Abstract

We present a kind of harmonic mode locking of bound-state solitons in a fiber laser based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber (SA). The mode locker is fabricated by depositing MoS2 nanosheets on a D-shaped fiber (DF). In the fiber laser, two solitons form the bound-state pulses with a temporal separation of 3.4 ps, and the bound-state pulses are equally distributed at a repetition rate of 125 MHz, corresponding to 14th harmonics of fundamental cavity repetition rate (8.968 MHz). Single- and multiple-pulses emissions are also observed by changing the pump power and optimizing the DF based MoS2 SA. Our experiment demonstrates an interesting operation regime of mode-locked fiber laser, and shows that DF based MoS2 SA can work as a promising high-power mode locker in ultrafast lasers.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Ultrafast lasers have attracted great research interests due to their important applications in nonlinear optics, fiber optic communication, material processing, frequency comb and so on [1–3]. Q-switching and mode locking are common techniques for generating ultrashort pulses [4–7]. For passively mode locked fiber lasers, a mode locker is indispensable to sharpen the pulse in temporal domain. Various mode locking devices have been developed in past decades, such as Kerr lens [8], nonlinear optical loop mirror [9], nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) [10, 11], semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) [12, 13], carbon nanotube [14–16], graphene [17, 18], and topologic insulator [19, 20]. Among them, SESAM, carbon nanotube, graphene, and topologic insulator are based on the nonlinear saturable absorption of materials, in which the optical transmittance increases with the enhancement of the incident laser intensity and becomes saturated when the laser intensity rises to a certain value. Recently, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has been proven to exhibit saturable absorption effect and found important applications in fiber lasers. Wang et al. demonstrated that MoS2 nanosheets have better saturable absorption response than that of graphene at 800 nm [21]. Zhang et al. have proposed a mode locker by depositing few-layered MoS2 nanosheets onto the end facet of an optical fiber, and demonstrated a mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser with a pulse duration of 800 ps [22]. After that, they have fabricated an SA by coupling few-layer MoS2 with fiber-taper evanescent light field [23]. Xia et al. and Liu et al. have realized picosecond- and femtosecond-pulses in erbium-doped fiber (EDF) lasers mode locked by MoS2 SAs, respectively [24, 25]. Currently, Huang et al. reported the passively Q-switched EDF laser with a wide tuning range of 1519.6-1567.7 nm by utilizing a few-layer MoS2 SA [26].

In the high pump regime, fiber lasers tend to operate at multiple-pulses state due to the peak power clamping effect [27]. Depending on the experimental settings, the multiple pulses exhibit several different distributions in fiber lasers. For example, the multiple pulses can rearrange themselves in a regular position and form the harmonic mode locking, in which the pulse repetition rate is the multiple of the fundamental repetition rate [28, 29]. In addition, the multiple pulses can constitute bound-state pulses, where each pulse has a stable location and the pulse separation is several times of pulse duration. So far, the harmonic mode locking and bound-state pulses have been observed in various laser systems [30–36]. Zhao et al. reported passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons with different modes by using NPR technique [33]. Komarov et al. have simulated the formation mechanism of ultrahigh-repetition-rate pulse train in harmonically mode-locked fiber lasers [34]. Amrani et al. have demonstrated a gas, a supersonic gas flow, a liquid, a polycrystal and a crystal of solitons in a double-clad fiber laser [35]. They also showed that the equidistant distribution of ultrashort pulses filling the total laser cavity is due to bound-soliton mechanisms [36]. The bound-state soliton harmonic mode locking is mainly achieved in fiber laser based on NPR technique [33–36], while it is rarely observed in SA mode-locked fiber lasers.

In this paper, we demonstrate harmonic mode locking of bound-state solitons in an EDF laser based on MoS2 SA. This SA, fabricated by depositing MoS2 nanosheets on a D-shaped fiber (DF), can work stably at the pump power of 600 mW without damage. In the cavity, two solitons form bound-state pulses with temporal separation of 3.4 ps, and the bound-state pulses distribute equally with a repetition rate of 125 MHz, corresponding to 14th harmonic of fundamental cavity repetition rate. In addition, single- and multiple-pulses operations are also observed in the fiber laser by changing the pump power and optimizing the MoS2-DF SA.

2. Preparation and characterization of MoS2 deposited on D-shaped fiber (MoS2-DF)

To integrate MoS2 nanosheets onto a DF, we first disperse the MoS2 nanosheets into the water-ethanol mixture via sonication and centrifugation processing, and then obtain MoS2 solution with a concentration of ~0.1 mg/ml. Figure 1(a) shows the dispersed MoS2 solution, which presents sepia color and can keep unchanged for tens of days. By depositing MoS2 solution on a quartz plate, we characterize the layered structure of the MoS2 nanosheets, as shown in the scanning electron microscope image of Fig. 1(b). The employed DFs are fabricated by side-polishing single-mode fibers [37]. We paste a standard single-mode fiber on an arched plate and grind its side cladding of fiber using abrasive papers. The whole procedure is monitored by an optical power meter to estimate the distance from polished surface to the fiber core. We then integrate the MoS2 nanosheets onto the DF using an optical-deposition technique [38]. The MoS2 solution is dropped on a DF and a continuous wave with power of 10 dBm at 1550 nm is simultaneously launched into the DF. The output power is monitored using a power meter to evaluate the deposition thickness of MoS2. The insertion loss of the MoS2-DF is measured as 3.15 dB. Figure 1(c) displays the DF coated with MoS2, where the top image shows the polished surface with a magnification of 20-fold and the left bottom is the cross profile of DF with a magnification of 200-fold after inputting 632.8 nm laser. From the side view of the DF, shown in the right bottom image, we can observe the scattering of the 632.8 nm laser, indicating strong interaction between the evanescent field and the MoS2 nanosheets.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) Image of MoS2 dispersed in ethanol and water, (b) scanning electron microscopic image of MoS2 nanosheets, (c) fabricated DF coated with MoS2, (d) nonlinear absorption of MoS2-DF SA.

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We then study the nonlinear saturable absorption of the MoS2-DF SA via a power-dependent transmission technique based on a balanced twin-detector measurement [23]. A home-made pulsed laser (central wavelength: 1550 nm, pulse duration: 400 fs, repetition rate: 25 MHz) works as the illumination source. Figure 1(d) shows the measurement result, in which the nonsaturable loss, modulation depth, and saturable optical intensity of the MoS2-DF SA are 75.4%, 1.2%, and 158 MW/cm2, respectively. Comparing with the SA coated on the facet of an optical fiber, the DF based SA exhibits some inherent advantages, such as long interaction length and high damage threshold [39].

3. Experimental setup and results

Figure 2 shows the experimental setup of MoS2 mode-locked fiber laser. A 975-nm laser diode provides pump by a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). A polarization-independent isolator (PI-ISO) is used to realize the unidirectional operation, and a polarization controller (PC) is used to optimize mode-locking state. The 5% port of the optical coupler (OC) is employed to output the laser. The laser cavity includes a standard single-mode fiber (SMF) with a total length of 20.3 m and a 3 m EDF as the gain medium. The group velocity dispersions at 1550 nm for the SMF and EDF are 17 ps/(nm.km) and –16 ps/(nm.km), respectively. The net cavity dispersion β2 is calculated to be –0.381 ps2, which provides the possibility to generate the standard soliton. The total cavity length is 23.3 m, which gives a fundamental repetition rate of 8.968 MHz.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Experimental setup of the fiber laser with MoS2-DF SA as a mode locker. LD: laser diode; PI-ISO: polarization-independent isolator; SMF: single-mode fiber; OC: optical coupler; EDF: erbium-doped fiber; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; PC: polarization controller.

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With increasing the pump power to 15 mW, we observe the continuous wave emission in the fiber laser. Self-started soliton mode locking is obtained by increasing the pump power to 340 mW with the optimization of the polarization state. The fiber laser exhibits clear hysteresis phenomenon, in which mode locking vanishes by decreasing pump power to 230 mW. Figure 3 shows the mode-locking results at the pump power of 385 mW. The sidebands of the output spectrum shown in Fig. 3(a) verify the solitons mode locking state of the laser. The spectrum also shows a regular modulation with a period of 2 nm, which is an important characteristic of bound-state solitons. The corresponding autocorrelation trace shown in Fig. 3(b) has three peaks with an intensity ratio of 1:2:1, indicating the two solitons in the bound-state pulses have the same intensity [30]. The pulse duration and pulse-pulse separation of the solitons are measured as 1.2 ps and 3.4 ps, respectively. Figure 3(c) demonstrates the radio frequency spectrum of the bound-state solitons mode locking. The interval between two peaks is 125.5 MHz, which is 14th harmonics of the fundamental repetition rate (8.968 MHz). The high-order harmonic mode locking is then confirmed by the oscilloscope trace of the pulses, as shown in Fig. 3(d). In one cavity round trip time of 112 ns, we observe 14 bound-state pulses with a separation of 8 ns. As each bound-state pulse consists of two solitons, there are 28 solitons co-propagating in the fiber laser. The formation process can be described as follows: two solitons form the bound-state pulses, and then, the bound-state pulses rearrange themselves and distribute regularly in the laser cavity. This operation is different from typical bound-state pulses or harmonic mode-locking reported previously [40, 41]. Based on the aforementioned results, we conclude that the fiber laser operates at the bound-state harmonic mode locking operation.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) Spectrum, (b) auto-correlation trace, (c) radio frequency spectrum, and (d) oscilloscope trace of bound-state harmonic mode-locked pulses.

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Decreasing the pump power and adjusting the polarization state, we have also observed the multiple-pulses mode locking. As shown in Fig. 4(a), the output spectrum is centered at 1530.4 nm with a 3-dB spectral bandwidth of 2.1 nm. The auto-correlation trace of the output solitons is plotted in Fig. 4(b), which has a full width at half maximum of about 2.04 ps. By fitting the auto-correlation trace with a sech2 function, the pulse duration is estimated to be 1.21 ps. The time bandwidth product is calculated as 0.33, indicating that the output pulse is near-chirp-free. Figure 4(c) shows the radio frequency spectrum at a resolution of 9.1 Hz and a span of 1 kHz. The fundamental repetition rate is given as 8.968 MHz, matching exactly with the cavity length of ~23.2 m. The signal-to-noise ratio is about 60 dB, indicating a good mode locking stability. In this state, there are three pulses in the fiber cavity, as shown in the upward image of Fig. 4(d). The interval of adjacent multi-pulses train is about 112 ns, which is equal to the cavity round-trip time. By optimizing the MoS2-DF SA, we have also observed single-pulse mode locking at 43 mW, as shown in the downward image of Fig. 4(d).

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) Spectrum, (b) auto-correlation trace, (c) radio frequency spectrum, and (d) multiple- and single-pulse mode locking operations.

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A notable feature of the MoS2-DF SA is the ultra-high optical damage threshold. During the experiment, mode locking always can be maintained when the pump power changes from the self-starting threshold to the maximum available power (600 mW). To verify whether MoS2 purely contributes to the mode locking operation, we have purposely removed the SA or replaced the SA by a clean DF in the laser cavity. In both cases, no mode locking was observed, despite that the PC and the pump power were tuned over a large range. Based on aforementioned results, we conclude that the mode locking operation is induced by MoS2 SA rather than other components.

4. Conclusions

We have observed the harmonic mode locking of bound-state solitons in an EDF laser based on MoS2 SA. The mode locker is formed by depositing MoS2 on a DF using optically-driven deposition method. In the fiber laser, two solitons form bound-state pulses with temporal separation of 3.4 ps. Then, the bound-state pulses rearrange themselves and distribute regularly with a repetition rate of 125 MHz, corresponding to 14th harmonic of fundamental cavity repetition rate. Our results also show that MoS2-DF SA can work as a promising mode locker in ultrafast fiber lasers. Combining with the previous reports [33–36], one can infer that bound-state soliton harmonic mode locking is a general operation, which is independent of mode-locking devices in fiber lasers.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 61405161, 11404263, 11404264 and 61377035), the 973 Program (Grant No. 2012CB921900), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. 3102014JCQ01101, 3102014JCQ01099, 3102014JCQ01085).

References and links

1. P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012). [CrossRef]  

2. D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3223 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008). [CrossRef]  

4. H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000). [CrossRef]  

5. K. Yin, B. Zhang, W. Yang, H. Chen, S. Chen, and J. Hou, “Flexible picosecond thulium-doped fiber laser using the active mode-locking technique,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4259–4262 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. V. Kukarin, “Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1058–1064 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. S. Sergey, C. Mou, E. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014). [CrossRef]  

8. T. Brabec, C. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, and F. Krausz, “Kerr lens mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 17(18), 1292–1294 (1992). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. L. M. Zhao, A. C. Bartnik, Q. Q. Tai, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of 8 nJ pulses from a dissipative-soliton fiber laser with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1942–1944 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. D. Mao, X. Liu, L. Wang, X. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011). [CrossRef]  

11. X. Feng, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. Wai, “Stable and uniform multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using nonlinear polarization rotation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8205–8210 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004). [CrossRef]  

13. D. Mao, X. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2619–2621 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Research 3(6), 404–411 (2010). [CrossRef]  

15. K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “All-fiber normal-dispersion femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11453–11458 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. Y. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008). [CrossRef]  

17. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012). [CrossRef]  

20. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 77–83 (2013). [CrossRef]  

21. S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25258–25266 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005). [CrossRef]  

28. G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011). [CrossRef]  

29. F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001). [CrossRef]  

31. Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. M. Liu, X. W. Zheng, Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

33. B. Zhao, D. Tang, P. Shum, W. Man, H. Tam, Y. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 363–370 (2004). [CrossRef]  

34. A. Komarov, A. Haboucha, and F. Sanchez, “Ultrahigh-repetition-rate bound-soliton harmonic passive mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2254–2256 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser. Analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 107–114 (2010). [CrossRef]  

36. F. Amrani, A. Niang, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Passive harmonic mode locking of soliton crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4239–4241 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

37. S. M. Tseng and C. L. Chen, “Side-polished fibers,” Appl. Opt. 31(18), 3438–3447 (1992). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

38. K. Kashiwagi and S. Yamashita, “Deposition of carbon nanotubes around microfiber via evanascent light,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18364–18370 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

39. R. Khazaeizhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, D. I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using a multilayer MoS2 thin film as a saturable absorber in both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23732–23742 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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References

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  1. P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3223 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Yin, B. Zhang, W. Yang, H. Chen, S. Chen, and J. Hou, “Flexible picosecond thulium-doped fiber laser using the active mode-locking technique,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4259–4262 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. V. Kukarin, “Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1058–1064 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. Sergey, C. Mou, E. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Brabec, C. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, and F. Krausz, “Kerr lens mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 17(18), 1292–1294 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. M. Zhao, A. C. Bartnik, Q. Q. Tai, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of 8 nJ pulses from a dissipative-soliton fiber laser with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1942–1944 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. D. Mao, X. Liu, L. Wang, X. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. X. Feng, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. Wai, “Stable and uniform multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using nonlinear polarization rotation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8205–8210 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Mao, X. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2619–2621 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Research 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “All-fiber normal-dispersion femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11453–11458 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 77–83 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25258–25266 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  28. G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  29. F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  31. Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. M. Liu, X. W. Zheng, Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. B. Zhao, D. Tang, P. Shum, W. Man, H. Tam, Y. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 363–370 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  34. A. Komarov, A. Haboucha, and F. Sanchez, “Ultrahigh-repetition-rate bound-soliton harmonic passive mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2254–2256 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser. Analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 107–114 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  36. F. Amrani, A. Niang, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Passive harmonic mode locking of soliton crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4239–4241 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. S. M. Tseng and C. L. Chen, “Side-polished fibers,” Appl. Opt. 31(18), 3438–3447 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. K. Kashiwagi and S. Yamashita, “Deposition of carbon nanotubes around microfiber via evanascent light,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18364–18370 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. R. Khazaeizhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, D. I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using a multilayer MoS2 thin film as a saturable absorber in both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23732–23742 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. N. H. Seong and D. Y. Kim, “Experimental observation of stable bound solitons in a figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1321–1323 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80~200 GHz erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1370–1372 (1996).
    [Crossref]

2014 (11)

K. Yin, B. Zhang, W. Yang, H. Chen, S. Chen, and J. Hou, “Flexible picosecond thulium-doped fiber laser using the active mode-locking technique,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4259–4262 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. V. Kukarin, “Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1058–1064 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sergey, C. Mou, E. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25258–25266 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. W. Zheng, Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Khazaeizhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, D. I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using a multilayer MoS2 thin film as a saturable absorber in both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23732–23742 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2619–2621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Niang, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Passive harmonic mode locking of soliton crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4239–4241 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. Liu, L. Wang, X. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Research 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser. Analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 107–114 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (4)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “All-fiber normal-dispersion femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11453–11458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Komarov, A. Haboucha, and F. Sanchez, “Ultrahigh-repetition-rate bound-soliton harmonic passive mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2254–2256 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

B. Zhao, D. Tang, P. Shum, W. Man, H. Tam, Y. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80~200 GHz erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1370–1372 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

Abramski, K.

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akhmediev, N.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amrani, F.

Bao, Q. L.

Bartnik, A. C.

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blow, K.

S. Sergey, C. Mou, E. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

Cai, Z.

Che, K.

Chen, C. L.

Chen, H.

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Curley, P. F.

Drummond, P.

D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Research 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

B. Zhao, D. Tang, P. Shum, W. Man, H. Tam, Y. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grelu, P.

Grudinin, A.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Haboucha, A.

Han, D.

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Research 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hou, J.

Hu, X.

D. Mao, X. Liu, L. Wang, X. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Jeong, H.

Jiang, G.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaczmarek, P.

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kashiwagi, K.

Kassani, S. H.

Khazaeizhad, R.

Kieu, K.

Kim, D. Y.

Kobtsev, S. M.

Komarov, A.

Krausz, F.

Krzempek, K.

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kukarin, S. V.

Lan, C.

Leblond, H.

Li, C.

Li, H.

Li, Y.

Liu, A.

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Liu, M.

Liu, X.

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2619–2621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. Liu, L. Wang, X. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Loh, K. P.

Lu, C.

B. Zhao, D. Tang, P. Shum, W. Man, H. Tam, Y. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2619–2621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. Liu, L. Wang, X. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, S. B.

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z.

Luo, Z. C.

Man, W.

B. Zhao, D. Tang, P. Shum, W. Man, H. Tam, Y. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mao, D.

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2619–2621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. Liu, L. Wang, X. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maruyama, S.

Y. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mei, L.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mou, C.

S. Sergey, C. Mou, E. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nakazawa, M.

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80~200 GHz erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1370–1372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Niang, A.

Nikodem, M.

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Oh, K.

Okhotnikov, O.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Peng, J.

Pessa, M.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, X.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qi, Y. L.

Rozhin, A.

S. Sergey, C. Mou, E. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rozhin, A. G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Research 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Salhi, M.

Sanchez, F.

Seong, N. H.

Sergey, S.

S. Sergey, C. Mou, E. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shum, P.

B. Zhao, D. Tang, P. Shum, W. Man, H. Tam, Y. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, S. V.

Sobon, G.

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.

Y. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, C.

Sun, Z.

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Research 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tai, Q. Q.

Tam, H.

B. Zhao, D. Tang, P. Shum, W. Man, H. Tam, Y. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tam, H. Y.

Tang, D.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao, D. Tang, P. Shum, W. Man, H. Tam, Y. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

Tang, R.

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, S. M.

Turitsyn, S.

S. Sergey, C. Mou, E. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Turitsyna, E.

S. Sergey, C. Mou, E. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wai, P. K.

Wang, A.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 77–83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Research 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F. Z.

Wang, G.

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 77–83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

D. Mao, X. Liu, L. Wang, X. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 77–83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 77–83 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wen, S. C.

Weng, J.

White, I. H.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Research 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wise, F. W.

Xia, H.

Xiang, Y.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, B.

Xu, C.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

Xu, W. C.

Yamashita, S.

K. Kashiwagi and S. Yamashita, “Deposition of carbon nanotubes around microfiber via evanascent light,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18364–18370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

Yeom, D. I.

Yin, K.

Yoshida, E.

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80~200 GHz erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1370–1372 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 77–83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, H.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. W. Zheng, Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 77–83 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 77–83 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

Zhang, X.

Zhao, B.

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Zhao, D. Tang, P. Shum, W. Man, H. Tam, Y. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 77–83 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, L.

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

Zhao, M.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

Zheng, X. W.

Zhong, M.

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband Few-Layer MoS2 Saturable Absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser. Analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1-2), 107–114 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. Yoshida and M. Nakazawa, “80~200 GHz erbium doped fibre laser using a rational harmonic mode-locking technique,” Electron. Lett. 32(15), 1370–1372 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), 77–83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Mao, X. Liu, L. Wang, X. Hu, and H. Lu, “Partially polarized wave-breaking-free dissipative soliton with super-broad spectrum in a mode-locked fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(2), 134–138 (2011).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

S. Sergey, C. Mou, E. Turitsyna, A. Rozhin, S. Turitsyn, and K. Blow, “Spiral attractor created by vector solitons,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(1), e131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Research (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, I. H. White, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast stretched-pulse fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Nano Research 3(6), 404–411 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6, 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

B. Zhao, D. Tang, P. Shum, W. Man, H. Tam, Y. Gong, and C. Lu, “Passive harmonic mode locking of twin-pulse solitons in an erbium-doped fiber ring laser,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

M. Liu, X. W. Zheng, Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xia, H. Li, C. Lan, C. Li, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Ultrafast erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a CVD-grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17341–17348 (2014).
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Y. Huang, Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, B. Xu, K. Che, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Widely-tunable, passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25258–25266 (2014).
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X. Feng, H. Y. Tam, and P. K. Wai, “Stable and uniform multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser using nonlinear polarization rotation,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8205–8210 (2006).
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K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “All-fiber normal-dispersion femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11453–11458 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. V. Smirnov, S. M. Kobtsev, and S. V. Kukarin, “Efficiency of non-linear frequency conversion of double-scale pico-femtosecond pulses of passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1058–1064 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kashiwagi and S. Yamashita, “Deposition of carbon nanotubes around microfiber via evanascent light,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18364–18370 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Khazaeizhad, S. H. Kassani, H. Jeong, D. I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “Mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using a multilayer MoS2 thin film as a saturable absorber in both anomalous and normal dispersion regimes,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23732–23742 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (10)

N. H. Seong and D. Y. Kim, “Experimental observation of stable bound solitons in a figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(15), 1321–1323 (2002).
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T. Brabec, C. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, and F. Krausz, “Kerr lens mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 17(18), 1292–1294 (1992).
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L. M. Zhao, A. C. Bartnik, Q. Q. Tai, and F. W. Wise, “Generation of 8 nJ pulses from a dissipative-soliton fiber laser with a nonlinear optical loop mirror,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1942–1944 (2013).
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K. Yin, B. Zhang, W. Yang, H. Chen, S. Chen, and J. Hou, “Flexible picosecond thulium-doped fiber laser using the active mode-locking technique,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4259–4262 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. Liu, and H. Lu, “Observation of pulse trapping in a near-zero dispersion regime,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2619–2621 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A. P. Luo, F. Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Komarov, A. Haboucha, and F. Sanchez, “Ultrahigh-repetition-rate bound-soliton harmonic passive mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2254–2256 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, A. Niang, M. Salhi, A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Passive harmonic mode locking of soliton crystals,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4239–4241 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

D. Tang, W. Man, H. Tam, and P. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033814 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Tang, L. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mao, X. Liu, Z. Sun, H. Lu, D. Han, G. Wang, and F. Wang, “Flexible high-repetition-rate ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3223 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Image of MoS2 dispersed in ethanol and water, (b) scanning electron microscopic image of MoS2 nanosheets, (c) fabricated DF coated with MoS2, (d) nonlinear absorption of MoS2-DF SA.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of the fiber laser with MoS2-DF SA as a mode locker. LD: laser diode; PI-ISO: polarization-independent isolator; SMF: single-mode fiber; OC: optical coupler; EDF: erbium-doped fiber; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; PC: polarization controller.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Spectrum, (b) auto-correlation trace, (c) radio frequency spectrum, and (d) oscilloscope trace of bound-state harmonic mode-locked pulses.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Spectrum, (b) auto-correlation trace, (c) radio frequency spectrum, and (d) multiple- and single-pulse mode locking operations.

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