Abstract

A new kind of WS2 film was designed, which was composed of few-layer WS2 nanosheets. The nanosheets spread evenly over the SiO2 substrate. By applying the samples into a solid-state laser cavity, excellent mode-locking (ML) performance was obtained. The pulse repetition rate was 86.7 MHz with a pulse width of 736 fs. The results indicate that WS2 material have prosperous application future in solid-state lasers.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Motivated by the discovery of graphene, it becomes a new focus that the application of layered structure materials as saturable absorbers (SAs) in optics [1–7]. Recently, among the 2 dimensional material family, added a new member, layered transition metal disulfide (TMD). TMDs had been studied for decades in bulk form, but their 2D form gave them new life attributed to their excellent electrical, optical, and mechanical properties [8–13]. Among them, MoS2 nanosheets is the hottest because of its outstanding SA performance [14–18]. At first, it was harder to obtain WS2 nanosheets through sonic compared with MoS2 nanosheets. As preparation method develops, researchers have also found ways to produce WS2 nanosheets with high quality and high production. The study of WS2’s optical characters becomes necessary. Very recently, the SA effect of WS2 was demonstrated by several research groups. Kassani et al. realized a Q-switched Er3+ doped fiber laser based on WS2 saturable absorber [19]. The WS2 nanosheets were prepared by liquid phase exfoliation method and the saturable absorber was fabricated by spin-coating of few-layer WS2 nanosheets on a side-polished fiber. The first use of WS2 SAs in mode-locked lasers was reported by Dong Mao and his research group [20]. Two types of WS2-based SAs were applied and soliton mode-locking operations are achieved separately in an erbium-doped fiber laser. They proved that few-layer WS2 is a promising high-power flexible SA for ultrafast optics. After that, more details are focused on WS2 SAs with different structures and pulse characters improvements [21–23]. We can see that all the experiments above were carried out in 1550 nm fiber lasers. As another important part, solid-state lasers possess superiorities such as high power, and smooth spectral without side-bands. Several solid-state lasers using crystals as gain medium have been carried out by our group to evaluate the properties of WS2 based SAs in ultrafast laser operations [24]. An efficient approach to synthesize atomic-thin WS2 was developed and pico-second laser pulse was realized based on that WS2 SA. First principle calculation revealed the reason of remarkable saturable absorption properties, which was attributed to intermediate states resulting from S-vacancy defects in WS2 nanosheets. Eventually, mode-locked pulse with a pulse width of 8.6 ps was generated from a Nd:YVO4 laser.

In this paper, to utilize the fast recombination time of WS2, a new kind of WS2 film was designed for femtosecond laser. The obtained WS2 nanosheets were further disposed by ultrasound, and formed uniform WS2 extremely small nanosheets, then the WS2 film was spin coated onto SiO2 substrate for laser experiment. By applying the samples into a solid-state laser cavity using a Yb:YAG crystal as the gain medium, excellent ML performance was obtained. The pulse repetition rate was 86.7 MHz with a pulse width of 736 fs. The maximum output power was 270 mW, and the peak power was calculated to be 4.23 kW. This is the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, femtosecond solid-state laser pulse using WS2 materials.

2. Preparation and characterization of WS2 SA

In a typical experiment, 2 g of NaOH was dissolved in 10 mL of distilled water at 30 °C. Thereafter, 0.2 g of WS2 and 0.1g CTAB powders were dispersed in the solution under magnetic stirring at 30 °C. After several days, the solution was evaporated at 90 °C and a dry compound was obtained. After performing crystallization three times, the compound was washed and filtered. Then, the product was dispersed in 100 mL of ethanol solution and processed with ultrasonic treatment for 5 hours. The preparation process here was similar with the description before, which was called “chemical weathering” method [24]. The solutions were then sampled and centrifuged (1,000 rpm for 30 min) to remove any aggregated sheets of WS2. The obtained WS2 nanosheets were further disposed by ultrasound, the size of the nanosheets was smashed. Finally, the solution was spin coated on a SiO2 substrate, forming a WS2 saturable absorber mirror (WSAM).

The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result of the WS2 film is shown in Fig. 1(a), indicating that the WS2 nanosheets spread evenly on the substrate. Figure 2(b-d) show the atomic force microscopy (AFM) results of WS2 film, the thickness of WS2 film was approximately 0.5 nm.

 

Fig. 1 (a) SEM image of WS2 film (Inset is picture of the the SiO2 substrate. (b-d) AFM image and the corresponding height profiles of WS2 film.

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Fig. 2 (a) Raman spectrum of WS2 SA. (b) XRD patterns of WS2 film and WS2 raw materials. (c) Differential reflectance spectra of WS2 raw materials, sheets and film. (d) Nonlinear transmission measurements for the WSAM.

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The typical Raman spectrum of WS2 film, measured at 514.5 nm laser, is plotted in Fig. 2(a). Raman mapping provides spatial maps of the 2LA(M) (longitudinal acoustic mode, denoted by LA(M)) intensity and the A1g(Γ) mode frequency and intensity. The (E2g, A1g) were located at (349.7, 419.6) cm−1 for WS2. The XRD patterns of pristine and films of WS2 were recorded, as shown in Fig. 2(b). The XRD patterns of the as-prepared samples could be indexed as pure orthorhombic WS2 according to JCPDS card nos. 08-0237. The phase structures of the obtained products are not affected during the exfoliation and comminution process. The bandg ap of WS2 film is wider than that of the pristine raw material and WS2 sheets by observing a blue-shift in Differential reflectance spectra [Fig. 2(c)]. The band gap of WS2 is tuned with crystal thickness and size owing to quantum confinement effect.

After the fabrication of the WSAM, it will be necessary to measure its nonlinear optical absorption characteristics [shown in Fig. 2(d)]. The laser source here is a home-made pico-second Nd:YVO4 solid-state laser. A series of transmittance was recorded when the input pulse fluence increased. The experiment results were fitted by the formula of T(F) = Aexp(-∆T/(1 + F/Fsat)), where T(F) is the transmission rate, A is the normalization constant, ∆T is the modulation depth, F is the input fluence, and Fsat is the saturation fluence. With the experiment data and the formula above, the modulation depth and saturation fluence were determined to be 4.3% and 87 μJ/cm2. The result are in the same orders as those observed in other types of WS2 SAs like microfiber WSA [20], D-shaped fiber WSA [22], and WS2-PVA film [23].

The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the WS2 film is shown in Fig. 3(a), indicating the size of the nanosheets was about 20-50 nm. The selected area electron diffraction [SAED] pattern of the WS2 film is shown in inset of Fig. 3(a), illustrating the hexagonal symmetry of WS2 film. Figure 3(b) indicates that the whole structure of WS2 was not destroyed. However, some S-vacancy defects were observed according to TEM analysis, as shown in the blue circle area.

 

Fig. 3 (a) TEM images of WS2 film (Inset is the SAED pattern). (b) High-resolution TEM images of the surface part of WS2 film with vacancy defects. (c, d) XPS spectra of WS2 film, W 4f, W 5p states, and S 2p states.

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As we all know, the large band gap of perfect WS2 nanosheets is not suitable for the applications in near-IR laser saturable adsorption. However, the presence of S-vacancy defects in TMDs may modify their electronic structures. On the basic of our previous theory [24], the as-prepared MoS2 and WS2 monolayers exhibited excellent saturable absorption properties in all-solid-state lasers because of intermediate states resulting from S-vacancy defects. The stoichiometric ratio of the WS2 film here was also determined by using the XPS spectra [Fig. 3(c) and 3(d)]. The atomic ratio was S/W = 1.765, implied that the defects belonged to S vacancies. Furthermore, R. I. Woodward et al. put forward edge-state absorption theory, which arise from large edge to surface area rations, to clarify the broadband saturable absorption of MoS2 working below the band gap [25]. This point of view was also inferred to explain the sub-bandgap absorption of TMDs family [26–31].

3. Experimental setup and results

The laser cavity utilized for the ML operation was schematically shown in Fig. 4. The gain medium was a Yb:YAG crystal grown by Czochralski technique with Yb3+ concentration of 5 at.% in melt. The crystal was 8 mm in length and 3 mm × 3 mm in cross-section, and both of the end faces were antireflection(AR) coated around 1050 nm to minimize the cavity loss. As quasi-three-level laser system, Yb lasers possess a non-negligible population in the lower laser level. This further influences the ability of power scaling and conversion efficiency. It is therefore desirable to keep the crystal in good thermal management. The ensure excellent heat dissipation, the crystal was wrapped with indium foil and held in a copper block, and the cooling water was maintained at a temperature of 10 °C. A Z-shape five-mirror cavity was adopted to achieve stable and efficient mode locking. A fiber coupled laser diode emitting at 976 nm was used as the pump source. The pump light was focused into the Yb:YAG crystal by a compact lens system and the pump spot radius was 100 μm. M1 was the dichroic input mirror, which has antireflection (AR) coating for pump light and high-reflection (HR) for oscillating light. M2 and M3 were concave mirrors which were also HR coating around 1050 nm. The plano output coupler (OC) has a transmittance of 1% from 1000 nm to 1100 nm. Two laser beams were transmitted through the OC as it was not an end mirror of the cavity. The two collimated arms ensure appropriate spot size in the crystal and on the WSAM. Based on the ABCD propagation matrix theory, the laser mode size was calculated to 115 μm in the crystal and 55 μm on the WSAM.

 

Fig. 4 Schematic diagram for the mode-locked laser based on WSAM.

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The continuous wave (CW) performance was first studied to confirm the function of the WS2 sample. For the CW operation, the WSAM was replaced by a plane mirror (HR at 1050 nm). Figure 5(a) (black cube) shows the relationship of the CW output power versus the absorbed power of the laser. The CW operation had a pump threshold of 2.69 W and a slope efficiency of 18.3%.

 

Fig. 5 Mode-locked operation. (a) Average output power of CW and ML regime as a function of absorbed power. (b) Pulse train of ML laser in 200 ns scale, inset: 1 ms scale (c) Corresponding RF spectrum. (d) Normalized autocorrelation trace for 736 fs duration.

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When the WSAM was inserted, CWML of the laser could be achieved after carefully adjustment the laser cavity. Figure 5(a) (red dots) shows the output power of the mode-locked laser depending on the absorbed pump power. The laser regime changed from CW to CWML at an absorbed pump power of 4.37 W, and the maximum CWML output power of 270 mW was obtained under 4.99 W absorbed pump power, giving an slope efficiency of 12.5%. The pulse fluence on the WSAM was ~950 μJ/cm2, which was 11 times of the saturation fluence measured above. This may be attributed to the direct current (DC) component of the pulse and the high CWML threshold caused by the low emission cross section of Yb3+ crystals. The drop of the slope efficiency was cause by the insertion loss of the WS2 sample. When the absorbed power was exceeded 4.99 W, a metastable Q-switched ML regime occurred due to the over saturation of the WSAM. In addition, to confirm the function of the WSAM, it was changed back into the HR plane mirror after the laser measurement, and no mode-locking pulse was obtained in full pump power range.

Figure 5(b) shows the typical pulse train recorded with a time scale of 20 ns/div and 100 us/div. The pulse repetition rate was 86.66 MHz, corresponding to the total cavity length of 1.73 m. The radio-frequency (RF) spectrum at GHz and MHz span was also measured by RF spectrum analyzer [shown in Fig. 5(c)]. The fundamental peak is located at laser pulse repetition rate with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~51 dB. The 1 GHz span of the RF signal is also shown inset, manifesting the good stability of the CWML state. The autocorrelation trace was shown in Fig. 5(d), the pulse duration was measured to be 736 fs, assuming a sech2 intensity profile. Noting that the emission spectrum of the ML centered at 1057.5 nm with a FWHM of 2.1 nm, the time-bandwidth product was calculated to be 0.415, a little larger than the transform-limited pulse, indicating that the pulse is slightly chirped. Femtosecond pulse means shorter interaction time between laser and materials and stronger peak power which makes it easier for chemical bond breaking. The femtosecond laser pulse utilized the fast carrier recombination time of WS2. The results fully displayed the ability of WS2 in ultrafast pulse generation, and broadened its application in material processing, medical treatment, basic scientific research, etc.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, high quality few layer WS2 nanosheets was fabricated based on the optimized “chemical weathering” method. The samples exhibit SA effect due to its S vacancies and the edge-state absorption. The WS2 nanosheets spread evenly on the substrate forming a WS2 film, which could give full play of WS2 sheets for laser adjustment. By applying the WSAM into a solid-state laser cavity using a Yb:YAG crystal as the gain medium, excellent ML performance was obtained. The pulse repetition rate was 86.7 MHz with a pulse width of 736 fs. The maximum output power was 270 mW, and the peak power was calculated to be 4.23 kW. The results indicating that a WS2 SA is reliable in generating stable femtosecond laser pulses. From the aspects of the durability and economics, the WS2 material represents the prosperous application future in laser field.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Contract No. 61575110, 51572153).

References and links

1. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010). [CrossRef]  

2. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]  

3. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009). [CrossRef]  

5. F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. K. F. Mak, K. He, C. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 207–211 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. M. A. Lukowski, A. S. Daniel, F. Meng, A. Forticaux, L. Li, and S. Jin, “Enhanced hydrogen evolution catalysis from chemically exfoliated metallic MoS2 nanosheets,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(28), 10274–10277 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. D. Gopalakrishnan, D. Damien, and M. M. Shaijumon, “MoS2 quantum dot-interspersed exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 8(5), 5297–5303 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. G. Zhao, J. Hou, Y. Wu, J. He, and X. Hao, “Preparation of 2D MoS2/graphene heterostructure through a monolayer intercalation method and its application as an optical modulator in pulsed laser generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(7), 937–942 (2015). [CrossRef]  

19. S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeinezhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 373–379 (2015). [CrossRef]  

20. D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nano-sheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1581–1584 (2015). [CrossRef]  

22. P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015). [CrossRef]  

23. K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS₂ as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, “Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(33), 5292–5299 (2015). [CrossRef]  

25. R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015). [CrossRef]  

27. R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” arXiv: 1503.08003.

28. M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Park, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked, 1.94-μm, all-fiberized laser using WS2-based evanescent field interaction,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19996–20006 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015). [CrossRef]  

30. X. Fu, J. Qian, X. Qiao, P. Tan, and Z. Peng, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of vertically stood WS₂ nanoplates,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6450–6453 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Two photon absorption and its saturation of WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” arXiv:1503.02258 (2015).

References

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  1. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. K. F. Mak, K. He, C. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 207–211 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. A. Lukowski, A. S. Daniel, F. Meng, A. Forticaux, L. Li, and S. Jin, “Enhanced hydrogen evolution catalysis from chemically exfoliated metallic MoS2 nanosheets,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(28), 10274–10277 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. D. Gopalakrishnan, D. Damien, and M. M. Shaijumon, “MoS2 quantum dot-interspersed exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 8(5), 5297–5303 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. G. Zhao, J. Hou, Y. Wu, J. He, and X. Hao, “Preparation of 2D MoS2/graphene heterostructure through a monolayer intercalation method and its application as an optical modulator in pulsed laser generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(7), 937–942 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeinezhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 373–379 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nano-sheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1581–1584 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS₂ as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, “Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(33), 5292–5299 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  27. R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” arXiv: 1503.08003.
  28. M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Park, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked, 1.94-μm, all-fiberized laser using WS2-based evanescent field interaction,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19996–20006 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. X. Fu, J. Qian, X. Qiao, P. Tan, and Z. Peng, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of vertically stood WS₂ nanoplates,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6450–6453 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Two photon absorption and its saturation of WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” arXiv:1503.02258 (2015).

2015 (11)

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhao, J. Hou, Y. Wu, J. He, and X. Hao, “Preparation of 2D MoS2/graphene heterostructure through a monolayer intercalation method and its application as an optical modulator in pulsed laser generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(7), 937–942 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeinezhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 373–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nano-sheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1581–1584 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS₂ as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, “Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(33), 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Park, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked, 1.94-μm, all-fiberized laser using WS2-based evanescent field interaction,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19996–20006 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

X. Fu, J. Qian, X. Qiao, P. Tan, and Z. Peng, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of vertically stood WS₂ nanoplates,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6450–6453 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gopalakrishnan, D. Damien, and M. M. Shaijumon, “MoS2 quantum dot-interspersed exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 8(5), 5297–5303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, K. He, C. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 207–211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Lukowski, A. S. Daniel, F. Meng, A. Forticaux, L. Li, and S. Jin, “Enhanced hydrogen evolution catalysis from chemically exfoliated metallic MoS2 nanosheets,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(28), 10274–10277 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cao, G.

Chen, H.

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Chen, S.

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, L.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coleman, J. N.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, X.

H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Damien, D.

D. Gopalakrishnan, D. Damien, and M. M. Shaijumon, “MoS2 quantum dot-interspersed exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 8(5), 5297–5303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daniel, A. S.

M. A. Lukowski, A. S. Daniel, F. Meng, A. Forticaux, L. Li, and S. Jin, “Enhanced hydrogen evolution catalysis from chemically exfoliated metallic MoS2 nanosheets,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(28), 10274–10277 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Datta, R.

H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, J.

Eda, G.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Z.

H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Forticaux, A.

M. A. Lukowski, A. S. Daniel, F. Meng, A. Forticaux, L. Li, and S. Jin, “Enhanced hydrogen evolution catalysis from chemically exfoliated metallic MoS2 nanosheets,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(28), 10274–10277 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fox, D.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, X.

Gan, X.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghorannevis, Z.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomathi, A.

H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gopalakrishnan, D.

D. Gopalakrishnan, D. Damien, and M. M. Shaijumon, “MoS2 quantum dot-interspersed exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 8(5), 5297–5303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, C.

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, L.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, S.

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, “Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(33), 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hao, X.

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, “Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(33), 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, J. Hou, Y. Wu, J. He, and X. Hao, “Preparation of 2D MoS2/graphene heterostructure through a monolayer intercalation method and its application as an optical modulator in pulsed laser generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(7), 937–942 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, J.

G. Zhao, J. Hou, Y. Wu, J. He, and X. Hao, “Preparation of 2D MoS2/graphene heterostructure through a monolayer intercalation method and its application as an optical modulator in pulsed laser generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(7), 937–942 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, K.

K. F. Mak, K. He, C. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 207–211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, K. He, C. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 207–211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hone, J.

K. F. Mak, K. He, C. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 207–211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, J.

G. Zhao, J. Hou, Y. Wu, J. He, and X. Hao, “Preparation of 2D MoS2/graphene heterostructure through a monolayer intercalation method and its application as an optical modulator in pulsed laser generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(7), 937–942 (2015).
[Crossref]

Howe, R. C. T.

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, G.

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hua, S.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, H.

S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeinezhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 373–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nano-sheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1581–1584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jhon, Y. M.

Jia, Y.

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, B.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, S.

M. A. Lukowski, A. S. Daniel, F. Meng, A. Forticaux, L. Li, and S. Jin, “Enhanced hydrogen evolution catalysis from chemically exfoliated metallic MoS2 nanosheets,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(28), 10274–10277 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, M.

Kassani, S. H.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nano-sheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1581–1584 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeinezhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 373–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kayci, M.

O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelleher, E. J. R.

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khazaeinezhad, R.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nano-sheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1581–1584 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeinezhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 373–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. Y.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nano-sheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1581–1584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kis, A.

O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kloc, C.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koo, J.

Lan, C.

Late, D. J.

H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

K. F. Mak, K. He, C. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 207–211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, G. H.

K. F. Mak, K. He, C. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 207–211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

Lee, J. H.

Lembke, D.

O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

Li, H.

Li, I.

Li, L.

M. A. Lukowski, A. S. Daniel, F. Meng, A. Forticaux, L. Li, and S. Jin, “Enhanced hydrogen evolution catalysis from chemically exfoliated metallic MoS2 nanosheets,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(28), 10274–10277 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Lin, R.

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Liu, M.

Liu, Y.

Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lopez-Sanchez, O.

O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lotya, M.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, S. B.

Lukowski, M. A.

M. A. Lukowski, A. S. Daniel, F. Meng, A. Forticaux, L. Li, and S. Jin, “Enhanced hydrogen evolution catalysis from chemically exfoliated metallic MoS2 nanosheets,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(28), 10274–10277 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z. C.

Ma, C.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak, K. He, C. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 207–211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manna, A. K.

H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, D.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mei, L.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mei, T.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meng, F.

M. A. Lukowski, A. S. Daniel, F. Meng, A. Forticaux, L. Li, and S. Jin, “Enhanced hydrogen evolution catalysis from chemically exfoliated metallic MoS2 nanosheets,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(28), 10274–10277 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nazari, T.

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

O’Neill, A.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, K.

S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeinezhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 373–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nano-sheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1581–1584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

Park, K. J.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nano-sheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1581–1584 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pati, S. K.

H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, Z.

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popov, S. V.

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, X.

H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qian, J.

Qiao, X.

Radenovic, A.

O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramakrishna Matte, H. S. S.

H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, C. N. R.

H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ruan, S.

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shaijumon, M. M.

D. Gopalakrishnan, D. Damien, and M. M. Shaijumon, “MoS2 quantum dot-interspersed exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 8(5), 5297–5303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shan, J.

K. F. Mak, K. He, C. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 207–211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, P.

Tan, P. H.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, D.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

Tang, R.

Taylor, J. R.

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toh, M.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torrisi, F.

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, A.

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, “Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(33), 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F. Z.

Wang, H.

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS₂ as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, “Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(33), 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wen, S. C.

Woodward, R. I.

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, K.

Wu, Y.

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, “Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(33), 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, J. Hou, Y. Wu, J. He, and X. Hao, “Preparation of 2D MoS2/graphene heterostructure through a monolayer intercalation method and its application as an optical modulator in pulsed laser generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(7), 937–942 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, H.

Xu, W. C.

Yan, P.

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, A. Liu, Y. Chen, H. Chen, S. Ruan, C. Guo, S. Chen, I. Li, H. Yang, J. Hu, and G. Cao, “Microfiber-based WS2-film saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(3), 479–489 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Yeom, D.-I.

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nano-sheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1581–1584 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeinezhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(2), 373–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, J. Hou, Y. Wu, J. He, and X. Hao, “Preparation of 2D MoS2/graphene heterostructure through a monolayer intercalation method and its application as an optical modulator in pulsed laser generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(7), 937–942 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, “Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(33), 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, M.

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, “Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(33), 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

Zheng, Y.

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (4)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhao, Z. Ghorannevis, L. Chu, M. Toh, C. Kloc, P. H. Tan, and G. Eda, “Evolution of electronic structure in atomically thin sheets of WS2 and WSe2.,” ACS Nano 7(1), 791–797 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gopalakrishnan, D. Damien, and M. M. Shaijumon, “MoS2 quantum dot-interspersed exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 8(5), 5297–5303 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, “Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(33), 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

G. Zhao, J. Hou, Y. Wu, J. He, and X. Hao, “Preparation of 2D MoS2/graphene heterostructure through a monolayer intercalation method and its application as an optical modulator in pulsed laser generation,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(7), 937–942 (2015).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte, A. Gomathi, A. K. Manna, D. J. Late, R. Datta, S. K. Pati, and C. N. R. Rao, “MoS2 and WS2 analogues of graphene,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 49(24), 4059–4062 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Khazaeinezhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, K. J. Park, B. Y. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Ultrafast pulsed all-fiber based on tapered fiber enclosed by few-layer WS2 nano-sheets,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(15), 1581–1584 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

M. A. Lukowski, A. S. Daniel, F. Meng, A. Forticaux, L. Li, and S. Jin, “Enhanced hydrogen evolution catalysis from chemically exfoliated metallic MoS2 nanosheets,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(28), 10274–10277 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Res. (1)

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. F. Mak, K. He, C. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. Hone, T. F. Heinz, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound trions in monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Mater. 12(3), 207–211 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2.,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Zhang, C. Liu, X. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Photonics Res. (1)

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photonics Res. 3(2), A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. R. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” arXiv: 1503.08003.

S. Zhang, N. Dong, N. McEvoy, M. O’Brien, S. Winters, N. C. Berner, C. Yim, X. Zhang, Z. Chen, L. Zhang, G. S. Duesberg, and J. Wang, “Two photon absorption and its saturation of WS2 and MoS2 monolayer and few-layer films,” arXiv:1503.02258 (2015).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) SEM image of WS2 film (Inset is picture of the the SiO2 substrate. (b-d) AFM image and the corresponding height profiles of WS2 film.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Raman spectrum of WS2 SA. (b) XRD patterns of WS2 film and WS2 raw materials. (c) Differential reflectance spectra of WS2 raw materials, sheets and film. (d) Nonlinear transmission measurements for the WSAM.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) TEM images of WS2 film (Inset is the SAED pattern). (b) High-resolution TEM images of the surface part of WS2 film with vacancy defects. (c, d) XPS spectra of WS2 film, W 4f, W 5p states, and S 2p states.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram for the mode-locked laser based on WSAM.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mode-locked operation. (a) Average output power of CW and ML regime as a function of absorbed power. (b) Pulse train of ML laser in 200 ns scale, inset: 1 ms scale (c) Corresponding RF spectrum. (d) Normalized autocorrelation trace for 736 fs duration.

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