Abstract

Single-photon (SP) sources are important for a number of optical quantum information processing applications. We study the possibility to integrate triggered solid-state SP emitters directly on a photonic chip. A major challenge consists in efficiently extracting their emission into a single guided mode. Using 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations, we investigate the SP emission from dipole-like nanometer-sized inclusions embedded into different silicon nitride (SiNx) photonic nanowire waveguide designs. We elucidate the effect of the geometry on the emission lifetime and the polarization of the emitted SP. The results show that highly efficient and polarized SP sources can be realized using suspended SiNx slot-waveguides. Combining this with the well-established CMOS-compatible processing technology, fully integrated and complex optical circuits for quantum optics experiments can be developed.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Single-photon (SP) sources are important for a number of optical quantum information processing applications such as quantum computing [13], quantum cryptography [46], and random number generation [7]. In these applications, the photon wave function is processed by performing operations such as polarization rotations, phase shifts and path splitting/recombination in order to en- or decode information. In early demonstrations of quantum computing and quantum communication protocols, these operations were usually performed with table-top optical components [8, 9], and later with fibre optics elements [1012]. These approaches offer high flexibility but suffer from thermal and mechanical instabilities that hinder their scalability. Complex optical circuits are best realized using integrated photonic devices on a micro-chip. Many recent experiments successfully validated this approach by performing quantum optics experiments with photons propagating in integrated photonic circuits [1316].

In this work, we study the possibility to integrate triggered solid-state SP emitters directly on a photonic chip. A major challenge consists in efficiently extracting their emission into a single guided mode. This is seen by many as a stumbling block precluding their usage in practical implementations. In 2010, a record photon extraction efficiency of 72% was first demonstrated by embedding the SP emitter into a tapered photonic nanowire [1719]. Following this approach, we consider different source designs in which the SP emitter is embedded into a photonic nanowire waveguide. This contrasts with the traditional approach consisting in placing the emitter in a high Q/V cavity, a method that is only efficient for very narrowband emitters such as epitaxially grown quantum dots at cryogenic temperatures. A good polarization control is key to most applications, including linear quantum computing and quantum cryptography. As shown in this work, efficient, directive, and broadband SP sources with well defined polarization states can be engineered.

We specifically investigate photonic chips made of silicon nitride (SiNx) devices. SiNx is an amorphous material that has a larger refractive index than silica (n = 2) and is highly transparent in both visible and near-infrared ranges. In addition, SiNx devices and circuits can be realized on a silicon-on-insulator chip using standard CMOS compatible processing technologies. This technology is suitable for developing a universal platform for quantum optics and quantum information processing applications in conjunction with many common solid-state emitters. It offers the possibility to embed alien solid-state inclusions acting as SP emitters directly inside the SiNx host. Such inclusions can be colloidal quantum dots [2023], nanoparticles containing a single color centre [24, 25], or nanoparticles doped with a single ion [26]. This approach offers a very flexible route to future on-chip quantum optics experiments by separating the engineering of the emitter from the engineering of the photonic circuit itself. In addition this approach would also be scalable since it allows many integrated SP sources and optical circuits to operate in parallel. In this prospect, colloidal quantum dots are of primary interest for proof-of-principal demonstrations because of their ability to emit single photons with a quantum yield as high as 80% at room temperatures [2023] and the fact that their embedding in SiNx photonic structures has been recently achieved [27].

We investigate the SP emission from dipole-like nanometer-sized inclusions embedded in four types of SiNx waveguiding structures as represented in Fig. 1. The first and simplest structure is a strip SiNx waveguide on the top of a silicon oxide (SiOx) substrate (Fig. 1(a)). A more elaborated design giving better performance consists in a slot waveguide in which a SiOx layer is sandwiched between a lower and upper SiNx layer (Fig. 1(c)). Using wet etching the substrate can be removed to created suspended strip and slot waveguides such as those represented in Figs. 1(b) and 1(c), respectively. In each case, the SP emitter is positioned at the center of the structure. They are assumed to be effectively degenerate two-level systems with no preferential dipole moment orientation. Several experiments and theoretical works investigated light emission in such silicon stripe and slot structures [2830]. Here, we extend this work to realistic 3D SiNx structures. More importantly, we elucidate the effect of the geometry on the emission lifetime and the polarization of the emitted single photons.

 

Fig. 1 Layout of the simulated structures. (a) Silicon nitride (SiNx) strip waveguide on top of silicon oxide (SiOx) substrate. (b) suspended SiNx strip waveguide. (c) SiNx slot waveguide on top of SiOx substrate with SiOx slot. (d) suspended SiNx slot waveguide with SiOx slot. The dipole is located at the center of the waveguide (red dot).

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2. Light emission from randomly polarized dipoles

As is well known, both the spontaneous emission rate and the radiation pattern of the light emitted by a quantum dipole transition depend on the environment into which the light is emitted. The spontaneous emission rate from a non degenerate two-level dipole transition is given by Fermi’s Golden Rule [31]:

Γ=2π2σ|dEσ(re)|2ρσ(ω)
where ω and d are the Bohr frequency and the dipole moment matrix element of the transition. The sum runs over all the optical modes (labelled by the index σ) that are coupled to the emitter. Here, ρσ (ω) stands for the mode density at frequency of the transition and Eσ(re)=ω2ε0vσ(re) for the modal vacuum field amplitude. The modal function vσ (re) is normalized such that ∫ n2(r) |v(r)|2d3r = 1, where n(r) is the index of refraction of the environment. From Eq. (1), we see that two main factors influence the spontaneous emission rate: (i) the modal field intensities at the position of the emitter and (ii) the spectral densities of the modes at the frequency of the emitting transition. The modes to take into account include guided modes as well as radiated modes. With a careful design of the waveguide one can modify both these factors by changing the number of guided modes (with specific polarization; TE or TM) and their mode profiles. The resulting spontaneous emission rate can be quite different from the rate Γ0 that one would observe if the emitter was embedded in a homogeneous medium of index n(re). The enhancement (or inhibition) of the spontaneous emission rate due to the structuring of the photonic environment of the emitter is expressed by the Purcell factor
F=Γ0Γ0

In the case of a randomly polarized SP emitter, the orientation of the dipole moment d is random. Each orientation direction i ∈ {x, y, z} can be seen as an independent de-excitation channel for the emitter. Therefore the total spontaneous emission rate is the sum of the spontaneous emission rates Γi corresponding to each possible orientation: Γ=iΓi. In a nanostructured environment such as a waveguide, the rates Γi will generally differ from each other and so will the Purcell factors Fi = Γi0 associated to each possible vibration direction. The spontaneous emission enhancement is measured by the Purcell factor: F=Γ/Γ0=iFi. When a single photon is emitted as a result of a de-excitation process, the probability that it is emitted by a dipole oscillating in the i-direction is

pi=ΓiΓ=FiF
Waveguides can be engineered such that a dipole oscillating in a specific direction has a much larger Purcell factor than a dipole oscillating in any other two directions. In such a case, the photonic environment would turn an intrinsically unpolarized emitter into a polarized one, one with a pi which is much larger than the pi for the other directions.

To make an efficient directional SP source, the light from the SP emitter must mainly couple to the guided modes of the waveguide. Since photon emission into the guided and radiated modes can be seen as independent de-excitation channels, each spontaneous emission rate Γi=Γig+Γir can be further split into an emission rate into the guided modes ( Γig) and an emission rate into the radiated modes ( Γir). The fraction of light that is emitted by an i-polarized dipole into the guided modes of the waveguiding structure, is equal to fi=Γig/Γi. For a randomly polarized SP emitter, the probability that a photon is emitted into the guided modes is given by the coupling efficiency

β=ipifi=1ΓiΓig
The fraction of the guided light originating from an i-polarized oscillating dipole is given by the factor
βi=pifi=ΓigΓ
Hence, an efficient, directional and polarized SP source requires that one of the βi-factors, either βy or βz, is as close as possible to one (see coordinate system in Fig. 1).

3. Results and discussion

Light emission from a SP emitting inclusion embedded in the four photonic structures represented in Fig. 1 has been investigated by performing 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. In all simulations the emitter is located at the center of the waveguide and is emitting at a wavelength of 650 nm. A photon emitted in a waveguide is in a superposition of two opposite propagation directions. The waveguide coupling factors and emission rates mentioned in the text account for both propagation directions (±x). A directional emission can be obtained by placing a reflector at one end of the waveguide.

3.1. Strip waveguides

Strip waveguides are simple to design and to fabricate using standard lithographic techniques. In the case depicted in Fig. 1(a), the strip waveguide lies on a thick silicon oxide layer (refractive index n = 1.46) on a silicon chip. The case in Fig. 1(b) corresponds to an under-etched waveguide: the silicon oxide layer under the waveguide has been chemically removed and the waveguide is suspended above the silicon chip. Both cases were simulated for different values of the waveguide width (W) and height (H) (see Fig. 1).

Figure 2(a) displays the fraction of the light radiated by a oscillating dipole which is effectively coupled to guided modes. The coupled fraction fy (fz) radiated by a horizontally (vertically) oscillating dipole is plotted with dashed (plain) lines. A dipole oscillating in the longitudinal (x) direction does not couple efficiently to the waveguide (fx < 0.028 in all cases).

 

Fig. 2 Strip SiNx waveguide on substrate: a) fraction of light radiated by a y-oscillating dipole (fy, dashed line) and by a z-oscillating dipole (fz, plain line) that is coupled to the guided modes as a function of the waveguide width W for three different waveguide heights H = 200 nm (red), 220 nm (blue), and 300 nm (black). b) Mode profiles of the two guided modes for a waveguide with H = 220 nm and W = 350 nm. Top: fundamental TE mode. Bottom: fundamental TM mode.

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Three waveguide heights are considered: H = 200 nm (red curves), 220 nm (blue curves), and 300 nm (black curves). For each value of H, fy and fz are plotted as a function of the width W, ranging between 150 and 350 nm. In this parameter range, the waveguide can only support one TM mode and/or one TE mode. A vertically oscillating dipole couples mainly to the TM mode while a horizontally oscillating dipole couples mainly to the TE mode. When the width is swept from lower to higher values, the TM mode appears first. The mode profiles for a waveguide with H = 220 nm and W = 350 nm are shown in Fig. 2(b). Figure 2(a) shows that the TM (TE) is supported from W = 160 nm (W = 230 nm) in waveguides with H = 300 nm, and from larger widths in the case of thinner waveguides. fy and fz on the order of 50% and 65% respectively are achievable in 300 nm thick waveguides.

FDTD simulations were performed to calculate the radiation damping rates for dipoles oscillating in the three i-directions. The deduced Purcell factors Fi are found to be almost independent of the dipole polarization direction and the resulting probabilities pi to emit in a specific polarization range between 0.21 and 0.45 in the entire range of interest. In Fig. 3, the total coupling factor β (Fig. 3(a)) and the partial coupling factors βy and βz (Fig. 3(b)) are shown for the same waveguide geometries as in Fig. 2. For the taller waveguides (H = 300 nm), Fig. 3(a) shows that the coupling to the waveguide is only 25% in the single mode regime since only the field radiated by the z-polarization is guided. However, the collected light is perfectly polarized (TM mode). In the two-mode regime a collection efficiency of 40% can be reached at the expense of loosing the control over the polarization state of the collected photon. Clearly the light collection efficiency in a strip SiNx waveguide is not high enough to make an efficient single photon source. However, the coupling can be dramatically improved by modifying the design of the waveguide.

 

Fig. 3 Strip SiNx waveguide on substrate: a) Total coupling factor β to the guided modes as a function of the waveguide width W for three different waveguide heights H = 200 nm (red), 220 nm (blue), and 300 nm (black). b) Polarization dependent coupling factors βy (dashed line) and βz (plain line) as a function of the waveguide width W for three different waveguide heights H = 200 nm (red), 220 nm (blue), and 300 nm (black).

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The simplest modification consists in underetching the strip waveguide to create a suspended structure such as the one depicted in Fig. 1(b). The underetching provides a better light confinement of the guided modes which improves the coupling to the emitter. In the range of heights and widths considered here the waveguide supports at least two modes: the fundamental TE and the following TM mode. Fig. 4 shows that for taller waveguides (H = 220 nm, blue lines), the partial Purcell factors Fi range between 0.6 and 1.1. As in the case of SiNx strip waveguides, this does not provide sufficient polarization selectivity to force the dipole to oscillate preferentially in one specific direction, and since the suspended waveguide always supports both a TE and a TM mode (see the mode profiles in Fig. 4(b)), no polarization selectivity of the photon source can be expected in this case. In thin waveguides, the field of the TM mode is expelled from within the waveguide. This is clearly seen in Fig. 4(c) for a waveguide with H = 100 nm. As a consequence the radiation of a z-polarized dipole is significantly inhibited (see Eq. 1), resulting in a small Fz < 0.16 factor. An unpolarized emitter placed in such a thin suspended waveguide would radiate as a y-polarized dipole with a probability py as high as 55% and potentially lead to highly polarized guided photons if the coupling to the TE mode is strong enough.

 

Fig. 4 Suspended SiNx waveguide: a) Partial Purcell factor Fy (dashed line), and Fz (plain line) as a function of the waveguide width W for two waveguide heights: H = 100 nm (red line) and H = 220 nm (blue line). Mode profiles of guided fundamental TE and TM modes for a waveguide with dimensions: b) H = 220 nm and W = 350 nm, c) H = 100 nm and W = 350 nm.

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The total coupling factor β is plotted as a function of W in Fig. 5(a) for waveguides with heights H = 100 nm (red line) and H = 220 nm (blue line). In Fig. 5(b), the corresponding partial coupling factors βy (dashed lines) and βz (plain lines) are displayed. The coupling factor βx is omitted because it is negligible for H = 100 nm and does not exceed 14% for H = 220 nm. In the case of tall waveguides (H = 220 nm, blue line), the underetching significantly improves the coupling to guided modes, the β factor reaching values higher than 60%. This is essentially due to a better field confinement as can be seen by comparing the field profiles of Fig. 4(b) to those of Fig. 2(b). However no polarization control is achievable in this case because the geometry does not provide a sufficient Purcell enhancement/inhibition and βy and βz have similar values, as shown in Fig. 5(b). In the case of thin waveguides (H = 100 nm, red line), a β-factor of 43% can be reached. The value is lower than in the case of tall waveguides because the confinement of the TM mode is worse. However, the geometry allows for a remarkable control over the polarization of the photons coupled to the waveguide. Indeed, Fig. 5 shows that the collected light is almost completely polarized in the y-direction, e.g. βy = 95% for a width W = 310 nm. In other words, the thin suspended waveguide geometry turns a completely unpolarized single-photon emitter into a linearly polarized single-photon source with a reasonable photon collection efficiency of 43%.

 

Fig. 5 Suspended SiNx waveguide: a) Total coupling factor β to the guided modes as a function of the waveguide width W for two different waveguide heights H = 100 nm (red) and 220 nm (blue). b) Polarization dependent coupling factors βy (dashed line) and βz (plain line) as a function of the waveguide width W for two different waveguide heights H = 100 nm (red) and 220 nm (blue).

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3.2. Slot waveguides

The efficiency of the photon/waveguide coupling can be enhanced by embedding the emitter into a thin SiOx layer in the center of the SiNx waveguide (see Figs. 1(c) and 1(d)). This kind of waveguide is called a slot-waveguide. Due to the continuity of the displacement field at any interface, this nanometer-sized slot of low index material (n = 1.46) in between two higher index (n = 2) regions results in a discontinuity of the electric field near the slot boundaries. Hence a large electric field develops in the low-index slot region for the mode which has its polarization orthogonal to the slot, in this case the TM mode (z-polarization). This improves the mode confinement and enhances the field strength at the position of the emitter, improving the coupling of the light emission into the waveguide.

To illustrate the performance enhancement provided by a thin SiOx-slot, let us consider the case of a tall (H > W) SiNx strip waveguide only supporting a single TM mode (see Figs. 2(a) and 3). Such waveguides allows for the emission of perfectly polarized guided single-photons. Without a slot, the coupling efficiency factor is only β = 25%. Figure 6(a) shows how introducing a 20-nm SiOx slot improves the coupling efficiency. The taller the waveguide the easier single-mode operation can be achieved over a wide range of widths. For H = 500 nm, a β-factor of 37% can be reached. The light coupled into the waveguide is entirely polarized along the z-direction (ββz), see Fig. 6(b). Simulations show that departing from the chosen slot height Hg = 20 nm does not change β significantly (Hg±10 nm ≈ β±4%). Fig. 6(c) shows the mode profiles of the supported TE and TM modes for H = 220 nm and W = 350 nm. Comparing with Fig. 2(b), we see that the TE-mode is not significantly modified by the slot, while the TM-mode shows an enhancement of the local field strength within the slot. The same local field enhancement is observed for tall waveguides (H > W) and is responsible for the improved coupling of the emitted photon to the single TM-mode, as discussed above.

 

Fig. 6 SiN Slot waveguide on substrate: a) Total coupling factor β to the guided modes as a function of the waveguide width W for three different waveguide heights H = 220 nm (red), 300 nm (blue) and 500 nm (black). b) Polarization dependent coupling factors βy (dashed line) and βz (plain line) for the same waveguide dimensions as in a. The slot height is Hg = 20 nm. c) mode profiles of the two guided modes for a waveguide with H = 220 nm and W = 350 nm. Top: fundamental TE mode. Bottom: fundamental TM mode.

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The best coupling efficiencies in this study are obtained for suspended slot-waveguides, as in Fig. 1(d). Figure 7(a) displays the partial Purcell factors Fy (dashed lines), and Fz (plain lines) as a function of the waveguide width W for two waveguide heights: H = 300 nm (red line) and H = 500 nm (blue line). In striking contrast with the suspended waveguide without a slot (see Fig. 4(a)), the partial Purcell factor Fz now takes values significantly higher than one, ranging between 2.6 and 4.4 in the investigated range. Also notice that the partial Purcell factor Fy can be made much smaller than one when W approaches 100 nm. This shows that one can simultaneously enhance the spontaneous emission from a z-polarized dipole and inhibit the spontaneous emission from a y-polarized dipole. In that case, a highly polarized emission is expected in a TM-mode, despite the existence of a TE-mode. The simultaneous enhancement of Fz and reduction of Fy can be understood by looking at the mode profiles. Figure 7(b) shows that the slot enhances the strength of the TM modal field at the center of the waveguide where the emitter is positioned. The enhancement is stronger when there is no substrate under the waveguide since the modal area is smaller. It is responsible for the high values of Fz over the entire range of parameters. The reduced value of Fy is explained by the phenomenon already observed in Fig. 4(c). When the waveguide becomes thin enough in one particular dimension, the field of the mode polarized orthogonally to that direction is expelled from the centre of the waveguide, resulting in a reduced matter light coupling. Here, the TE-field is expelled from the waveguide when W < 150 nm, which results in a Fy-value significantly smaller than one.

 

Fig. 7 Suspended SiNx slot-waveguide: a) Partial Purcell factor Fy (dashed line), and Fz (plain line) as a function of the waveguide width W for two waveguide heights: H=300nm (red line) and H=500nm (blue line).b) Mode profiles of guided fundamental TE and TM modes for a waveguide with dimensions: b) H = 220 nm and W = 350 nm, c) H = 300 nm and W = 130 nm.

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Figure 8 displays the total coupling factor β and the partial coupling factors βy and βz for suspended slot-waveguides with height H = 300 nm (red lines) and H = 500 nm (blue lines). Figure 8(a) shows that, for both heights, the waveguide geometry leads to coupling factors as high as β = 59% when W = 120 nm. Figure 8(b) further shows that the βzy ratio is higher in the H = 300 nm case than in the H = 500 nm case, in accordance with the discussion above and the Purcell factors displayed in Fig. 7(a). For W = 120 nm, βx is negligible, βy = 3%, and βz = 56%. This results in a very high polarization ratio βz = 96% for the guided light. Going to wider waveguides results in a higher β but also in a lower polarization ratio. A maximal overall coupling of 67% is found for a waveguide with dimension H = 300 nm and W = 220 nm, and βz = 74%. Replacing the SiOx layer by an air slot, would result in even higher Purcell factors (Fz up to 14) and hence an even higher degree of polarization (98%) and total coupling (59%) can be achieved.

 

Fig. 8 Suspended SiNx slot-waveguide: a) Total coupling factor β to the guided modes as a function of the waveguide width W for two different waveguide heights H = 300 nm (red) and 500 nm (blue). b) Polarization dependent coupling factors βy (dashed line) and βz (plain line) as a function of the waveguide width W for two different waveguide heights H = 300 nm (red) and 500 nm (blue).

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Conclusions

Our study shows that high efficiency in-plane SP sources can in principal be realized using SiNx photonic devices as simple as waveguides. We showed that light from a SP emitter can be efficiently coupled to the waveguide. High coupling factors β ranging between 40% and 67% were found in the four waveguide geometries under investigation. Furthermore, we showed that under certain geometrical conditions, the emitted photon can be coupled to a single polarized guided (TE or TM) mode. In that case, an effective polarized SP source is built even if the SP emitter itself is unpolarized. In suspended strip waveguides, we show that one can simultaneously achieve a good coupling factor β = 43% and a high polarization ratio βy =95%. In suspended slot waveguides, a higher coupling factor β = 56% is achievable in combination with a similar polarization ratio βz =96%.

These results demonstrate that high efficiency single-photon sources and complex optical circuits can be combined on a single photonic chip for quantum optics experiments. The SiNx sources and optical circuits can be manufactured using well-established CMOS-compatible processing technology. Because the SiNx transparency range extends from the visible to the infrared, the envisaged platform is compatible with several types SP emitting inclusions such as colloidal quantum dots, nanoparticles containing a single color centre, and single-ion doped nanoparticles.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the Belgian Science Policy Office (IAP 7.35 photonics@be) and the Horizon2020 program (MSCA-ETN phonsi) for funding this research.

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28. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-sizelow-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1626–1628 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006). [CrossRef]  

30. Y. C. Chul, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, and M. L. Brongersma, “Broadband enhancement of light emission in silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 7479–7490 (2009). [CrossRef]  

31. J.-M. Gérard and B. Gayral, “Strong purcell effect for InAs quantum boxes in three-dimensional solid-state microcavities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2089–2095 (1999). [CrossRef]  

References

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  • |

  1. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Varnava, D. E. Browne, and T. Rudolph, “How good must single photon sources and detectors be for efficient linear optical quantum computation?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 060502 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature 464, 45–53 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301–1350 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Rau, T. Heindel, S. Unsleber, T. Braun, J. Fischer, S. Frick, S. Nauerth, C. Schneider, G. Vest, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Höfling, and H. Weinfurter, “Free space quantum key distribution over 500 meters using electrically driven quantum dot single-photon sources: a proof of principle experiment,” New J. Phys. 16, 043003 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Takeuchi, “Experimental demonstration of a three-qubit quantum computation algorithm using a single photon and linear optics,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 032301 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Brainis, L.-P. Lamoureux, N. J. Cerf, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Massar, “Fiber-optics implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa and Bernstein-Vazirani quantum algorithms with three qubits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 157902 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. L.-P. Lamoureux, E. Brainis, D. Amans, J. Barrett, and S. Massar, “Provably secure experimental quantum bit-string generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 050503 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. L.-P. Lamoureux, E. Brainis, N. J. Cerf, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Massar, “Experimental error filtration for quantum communication over highly noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230501 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Integrated multimode interferometers with arbitrary designs for photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7, 545–549 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W.S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N.K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339, 798–801 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, M. Bentivegna, D. J. Brod, A. Crespi, F. Flamini, S. Giacomini, G. Milani, R. Ramponi, P. Mataloni, R. Osellame, E. F. Galvão, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental validation of photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 8, 615–620 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).
  18. N. Gregersen, T. R. Nielsen, J. Mørk, J. Claudon, and J.-M. Gérard, “Designs for high-efficiency electrically pumped photonic nanowire single-photon sources,” Opt. Express 18, 21204–21218 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. E. Reimer, G. Bulgarini, N. Akopian, M. Hocevar, M. B. Bavinck, M. A. Verheijen, E.P.A.M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “Bright single-photon sources in bottom-up tailored nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 3, 737 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6, 99 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “”giant” multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5026–5027 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. B. Mahler, P. Spinicelli, S. Buil, X. Quelin, J.-P. Hermier, and B. Dubertret, “Towards non-blinking colloidal quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 7, 659–664 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. F. Pisanello, L. Martiradonna, G. Leménager, P. Spinicelli, A. Fiore, L. Manna, J.-P. Hermier, R. Cingolani, E. Giacobino, M. De Vittorio, and A. Bramati, “Room temperature-dipolelike single photon source with a colloidal dot-in-rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033101 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Beveratos, R. Brouri, T. Gacoin, J.-P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Nonclassical radiation from diamond nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 061802 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y. Shen, T. M. Sweeney, and H. Wang, “Zero-phonon linewidth of single nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. C 77, 033201 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  26. R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1029 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161101 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-sizelow-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1626–1628 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  30. Y. C. Chul, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, and M. L. Brongersma, “Broadband enhancement of light emission in silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 7479–7490 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  31. J.-M. Gérard and B. Gayral, “Strong purcell effect for InAs quantum boxes in three-dimensional solid-state microcavities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2089–2095 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. Rau, T. Heindel, S. Unsleber, T. Braun, J. Fischer, S. Frick, S. Nauerth, C. Schneider, G. Vest, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Höfling, and H. Weinfurter, “Free space quantum key distribution over 500 meters using electrically driven quantum dot single-photon sources: a proof of principle experiment,” New J. Phys. 16, 043003 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, M. Bentivegna, D. J. Brod, A. Crespi, F. Flamini, S. Giacomini, G. Milani, R. Ramponi, P. Mataloni, R. Osellame, E. F. Galvão, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental validation of photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 8, 615–620 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W.S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N.K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339, 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Integrated multimode interferometers with arbitrary designs for photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7, 545–549 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

M. E. Reimer, G. Bulgarini, N. Akopian, M. Hocevar, M. B. Bavinck, M. A. Verheijen, E.P.A.M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “Bright single-photon sources in bottom-up tailored nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 3, 737 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1029 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

F. Pisanello, L. Martiradonna, G. Leménager, P. Spinicelli, A. Fiore, L. Manna, J.-P. Hermier, R. Cingolani, E. Giacobino, M. De Vittorio, and A. Bramati, “Room temperature-dipolelike single photon source with a colloidal dot-in-rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033101 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).

N. Gregersen, T. R. Nielsen, J. Mørk, J. Claudon, and J.-M. Gérard, “Designs for high-efficiency electrically pumped photonic nanowire single-photon sources,” Opt. Express 18, 21204–21218 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature 464, 45–53 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chul, R. M. Briggs, H. A. Atwater, and M. L. Brongersma, “Broadband enhancement of light emission in silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 17, 7479–7490 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

Y. Shen, T. M. Sweeney, and H. Wang, “Zero-phonon linewidth of single nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. C 77, 033201 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “”giant” multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5026–5027 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Mahler, P. Spinicelli, S. Buil, X. Quelin, J.-P. Hermier, and B. Dubertret, “Towards non-blinking colloidal quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 7, 659–664 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, postprocessing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Varnava, D. E. Browne, and T. Rudolph, “How good must single photon sources and detectors be for efficient linear optical quantum computation?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 060502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320, 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

L.-P. Lamoureux, E. Brainis, D. Amans, J. Barrett, and S. Massar, “Provably secure experimental quantum bit-string generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 050503 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-P. Lamoureux, E. Brainis, N. J. Cerf, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Massar, “Experimental error filtration for quantum communication over highly noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230501 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6, 99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-sizelow-refractive-index material,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1626–1628 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

E. Brainis, L.-P. Lamoureux, N. J. Cerf, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Massar, “Fiber-optics implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa and Bernstein-Vazirani quantum algorithms with three qubits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 157902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Beveratos, R. Brouri, T. Gacoin, J.-P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Nonclassical radiation from diamond nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 061802 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Takeuchi, “Experimental demonstration of a three-qubit quantum computation algorithm using a single photon and linear optics,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 032301 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).
[Crossref]

Akopian, N.

M. E. Reimer, G. Bulgarini, N. Akopian, M. Hocevar, M. B. Bavinck, M. A. Verheijen, E.P.A.M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “Bright single-photon sources in bottom-up tailored nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 3, 737 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Amans, D.

L.-P. Lamoureux, E. Brainis, D. Amans, J. Barrett, and S. Massar, “Provably secure experimental quantum bit-string generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 050503 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

Bakkers, E.P.A.M.

M. E. Reimer, G. Bulgarini, N. Akopian, M. Hocevar, M. B. Bavinck, M. A. Verheijen, E.P.A.M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “Bright single-photon sources in bottom-up tailored nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 3, 737 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbieri, M.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W.S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N.K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339, 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barrett, J.

L.-P. Lamoureux, E. Brainis, D. Amans, J. Barrett, and S. Massar, “Provably secure experimental quantum bit-string generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 050503 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bavinck, M. B.

M. E. Reimer, G. Bulgarini, N. Akopian, M. Hocevar, M. B. Bavinck, M. A. Verheijen, E.P.A.M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “Bright single-photon sources in bottom-up tailored nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 3, 737 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bazin, M.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bentivegna, M.

N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, M. Bentivegna, D. J. Brod, A. Crespi, F. Flamini, S. Giacomini, G. Milani, R. Ramponi, P. Mataloni, R. Osellame, E. F. Galvão, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental validation of photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 8, 615–620 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bessette, F.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).
[Crossref]

Beveratos, A.

A. Beveratos, R. Brouri, T. Gacoin, J.-P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Nonclassical radiation from diamond nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 061802 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bleuse, J.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).

Brainis, E.

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161101 (2012).
[Crossref]

L.-P. Lamoureux, E. Brainis, D. Amans, J. Barrett, and S. Massar, “Provably secure experimental quantum bit-string generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 050503 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-P. Lamoureux, E. Brainis, N. J. Cerf, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Massar, “Experimental error filtration for quantum communication over highly noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230501 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Brainis, L.-P. Lamoureux, N. J. Cerf, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Massar, “Fiber-optics implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa and Bernstein-Vazirani quantum algorithms with three qubits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 157902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bramati, A.

F. Pisanello, L. Martiradonna, G. Leménager, P. Spinicelli, A. Fiore, L. Manna, J.-P. Hermier, R. Cingolani, E. Giacobino, M. De Vittorio, and A. Bramati, “Room temperature-dipolelike single photon source with a colloidal dot-in-rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, and J. Smolin, “Experimental quantum cryptography,” J. Cryptology 5, 3–28 (1992).
[Crossref]

Braun, T.

M. Rau, T. Heindel, S. Unsleber, T. Braun, J. Fischer, S. Frick, S. Nauerth, C. Schneider, G. Vest, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Höfling, and H. Weinfurter, “Free space quantum key distribution over 500 meters using electrically driven quantum dot single-photon sources: a proof of principle experiment,” New J. Phys. 16, 043003 (2014).
[Crossref]

Briggs, R. M.

Brod, D. J.

N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, M. Bentivegna, D. J. Brod, A. Crespi, F. Flamini, S. Giacomini, G. Milani, R. Ramponi, P. Mataloni, R. Osellame, E. F. Galvão, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental validation of photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 8, 615–620 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Integrated multimode interferometers with arbitrary designs for photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7, 545–549 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brokmann, X.

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6, 99 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

Brouri, R.

A. Beveratos, R. Brouri, T. Gacoin, J.-P. Poizat, and P. Grangier, “Nonclassical radiation from diamond nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 061802 (2001).
[Crossref]

Browne, D. E.

M. Varnava, D. E. Browne, and T. Rudolph, “How good must single photon sources and detectors be for efficient linear optical quantum computation?” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 060502 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buil, S.

B. Mahler, P. Spinicelli, S. Buil, X. Quelin, J.-P. Hermier, and B. Dubertret, “Towards non-blinking colloidal quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 7, 659–664 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulgarini, G.

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N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, M. Bentivegna, D. J. Brod, A. Crespi, F. Flamini, S. Giacomini, G. Milani, R. Ramponi, P. Mataloni, R. Osellame, E. F. Galvão, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental validation of photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 8, 615–620 (2014).
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B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161101 (2012).
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F. Pisanello, L. Martiradonna, G. Leménager, P. Spinicelli, A. Fiore, L. Manna, J.-P. Hermier, R. Cingolani, E. Giacobino, M. De Vittorio, and A. Bramati, “Room temperature-dipolelike single photon source with a colloidal dot-in-rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033101 (2010).
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F. Pisanello, L. Martiradonna, G. Leménager, P. Spinicelli, A. Fiore, L. Manna, J.-P. Hermier, R. Cingolani, E. Giacobino, M. De Vittorio, and A. Bramati, “Room temperature-dipolelike single photon source with a colloidal dot-in-rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033101 (2010).
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M. Rau, T. Heindel, S. Unsleber, T. Braun, J. Fischer, S. Frick, S. Nauerth, C. Schneider, G. Vest, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Höfling, and H. Weinfurter, “Free space quantum key distribution over 500 meters using electrically driven quantum dot single-photon sources: a proof of principle experiment,” New J. Phys. 16, 043003 (2014).
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N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, M. Bentivegna, D. J. Brod, A. Crespi, F. Flamini, S. Giacomini, G. Milani, R. Ramponi, P. Mataloni, R. Osellame, E. F. Galvão, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental validation of photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 8, 615–620 (2014).
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A. Crespi, R. Osellame, R. Ramponi, D. J. Brod, E. F. Galvão, N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, E. Maiorino, P. Mataloni, and F. Sciarrino, “Integrated multimode interferometers with arbitrary designs for photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7, 545–549 (2013).
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J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W.S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N.K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339, 798–801 (2013).
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Geiregat, P.

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161101 (2012).
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M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
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J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).

Gérard, J.-M.

Giacobino, E.

F. Pisanello, L. Martiradonna, G. Leménager, P. Spinicelli, A. Fiore, L. Manna, J.-P. Hermier, R. Cingolani, E. Giacobino, M. De Vittorio, and A. Bramati, “Room temperature-dipolelike single photon source with a colloidal dot-in-rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033101 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6, 99 (2004).
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N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, M. Bentivegna, D. J. Brod, A. Crespi, F. Flamini, S. Giacomini, G. Milani, R. Ramponi, P. Mataloni, R. Osellame, E. F. Galvão, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental validation of photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 8, 615–620 (2014).
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J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).

N. Gregersen, T. R. Nielsen, J. Mørk, J. Claudon, and J.-M. Gérard, “Designs for high-efficiency electrically pumped photonic nanowire single-photon sources,” Opt. Express 18, 21204–21218 (2010).
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L.-P. Lamoureux, E. Brainis, N. J. Cerf, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Massar, “Experimental error filtration for quantum communication over highly noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230501 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Brainis, L.-P. Lamoureux, N. J. Cerf, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Massar, “Fiber-optics implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa and Bernstein-Vazirani quantum algorithms with three qubits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 157902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hassinen, A.

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161101 (2012).
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M. Rau, T. Heindel, S. Unsleber, T. Braun, J. Fischer, S. Frick, S. Nauerth, C. Schneider, G. Vest, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Höfling, and H. Weinfurter, “Free space quantum key distribution over 500 meters using electrically driven quantum dot single-photon sources: a proof of principle experiment,” New J. Phys. 16, 043003 (2014).
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R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1029 (2012).
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B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161101 (2012).
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X. Brokmann, G. Messin, P. Desbiolles, E. Giacobino, M. Dahan, and J. P. Hermier, “Colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots as single-photon sources,” New J. Phys. 6, 99 (2004).
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F. Pisanello, L. Martiradonna, G. Leménager, P. Spinicelli, A. Fiore, L. Manna, J.-P. Hermier, R. Cingolani, E. Giacobino, M. De Vittorio, and A. Bramati, “Room temperature-dipolelike single photon source with a colloidal dot-in-rod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 033101 (2010).
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B. Mahler, P. Spinicelli, S. Buil, X. Quelin, J.-P. Hermier, and B. Dubertret, “Towards non-blinking colloidal quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 7, 659–664 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hocevar, M.

M. E. Reimer, G. Bulgarini, N. Akopian, M. Hocevar, M. B. Bavinck, M. A. Verheijen, E.P.A.M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “Bright single-photon sources in bottom-up tailored nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 3, 737 (2012).
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Höfling, S.

M. Rau, T. Heindel, S. Unsleber, T. Braun, J. Fischer, S. Frick, S. Nauerth, C. Schneider, G. Vest, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Höfling, and H. Weinfurter, “Free space quantum key distribution over 500 meters using electrically driven quantum dot single-photon sources: a proof of principle experiment,” New J. Phys. 16, 043003 (2014).
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Hollingsworth, J. A.

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “”giant” multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5026–5027 (2008).
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Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “”giant” multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5026–5027 (2008).
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J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W.S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N.K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339, 798–801 (2013).
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Irrera, A.

M. Galli, D. Gerace, A. Politi, M. Liscidini, M. Patrini, L. C. Andreani, A. Canino, M. Miritello, R. L. Savio, A. Irrera, and F. Priolo, “Direct evidence of light confinement and emission enhancement in active silicon-on-insulator slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 241114 (2006).
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Jaffrennou, P.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).

Jelezko, F.

T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature 464, 45–53 (2010).
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Jin, X.-M.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W.S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N.K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339, 798–801 (2013).
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Kamp, M.

M. Rau, T. Heindel, S. Unsleber, T. Braun, J. Fischer, S. Frick, S. Nauerth, C. Schneider, G. Vest, S. Reitzenstein, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, S. Höfling, and H. Weinfurter, “Free space quantum key distribution over 500 meters using electrically driven quantum dot single-photon sources: a proof of principle experiment,” New J. Phys. 16, 043003 (2014).
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Klimov, V. I.

Y. Chen, J. Vela, H. Htoon, J. L. Casson, D. J. Werder, D. A. Bussian, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “”giant” multishell CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots with suppressed blinking,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 5026–5027 (2008).
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Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolesov, R.

R. Kolesov, K. Xia, R. Reuter, R. Stöhr, A. Zappe, J. Meijer, P. R. Hemmer, and J. Wrachtrup, “Optical detection of a single rare-earth ion in a crystal,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1029 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolthammer, W.S.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W.S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N.K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339, 798–801 (2013).
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Komorowska, K.

B. De Geyter, K. Komorowska, E. Brainis, P. Emplit, P. Geiregat, A. Hassinen, Z. Hens, and D. Van Thourhout, “From fabrication to mode mapping in silicon nitride microdisks with embedded colloidal quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 161101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kouwenhoven, L. P.

M. E. Reimer, G. Bulgarini, N. Akopian, M. Hocevar, M. B. Bavinck, M. A. Verheijen, E.P.A.M. Bakkers, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “Bright single-photon sources in bottom-up tailored nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 3, 737 (2012).
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Kundys, D.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W.S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N.K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339, 798–801 (2013).
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T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature 464, 45–53 (2010).
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Laflamme, R.

T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature 464, 45–53 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
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Lalanne, P.

J. Claudon, J. Bleuse, N. S. Malik, M. Bazin, P. Jaffrennou, N. Gregersen, C. Sauvan, P. Lalanne, and J.-M. Gerard, “A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 4, 174–177 (2010).

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L.-P. Lamoureux, E. Brainis, D. Amans, J. Barrett, and S. Massar, “Provably secure experimental quantum bit-string generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 050503 (2005).
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L.-P. Lamoureux, E. Brainis, N. J. Cerf, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Massar, “Experimental error filtration for quantum communication over highly noisy channels,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230501 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Brainis, L.-P. Lamoureux, N. J. Cerf, P. Emplit, M. Haelterman, and S. Massar, “Fiber-optics implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa and Bernstein-Vazirani quantum algorithms with three qubits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 157902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langford, N.K.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W.S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N.K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339, 798–801 (2013).
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Leménager, G.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Layout of the simulated structures. (a) Silicon nitride (SiNx) strip waveguide on top of silicon oxide (SiOx) substrate. (b) suspended SiNx strip waveguide. (c) SiNx slot waveguide on top of SiOx substrate with SiOx slot. (d) suspended SiNx slot waveguide with SiOx slot. The dipole is located at the center of the waveguide (red dot).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Strip SiNx waveguide on substrate: a) fraction of light radiated by a y-oscillating dipole (fy, dashed line) and by a z-oscillating dipole (fz, plain line) that is coupled to the guided modes as a function of the waveguide width W for three different waveguide heights H = 200 nm (red), 220 nm (blue), and 300 nm (black). b) Mode profiles of the two guided modes for a waveguide with H = 220 nm and W = 350 nm. Top: fundamental TE mode. Bottom: fundamental TM mode.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Strip SiNx waveguide on substrate: a) Total coupling factor β to the guided modes as a function of the waveguide width W for three different waveguide heights H = 200 nm (red), 220 nm (blue), and 300 nm (black). b) Polarization dependent coupling factors βy (dashed line) and βz (plain line) as a function of the waveguide width W for three different waveguide heights H = 200 nm (red), 220 nm (blue), and 300 nm (black).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Suspended SiNx waveguide: a) Partial Purcell factor Fy (dashed line), and Fz (plain line) as a function of the waveguide width W for two waveguide heights: H = 100 nm (red line) and H = 220 nm (blue line). Mode profiles of guided fundamental TE and TM modes for a waveguide with dimensions: b) H = 220 nm and W = 350 nm, c) H = 100 nm and W = 350 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Suspended SiNx waveguide: a) Total coupling factor β to the guided modes as a function of the waveguide width W for two different waveguide heights H = 100 nm (red) and 220 nm (blue). b) Polarization dependent coupling factors βy (dashed line) and βz (plain line) as a function of the waveguide width W for two different waveguide heights H = 100 nm (red) and 220 nm (blue).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SiN Slot waveguide on substrate: a) Total coupling factor β to the guided modes as a function of the waveguide width W for three different waveguide heights H = 220 nm (red), 300 nm (blue) and 500 nm (black). b) Polarization dependent coupling factors βy (dashed line) and βz (plain line) for the same waveguide dimensions as in a. The slot height is Hg = 20 nm. c) mode profiles of the two guided modes for a waveguide with H = 220 nm and W = 350 nm. Top: fundamental TE mode. Bottom: fundamental TM mode.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Suspended SiNx slot-waveguide: a) Partial Purcell factor Fy (dashed line), and Fz (plain line) as a function of the waveguide width W for two waveguide heights: H=300nm (red line) and H=500nm (blue line).b) Mode profiles of guided fundamental TE and TM modes for a waveguide with dimensions: b) H = 220 nm and W = 350 nm, c) H = 300 nm and W = 130 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Suspended SiNx slot-waveguide: a) Total coupling factor β to the guided modes as a function of the waveguide width W for two different waveguide heights H = 300 nm (red) and 500 nm (blue). b) Polarization dependent coupling factors βy (dashed line) and βz (plain line) as a function of the waveguide width W for two different waveguide heights H = 300 nm (red) and 500 nm (blue).

Equations (5)

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Γ = 2 π 2 σ | d E σ ( r e ) | 2 ρ σ ( ω )
F = Γ 0 Γ 0
p i = Γ i Γ = F i F
β = i p i f i = 1 Γ i Γ i g
β i = p i f i = Γ i g Γ

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