coordinates for the designed yellow, magenta and cyan filters, with the thickness of the AAO based cavity fixed at t2Y = 250, t2M = 310, and t2C = 160 nm, respectively.

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The performance of the proposed nanoporous color filters was theoretically examined in terms of the reflection dip and the corresponding color saturation as a function of the thickness of the top nanoporous Al film. The performance was compared with that of a typical case, in which a uniform SiO2 cavity, sandwiched between a top thin Al film and a thick Al substrate, is utilized. SiO2 used for the uniform cavity was chosen in view of its refractive index similar to that of the nanoporous AAO cavity. The effective refractive index of the nanoporous cavity was n2eff = ~1.48 for Λ = 100 nm and d = 65 nm, according to the Maxwell Garnett equation, which is given by (n22effn2AAO)/(n22eff+2n2AAO)=VP(1n2AAO)/(1+2n2AAO) [19–21]. The refractive index of the AAO layer made of Al2O3 is nAAO = 1.77 and the volume fraction of the pores within the cavity is VP=π(d/Λ)2/23. The spectral reflections of the proposed and conventional filters were investigated in the case of a magenta filter with t2M = 310 nm, with t1 varying from 5 to 30 nm. As shown in Fig. 3(a), the thickness t1 in relation to the near-zero dip increased to 15 nm for the proposed filter. The reflection dip remained fairly stable, while t1 ranged from 10 to 20 nm, implying that a high color saturation can be maintained regardless of variations in t1. Meanwhile, for the typical filter, t1 needed to be as thin as 5 nm while the reflection dip was noticeably deviated from zero with a larger t1. The observed blue shift of the reflection dip in response to the larger t1 is attributed to the shift in the reflection phase at the metal-dielectric interface [12, 13]. The influence of t1 on the depth of the reflection dip is plotted in Fig. 3(b). The relative depth of the dip changed by ~0.8 and 0.2 for the typical and nanoporous cases, respectively, when t1 increased from 5 to 30 nm. For the dependence of the color saturation on t1, the color coordinates in the 1931 CIE chromaticity diagram were identified for the typical and proposed filters, as depicted in Fig. 3(c), where the magenta color drastically faded away to reach close to the white color for t1 exceeding 10 nm. For the proposed nanoporous filter, satisfactory color saturation was stably retained, despite large variations of t1, which is desirable for practical fabrication. The color saturation is quantitatively measured from the excitation purity, which is defined as the ratio of the length of the line segment (that connects the white point E (0.3333, 0.3333) to the point of interest) to the length of the line segment (which connects E to the dominant wavelength). Here, the dominant wavelength indicates the intersection between the perimeter and the extension of the segment from E to the point of interest [14]. The influence of t1 on the excitation purity was checked from the plot in Fig. 3(d). For the typical filter, the purity degraded from the maximum of 0.37 to 0.17 when t1 changed from 5 to 10 nm, and it approached zero with further increase in t1. For the proposed filter, the high color purity reduced by only 0.1 from the maximum of 0.44 when t1 was widely varied from 5 to 20 nm, signifying structure tolerant stable color saturation.

 

Fig. 3 (a) Observed optical responses for the typical and proposed magenta filter (t2M = 310 nm) with the thickness of the top Al film t1 changing from 5 to 30 nm. (b) Dependence of the reflection dips on t1. (c) Corresponding 1931 CIE color coordinates and (d) excitation purity for the typical and proposed filter, with t1 increasing from 5 to 30 nm.

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The proposed filter is presumed to exhibit no transmission due to its optically thick Al substrate, which potentially behaves as an absorber [12, 13, 24, 25]. A stable near-perfect absorption peak can be attained for certain values of t1. The optical absorbance and reflectance were calculated for the filter with t2 = 290 nm, as shown in Fig. 4(a), where a near-perfect absorption of as high as 99.98% was accomplished at a resonance wavelength of ~497 nm, which was synonymous with the near-zero reflection dip. The porous AAO cavity is equivalently modeled as a homogeneous medium with an effective refractive index [21]. For simplicity, a homogeneous cavity with an index of n2eff = 1.48 was taken into consideration for the proposed filter, instead of a porous AAO layer. The normalized electric field intensity (|E|2) was analyzed at the resonance wavelength, as shown in Fig. 4(b), where light is found to be chiefly confined in the cavity as anticipated. It was hence confirmed that light has been substantially absorbed at the top and bottom metal-dielectric interfaces, translating into low reflection.

 

Fig. 4 (a) Calculated optical absorbance and reflectance for the filter with t2 = 290 nm. (b) Normalized electric field intensity (|E|2) profile observed at a resonance wavelength of ~497 nm, assuming that the filter relies on an equivalent homogeneous cavity with an effective refractive index of n2eff = 1.48.

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3. Fabrication of the proposed nanoporous color filters and their characterization

The proposed subtractive color filters, capitalizing on the nanoporous MDM resonant configuration, were manufactured through a two-step anodization process. The detailed fabrication procedure is described in Fig. 5. A substrate of Al foil with a high purity of over 99.99% was initially cleaned and electrochemically polished. On top of the cleaned Al foil a nanoporous AAO layer was roughly grown via anodization, which was then removed by immersing in a mixture of 6.0 wt% H3PO4 and 1.8 wt% H2CrO4 at 60 °C for 5 hours. The corrugated Al substrate underwent further anodization, thereby forming a well-aligned nanoporous AAO layer. The anodization time was meticulously controlled in order to create three different thicknesses for the AAO layer, including t2C = 156 nm, t2Y = 250 nm, and t2M = 292 nm for the cyan, yellow, and magenta filters, respectively. In order to eliminate any unwanted barrier layer at the bottom, the prepared AAO template was dissolved in 6.0 wt% H3PO4 at 60 °C for 10 minutes. The AAO layer was made up of a hexagonal lattice of pores, of which the dimensions were tailored by means of the anodization voltage. A thin Al film with a thickness of t1 = 15 nm was finally deposited on top of the AAO layer via e-beam evaporation at a rate of 0.5 Å/sec. Figures 6(a) and 6(b) show the top- and cross-sectional views of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images for the completed cyan filter, respectively. A hexagonal lattice of well-defined nanopores was formed as desired, exhibiting a fundamental pitch of Λ = 100 nm and a pore diameter of d = 65 nm. As shown in Fig. 6(b), the AAO layer, with a height of 156 nm, was observed to be sandwiched between the top porous Al film of 15-nm thickness and the Al substrate.

 

Fig. 5 Fabrication procedure for the proposed nanoporous color filters.

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Fig. 6 (a) Top-view and (b) cross-sectional-view of SEM images of the prepared cyan filter.

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In an attempt to evaluate the fabricated devices, their reflection characteristics were tested using a halogen lamp (Ocean Optics LS-1-LL) for the light source, a beam splitter, and a spectrometer (Ocean Optics USB4000). The measured results are shown in Fig. 7(a). It was observed that near-zero reflection dips were approximately obtained at the wavelengths of 436, 500, and 600 nm for the yellow, magenta, and cyan filters, respectively, which are well correlated with the calculation. The measured performance for the color filters was however discovered to be somewhat different from the simulated result. For the magenta filter, the measured spectral response in particular provided a broader bandwidth than calculated, as shown in Figs. 4(a) and 7(a), which may be due to the undesired optical loss stemming from the irregular nanopore patterns as well as the rough interfaces between the AAO layer and the top/bottom Al layers, as manifested in Fig. 6. It is also noted that while the magenta filter is based on the first order mode responsible for the resonance dip at λ = 500 nm, another dip relating to the fundamental resonance is in principle deemed to appear around λ = 1000 nm. As plotted in Fig. 7(a), the spectral reflectance relating to the fabricated magenta device was unexpectedly observed to decline starting from λ = 650 nm, which is attributed to the broadened fundamental resonance in the near infrared regime. As shown in Fig. 7(b), CMY colors with high color saturation were obtained from the three prepared filters. For the purpose of scrutinizing the color saturation with respect to the top Al film, we prepared nanoporous color filters coated with different thicknesses of Al film, under a constant cavity thickness of t2 = 290 nm. Figure 8 shows the color images available from the proposed filters when the thickness of the top Al film changed from t1 = 10 to 30 nm in steps of 5 nm. For the proposed filters, the magenta color could be stably maintained for t1 ranging from 10 to 20 nm, leading to a large tolerance of ± 5 nm for t1. Non-white color was then generated for t1 ranging up to 30 nm, experimentally verifying the calculated results in Figs. 3(c) and 3(d). Meanwhile, for a conventional filter with a SiO2 cavity, which was similarly prepared for comparison, the color was monitored to fluctuate from high to low color saturation when t1 increased from 10 to 15 nm. It was observed that the color faded, reaching close to white for t1 beyond 20 nm. It was consequently proven that the proposed filters were capable of retaining high color saturation, featuring large tolerance in the thickness of the top metal film.

 

Fig. 7 (a) Measured optical responses and (b) captured color images for the proposed color filters.

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Fig. 8 Observed color images of the proposed magenta filter and the typical filter based on a uniform SiO2 cavity with t1 ranging from 10 to 30 nm.

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4. Conclusion

Subtractive tri-color filters were successfully realized by tapping into a nanoporous Al-AAO resonant strucuture formed on an Al substrate, where the resonant wavelength was determined by altering the thickness of the porous AAO cavity in order to provide CMY colors. A near-zero reflection dip at the resonant wavelengths, which is crucial for achieving high color saturation, was stably obtained and was thus tolerant of the thickness of the porous Al film. This was made possible by non-lithographically producing a nanoporous Al layer on top of a self-assembled porous AAO cavity, with a view to effectively reducing its refractive index. As predicted, the fabricated CMY filters provided acceptable reflection dips, allowing for affordable tolerance for the top Al thickness.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2013-008672) and a research grant from Kwangwoon University in 2014. The authors are grateful to Mr. Chanwoo J. Lee at SFS, Seoul, S. Korea, for his help in the preparation of the manuscript.

References and links

1. C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Designs of high color purity RGB color filter for liquid crystal displays applications using Fabry-Perot etalons,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(3), 174–178 (2012). [CrossRef]  

2. L. Frey, P. Parrein, J. Raby, C. Pellé, D. Hérault, M. Marty, and J. Michailos, “Color filters including infrared cut-off integrated on CMOS image sensor,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13073–13080 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4192 (2014). [PubMed]  

5. Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. M. Khorasaninejad, S. Mohsen Raeis-Zadeh, H. Amarloo, N. Abedzadeh, S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. S. Saini, “Colorimetric sensors using nano-patch surface plasmon resonators,” Nanotechnology 24(35), 355501 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(5), 1029–1038 (2010). [CrossRef]  

8. T. Katchalski, G. Levy-Yurista, A. Friesem, G. Martin, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Light modulation with electro-optic polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4645–4650 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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12. S. Shu, Z. Li, and Y. Y. Li, “Triple-layer Fabry-Perot absorber with near-perfect absorption in visible and near-infrared regime,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25307–25315 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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19. T. Yang, X. Wang, W. Liu, Y. Shi, and F. Yang, “Double-layer anti-reflection coating containing a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer for GaAs solar cells,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18207–18215 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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25. M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012). [CrossRef]  

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References

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  1. C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Designs of high color purity RGB color filter for liquid crystal displays applications using Fabry-Perot etalons,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(3), 174–178 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. L. Frey, P. Parrein, J. Raby, C. Pellé, D. Hérault, M. Marty, and J. Michailos, “Color filters including infrared cut-off integrated on CMOS image sensor,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13073–13080 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4192 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  5. Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Khorasaninejad, S. Mohsen Raeis-Zadeh, H. Amarloo, N. Abedzadeh, S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. S. Saini, “Colorimetric sensors using nano-patch surface plasmon resonators,” Nanotechnology 24(35), 355501 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Katchalski, G. Levy-Yurista, A. Friesem, G. Martin, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Light modulation with electro-optic polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4645–4650 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. K. T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6324–6328 (2014).
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  12. S. Shu, Z. Li, and Y. Y. Li, “Triple-layer Fabry-Perot absorber with near-perfect absorption in visible and near-infrared regime,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25307–25315 (2013).
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  13. K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “High-color-purity subtractive color filters with a wide viewing angle based on plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 3(3), 347–352 (2015).
  14. R. G. Kuehni, Color: An Introduction to Practice and Principles (John Wiley & Sons, 2013).
  15. K. Hotta, A. Yamaguchi, and N. Teramae, “Nanoporous waveguide sensor with optimized nanoarchitectures for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1541–1547 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. A. Santos, M. Alba, M. M. Rahman, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Structural tuning of photoluminescence in nanoporous anodic alumina by hard anodization in oxalic and malonic acids,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 228 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C. Goh, K. M. Coakley, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanostructuring titania by embossing with polymer molds made from anodic alumina templates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1545–1549 (2005).
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  18. A. Santos, V. S. Balderrama, M. Alba, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Nanoporous anodic alumina barcodes: toward smart optical biosensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1050–1054 (2012).
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  26. Y. Long, R. Su, Q. Wang, L. Shen, B. Li, and W. Zheng, “Deducing critical coupling condition to achieve perfect absorption for thin-film absorbers and identifying key characteristics of absorbing materials needed for perfect absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091109 (2014).
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2015 (3)

K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “High-color-purity subtractive color filters with a wide viewing angle based on plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 3(3), 347–352 (2015).

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yue, S. S. Lee, E. S. Kim, and B. G. Lee, “Uniformly thick tri-color filters capitalizing on an etalon with a nanostructured cavity,” Appl. Opt. 54(18), 5866–5871 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

Y. Long, R. Su, Q. Wang, L. Shen, B. Li, and W. Zheng, “Deducing critical coupling condition to achieve perfect absorption for thin-film absorbers and identifying key characteristics of absorbing materials needed for perfect absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091109 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6324–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4192 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (7)

K. Hotta, A. Yamaguchi, and N. Teramae, “Nanoporous waveguide sensor with optimized nanoarchitectures for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1541–1547 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Santos, M. Alba, M. M. Rahman, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Structural tuning of photoluminescence in nanoporous anodic alumina by hard anodization in oxalic and malonic acids,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Designs of high color purity RGB color filter for liquid crystal displays applications using Fabry-Perot etalons,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(3), 174–178 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Santos, V. S. Balderrama, M. Alba, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Nanoporous anodic alumina barcodes: toward smart optical biosensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1050–1054 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

C. Goh, K. M. Coakley, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanostructuring titania by embossing with polymer molds made from anodic alumina templates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1545–1549 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Katchalski, G. Levy-Yurista, A. Friesem, G. Martin, R. Hierle, and J. Zyss, “Light modulation with electro-optic polymer-based resonant grating waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4645–4650 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Abedzadeh, N.

M. Khorasaninejad, S. Mohsen Raeis-Zadeh, H. Amarloo, N. Abedzadeh, S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. S. Saini, “Colorimetric sensors using nano-patch surface plasmon resonators,” Nanotechnology 24(35), 355501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alba, M.

A. Santos, M. Alba, M. M. Rahman, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Structural tuning of photoluminescence in nanoporous anodic alumina by hard anodization in oxalic and malonic acids,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Santos, V. S. Balderrama, M. Alba, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Nanoporous anodic alumina barcodes: toward smart optical biosensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1050–1054 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amarloo, H.

M. Khorasaninejad, S. Mohsen Raeis-Zadeh, H. Amarloo, N. Abedzadeh, S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. S. Saini, “Colorimetric sensors using nano-patch surface plasmon resonators,” Nanotechnology 24(35), 355501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balderrama, V. S.

A. Santos, V. S. Balderrama, M. Alba, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Nanoporous anodic alumina barcodes: toward smart optical biosensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1050–1054 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, M. S.

Bulovic, V.

Burgos, S. P.

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. W.

Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. H.

Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, K. T.

C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Designs of high color purity RGB color filter for liquid crystal displays applications using Fabry-Perot etalons,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(3), 174–178 (2012).
[Crossref]

Coakley, K. M.

C. Goh, K. M. Coakley, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanostructuring titania by embossing with polymer molds made from anodic alumina templates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1545–1549 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, X.

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferré-Borrull, J.

A. Santos, M. Alba, M. M. Rahman, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Structural tuning of photoluminescence in nanoporous anodic alumina by hard anodization in oxalic and malonic acids,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Santos, V. S. Balderrama, M. Alba, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Nanoporous anodic alumina barcodes: toward smart optical biosensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1050–1054 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Formentín, P.

A. Santos, V. S. Balderrama, M. Alba, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Nanoporous anodic alumina barcodes: toward smart optical biosensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1050–1054 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Santos, M. Alba, M. M. Rahman, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Structural tuning of photoluminescence in nanoporous anodic alumina by hard anodization in oxalic and malonic acids,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frey, L.

Friesem, A.

Fu, J.

Fuh, A. Y. G.

C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Designs of high color purity RGB color filter for liquid crystal displays applications using Fabry-Perot etalons,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(3), 174–178 (2012).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Genov, R.

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goh, C.

C. Goh, K. M. Coakley, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanostructuring titania by embossing with polymer molds made from anodic alumina templates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1545–1549 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gulak, G.

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, L. J.

K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “High-color-purity subtractive color filters with a wide viewing angle based on plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 3(3), 347–352 (2015).

K. T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6324–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4192 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hérault, D.

Hierle, R.

Ho, D.

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hotta, K.

K. Hotta, A. Yamaguchi, and N. Teramae, “Nanoporous waveguide sensor with optimized nanoarchitectures for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1541–1547 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z. Y.

Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katchalski, T.

Kats, M. A.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khorasaninejad, M.

M. Khorasaninejad, S. Mohsen Raeis-Zadeh, H. Amarloo, N. Abedzadeh, S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. S. Saini, “Colorimetric sensors using nano-patch surface plasmon resonators,” Nanotechnology 24(35), 355501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, E. S.

Lee, B. G.

Lee, J. Y.

J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4192 (2014).
[PubMed]

K. T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6324–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. T.

K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “High-color-purity subtractive color filters with a wide viewing angle based on plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 3(3), 347–352 (2015).

K. T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6324–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4192 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lee, S. S.

Levy-Yurista, G.

Li, B.

Y. Long, R. Su, Q. Wang, L. Shen, B. Li, and W. Zheng, “Deducing critical coupling condition to achieve perfect absorption for thin-film absorbers and identifying key characteristics of absorbing materials needed for perfect absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, K.

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y. Y.

Li, Z.

Lin, F.

Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, H. W.

Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, L. Y.

Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, W. C.

Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C. K.

C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Designs of high color purity RGB color filter for liquid crystal displays applications using Fabry-Perot etalons,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(3), 174–178 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Liu, X.

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, Y.

Y. Long, R. Su, Q. Wang, L. Shen, B. Li, and W. Zheng, “Deducing critical coupling condition to achieve perfect absorption for thin-film absorbers and identifying key characteristics of absorbing materials needed for perfect absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marsal, L. F.

A. Santos, V. S. Balderrama, M. Alba, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Nanoporous anodic alumina barcodes: toward smart optical biosensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1050–1054 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Santos, M. Alba, M. M. Rahman, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Structural tuning of photoluminescence in nanoporous anodic alumina by hard anodization in oxalic and malonic acids,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, G.

Marty, M.

McGehee, M. D.

C. Goh, K. M. Coakley, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanostructuring titania by embossing with polymer molds made from anodic alumina templates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1545–1549 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michailos, J.

Mohsen Raeis-Zadeh, S.

M. Khorasaninejad, S. Mohsen Raeis-Zadeh, H. Amarloo, N. Abedzadeh, S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. S. Saini, “Colorimetric sensors using nano-patch surface plasmon resonators,” Nanotechnology 24(35), 355501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nilchi, A.

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pallarès, J.

A. Santos, M. Alba, M. M. Rahman, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Structural tuning of photoluminescence in nanoporous anodic alumina by hard anodization in oxalic and malonic acids,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Santos, V. S. Balderrama, M. Alba, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Nanoporous anodic alumina barcodes: toward smart optical biosensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1050–1054 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Parrein, P.

Pellé, C.

Piestun, R.

Qazilbash, M. M.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Raby, J.

Rahman, M. M.

A. Santos, M. Alba, M. M. Rahman, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Structural tuning of photoluminescence in nanoporous anodic alumina by hard anodization in oxalic and malonic acids,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramanathan, S.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Safavi-Naeini, S.

M. Khorasaninejad, S. Mohsen Raeis-Zadeh, H. Amarloo, N. Abedzadeh, S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. S. Saini, “Colorimetric sensors using nano-patch surface plasmon resonators,” Nanotechnology 24(35), 355501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saini, S. S.

M. Khorasaninejad, S. Mohsen Raeis-Zadeh, H. Amarloo, N. Abedzadeh, S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. S. Saini, “Colorimetric sensors using nano-patch surface plasmon resonators,” Nanotechnology 24(35), 355501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santos, A.

A. Santos, M. Alba, M. M. Rahman, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Structural tuning of photoluminescence in nanoporous anodic alumina by hard anodization in oxalic and malonic acids,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Santos, V. S. Balderrama, M. Alba, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Nanoporous anodic alumina barcodes: toward smart optical biosensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1050–1054 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, B. T.

Seo, S.

K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “High-color-purity subtractive color filters with a wide viewing angle based on plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 3(3), 347–352 (2015).

K. T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6324–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4192 (2014).
[PubMed]

Sharma, D.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

Y. Long, R. Su, Q. Wang, L. Shen, B. Li, and W. Zheng, “Deducing critical coupling condition to achieve perfect absorption for thin-film absorbers and identifying key characteristics of absorbing materials needed for perfect absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shen, W.

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

Shu, S.

Singh, R. R.

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Su, R.

Y. Long, R. Su, Q. Wang, L. Shen, B. Li, and W. Zheng, “Deducing critical coupling condition to achieve perfect absorption for thin-film absorbers and identifying key characteristics of absorbing materials needed for perfect absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Teramae, N.

K. Hotta, A. Yamaguchi, and N. Teramae, “Nanoporous waveguide sensor with optimized nanoarchitectures for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1541–1547 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tischler, J. R.

Wang, Q.

Y. Long, R. Su, Q. Wang, L. Shen, B. Li, and W. Zheng, “Deducing critical coupling condition to achieve perfect absorption for thin-film absorbers and identifying key characteristics of absorbing materials needed for perfect absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wong, K. T.

Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, A.

K. Hotta, A. Yamaguchi, and N. Teramae, “Nanoporous waveguide sensor with optimized nanoarchitectures for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1541–1547 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, F.

Yang, T.

Yang, Z.

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yau, P.

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yokogawa, S.

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, W.

Zhang, X.

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Zheng, W.

Y. Long, R. Su, Q. Wang, L. Shen, B. Li, and W. Zheng, “Deducing critical coupling condition to achieve perfect absorption for thin-film absorbers and identifying key characteristics of absorbing materials needed for perfect absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zyss, J.

ACS Nano (1)

K. Hotta, A. Yamaguchi, and N. Teramae, “Nanoporous waveguide sensor with optimized nanoarchitectures for highly sensitive label-free biosensing,” ACS Nano 6(2), 1541–1547 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (4)

K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “High-color-purity subtractive color filters with a wide viewing angle based on plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 3(3), 347–352 (2015).

K. T. Lee, S. Seo, J. Y. Lee, and L. J. Guo, “Strong resonance effect in a lossy medium-based optical cavity for angle robust spectrum filters,” Adv. Mater. 26(36), 6324–6328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Chen, C. W. Chen, Z. Y. Huang, W. C. Lin, L. Y. Lin, F. Lin, K. T. Wong, and H. W. Lin, “Microcavity-embedded, colour-tuneable, transparent organic solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(7), 1129–1134 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Santos, V. S. Balderrama, M. Alba, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Nanoporous anodic alumina barcodes: toward smart optical biosensors,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1050–1054 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Long, R. Su, Q. Wang, L. Shen, B. Li, and W. Zheng, “Deducing critical coupling condition to achieve perfect absorption for thin-film absorbers and identifying key characteristics of absorbing materials needed for perfect absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091109 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. (1)

R. R. Singh, D. Ho, A. Nilchi, G. Gulak, P. Yau, and R. Genov, “A CMOS/thin-film fluorescence contact imaging microsystem for DNA analysis,” IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I Regul. Pap. 57(5), 1029–1038 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

C. K. Liu, K. T. Cheng, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Designs of high color purity RGB color filter for liquid crystal displays applications using Fabry-Perot etalons,” J. Disp. Technol. 8(3), 174–178 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (2)

C. Goh, K. M. Coakley, and M. D. McGehee, “Nanostructuring titania by embossing with polymer molds made from anodic alumina templates,” Nano Lett. 5(8), 1545–1549 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yokogawa, S. P. Burgos, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic color filters for CMOS image sensor applications,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4349–4354 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

A. Santos, M. Alba, M. M. Rahman, P. Formentín, J. Ferré-Borrull, J. Pallarès, and L. F. Marsal, “Structural tuning of photoluminescence in nanoporous anodic alumina by hard anodization in oxalic and malonic acids,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

M. Khorasaninejad, S. Mohsen Raeis-Zadeh, H. Amarloo, N. Abedzadeh, S. Safavi-Naeini, and S. S. Saini, “Colorimetric sensors using nano-patch surface plasmon resonators,” Nanotechnology 24(35), 355501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sci. Rep. (2)

J. Y. Lee, K. T. Lee, S. Seo, and L. J. Guo, “Decorative power generating panels creating angle insensitive transmissive colors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4192 (2014).
[PubMed]

C. Yang, W. Shen, Y. Zhang, K. Li, X. Fang, X. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Compact multilayer film structure for angle insensitive color filtering,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9285 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (6)

R. G. Kuehni, Color: An Introduction to Practice and Principles (John Wiley & Sons, 2013).

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters, 4th ed. (CRC Press, 2010).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Lumerical Solutions Inc, “FDTD Solutions,” https://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/fdtd/ .

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 1 (Academic, 1985).

Thin Film Center Inc, “Essential MacLeod,” http://www.thinfilmcenter.com/essential.html .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Configuration of an asymmetric MDM structure. (b) Calculation of the required thickness of the top Al film (t1) leading to a zero reflection dip based on Eq. (2), with t2 changing from 250 to 340 nm. The spectral reflection was calculated according to Eq. (1). (c) Reflection characteristics in terms of t1 for t2 = 310 nm and n2 = 1.48. (d) Relative depth of the reflection dip with t1, to vary refractive indices of the metallic film, which is determined by n1 = nAla, for a ranging from 0.6 to 1.4.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic of the proposed CMY color filters with a nanoporous cavity inclusive of a hexagonal lattice of pores. (b) Observed optical responses for the proposed CMY color filters, with the near-zero reflection dip marked with a red circle. (c) Corresponding 1931 CIE color coordinates for the designed yellow, magenta and cyan filters, with the thickness of the AAO based cavity fixed at t2Y = 250, t2M = 310, and t2C = 160 nm, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Observed optical responses for the typical and proposed magenta filter (t2M = 310 nm) with the thickness of the top Al film t1 changing from 5 to 30 nm. (b) Dependence of the reflection dips on t1. (c) Corresponding 1931 CIE color coordinates and (d) excitation purity for the typical and proposed filter, with t1 increasing from 5 to 30 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Calculated optical absorbance and reflectance for the filter with t2 = 290 nm. (b) Normalized electric field intensity (|E|2) profile observed at a resonance wavelength of ~497 nm, assuming that the filter relies on an equivalent homogeneous cavity with an effective refractive index of n2eff = 1.48.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fabrication procedure for the proposed nanoporous color filters.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Top-view and (b) cross-sectional-view of SEM images of the prepared cyan filter.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Measured optical responses and (b) captured color images for the proposed color filters.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Observed color images of the proposed magenta filter and the typical filter based on a uniform SiO2 cavity with t1 ranging from 10 to 30 nm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R= | r 01 + r e 2j k 1 1+ r 01 r e 2j k 1 | 2 where r = r 12 + r 23 e 2j k 2 1+ r 12 r 23 e 2j k 2 .
t 1 =λ ln( | r 01 | / | r |) 4π n Im =λ (2m1)π+ ϕ ϕ 01 4π n Re .

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