Abstract

Satellite–ground quantum communication requires single-photon detectors of 850-nm wavelength with both high detection efficiency and large sensitive area. We developed superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on one-dimensional photonic crystals, which acted as optical cavities to enhance the optical absorption, with a sensitive-area diameter of 50 μm. The fabricated multimode fiber coupled NbN SNSPDs exhibited a maximum system detection efficiency (DE) of up to 82% and a DE of 78% at a dark count rate of 100 Hz at 850-nm wavelength as well as a system jitter of 105 ps.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) have received considerable attention because of their high detection efficiency (DE), low timing jitter, high count rate, and low dark count rate (DCR). In the past decade, the optical absorptions have been significantly enhanced due to integration of optical cavities that successfully increased the DE to over 70% and even to 90% at a wavelength of 1550 nm [17], enabling numerous impressive applications such as long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) [8, 9], space-ground laser communication [10], depth imaging [11, 12], and on-chip characterization of nanophotonic circuits [5]. However, many applications still require single-photon detectors (SPDs) with high DE at wavelengths other than 1550 nm. In addition, a large sensitive area is another prerequisite for some applications because free space coupling is typically used, such as for satellite–ground QKD at 850 nm [13, 14]; satellite laser ranging designed at 1064, 850, or 532 nm [15, 16]; fluorescence spectroscopy at 635 nm [17]; and many other free-space coupling applications. Recently, some key experimental verifications have been conducted toward satellite–ground QKD, and the Chinese satellite is planned to launch in 2016 [14, 18]. The SPD used in the satellite–ground QKD project is a PerkinElmer SPCM-AQRH-16 with multimode-fiber–coupled (MMF-coupled) avalanche photodiodes (APDs) [14], which has a DE of over 45% with a sensitive area of D = 180 μm and DCR of 25 Hz at 850 nm.

Previous work on large-sensitive-area SNSPD (D = 35 μm) was reported with the maximal DE over 70% at visible wavelengths (~50% at 850-nm wavelength) [19]. In this work, we first demonstrated SNSPDs with high performance at the wavelength of 850 nm. To enhance the absorption at 850 nm, a specific substrate with a one-dimensional (1-D) photonic crystal (PC) comprising dielectric films are used. The sensitive area diameter is 50 μm, which to the best of our knowledge, has the largest sensitive area for a single pixel SNSPD [2023]. By optimizing the linewidth and the spacing, the best device showed a maximal DE of 82% and DE of 78% at DCR of 100 Hz, which have prospective applications in free space satellite-ground quantum communication.

2. Device design and fabrication

Our devices were designed on the basis of a 1-D PC to enhance the absorption of the nanowire, as illustrated in Fig. 1(a) . In the 1-D PC, the periodic structure will result in a photonic band gap, in which the photons are forbidden from propagating through and are reflected back. Thus, the optical absorption of the nanowire fabricated on the PC can be enhanced. Common PC materials include Ta2O5 and SiO2 bilayers with refractive indices of nTa2O5 = 2.05 and nSiO2 = 1.47, respectively, which were measured using spectroscopic ellipsometer at a wavelength of λ0 = 850 nm at room temperature. For a resonance absorptance around the target wavelength, the thicknesses of the layers are designed to be a quarter wavelength of λ0, L1 = 104 nm for Ta2O5 and L2 = 145 nm for SiO2. Theoretically, we can achieve a reflectivity infinitely close to unity by increasing the number of the bilayers. Here, we selected 13 bilayers for high reflectivity and acceptable fabrication complexity. Similar PC structures have also been applied to improve the absorption of the SNSPD for other wavelengths [19, 24].

 

Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the SNSPD based on PC substrate. (b) TEM image of a cross section of the nanowire on the PC substrate. The PC structure was formed by multiple layers of alternating Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers on a Si substrate. (c) SEM of the active area with a diameter of 50 µm; (d) Magnified SEM image of nanowire with width w = 120 nm and pitch p = 200 nm. (e) Reflectivity of the PC based on Si substrate (blue) consisting of 13 bilayers composed of Ta2O5 and SiO2, absorptance of the nanowire for parallel polarization waves All (red), perpendicular polarization waves A (green) and the average absorptance A=(All+A)/2 (yellow) for normal incidence calculated using the RCWA method; (f) The calculated average absorptance A versus pitch and width of nanowire with thickness of 6.5 nm.

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Experimentally, the 13 periodic SiO2/Ta2O5 bilayers are alternatively deposited one layer at a time on a Si substrate using ion beam sputtering, with the film thickness monitored to ensure adherence to the designed layer thickness. The measured surface roughness of the PC is less than 3 Å, and the measured reflectivity at 850 nm is more than 99%. Then, an ultrathin NbN film is deposited on the PC substrate at room temperature using reactive DC magnetron sputtering in a mixture of Ar and N2 gases (partial pressures of 79% and 21%, respectively). The thickness of the film was controlled by the sputtering time and verified using X-ray reflectometry. NbN was selected because NbN SNSPD exhibits excellent performance at 2.1 K using a commercial Gifford–McMahon cryocooler. The film was patterned into a meandered nanowire structure by electron beam lithography (EBL) using a positive-tone polymethyl methacrylate electron-beam resist and was reactively etched in CF4 plasma. Proximity-effect correction was not carried out for EBL process and the nominal linewidth of the nanowire were estimated according to SEM images and the layout parameters. Then, a 50-Ω-matched coplanar waveguide was formed using ultraviolet lithography and reactive ion etching. A cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the nanowire as well as the PC substrate is presented in Fig. 1(b). Figure 1(c) presents a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of the active area with a diameter of 50 µm. The magnified SEM image for the nanowire is shown in Fig. 1(d), indicating the width/pitch of 120 nm/200 nm.

To quantitatively investigate the optical absorption of SNSPDs, an electromagnetic (EM) simulation is required [1, 4, 25]. We performed an EM simulation using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) method, in which the EM field in the periodic grating region (nanowire region) is expanded into a sum of spatial harmonics on the basis of Floquet’s theorem. The refractive index of NbN, n NbN = 4.53 + 4.57i, at approximately 850 nm was obtained using a spectroscopic ellipsometer, and the refractive index and thickness of the Si substrate were n Si = 3.46 and l = 400 μm, respectively. The polarization dependence of the SNSPD may limit the DE when an SNSPD is coupled with an MMF because the polarization in MMFs is difficult to control because of the coupling of different propagating modes caused by the fiber imperfections, such as index inhomogeneity, core ellipticity and eccentricity, and bends. Therefore, in the simulation, we define the average absorptance A=(All+A)/2 to represent the average absorptance of our structure, where All and A are the calculated absorptance for the parallel and perpendicular polarization plane waves, respectively. Figure 1(e) shows the calculated absorptance All, A, and A for normal incidence. One can see the absorption peaks around the target wavelength 850 nm for both polarizations resulting from the resonance effect of structure. An average absorptance A of 89.4% can be achieved with this structure at 850-nm wavelength. The thickness, pitch, and width of the NbN nanowire were selected to be 6.5, 200, and 120 nm in the calculation, respectively. The detailed nanowire pitch and width dependence of the average absorptance A were also calculated, and the results are presented in Fig. 1(f), which helped us to optimize the geometric parameters of the nanowires. We noticed that a higher filling ratio was beneficial to achieve a high absorption, which is different from the optical design for 1550 nm [4].

In our devices, the photons are directly guided to the SNSPD through a front-side aligned lensed fiber. The graded index lenses were spliced to the tip of the MMF with a 50-μm-diameter core. The incident light spot was focused to a minimal diameter 2w of about 30 μm (the beam waist) where the device was located. The fractional power for a Gaussian beam of the spot size 2w focusing on a centered circular nanowire area of diameter 2r is given by Pc=2πrI(r)dr=1e2r2w2, where I(r)=2πw2e2r2w2 is the normalized radial field intensity variation. Thus, to obtain a good coupling, the diameter 2r of the nanowire area was selected to be 50 μm with Pc = 0.996.

3. Results and discussion

In our experiment, SNSPDs with various geometric parameters (film thickness, nanowire width and pitch) were fabricated to experimentally determine the optimized detection efficiency. The SNSPDs were packaged into a copper block, such that a lensed multi-mode fiber could be directly aligned with the sensitive area from the front-side. The focus of the fiber was located on the center of the meandered nanowire, which ensured a maximal optical coupling from the fiber to device. The package was mounted to the cold head of a two-stage Gifford–McMahon cryocooler with a working temperature of 2.100 ± 0.005 K. To measure DE, a pulsed laser was selected as the photon source. The single mode fiber (SMF) laser module was directly connected to the MMF aligned to the SNSPD. Thus only a small fraction of the core of the MM fiber was illuminated. No specific actions were taken to populate a large number of modes in the MMF. But this should not affect the measured DE since the diameter of SNSPD is large enough to ensure nearly unity coupling as described in the last paragraph and most of our devices showed a saturated DE behavior. The laser was then heavily attenuated to achieve a photon flux of 105 photons/s. The DE of the detector was defined as DE = (OPR − DCR)/PR, where OPR is the output pulse rate of the SNSPD, as measured using a photon counter; DCR is the dark count rate when the laser is blocked; and PR is the total photon rate input to the system. At each bias current, an automated shutter in a variable attenuator blocked the laser light, and dark counts were collected for 10 s using a commercial counter. The light was then unblocked, and output photon counts were collected for another 10 s. Errors due to the calibration of the laser power were less than 3% given by the power meter, and the laser power fluctuation was less than 1%. Figure 2 shows the DE relations of the bias current for 15 different devices from three wafers with different NbN film thicknesses. Each wafer included 25 devices with different geometric parameters. The yield for different geometries varies on the fill factor. The yield for the devices with a small fill factor (≤120/250) is ~80%, while the yield for the devices with a large fill factor (≥120/200) is only ~20%. The best detectors were picked up for the same geometric parameter. All the curves in Fig. 2 are marked with the parameters of the nanowires (thickness/width/fill factor).

 

Fig. 2 DE as a function of the bias current for different devices. The curves are marked with the size of the nanowire as thickness/width/fill factor.

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A few interesting results were obtained from these curves. Apparently, a high DE MMF coupled SNSPDs with a sensitive area D = 50 μm was obtained at 850-nm wavelength. The maximum system DE reaches 82% for the device with the geometric parameters 6.5/120/0.6 and 78% at DCR of 100 Hz, which is the highest value reported at the 850-nm wavelength. In comparison, the best commercial product Si APD (ID120-500-800 from ID Quantique Inc.) exhibits a DE of approximately 65% at 850 nm wavelength with a DCR down to 200 Hz. On the other hand, the measured DE of SNSPD is an averaged DE for the parallel and perpendicular polarization waves, which implies that the DE for the parallel polarization photons may be higher.

The curves in Fig. 2 have three groups corresponding to different film thickness. The switching currents of SNSPDs increased with the film thickness. For devices with the same thickness, the switching current tends to increase when the nanowire width was increased (see the 6/110 and 6/135 devices, 8/110 and 8/135 devices). It is reasonable and consistent with the previous report [26]. However, for the SNSPDs with same film thickness and nominal linewidth, we observed higher inflection currents (also higher switching currents) and higher DE for the higher filling factors (see the 6/110, 8/110 devices). The higher DE is consistent with the simulation result in Fig. 1(f). The higher inflection/switching currents can be explained by the EBL process without the proximity effect correction. When the filling factor of a meander is decreased (i.e. the pitch is increased), the nanowire linewidth tends to decrease with respect to the nominal width due to the proximity effect (over-exposure effect) in EBL process, which results in smaller switching currents and smaller inflection currents. Oppositely, many devices with a very high fill factor (for example, 6.5/120/0.67) had a relatively low switching current and DE (not shown here). This phenomenon may be explained by the current crowding effect at the 180° turn around at the end of straight nanowires [27, 28], even though the round corner design has already been applied in the structure. Even for the two detectors with maximal DE over 80% (6.5/115/0.61 and 6.5/120/0.6), we do not observe obvious saturation behavior, which indicates that the current crowding effect may also affect their switching current. Therefore, calculating an optimized high fill ratio without an evident current crowding effect is still necessary.

The DE can be expressed as DE = Pcouple × Pabs × Ppulse × (1-Ploss),where Pcouple is the coupling efficiency between the incident light and the active area, Pabs is the absorptance of nanowire, Ppulse is the pulse generation probability of the nanowire and Ploss represents any other optical loss in the system. Figure 3 shows the dependence of the calculated Pabs and measured maximum DE on the pitch for three different film thicknesses and linewidths extracted from Fig. 2. One can see that the system DE decreases with the increase of the pitch, which is consistent with the calculation. The lower DE compared with the calculated absorption is mainly attributed to the system optical loss and the imperfect fabrication.

 

Fig. 3 Maximum measured DE extracted from Fig. 2 and simulated absorptance as functions of pitch. The simulated results are presented as solid lines, and the measured results are marked with diamonds and triangles. The sizes of the nanowire are marked as thickness/width (d/w).

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For the SNSPD with the highest DE of 82% (6.5/120/0.6), the DCR and jitter were characterized, and the results are presented in Fig. 4 . The DE is approximately 78%/67% with DCR = 100 Hz/10 Hz obtained from Fig. 4(a). The timing jitter of the SNSPD was measured using the time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) method [29]. At a bias current of 17.0 μA (DCR = 100 Hz), the timing jitter defined by the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) value of the histogram is 105.3 ps. The jitter value is higher than the jitter (~75.7 ps) of the SNSPD with a sensitive area of 35 μm [19]. One possible reason is the relative smaller switching current of our device (18.0 μA vs. 30.3 μA). One contribution of the system timing jitter is the jitter attributed to the signal noise ratio, which is proportional to σn/k, where σn and k are the root-mean-square noise of the signal and the slope of the rising edge of the signal [29]. σn is mainly determined by the noise of the amplifier and k roughly equals to the amplitude of the signal divided by the rising time. As a result, the higher bias current gives a higher signal amplitude, which corresponds to a lower timing jitter. On the other hand, the large sensitive area gives a larger kinetic inductance, which results in a longer rising time. The longer rising time causes a smaller k, thus producing a larger jitter.

 

Fig. 4 (a) DE as a function of DCR for the SNSPD with the highest DE. The DE is approximately 78%/67% with DCR = 100 Hz/10 Hz. (b) Histograms of the time-correlated photon counts measured at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The red lines are the fitted curves using the Gaussian distribution. (c) Oscilloscope persistence map of the response at a bias current of 17.0 μA.

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Finally, to estimate the response speed, the measured oscilloscope persistence trace is presented in Fig. 4(c), which indicates a recovery time constant τ of approximately 160 ns. In addition, we measured an inductance Lk of 8.0 μH by fitting the phase of the reflection coefficient using a network analyzer [23]. The inductance gives a recover time constant τ = Lk/RL = 8.0 μH/50 Ω = 160 ns, which agrees well with the oscilloscope persistence trace, where RL is the impedance of the load side.

4. Conclusions and outlook

We designed, fabricated, and characterized NbN SNSPDs at 850-nm wavelength on a PC substrate with a sensitive area diameter of 50 μm. The PC structure effectively acts as a cavity to enhance the absorption of incident photons. The MMF coupled SNSPDs exhibit the maximum system DE of up to 82% and system DE of 78% at DCR = 100 Hz, which is the highest DE reported for an SPD at 850 nm wavelength. In addition, the PC substrate can be designed and fabricated by adapting to any wavelengths from the visible to the near infrared. Thus, the SNSPDs fabricated on PC substrates can achieve high DE for vis–NIR wavelengths.

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61401441, and 61401443), Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB04010200&XDB04020100), and National Basic Research Program of China (2011CBA00202).

References and links

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9. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007). [CrossRef]  

10. D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

11. S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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References

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  1. F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).
  8. Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).
  11. S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. J. Degnan, “Satellite laser ranging:current status and future prosoects,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. 23(4), 398–413 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
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  17. T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
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  18. Y. Li, S. K. Liao, X. L. Chen, W. Chen, K. Cheng, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, T. Wang, H. Q. Yang, W. Y. Liu, J. Yin, H. Liang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27281–27289 (2014).
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  19. D. Liu, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, L. You, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21167–21174 (2014).
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  20. L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
  23. S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
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  25. V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
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  26. F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
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  27. J. R. Clem and K. K. Berggren, “Geometry-dependent critical currents in superconducting nanocircuits,” Phys. Rev. B 84(17), 174510 (2011).
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  29. L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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2014 (7)

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Li, S. K. Liao, X. L. Chen, W. Chen, K. Cheng, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, T. Wang, H. Q. Yang, W. Y. Liu, J. Yin, H. Liang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27281–27289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Liu, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, L. You, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21167–21174 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (9)

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

M. K. Akhlaghi, H. Atikian, A. Eftekharian, M. Loncar, and A. H. Majedi, “Reduced dark counts in optimized geometries for superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23610–23616 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. R. Clem and K. K. Berggren, “Geometry-dependent critical currents in superconducting nanocircuits,” Phys. Rev. B 84(17), 174510 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

J. J. Degnan, “Satellite laser ranging:current status and future prosoects,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. 23(4), 398–413 (1985).
[Crossref]

Akhlaghi, M. K.

Anant, V.

Antipov, A.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atikian, H.

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bar, J.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bellei, F.

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berggren, K. K.

Bitauld, D.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bohi, P.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Buller, G. S.

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Casaburi, A.

F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. J.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. Y.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W.

Chen, X. L.

Chen, Y.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, K.

Clem, J. R.

J. R. Clem and K. K. Berggren, “Geometry-dependent critical currents in superconducting nanocircuits,” Phys. Rev. B 84(17), 174510 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cova, S.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cristiano, R.

F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cross, A.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dane, A. E.

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dauler, E. A.

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, “Satellite laser ranging:current status and future prosoects,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. 23(4), 398–413 (1985).
[Crossref]

Dorenbos, S. N.

Eftekharian, A.

Ejrnaes, M.

F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fiore, A.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Frick, S.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, C.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, M.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gaggero, A.

F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gemmell, N. R.

Gerrits, T.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gol’tsman, G.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gol’tsman, G. N.

Goltsman, G. N.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Górska, M.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Grabiec, P.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Grein, M. E.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

Gu, M.

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guan, J. Y.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hadfield, R. H.

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hamhuis, G. J.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haraguchi, T.

Harrington, S.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

He, Y.

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hiraoka, Y.

Honjo, T.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Horwath, J.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jia, J.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jia, T.

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M.

Jiang, X.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, L.

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kansky, J. E.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

Kaurova, N.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kerman, A. J.

Kinjo, M.

Komissarov, I.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Korneev, A.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Krichel, N. J.

Lafon, R. E.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

Latta, C.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Leoni, R.

F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

Li, M.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Liang, H.

Y. Li, S. K. Liao, X. L. Chen, W. Chen, K. Cheng, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, T. Wang, H. Q. Yang, W. Y. Liu, J. Yin, H. Liang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27281–27289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liao, S.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liao, S. K.

Lita, A. E.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

Liu, W.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. Y.

Liu, X.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

Lv, C.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

Ma, X.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majedi, A. H.

Marsili, F.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mattioli, F.

F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

McCarthy, A.

Miki, S.

Miller, A. J.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Milostnaya, I.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Minaeva, O.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mirin, R. P.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moll, F.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Molnar, R. J.

D. Rosenberg, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and E. A. Dauler, “High-speed and high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single photon detector array,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1440–1447 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murphy, D. V.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

Najafi, F.

F. Marsili, F. Bellei, F. Najafi, A. E. Dane, E. A. Dauler, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 μm wavelength,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4799–4804 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nam, S. W.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nauerth, S.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nejad, S. J.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
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Nötzel, R.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
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W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
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Pagano, S.

F. Mattioli, M. Ejrnaes, A. Gaggero, A. Casaburi, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, and R. Leoni, “Large area single photon detectors based on parallel configuration NbN nanowires,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 30(3), 031204 (2012).
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Pan, G.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pan, J.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pan, J. W.

Y. Li, S. K. Liao, X. L. Chen, W. Chen, K. Cheng, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, T. Wang, H. Q. Yang, W. Y. Liu, J. Yin, H. Liang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27281–27289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearlman, A.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pellegrini, S.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Peng, C.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peng, C. Z.

Peng, W.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

Pernice, W. H. P.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rau, M.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ren, J.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ren, M.

Ren, X.

Rosenberg, D.

Rosfjord, K. M.

Sahin, D.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sanjines, R.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, M.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schuck, C.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulein, R. T.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

Sergienko, A. V.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaw, M. D.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, Q.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Slysz, W.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, K.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smith, J. M.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sobolewski, R.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stern, J. A.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tang, H. X.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, Y.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y. L.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanner, M. G.

Terai, H.

Vayshenker, I.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Verevkin, A.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Verma, V. B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Voronov, B.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Voronov, B. M.

Wallace, A. M.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, “Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 11(6), 712–716 (2000).
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Wan, C.

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wan, Z.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

Wang, J.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Wang, Z.

T. Yamashita, D. Liu, S. Miki, J. Yamamoto, T. Haraguchi, M. Kinjo, Y. Hiraoka, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy with visible-wavelength superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28783–28789 (2014).
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D. Liu, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, L. You, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21167–21174 (2014).
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Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27177–27184 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wegrzecki, M.

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weinfurter, H.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Willis, M. M.

D. V. Murphy, J. E. Kansky, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, M. M. Willis, and R. E. Lafon, “LLCD operations using the lunar lasercom ground terminal,” Proc. SPIE 8971, 89710V (2014).

Wu, G.

Wu, J.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, P.

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, X.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, R.

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, J.

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, T.

Yang, B.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. X.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H. Q.

Yang, J. K. W.

Yang, S.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yin, H. L.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
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Yin, J.

Y. Li, S. K. Liao, X. L. Chen, W. Chen, K. Cheng, Y. Cao, H. L. Yong, T. Wang, H. Q. Yang, W. Y. Liu, J. Yin, H. Liang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27281–27289 (2014).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yong, H. L.

You, L.

D. Liu, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, L. You, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21167–21174 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
[Crossref]

You, L. X.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

Zhang, L.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
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H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
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L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
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Zhang, W.

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. You, Y. He, W. Zhang, X. Yang, G. Wu, M. Ren, H. Zeng, Z. Wang, X. Xie, and M. Jiang, “Time-of-flight laser ranging and imaging at 1550 nm using low-jitter superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3241–3245 (2013).
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L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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Zhang, W. J.

Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
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Y. L. Tang, H. L. Yin, S. J. Chen, Y. Liu, W. J. Zhang, X. Jiang, L. Zhang, J. Wang, L. X. You, J. Y. Guan, D. X. Yang, Z. Wang, H. Liang, Z. Zhang, N. Zhou, X. Ma, T. Y. Chen, Q. Zhang, and J. W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over 200 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(19), 190501 (2014).
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Zwiller, V.

A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
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AIP Advances (1)

L. You, X. Yang, Y. He, W. Zhang, D. Liu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Wang, and X. Xie, “Jitter analysis of a superconducting nanowire single photon detector,” AIP Advances 3(7), 072135 (2013).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. Słysz, M. Węgrzecki, J. Bar, P. Grabiec, M. Górska, V. Zwiller, C. Latta, P. Bohi, I. Milostnaya, O. Minaeva, A. Antipov, O. Okunev, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, N. Kaurova, G. Gol’tsman, A. Pearlman, A. Cross, I. Komissarov, A. Verevkin, and R. Sobolewski, “Fiber-coupled single-photon detectors based on NbN superconducting nanostructures for practical quantum cryptography and photon-correlation studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261113 (2006).
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S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, B. Baek, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 061116 (2008).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Li, W. Zhang, L. You, L. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chen, C. Lv, W. Peng, Z. Wan, and X. Xie, “Nonideal optical cavity structure of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(6), 3803705 (2014).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

L. Zhang, M. Gu, T. Jia, R. Xu, C. Wan, L. Kang, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Multi-mode fiber coupled superconductor nanowire single-photon detector,” IEEE Photonics J. 6(5), 6802608 (2014).
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IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote. (1)

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Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

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Nat. Commun. (1)

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (4)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 210–214 (2013).
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H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 343–348 (2007).
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Opt. Express (10)

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A. McCarthy, N. J. Krichel, N. R. Gemmell, X. Ren, M. G. Tanner, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, R. H. Hadfield, and G. S. Buller, “Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection,” Opt. Express 21(7), 8904–8915 (2013).
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D. Liu, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, L. You, Z. Wang, and H. Terai, “Multimode fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with 70% system efficiency at visible wavelength,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21167–21174 (2014).
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S. Miki, T. Yamashita, H. Terai, and Z. Wang, “High performance fiber-coupled NbTiN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with Gifford-McMahon cryocooler,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10208–10214 (2013).
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K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the SNSPD based on PC substrate. (b) TEM image of a cross section of the nanowire on the PC substrate. The PC structure was formed by multiple layers of alternating Ta2O5 and SiO2 layers on a Si substrate. (c) SEM of the active area with a diameter of 50 µm; (d) Magnified SEM image of nanowire with width w = 120 nm and pitch p = 200 nm. (e) Reflectivity of the PC based on Si substrate (blue) consisting of 13 bilayers composed of Ta2O5 and SiO2, absorptance of the nanowire for parallel polarization waves A l l (red), perpendicular polarization waves A (green) and the average absorptance A = ( A l l + A ) / 2 (yellow) for normal incidence calculated using the RCWA method; (f) The calculated average absorptance A versus pitch and width of nanowire with thickness of 6.5 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 DE as a function of the bias current for different devices. The curves are marked with the size of the nanowire as thickness/width/fill factor.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Maximum measured DE extracted from Fig. 2 and simulated absorptance as functions of pitch. The simulated results are presented as solid lines, and the measured results are marked with diamonds and triangles. The sizes of the nanowire are marked as thickness/width (d/w).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) DE as a function of DCR for the SNSPD with the highest DE. The DE is approximately 78%/67% with DCR = 100 Hz/10 Hz. (b) Histograms of the time-correlated photon counts measured at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The red lines are the fitted curves using the Gaussian distribution. (c) Oscilloscope persistence map of the response at a bias current of 17.0 μA.

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