Abstract

Graphene is a good candidate material in designing tunable terahertz devices due to its tunability of sheet conductivity. In this paper, we propose a scheme to design switchable quarter-wave plate for terahertz wave that is composed of graphene based grating and metallic grating structures. The proposed active device can dynamically switch the transmission wave among left-handed, right-handed circular polarization and linear polarization states by electrically controlling the Fermi energy of the graphene grating. The device is analyzed with grating circular polarizer theory and its performance is investigated through full wave simulations on practically realizable geometry. The proposed quarter-wave plate having a subwavelength thickness demonstrates a wide angle of incidence tolerance, and a broad bandwidth operation. This device concept offers a further step in developing tunable polarizers and polarization switchers, which may be applied in practical terahertz image and communication systems.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The terahertz (THz) part of the electromagnetic spectrum, defined as that from 0.1 to 10 THz, has found numerous potential applications in astronomy, communication, imaging, and spectroscopy, therefore, the THz science and technology has become increasingly important over the past decade [1–3 ]. However, many natural materials have weak responses to THz wave, so that the techniques to efficiently manipulate THz waves are still lagging behind, which are demanded in many practical applications. On the other hand, artificial metamaterials can enable more flexible manipulation of the EM waves and are easily scaled to work at THz frequency [4–8 ]. As structure defined artificial materials, more functionalities can be incorporated into the metamaterials, such as the tunable metamaterials with amplitude modulation, frequency tuning, polarization modulation, and reflection/absorption switching [9–14 ], etc. As such, considerable attention at THz frequencies has been focused on metamaterials, especially the tunable THz metamaterials [15–17 ].

While among all tunable techniques, voltage control is one of the simplest ways in practical operations. Among the different tuning schemes for THz devices, graphene, the newly discovered two-dimensional material, has attracted remarkable attention due to its potential use in high-performance tunable THz and infrared devices, since it produces a largely-tunable surface conductivity with respect to the external electrostatic biasing [18–20 ]. The graphene has also been successfully applied into the metamaterials to realize various tunable functional devices in THz band [21–26 ].

The polarization state is an important characteristic of EM wave and has been widely used in microwave communication systems and optical instruments, etc. Consequently, much effort has been devoted to apply the metamaterial concept in the manipulation of the polarization states in a variety of device applications [27–34 ]. However, in most of these polarization manipulating devices the functionalities are neither dynamically tunable nor electrically switchable. Although an active metamaterial is reported which can dynamically control the polarization states of transmitted EM wave, but such concept is limited in microwave band due to the use of microwave PIN diode [34]. In this paper, we incorporate the graphene into the metallic wire grating structure commonly used in EM wave plates [27–30 ] to realize broadband and dynamical control of THz wave polarization. In section 2, we will first propose a switchable metamaterial in the THz regime composed of double layers of graphene strips and a single patterned bottom layer with gold grating structure. We will demonstrate its functionality as a switchable quarter-wave plate (QWP) that can switch the transmitted wave between linear polarization (LP) and circular polarizations (CPs) (both the right-handed circularly polarization (LCP) and the left-handed circularly polarization (RCP)) in section 3. We will also investigate the wide angle of incidence tolerance with full-wave simulations and present an extensive analysis of the physical mechanism of circular polarization conversion and polarization state manipulation. Then in section 4, we will extend the previous concept to construct a dual-function switchable QWP. Finally, in Section 5 we will draw the conclusions of our work.

2. Graphene based switchable QWP

The graphene monolayer can be electrically modeled as an infinitesimally thin conductive layer characterized by a complex-valued surface conductivity σs (ω, μc, Γ, T), where ω is the working radian frequency, μc is the chemical potential (i.e. Fermi energy EF) related to the electrostatic biasing, and Γ (Γ = ћ/2τ, τ is the electron-phonon relaxation time) is the physical parameter of the graphene accounting for the intrinsic loss. Throughout this work, we assume τ = 0.2 ps which is in agreement with measured data from the chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene [35]. T is the room temperature and is fixed to 300 K in this paper. The sheet conductivity of graphene which can be derived using the well-known Kubo formula is described with interband and intraband contributions as [36]

σS=σintra(ω,μc,Γ,T)+σinter(ω,μc,Γ,T),
σintra(ω,μc,Γ,T)=je2kBTπ2(ωj2Γ)(μckBT+2ln(eμc/kBT+1)),
σinter(ω,μc,Γ,T)je24πln(2|μc|(ωj2Γ)2|μc|+(ωj2Γ)),
where e, ћ and kB are universal constants representing the electron charge, Planck’s and Boltzmann’s constant, respectively. In the THz region and below, where the photon energy ћω ≤ EF, the interband part [Eq. (3)] is negligible comparing to the intraband part. Therefore, in the THz region graphene is well described by the Drude-like surface conductivity with Eq. (2). Its sheet conductivity can be controlled by chemical potential via electrostatic gating, which provides an effective solution to tune its electromagnetic property upon bias voltage control.

The unit cell (or a small square part cut from the whole structure) of the proposed switchable QWP is schematically depicted in Fig. 1 . It consists of a top grating structure composed of graphene double strip and a bottom metallic wire grids which are spatially separated by a flexible dielectric spacer. The graphene grating is oriented at −45° with respect to the y-axis and the metallic grating is parallel to y-axis. The graphene strips is placed on both sides of a silicon dioxide insulating film to form a gated structure. This is due to that the tuning of the graphene properties by electrostatic gating usually requires at least two layers of graphene separated by a thin dielectric film [22], and the right candidate of the separating film is silicon dioxide according to [37]. Each of the graphene sheets plays the role of a gate electrode, and applying bias voltage will control the Fermi level in both graphene layers [37]. The metallic wire grids on the bottom are made of gold film (with a thickness of t m) having a conductivity σ = 4 × 107 S/m which behaves as perfectly reflecting layer in the THz regime. The flexible dielectric spacer can be chosen as the TOPAS polymer which is an ideal substrate material for broadband THz components due to its very low absorption and stable refraction index (about 1.53) across the THz band [38]. The optimal geometrical parameters are shown in Table 1 .

 

Fig. 1 Schematic of the unit cell of the graphene based switchable QWP.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optimal geometrical parameters of the graphene based switchable QWP.

If applying a DC bias voltage via the gated structure of the double layers of graphene grating, the chemical potential can be changed expediently, thus allows the control of the graphene conductivity. An approximate closed-form expression to relate μc and Vg is given by [39]

EF=μcνfπεrε0Vgets,
where εr (taken as 3.9) and ε 0 are the permittivity of silicon dioxide and vacuum respectively, Vg is the bias voltage, e and νf are the electron charge and the Fermi velocity (1.1 × 106 m/s in graphene), respectively. Generally, the chemical potential can be tuned within range from −1 eV to 1 eV, but in our designed structure it is set as 0 eV or 0.5 eV, which requires about 70V bias voltage that is also a safe bias according to [39]. Thus the active metamaterial can be turned ON or OFF upon it is biased or unbiased, respectively. Therefore, we can use it to realize a switchable QWP. Next, we will give detailed numerical analysis to explain its working mechanism.

3. Analysis and discussions

As a proof-of-concept example, we consider that a y-polarized THz wave propagating along + z direction normally impinge into the switchable QWP as schematically shown in Fig. 1. Commercial software CST microwave studio is employed to simulate the transmission and polarization manipulation of this metamaterial structure. The co-polarized or cross-polarized transmission coefficient t˜yy or t˜xy as well as the phase difference between co-polarization and cross-polarization components φdiff=arg(t˜xy(ω))arg(t˜yy(ω)) are calculated and displayed in Fig. 2 . To determine the polarization state of the THz wave, the four Stokes parameters are introduced as [40]

 

Fig. 2 Amplitude transmissions, phase difference between co- and cross-polarization components, and the corresponding ellipticity χ for LCP QWP in the (a) biased (μc = 0.5 eV) and (b) unbiased (μc = 0 eV) state. The polarization rotation angle of co-polarization transmission wave is also represented in (b).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

S0=|t˜yy|2+|t˜xy|2,
S1=|t˜yy|2|t˜xy|2,
S2=2|t˜yy||t˜xy|cosφdiff,
S3=2|t˜yy||t˜xy|sinφdiff.

The figure of merit for the switchable QWP is indicated through the relative electric field intensity S 0, polarization azimuth angle α and the normalized ellipticity χ. The polarization azimuth angle defined as α = 0.5arctan(S 2/S 1) presents the polarization rotation of the transmission wave respecting to the incidence wave, while the ellipticity defined as χ = S 3/S 0 equates to 1 or −1 indicating a perfect left-handed or right-handed circularly polarized wave, respectively.

The results in Fig. 2(a), which are calculated when applying a gate voltage on the graphene double layer strips, reveal similar amplitude transmission behavior from 1.1 to 1.65 THz, with the normalized transmission of around 0.45 for both orthogonal components. Furthermore, the phase difference exhibits a value around 90°, and the corresponding ellipticity χ is over 0.94 (or the axial ratio is below 3dB). The output relative electric field intensity S 0 is around 0.4, which is mainly due to the electromagnetic waves reflection caused by the large equivalent surface impedance of graphene leading to impedance mismatch to the free space. All these demonstrate the broadband functionality of a left-handed circular polarizer with a relative frequency bandwidth reaching 40%. Therefore, the whole structure becomes a LCP QWP if its graphene grating is switched ON. When the graphene strips are unbiased, the whole structure is switched OFF. As shown in Fig. 2(b), t˜yy is around 0.8 but t˜xy is close to zero in the band from 1.1 to 1.65 THz, leading to a co-polarization output. The ellipticity χ and polarization rotation angle in Fig. 2(b) also illustrate that the polarization property of the incident wave will be kept when passing through the metamaterial in the same working band. So in this way the whole structure behaves like a switchable QWP that outputs LCP or LP wave when biasing the graphene layers to switch it ON or OFF, respectively. The value of τ may change due to different fabrication processes of CVD graphene. However, it will not obviously change the performance of the device except tiny shrink of the working band in high frequency end.

It is also possible to realize a switchable QWP with a RCP output if we rotate the double layer graphene grating along the center of the structure by 90°, which results in a mirror-symmetry counterpart (see inset of Fig. 3(a) ) of the original one in Fig. 1. Figure 3(a) shows the simulated transmission results of such QWP for RCP. When it works in biased state, similar amplitude transmission behaviors as those of the previous QWP for LCP can be observed as indicated in Fig. 3(a), but with a phase difference around −90°. The ellipticity χ is less than −0.94 from 1.1 to 1.65 THz, indicating a broadband RCP output. Furthermore, without biasing the QWP can be switched OFF, and keeps the polarization state of the incident wave unchanged in the same frequency range as shown in Fig. 3(b).

 

Fig. 3 Amplitude transmissions, phase difference and the corresponding ellipticity χ of switchable QWP for RCP in the (a) biased (μc = 0.5 eV) and (b) unbiased (μc = 0 eV) state. The polarization rotation angle of co-polarization transmission wave is also represented in (b).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The switching behavior of the above QWP comes from the biasing of the graphene strips. At zero bias, the Fermi level is at the Dirac point of the graphene layer resulting in near-unity terahertz transmission. With an applied bias, the Fermi level moves into the valence and conduction band, the graphene behaves like a conducting layer, leading to near-zero terahertz transmission [25]. In the THz region graphene is well described by the Drude-like surface conductivity as described previously, so the graphene grating approximately works as a metal grating with an applied bias. Thus the graphene grating can be switched ON or OFF upon biasing or not biasing, respectively.

To elucidate the broadband circular polarizer effect of switchable QWP, we consider the whole structure as a three layer composite: the graphene sandwich as the first grating layer, the polymer separation layer as the second layer and the gold grating as the third layer, as shown in Fig. 1. The transmission of each layer is investigated separately and displayed in Fig. 4 . According to the grating circular polarizer theory described in [41], for the first layer, as the grating period D 1 = w 1 + g 1 is less than the wavelength (λ) and g 1/D 1 is close to 0.5, only the zero-order mode contributes, and leads to an equal transmission amplitude of the two components parallel to and at right angle to the strips, but the phase retardances are sensitive to D 1/λ resulting in different x and y components of field transmission (see Fig. 4(b)). As shown in Fig. 4(a), the linear phase difference exhibits an obvious frequency-dependent characteristic and increases with the increasing of the frequency due to the birefringence of the first layer. Therefore, in order to achieve an approximate phase retardance achromatism, it requires the third layer not only affecting the transmission amplitude of the x and y components of field transmission but also compensating the phase difference in broadband. As shown in Fig. 4(a), the third layer of gold grating can provide a similar birefringence property which introduces negative phase difference dispersion and compensates with that of the first layer. The waves travel back and forth between the first and third layers forming a Fabry-Perot like cavity, and result in polarization coupling and constructive interference facilitating equal transmission amplitude of Ex and Ey as indicated in Figs. 4(b) and 4(c). Therefore, through such a composite of three layers, an approximate phase retardance achromatism is realized and the amplitude transmission matches the spectral feature of a QWP. So an incident wave linearly polarized at 45° (−45°) with respect to the graphene strips will generate a LCP (RCP) output wave in broadband.

 

Fig. 4 Transmission phase difference (a), as well as the transmission and reflection amplitudes for the first graphene grating layer (b), and the third gold grating layer (c).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

In addition, we have investigated the robustness of the proposed switchable QWP under oblique incidence. Incidence in xoz-plane with different angle φ or in yoz-plane with different angle θ has been studied and the simulation results are displayed in Fig. 5 . Without biasing the device shows near zero ellipticity χ up to 70° of either φ or θ in an extremely broad band. While applying bias voltage on the graphene gate, for incidence angle φ large ellipticity χ (> 0.94) is achieved up to 70°, but the performance of oblique incidence in yoz-plane becomes slightly degraded as the large ellipticity χ is limited to incident angle within 40° in the working band. Over all the results reveal insensitivity to the wide angle of oblique incidence, suggesting good tolerance to the misalignment issue in practical application when the switchable QWP works as either a circular polarization or a co-polarization transmission metamaterial.

 

Fig. 5 The ellipticity χ under different oblique incidence angle φ ((a) and (b)), and θ ((c) and (d)). The chemical potential μc is kept as 0.5 eV ((a) and (c)), or 0 eV ((b) and (d)) by different voltage biasing.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

4. Dual-function switchable QWP

The previously proposed switchable QWP concept can be extended with more degrees of freedom for polarization manipulation. For example, we can construct switchable device with three different output polarization states. Fig. 6 schematically shows the device which is composed by adding an orthogonal oriented graphene double strip grating on top of the original switchable QWP of Fig. 1. The two graphene sandwiches (denoted as “1” and “2”), which are separated by a silicon dioxide layer of thickness t s, are mirror-symmetric with each other. The two graphene double strips have same geometrical parameters and their values are shown in Table 1. For a y-polarized incidence wave, such device can realize three output states, which can be categorized as the follows. In the first state, the sandwich “1” is biased (ON) while the sandwich “2” is unbiased (OFF). So the device switches to a QWP with an output of LCP. In the second state, the sandwich “2” is biased (ON) while the sandwich “1” is unbiased (OFF). The device switches to a QWP with an output of RCP. When the two graphene sandwiches are all unbiased (OFF), the device is working in the third state, and the QWP function by either “1” or “2” is switched OFF, resulting in an output of co-polarized LP.

 

Fig. 6 The graphene based dual-function switchable QWP with three output states.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The performance of the proposed dual-function switchable QWP is verified through full wave simulation and the results is displayed in Fig. 7 . It is found that the two graphene gratings which are placed together do not interfere with each other very much. When the device is biased in state 1, the first graphene grating works, which convert the incident linearly polarized wave into the LCP wave with an ellipticity of around 1, as shown in Fig. 7(a). On the contrary, when it is biased in state 2, the second graphene grating works and RCP feature dominates the structure, thus the output EM wave is reversed to RCP with an ellipticity of around −1, as shown in Fig. 7(b). When it works in state 3, both graphene gratings are shut off, the incident wave preserves its polarization state, leading to co-polarization transmission, as shown in Fig. 7(c). Hence, this switchable QWP can conveniently realize multiple polarization property by switching its feature among LCP, RCP or co-polarized LP transmission in a broadband frequency from 1.0 to 1.5 THz.

 

Fig. 7 Amplitude transmissions, phase difference and the corresponding ellipticity χ of dual-function switchable QWP at state 1 (a), state 2 (b), and state 3 (c). The polarization rotation angle of the co-polarization transmission wave is also represented in (c).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

We remark that there may be slight performance deviation between the simulation model and the practical device. The limitation of the numerical modeling lies in that the parameter variation generated in the device processing cannot be fully considered. Deviations may also come from the change of τ due to the impurity infiltration in the fabrication processes of CVD graphene. However, such deviations mainly cause some tiny shift or shrink of the working band, which does not affect the basic function of the proposed devices.

5. Conclusions

We have proposed a general scheme to design graphene based switchable quarter-wave plate for THz wave, which combines graphene grating and metallic grating structures together. It can switch its output EM wave property not only between linear polarization and circular polarization transmission, but also between left-handed and right-handed chirality by controlling the bias voltage on each graphene grating. Our designs may provide a large degree of dynamical manipulation of THz wave with polarization property between LCP, RCP or LP over a broad frequency bandwidth. It can be utilized as a tunable polarizer or wave plate and find applications in THz imaging or communication systems. The geometry can be implemented within currently available CVD techniques for graphene sheet and easily integrated with other THz devices for polarization manipulation, detection, and sensing at the nanoscale.

Acknowledgments

This work is partially supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (61371034, 61301017, 61101011), the Key Grant Project of Ministry of Education of China (313029), the Ph.D. Programs Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (20120091110032), and partially supported by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD), Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Techniques for Manipulating Electromagnetic Waves.

References and links

1. G. P. Williams, “Filling the THz gap-high power sources and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 69(2), 301–326 (2006). [CrossRef]  

2. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007). [CrossRef]  

3. H. J. Song and T. D. Nagatsuma, “Present and future of terahertz communications,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 256–263 (2011). [CrossRef]  

4. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. W. Withayachumnankul and D. Abbott, “Metamaterials in the terahertz regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 99–118 (2009). [CrossRef]  

7. H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. K. B. Fan and W. J. Padilla, “Dynamic electromagnetic metamaterials,” Mater. Today 18(1), 39–50 (2015). [CrossRef]  

10. M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010). [CrossRef]  

12. B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010). [CrossRef]  

13. B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010). [CrossRef]  

14. B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23196–23203 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008). [CrossRef]  

17. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341(6146), 620–621 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. B. S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011). [CrossRef]  

21. L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Graphene metamaterials based tunable terahertz absorber: effective surface conductivity approach,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9144–9155 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014). [PubMed]  

24. R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. J. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014). [CrossRef]  

30. L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013). [CrossRef]  

31. B. Yang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, Z. H. Zhu, and C. Zeng, “Design of ultrathin plasmonic quarter-wave plate based on period coupling,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 679–681 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014). [CrossRef]  

33. J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Efficient multiband and broadband cross polarization converters based on slotted L-shaped nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 22(23), 29143–29151 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014). [CrossRef]  

35. J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, S. Bae, K. S. Kim, B. H. Hong, and E. J. Choi, “Far-infrared study of substrate-effect on large scale graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201907 (2011). [CrossRef]  

36. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008). [CrossRef]  

37. B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

38. P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011). [CrossRef]  

39. J. S. Gómez-Díaz and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Graphene-based plasmonic switches at near infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15490–15504 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

40. D. Goldstein and D. H. Goldstein, “The Stokes Polarization Parameters,” in Polarized Light, Revised and Expanded (Marcel Dekker Inc., 2003), pp. 49–81.

41. G. F. Brand, “The strip grating as a circular polarizer,” Am. J. Phys. 71(5), 452 (2003). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. P. Williams, “Filling the THz gap-high power sources and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 69(2), 301–326 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. J. Song and T. D. Nagatsuma, “Present and future of terahertz communications,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 256–263 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. W. Withayachumnankul and D. Abbott, “Metamaterials in the terahertz regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 99–118 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. K. B. Fan and W. J. Padilla, “Dynamic electromagnetic metamaterials,” Mater. Today 18(1), 39–50 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23196–23203 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341(6146), 620–621 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. B. S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  21. L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Graphene metamaterials based tunable terahertz absorber: effective surface conductivity approach,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9144–9155 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  24. R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. J. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  30. L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. B. Yang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, Z. H. Zhu, and C. Zeng, “Design of ultrathin plasmonic quarter-wave plate based on period coupling,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 679–681 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Efficient multiband and broadband cross polarization converters based on slotted L-shaped nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 22(23), 29143–29151 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, S. Bae, K. S. Kim, B. H. Hong, and E. J. Choi, “Far-infrared study of substrate-effect on large scale graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201907 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  36. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  37. B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  39. J. S. Gómez-Díaz and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Graphene-based plasmonic switches at near infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15490–15504 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. D. Goldstein and D. H. Goldstein, “The Stokes Polarization Parameters,” in Polarized Light, Revised and Expanded (Marcel Dekker Inc., 2003), pp. 49–81.
  41. G. F. Brand, “The strip grating as a circular polarizer,” Am. J. Phys. 71(5), 452 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

K. B. Fan and W. J. Padilla, “Dynamic electromagnetic metamaterials,” Mater. Today 18(1), 39–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Efficient multiband and broadband cross polarization converters based on slotted L-shaped nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 22(23), 29143–29151 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. J. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Yang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, Z. H. Zhu, and C. Zeng, “Design of ultrathin plasmonic quarter-wave plate based on period coupling,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 679–681 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341(6146), 620–621 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gómez-Díaz and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Graphene-based plasmonic switches at near infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15490–15504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Graphene metamaterials based tunable terahertz absorber: effective surface conductivity approach,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9144–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, S. Bae, K. S. Kim, B. H. Hong, and E. J. Choi, “Far-infrared study of substrate-effect on large scale graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201907 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Song and T. D. Nagatsuma, “Present and future of terahertz communications,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 256–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23196–23203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (4)

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

G. P. Williams, “Filling the THz gap-high power sources and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 69(2), 301–326 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. F. Brand, “The strip grating as a circular polarizer,” Am. J. Phys. 71(5), 452 (2003).
[Crossref]

Abbott, D.

W. Withayachumnankul and D. Abbott, “Metamaterials in the terahertz regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 99–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Alaee, R.

Alù, A.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andryieuski, A.

Arigong, B.

Atwater, H. A.

Averitt, R. D.

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, S.

J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, S. Bae, K. S. Kim, B. H. Hong, and E. J. Choi, “Far-infrared study of substrate-effect on large scale graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belkin, M. A.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bingham, C. M.

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, E. M.

Brand, G. F.

G. F. Brand, “The strip grating as a circular polarizer,” Am. J. Phys. 71(5), 452 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, C. G.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, E. J.

J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, S. Bae, K. S. Kim, B. H. Hong, and E. J. Choi, “Far-infrared study of substrate-effect on large scale graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. K.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-Y.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chowdhury, D. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cole, M. T.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Colombo, L.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cong, L.

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cong, L. Q.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. J. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cui, J. H.

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, P. D.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dalvit, D. A. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dicken, M. J.

Ding, J.

Fal’ko, V. I.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, K. B.

K. B. Fan and W. J. Padilla, “Dynamic electromagnetic metamaterials,” Mater. Today 18(1), 39–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, T.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Farhat, M.

Feng, Y.

Feng, Y. J.

B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gellert, P. R.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gómez-Díaz, J. S.

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grady, N. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, J. Q.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. J. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, J. G.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. J. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hao, Z.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayden, L. M.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heyes, J. E.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, B. H.

J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, S. Bae, K. S. Kim, B. H. Hong, and E. J. Choi, “Far-infrared study of substrate-effect on large scale graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Horng, J.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, Y. H.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y. S.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23196–23203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hwang, W. S.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jen, A. K. Y.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jena, D.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S. C.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23196–23203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jokerst, N. M.

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ju, L.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, K.-Y.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, S. B.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, M. M.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, S. Bae, K. S. Kim, B. H. Hong, and E. J. Choi, “Far-infrared study of substrate-effect on large scale graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, S. Bae, K. S. Kim, B. H. Hong, and E. J. Choi, “Far-infrared study of substrate-effect on large scale graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-T.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koschny, T.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341(6146), 620–621 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwak, M. H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Landy, N. I.

Lavrinenko, A. V.

Lederer, F.

Lee, C.

J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, S. Bae, K. S. Kim, B. H. Hong, and E. J. Choi, “Far-infrared study of substrate-effect on large scale graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201907 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. S.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

Liu, L.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Luo, J. D.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, X. G.

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, G.-B.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

Ma, X. L.

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martin, M.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milne, W. I.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Min, B.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naeem, M.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Nagatsuma, T. D.

H. J. Song and T. D. Nagatsuma, “Present and future of terahertz communications,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 256–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Padilla, W. J.

K. B. Fan and W. J. Padilla, “Dynamic electromagnetic metamaterials,” Mater. Today 18(1), 39–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palit, S.

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pan, W. B.

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, N.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, R. W.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Perruisseau-Carrier, J.

Polishak, B.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Poutrina, E.

D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pryce, I. M.

Pu, M. B.

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reiten, M. T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Rockstuhl, C.

Rodriguez, B. S.

B. S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schwab, M. G.

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sensale-Rodriguez, B.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, J.

Shen, Y. R.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, J.

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R.

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Singh, R. J.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. J. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, H. J.

H. J. Song and T. D. Nagatsuma, “Present and future of terahertz communications,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 256–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341(6146), 620–621 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sweatlock, L. A.

Tahy, K.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, H.

Tassin, P.

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341(6146), 620–621 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Z.

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tuncer, H. M.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Twieg, R. J.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tyler, T.

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

Valdes, N. N.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vallejo, F. A.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walavalkar, S.

Wang, C. T.

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. Q.

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Williams, G. P.

G. P. Williams, “Filling the THz gap-high power sources and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 69(2), 301–326 (2006).
[Crossref]

Williams, J. C.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Withayachumnankul, W.

W. Withayachumnankul and D. Abbott, “Metamaterials in the terahertz regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 99–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Xing, H.

B. S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xing, H. G.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, X.

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, N. N.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. J. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, R.

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

B. Yang, W. M. Ye, X. D. Yuan, Z. H. Zhu, and C. Zeng, “Design of ultrathin plasmonic quarter-wave plate based on period coupling,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 679–681 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, W. M.

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, X. D.

Zeng, C.

Zeng, Y.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, W.

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. L.

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. J. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, B.

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

Zhao, J. M.

B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, M.

Zhou, X. H.

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23196–23203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z. H.

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

X. L. Ma, W. B. Pan, C. Huang, M. B. Pu, Y. Q. Wang, B. Zhao, J. H. Cui, C. T. Wang, and X. G. Luo, “An active metamaterial for polarization manipulating,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(10), 945–949 (2014).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

G. F. Brand, “The strip grating as a circular polarizer,” Am. J. Phys. 71(5), 452 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

J. Y. Kim, C. Lee, S. Bae, K. S. Kim, B. H. Hong, and E. J. Choi, “Far-infrared study of substrate-effect on large scale graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(20), 201907 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Cong, W. Cao, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, J. Gu, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “A perfect metamaterial polarization rotator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(17), 171107 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. S. Rodriguez, T. Fang, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. Xing, “Unique prospects for graphene-based terahertz modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 113104 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Huang, E. Poutrina, and D. R. Smith, “Analysis of the power dependent tuning of a varactor-loaded metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 104104 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Zhu, Y. J. Feng, C. Huang, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Switchable metamaterial reflector/absorber for different polarized electromagnetic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(5), 051906 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, S. Palit, T. Tyler, C. M. Bingham, J. M. O. Zide, J. F. O’Hara, D. R. Smith, A. C. Gossard, R. D. Averitt, W. J. Padilla, N. M. Jokerst, and A. J. Taylor, “Hybrid metamaterials enable fast electrical modulation of freely propagating terahertz waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091117 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

W. Withayachumnankul and D. Abbott, “Metamaterials in the terahertz regime,” IEEE Photonics J. 1(2), 99–118 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

H. J. Song and T. D. Nagatsuma, “Present and future of terahertz communications,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 256–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. D. Cunningham, N. N. Valdes, F. A. Vallejo, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, X. H. Zhou, J. D. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, J. C. Williams, and R. J. Twieg, “Broadband terahertz characterization of the refractive index and absorption of some important polymeric and organic electro-optic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(4), 043505 (2011).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

L. Q. Cong, N. N. Xu, J. Q. Gu, R. J. Singh, J. G. Han, and W. L. Zhang, “Highly flexible broadband terahertz metamaterial quarter-wave plate,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 626–632 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mater. Today (1)

K. B. Fan and W. J. Padilla, “Dynamic electromagnetic metamaterials,” Mater. Today 18(1), 39–50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3, 870 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3, 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C. G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

M. Choi, S. H. Lee, Y. Kim, S. B. Kang, J. Shin, M. H. Kwak, K.-Y. Kang, Y.-H. Lee, N. Park, and B. Min, “A terahertz metamaterial with unnaturally high refractive index,” Nature 470(7334), 369–373 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, V. I. Fal’ko, L. Colombo, P. R. Gellert, M. G. Schwab, and K. Kim, “A roadmap for graphene,” Nature 490(7419), 192–200 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

R. Alaee, M. Farhat, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “A perfect absorber made of a graphene micro-ribbon metamaterial,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28017–28024 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, Y. Feng, B. Zhu, J. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Graphene based tunable metamaterial absorber and polarization modulation in terahertz frequency,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22743–22752 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Andryieuski and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Graphene metamaterials based tunable terahertz absorber: effective surface conductivity approach,” Opt. Express 21(7), 9144–9155 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zhu, Y. Feng, J. Zhao, C. Huang, Z. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Polarization modulation by tunable electromagnetic metamaterial reflector/absorber,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23196–23203 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Bingham, H. Tao, X. Liu, R. D. Averitt, X. Zhang, and W. J. Padilla, “Planar wallpaper group metamaterials for novel terahertz applications,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18565–18575 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Gómez-Díaz and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Graphene-based plasmonic switches at near infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15490–15504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Efficient multiband and broadband cross polarization converters based on slotted L-shaped nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 22(23), 29143–29151 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

S. C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y. S. Hu, Y. H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R. W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Prog. Electromagn. Res. B (1)

B. Zhu, C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, and T. Jiang, “Dual band switchable metamaterial electromagnetic absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. B 24, 121–129 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

G. P. Williams, “Filling the THz gap-high power sources and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 69(2), 301–326 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

B. Wu, H. M. Tuncer, M. Naeem, B. Yang, M. T. Cole, W. I. Milne, and Y. Hao, “Experimental demonstration of a transparent graphene millimetre wave absorber with 28% fractional bandwidth at 140 GHz,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4130 (2014).
[PubMed]

Science (3)

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341(6146), 620–621 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. Goldstein and D. H. Goldstein, “The Stokes Polarization Parameters,” in Polarized Light, Revised and Expanded (Marcel Dekker Inc., 2003), pp. 49–81.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the unit cell of the graphene based switchable QWP.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Amplitude transmissions, phase difference between co- and cross-polarization components, and the corresponding ellipticity χ for LCP QWP in the (a) biased (μc = 0.5 eV) and (b) unbiased (μc = 0 eV) state. The polarization rotation angle of co-polarization transmission wave is also represented in (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Amplitude transmissions, phase difference and the corresponding ellipticity χ of switchable QWP for RCP in the (a) biased (μc = 0.5 eV) and (b) unbiased (μc = 0 eV) state. The polarization rotation angle of co-polarization transmission wave is also represented in (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmission phase difference (a), as well as the transmission and reflection amplitudes for the first graphene grating layer (b), and the third gold grating layer (c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The ellipticity χ under different oblique incidence angle φ ((a) and (b)), and θ ((c) and (d)). The chemical potential μc is kept as 0.5 eV ((a) and (c)), or 0 eV ((b) and (d)) by different voltage biasing.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The graphene based dual-function switchable QWP with three output states.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Amplitude transmissions, phase difference and the corresponding ellipticity χ of dual-function switchable QWP at state 1 (a), state 2 (b), and state 3 (c). The polarization rotation angle of the co-polarization transmission wave is also represented in (c).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimal geometrical parameters of the graphene based switchable QWP.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ S = σ i n t r a ( ω , μ c , Γ , T ) + σ i n t e r ( ω , μ c , Γ , T ) ,
σ i n t r a ( ω , μ c , Γ , T ) = j e 2 k B T π 2 ( ω j 2 Γ ) ( μ c k B T + 2 ln ( e μ c / k B T + 1 ) ) ,
σ inter ( ω , μ c , Γ , T ) j e 2 4 π ln ( 2 | μ c | ( ω j 2 Γ ) 2 | μ c | + ( ω j 2 Γ ) ) ,
E F = μ c ν f π ε r ε 0 V g e t s ,
S 0 = | t ˜ y y | 2 + | t ˜ x y | 2 ,
S 1 = | t ˜ y y | 2 | t ˜ x y | 2 ,
S 2 = 2 | t ˜ y y | | t ˜ x y | cos φ d i f f ,
S 3 = 2 | t ˜ y y | | t ˜ x y | sin φ d i f f .

Metrics