Abstract

A width-modulated silicon waveguide is proposed to realize non-degenerate phase sensitive optical parametric amplification. It is found that the relative phase at the input of the phase sensitive amplifier (PSA) θIn-PSA can be tuned by tailoring the width and length of the second segment of the width-modulated silicon waveguide, which will influence the gain in the parametric amplification process. The maximum gain of PSA is larger by 9 dB compared with the phase insensitive amplifier (PIA) gain, and the gain bandwidth of PSA is larger by 35 nm compared with the gain bandwidth of PIA. Our on-chip PSA can find important potential applications in highly integrated optical circuits for optical chip-to-chip communication and computers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

As is well known, phase-sensitive (PS) fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs), which can be used to realize noiseless optical amplification, have the potential applications in optical communication, optical processing, photon detection, optical spectroscopy and sensing [1]. Two types of PS-FOPAs have been investigated so far: frequency-degenerate (signal and idler frequencies are identical) [2–5] and non-degenerate (frequencies are different) [6–11]. Since degenerate PS-FOPA is usually difficult to implement with high gain, and can only amplify one optical wavelength strip for a fixed pump configuration, non-degenerate PS-FOPA is a more promising solution for future ultra-low noise amplifiers, which can achieve exponential gain and simultaneous multistrip amplification [6]. However, it is challenging to phase-lock pump, signal and idler at different wavelength for non-degenerate PS-FOPA. To cope with this, Tang et al. proposed a cascaded PS-FOPA by simply inserting a standard single mode fiber in between two dispersion-shifted fiber spools to realize frequency non-degenerate PS parametric amplification [7]. Then, the method of cascaded PS-FOPA has been widely used to realize high gain, low noise and multi-channel PS parametric amplification in fiber [8–11]. Despite of those progresses, as the development of the silicon photonic integrated circuits for optical chip-to-chip communication and computers, there is still a strong motivation to investigate PS-OPA in silicon waveguides.

Nowadays, silicon has emerged as a highly attractive material for nonlinear photonic integration [12]. Compared with highly nonlinear fiber, the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform has inherent advantages due to the large values of Kerr parameter and Raman gain coefficient, the tight confinement of the optical mode, and the mature and low-cost fabrication process [13]. OPAs based on four-wave-mixing in silicon waveguides have been studied theoretically and experimentally [14–18]. Until now, there are few reports to investigate the PSA with silicon waveguides [19], thus it will be very interesting to investigate the gain characteristics of PS parametric amplification in silicon waveguides.

In this paper, we propose a width-modulated silicon waveguide to investigate the gain characteristics of a frequency non-degenerate PSA, which is composed of three segment silicon strip waveguides. The first segment of the width-modulated waveguide acts as a PIA, which can amplify the signal and generate the idler. The generated idler automatically acquires a certain phase relationship with the pump and signal through this parametric process. The second segment of the width-modulated waveguide can be used to tune the relative phase at the input of the PSA θIn-PSA between the pump, signal and idler due to the linear and nonlinear phase shifts. The third segment acts as a PSA, which can amplify or de-amplify the signal depending on the relative phase at the input of the PSA θIn-PSA. The PS parametric amplification can be realized in a width-modulated silicon waveguide with length of only 1.8 cm. This on-chip silicon based PSA will have potential applications in highly integrated optical circuits.

2. Theory

The OPA can be described by the degenerate FWM process, in which typically involves two pump photons at frequency ωp passing their energy to a signal wave at frequency ωs and an idler wave at frequency ωi [20,21]. The pump and signal waves are assumed to be polarized in the fundamental quasi-TE mode. To describe the nonlinear optical interaction of the pump, signal and idler in silicon waveguides, we use the formalism described in [7] and take into account the effects of two-photon absorption (TPA), free-carrier absorption (FCA), free-carrier dispersion (FCD), and the dispersion terms for picosecond pulse pump. The Raman scattering can be negligible when the frequency detuning between pump and signal does not satisfy the Raman shift of 15.6 THz [22]. The coupled equations describing power and phase of the different optical waves read as:

Ppz=β2pPpTφpT+β2pPp2φpT2(αp+αfp)PpβTPAAeffPp22βTPAAeff(Ps+Pi)Pp4γp(PsPiPp2)1/2sinθ,
Psz=dsPsT+β2sPsTφsT+β2sPs2φsT2(αs+αfs)PsβTPAAeffPs22βTPAAeff(Pp+Pi)Ps+2γs(PsPiPp2)1/2sinθ,
Piz=diPiT+β2iPiTφiT+β2iPi2φiT2(αi+αfi)PiβTPAAeffPi22βTPAAeff(Pp+Ps)Pi+2γi(PsPiPp2)1/2sinθ,
φpz=β2p2Pp2PpT2+β2p2(φpT)2+γpPp+2πλpδnfp+2γp(Ps+Pi)+2γp(PsPi)1/2cosθ,
φsz=dsφsTβ2s2Ps2PsT2+β2s2(φsT)2+γsPs+2πλsδnfs+2γs(Pp+Pi)+γs(Pp2PiPs)1/2cosθ,
φiz=diφiTβ2i2Pi2PiT2+β2i2(φiT)2+γiPi+2πλiδnfi+2γi(Pp+Ps)+γi(Pp2PsPi)1/2cosθ,
θ(z)=Δβz+φs(z)+φi(z)2φp(z)
where Pj is the power (j = p,s,i), and φj is the phase of the pump, signal and idle. z is the propagation distance, β2j is the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) coefficient. Time T = t-z/vgp is measured in a reference frame moving with pump pulse traveling at speed vgp. The two walk-off parameters of the signal and idler are defined as ds = β1s1p and di = β1i1p, respectively, where β1j is the inverse of the group velocity. The nonlinear coefficient γj = ωjn2/cAeff, where n2 is the nonlinear index coefficient, c is the speed of light in vacuum, n0 is the linear refractive index, Aeff is the effective mode area. βTPA is the coefficient of the two photon absorption (TPA). Although n2 and βTPA may change with wavelength [14,23,24], the values of them have the same order of magnitude over the telecommunication band and some theoretical papers treat n2 and βTPA as constant [14,25]. Here, we assume n2 = 6 × 10−18 m2/W and βTPA = 5 × 10−12 m/W over the telecommunication band [24]. αj accounts for the linear loss and αfj = σjNc represents FCA, where σj is the FCA coefficient and Nc is the free-carrier density generated by pump, signal and idler pulses. δnfj = ζjNc is the free-carrier induced index change. These free-carrier parameters are obtained by solving [14,26]
σj=1.45×1021(λj/λref)2m2,ζj=1.35×1027(λj/λref)2m3,
Nc(z,t)t=πβTPAhωpAeff2Pp(z,t)2Nc(z,t)τc,
where λj is the wavelength, λref = 1550 nm, h is Planck’s constant, and τc is the carrier lifetime. The phase-matching among the interacting waves is required in the FWM process, which is achieved when the mismatch in the propagation constants of the pump, signal and idler waves is compensated by the phase shift due to SPM and XPM, such that Δk = Δβ + 2γpPpump = 0 [15], where Δβ = ks + ki-2kp is the linear phase mismatch, and kp, ks, ki represent the propagation constants of pump, signal and idler waves, respectively. The phase-matching condition Δk = 0 cannot be maintained along the propagation length due to the pump depletion [25]. The above coupled equations are solved using the split-step Fourier method and a fourth-order Runge-Kutta solver.

The PS parametric amplification is investigated in a width-modulated SOI waveguide, which is comprised of three segments of strip waveguides with different widths and identical height as shown in Fig. 1. Two tapers are used to connect the three segments to avoid the mode mismatch induced by the variation of width [25]. The length of a taper is set to 25μm which is at least 200 times larger than any shift in width in this paper [25,27]. Since the power and relative phase of the optical waves have negligible change in a taper with length of 25 μm in a FWM process, the light propagation in the two tapers can be neglected. The first segment with width of W1 acts as a PIA to amplify the signal and generate an idler. The idler automatically acquires a certain phase relationship with the pump and signal through this parametric process. The relative phase at the output of the PIA is θOut-PIA = Δβ1L1 + φs(L1) + φi(L1)-2φp(L1), where Δβ1 is the linear phase mismatch of the silicon waveguide with width of W1, and L1 is the length of the first segment. The second segment is a strip waveguide with width of W2, which can be tailored to tune the dispersion of the second segment. The relative phase at the input of the PSA is θIn-PSA = Δβ1L1 + Δβ2L2 + φs(L1 + L2) + φi(L1 + L2)-2φp(L1 + L2), where Δβ2 is the linear phase mismatch of the silicon waveguide with width of W2, and L2 is the length of the second segment. By changing the dispersion and length of the second segment, the relative phase θIn-PSA can be set to an arbitrary value. Then, the pump, signal and idler with relative phase of θIn-PSA input the third segment strip waveguide with width of W3. The PS parametric amplification occurs in this segment, which can amplify or de-amplify the signal depending on the relative phase at the input of PSA θIn-PSA.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Illustration of the phase-sensitive parametric amplification in a width-modulated SOI strip waveguide with identical height

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3. Results and discussion

The PS parametric amplification is numerically studied with pump pulse of 20 ps at the wavelength of 1550 nm and continuous-wave (CW) signal at the wavelength of 1400 nm in a width-modulated silicon waveguide. The height of the width-modulated waveguide is 340 nm, while the widths W1, W2, and W3 are different. To determine the widths of the width-modulated waveguide, the linear phase mismatch Δβ and GVD coefficient β2 at the pump wavelength are simulated for different strip waveguide widths as shown in Fig. 2. The dispersion coefficients are determined using a finite-difference mode solver [28]. It is clear that β2<0 when the waveguide width is less than 775 nm. Since the phase matching can be satisfied when the pump wavelength is located in the anomalous GVD regime [14], the width W1 of the first segment used to PIA and the width W3 used to PSA should be less than 775 nm. Here, we assume W1 = 750 nm and W3 = 767 nm, while the width W2 of the second segment, which is used to tune the relative phase, is varied from 770 nm to 850 nm.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 The linear phase mismatch Δβ and GVD coefficient β2 as a function of the waveguide width.

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To solve Eqs. (1)-(7), the parameters are assumed as follows: τc = 1 ns [29,30], and αp = αs = αi = 1 dB/cm [15]. The effective mode area and nonlinearity coefficient are calculated for different waveguide widths at the wavelength of 1550 nm as shown in Fig. 3(a). The effective mode area is given by [31],

Aeff=||et|2dA|2|et|4dA
where et is the longitudinal component of the TE mode. It is clear that the effective mode area increases with the increase of the waveguide width, while the nonlinearity coefficient decreases as the waveguide width increases. Figure 3(b) shows the walk-off parameters as a function of the waveguide width. The walk-off parameter ds increases with the increase of the waveguide width, while di has an opposite trend. The GVD is negligible in the calculation because the GVD length is much longer than the interaction length for 20 ps pump pulse [21].

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 The effective mode area Aeff and nonlinearity coefficient at the wavelength of 1550 nm (a) and walk-off parameter (b) for different waveguide widths.

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The PI parametric amplification process is investigated in a silicon strip waveguide with W = 750 nm as shown in Fig. 4(a). In simulations, the initial pump peak power is set to be 6W, while the initial signal power is set to be 1 mW. From Fig. 4(a), it is found that the relative phase θ quickly increases to π/2, and then decreases along the propagation length of the strip waveguide, because the negative linear phase shift Δβz can counteract the positive nonlinear phase shift φs(z) + φi(z)-2φp(z) according to Eq. (7). The signal peak power increases with the increase of the propagation length until the maximum value of 7.8 mW is obtained at the propagation length of 8.2 mm when the relative phase θ decreases to the value of 0.038π. That is because the energy of the pump is transferred to signal and idler for θ>0 in the FWM process according to Eqs. (1)-(6). After that, the signal peak power decreases first due to the linear loss and nonlinear losses for 0<θ<0.038π, and then decreases quickly because of the inverse transformation of FWM for θ<0 until the next period of FWM appears as illustrated in Fig. 4(a). Therefore, in the PI parametric amplification process, we cannot change the relative phase θ to tune the gain. The PS parametric amplification process is depicted in a width-modulated silicon waveguide with W1 = 750 nm, W2 = 790 nm and W3 = 767 nm as shown in Fig. 4(b). The relative phase decreases along the propagation length in the first segment of the width-modulated waveguide, and θOut-PIA = 0.15π when the length of the first segment is 7 mm. The signal peak power increases as the length of the first segment increases, and signal peak power is 7.3 mW at the output of the first segment waveguide. This parametric amplification process is phase insensitive, which is also described in Fig. 4(a). The second segment of the width-modulated waveguide prevents the decrease of the relative phase and makes it increasing, because the positive linear phase mismatch of the second segment Δβ2 can compensate the negative linear phase mismatch of the first segment Δβ1. The relative phase is tuned to 0.57π and the signal peak power is increased to 9.5 mW in the second segment of the width-modulated waveguide with length of only 1 mm as shown in Fig. 4(b). The PS parametric amplification occurs in the third segment of the width-modulated waveguide as shown in Fig. 4(b). It exhibits exponential gain, and the signal peak power is amplified to 79.5 mW when the propagation length of the third segment is 10 mm. The relative phase in the third segment decreases along the propagation length due to a negative linear phase mismatch Δβ3. Therefore, the second segment of the width-modulated waveguide can tune the relative phase at the input of the PSA θIn-PSA to an appropriate value to realize an effective parametric amplification.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 The signal peak power and relative phase as a function of waveguide length for PIA with strip waveguide (a) and PSA with width-modulated silicon waveguide (b).

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Figure 5 shows the temporal profiles of the pump, signal and idler in a width-modulated waveguide with the same dimension as Fig. 4(b) used. It is clear that the output powers of signal and idler at the output of the third segment waveguide (L = 18 mm) are much larger than that at the output of the first segment waveguide (L = 7mm) due to the phase sensitive amplification process in the third segment waveguide. For pump, signal and idler pulses, the loss of the pulses in the trailing edge is larger than the leading edge as shown in Fig. 5. Because free carriers are accumulated along the time, which means that the trailing edge of the pulses will suffer relatively high free carrier absorption.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 The temporal profiles of (a) pump, (b) signal and (c) idler in the width-modulated silicon waveguide for different propagation length.

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The relative phase and signal gain are investigated by tailoring the width and length of the second segment of the width-modulated silicon waveguide when the pump peak power is 6 W and signal power is 1 mW. The relative phase θIn-PSA can be tuned from 0.33π to 1.2π by tailoring the waveguide width of the second segment ranging from 770 nm to 850 nm as shown in Fig. 6(a). It is found that the relative higher gain can be obtained when 0.33π<θIn-PSA<0.69π. Here, we define the signal gain as the ratio of the output signal power to the input signal power for the width-modulated SOI waveguide. With the increase of the propagation length of the second segment, the relative phase θIn-PSA increases from 0.16π to 2π as shown in Fig. 6(b). The signal gain has a peak and a valley along the propagation length, which depends on the relative phase θIn-PSA. The maximum signal gain of 19 dB is obtained when θIn-PSA is tuned to be 0.56π for L2 = 1 mm, while the minimal gain is 0.087 dB when θIn-PSA is tuned to be 1.57π for L2 = 4.8 mm. From Fig. 6, it is clear that the θIn-PSA can be tuned by tailoring the waveguide width and length of the second segment. For convenience, the parameters of the width-modulated silicon waveguide used for PSA in the following part are assumed as follows: W1 = 750 nm, W2 = 790 nm, W3 = 767 nm, L1 = 7 mm, L2 = 1 mm and L3 = 10 mm, which can be used to realize a higher gain for the signal wavelength of 1400 nm when the pump peak power is 6 W as illustrated in Fig. 6(b). The silicon strip waveguide with width of 750 nm and length of 8.2 mm can be used as a PIA in the following part as illustrated in Fig. 4(a). Then the signal gain and gain bandwidth of PSA and PIA are compared in the following part.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 The relative phase at the input of PSA θIn-PSA and signal gain as a function of the waveguide width (a), and propagation length (b) for the second segment.

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The PSA gain and PIA gain versus pump peak power are shown in Fig. 7 for signal wavelength of 1400 nm. From Fig. 7, it is clear that the PSA gain is much larger than the PIA gain, because the second segment of the width-modulated waveguide tunes the relative phase to an appropriate value that leads to the increase of the gain as illustrated in Fig. 4(b). The maximum gain of PSA is about 25 dB when the pump peak power is 10 W, which is larger by 9 dB compared with the PIA gain as shown in Fig. 7. The gain saturation appears as the pump peak power increases due to the increase of the nonlinear losses [18].

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Signal gain as a function of pump peak power for PSA and PIA.

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To investigate the signal gain bandwidth, we calculate the first-order dispersion and linear phase mismatch by scanning the wavelength of the signal from 1.3 μm to 1.9 μm for the three segment of the width-modulated silicon waveguide as shown in Fig. 8. From Fig. 8(b), one can find that Δβ2 (linear phase mismatch for W2 = 790 nm) is larger than zero for the wavelength ranging from 1.3 μm to 1.9 μm, while Δβ1 (linear phase mismatch for W1 = 750 nm) and Δβ3 (linear phase mismatch for W3 = 767 nm) are less than zero. The relative phase induced by Δβ2 together with the relative phase induced by SPM and XPM can counteract the relative phase induced by Δβ1, which can stop the decrease of the relative phase and tune the relative phase to an appropriate value to obtain a higher gain as illustrated in Fig. 4(b). Since the pump peak power in the third segment is smaller than that in the first segment, we use a relative smaller linear phase mismatch Δβ3 compared with Δβ1 to realize phase matching in the third segment of the width-modulated waveguide.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 The first-order dispersion (a) and the linear phase mismatch (b) as a function of wavelength for the three segment of the width-modulated silicon waveguide.

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The PSA and PIA gain spectra are investigated with the pump peak power of 6 W, which are symmetric around the pump wavelength as shown in Fig. 9(a). From Fig. 9(a), one can find that two peak gains as high as 20 dB for PSA are obtained, which are larger by 8 dB compared with the two peak gains of the PIA. The gain bandwidth of PSA spans the range of 1380 nm-1490 nm and 1615 nm-1765 nm, while the gain bandwidth of PIA spans the range of 1390 nm-1490 nm and 1615 nm-1740 nm. Therefore the gain bandwidth of PSA is larger by 35 nm compared with the gain bandwidth of PIA. Since the PSA gain spectrum depends on the relative phase at the input of the PSA θIn-PSA, the variation trend of the PSA gain spectrum is consistent with the sine values of θIn-PSA as shown in Fig. 9(b).

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 (a) PSA gain and PIA gain, (b) the sine values of the relative phase at the input of PSA as a function of signal wavelength.

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4. Fabrication tolerances analysis

In practice, deviations can occur in the fabrication process due to fabrication errors. The SOI waveguide we designed has a standard height of 340 nm, and the waveguide width can vary with fabrication error ΔW. Figure 10 shows the influence of error in waveguide width on signal gain. Error in waveguide width ΔW = 0 represents the waveguide mentioned above with parametric: W1 = 750 nm, W2 = 790 nm, W3 = 767 nm, L1 = 7 mm, L2 = 1 mm and L3 = 10 mm. Therefore, ΔW = 5 means that the waveguide with widths: W1 = 755 nm, W2 = 795 nm and W3 = 772 nm. From Fig. 10, the signal gain of 19 dB is obtained for ΔW = 0, which is consistent with the result of Fig. 6. However, the gain drops to 10.7 dB for ΔW = −5 nm, and drops to 11.2 dB for ΔW = 10 nm. The result suggest that in order to maintain a higher gain, the fabrication error in with should be satisfy the condition: −5 nm<ΔW<10 nm, which can be easily realized because the fabrication errors can be controlled around ± 5 nm.

 figure: Fig. 10

Fig. 10 Signal gain as a function of the error in waveguide width.

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5. Conclusion

The gain characteristics of PS parametric amplification are theoretically investigated in a width-modulated silicon waveguide. Numerical results show that the relative phase between pump, signal and idler can be tuned by the second segment of the width-modulated silicon waveguide, which will influence the gain and bandwidth of the parametric process. The PSA in the width-modulated silicon waveguide can obtain higher gain and broader bandwidth than PIA in the silicon strip waveguide. This low power on-chip PSA in a width-modulated silicon waveguide can find important applications in highly integrated optical circuits for all-optical signal processing.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61178023 and 61275134.

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References

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  1. Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Levandovsky, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Amplitude squeezing of light by means of a phase-sensitive fiber parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24(14), 984–986 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Low-noise amplification under the 3 dB noise figure in high-gain phase-sensitive fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 35(22), 1954–1955 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Inline coherent optical amplifier with noise figure lower than 3 dB quantum limit,” Electron. Lett. 36(1), 63–64 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Levandovsky, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Near-noiseless amplification of light by a phase-sensitive fibre amplifier,” Pramana J. Phys. 56(2-3), 281–285 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Tang, J. Lasri, P. S. Devgan, V. Grigoryan, P. Kumar, and M. Vasilyev, “Gain characteristics of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive fiber-optic parametric amplifier with phase self-stabilized input,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10483–10493 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. R. Tang, P. S. Devgan, V. S. Grigoryan, P. Kumar, and M. Vasilyev, “In-line phase-sensitive amplification of multi-channel CW signals based on frequency nondegenerate four-wave-mixing in fiber,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9046–9053 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Z. Tong, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Broadband parametric multicasting via four-mode phase-sensitive interaction,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19363–19373 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. L. Yin and G. P. Agrawal, “Impact of two-photon absorption on self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2031–2033 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4786–4799 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. X. Sang and O. Boyraz, “Gain and noise characteristics of high-bit-rate silicon parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13122–13132 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. Z. Wang, H. Liu, N. Huang, Q. Sun, and J. Wen, “Impact of dispersion profiles of silicon waveguides on optical parametric amplification in the femtosecond regime,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24730–24737 (2011).
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  19. N. Kang, A. Fadil, M. Pu, H. Ji, H. Hu, E. Palushani, D. Vukovic, J. Seoane, H. Ou, K. Rottwitt, and C. Peucheret, “Experimental demonstration of phase sensitive parametric processes in a nanoengineered silicon waveguide,” CLEO:2013 Technical digest CM4D.7.
  20. Z. Wang, H. Liu, N. Huang, Q. Sun, and J. Wen, “Influence of spectral broadening on femtosecond wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 50(28), 5430–5436 (2011).
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  22. Q. Lin, O. J. Painter, and G. P. Agrawal, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides: Modeling and applications,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16604–16644 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. B. Jin, J. Yuan, C. Yu, X. Sang, S. Wei, X. Zhang, Q. Wu, and G. Farrell, “Efficient and broadband parametric wavelength conversion in a vertically etched silicon grating without dispersion engineering,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6257–6268 (2014).
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  26. L. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, “Soliton fission and supercontinuum generation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(4), 391–393 (2007).
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  27. Y. Lefevre, N. Vermeulen, and H. Thienpont, “Quasi-phase-matching of four-wave-mixing-based wavelength conversion by phase-mismatch switching,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(13), 2113–2121 (2013).
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  28. T. E. Murphy, software available at http://www.photonics.umd.edu .
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanable, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
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2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Broadband parametric multicasting via four-mode phase-sensitive interaction,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19363–19373 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

2010 (3)

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (5)

2006 (3)

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanable, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4786–4799 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2001 (1)

D. Levandovsky, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Near-noiseless amplification of light by a phase-sensitive fibre amplifier,” Pramana J. Phys. 56(2-3), 281–285 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Inline coherent optical amplifier with noise figure lower than 3 dB quantum limit,” Electron. Lett. 36(1), 63–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

D. Levandovsky, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Amplitude squeezing of light by means of a phase-sensitive fiber parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24(14), 984–986 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Low-noise amplification under the 3 dB noise figure in high-gain phase-sensitive fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 35(22), 1954–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Afshar V, S.

Agrawal, G. P.

Alic, N.

Andrekson, P. A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blessing, D. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bogris, A.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Boyraz, O.

Bristow, A. D.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dadap, J. I.

Devgan, P. S.

Espinola, R. L.

Farrell, G.

Fauchet, P. M.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4786–4799 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, H.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanable, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, W. M. J.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grigoryan, V.

Grigoryan, V. S.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, N.

Imajuku, W.

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Inline coherent optical amplifier with noise figure lower than 3 dB quantum limit,” Electron. Lett. 36(1), 63–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Low-noise amplification under the 3 dB noise figure in high-gain phase-sensitive fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 35(22), 1954–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Itabashi, S.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanable, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jin, B.

Kakande, J.

Karlsson, M.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kumar, P.

Kuo, B. P. P.

Lasri, J.

Lefevre, Y.

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[Crossref]

Levandovsky, D.

D. Levandovsky, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Near-noiseless amplification of light by a phase-sensitive fibre amplifier,” Pramana J. Phys. 56(2-3), 281–285 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Levandovsky, M. Vasilyev, and P. Kumar, “Amplitude squeezing of light by means of a phase-sensitive fiber parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24(14), 984–986 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lundström, C.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, M. Karlsson, M. Vasilyev, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise performance of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive amplifier with unequalized inputs,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 722–724 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKinstrie, C. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

McNab, S. J.

Monro, T. M.

Myslivets, E.

Osgood, R. M.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4341–4349 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Painter, O. J.

Parmigiani, F.

Petropoulos, P.

Piredda, G.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Puttnam, B. J.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Radic, S.

Richardson, D. J.

Rotenberg, N.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sang, X.

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanable, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, Q.

Takada, A.

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Inline coherent optical amplifier with noise figure lower than 3 dB quantum limit,” Electron. Lett. 36(1), 63–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Low-noise amplification under the 3 dB noise figure in high-gain phase-sensitive fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 35(22), 1954–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tang, R.

Thienpont, H.

Tipsuwannakul, E.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toda, H.

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tong, Z.

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanable, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[Crossref]

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Driel, H. M.

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vasilyev, M.

Vermeulen, N.

Vlasov, Y. A.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4341–4349 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Watanable, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanable, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wei, S.

Wen, J.

Wiberg, A. O. J.

Wu, Q.

Yamabayashi, Y.

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Inline coherent optical amplifier with noise figure lower than 3 dB quantum limit,” Electron. Lett. 36(1), 63–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Imajuku, A. Takada, and Y. Yamabayashi, “Low-noise amplification under the 3 dB noise figure in high-gain phase-sensitive fibre amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 35(22), 1954–1955 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanable, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yin, L.

Yu, C.

Yuan, J.

Zhang, J.

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4786–4799 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, G. Piredda, R. W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(2), 021111 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. D. Bristow, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 191104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

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[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, and A. Bogris, “Ultralow noise, broadband phase-sensitive optical amplifiers, and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 1016–1032 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanable, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (3)

Z. Tong, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, D. J. Blessing, E. Tipsuwannakul, B. J. Puttnam, H. Toda, and L. Grüner-Nielsen, “Towards ultrasensitive optical links enabled by low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 430–436 (2011).
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J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
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X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
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Nature (1)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
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Opt. Express (11)

X. Sang and O. Boyraz, “Gain and noise characteristics of high-bit-rate silicon parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13122–13132 (2008).
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Z. Tong, A. O. J. Wiberg, E. Myslivets, B. P. P. Kuo, N. Alic, and S. Radic, “Broadband parametric multicasting via four-mode phase-sensitive interaction,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19363–19373 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Tang, J. Lasri, P. S. Devgan, V. Grigoryan, P. Kumar, and M. Vasilyev, “Gain characteristics of a frequency nondegenerate phase-sensitive fiber-optic parametric amplifier with phase self-stabilized input,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10483–10493 (2005).
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R. Tang, P. S. Devgan, V. S. Grigoryan, P. Kumar, and M. Vasilyev, “In-line phase-sensitive amplification of multi-channel CW signals based on frequency nondegenerate four-wave-mixing in fiber,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9046–9053 (2008).
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J. Kakande, C. Lundström, P. A. Andrekson, Z. Tong, M. Karlsson, P. Petropoulos, F. Parmigiani, and D. J. Richardson, “Detailed characterization of a fiber-optic parametric amplifier in phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive operation,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4130–4137 (2010).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

Pramana J. Phys. (1)

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Other (3)

N. Kang, A. Fadil, M. Pu, H. Ji, H. Hu, E. Palushani, D. Vukovic, J. Seoane, H. Ou, K. Rottwitt, and C. Peucheret, “Experimental demonstration of phase sensitive parametric processes in a nanoengineered silicon waveguide,” CLEO:2013 Technical digest CM4D.7.

T. E. Murphy, software available at http://www.photonics.umd.edu .

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (2007).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of the phase-sensitive parametric amplification in a width-modulated SOI strip waveguide with identical height
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The linear phase mismatch Δβ and GVD coefficient β2 as a function of the waveguide width.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The effective mode area Aeff and nonlinearity coefficient at the wavelength of 1550 nm (a) and walk-off parameter (b) for different waveguide widths.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The signal peak power and relative phase as a function of waveguide length for PIA with strip waveguide (a) and PSA with width-modulated silicon waveguide (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The temporal profiles of (a) pump, (b) signal and (c) idler in the width-modulated silicon waveguide for different propagation length.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The relative phase at the input of PSA θIn-PSA and signal gain as a function of the waveguide width (a), and propagation length (b) for the second segment.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Signal gain as a function of pump peak power for PSA and PIA.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The first-order dispersion (a) and the linear phase mismatch (b) as a function of wavelength for the three segment of the width-modulated silicon waveguide.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) PSA gain and PIA gain, (b) the sine values of the relative phase at the input of PSA as a function of signal wavelength.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Signal gain as a function of the error in waveguide width.

Equations (10)

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P p z = β 2p P p T φ p T + β 2p P p 2 φ p T 2 ( α p + α fp ) P p β TPA A eff P p 2 2 β TPA A eff ( P s + P i ) P p 4 γ p ( P s P i P p 2 ) 1/2 sinθ,
P s z = d s P s T + β 2s P s T φ s T + β 2s P s 2 φ s T 2 ( α s + α fs ) P s β TPA A eff P s 2 2 β TPA A eff ( P p + P i ) P s +2 γ s ( P s P i P p 2 ) 1/2 sinθ,
P i z = d i P i T + β 2i P i T φ i T + β 2i P i 2 φ i T 2 ( α i + α fi ) P i β TPA A eff P i 2 2 β TPA A eff ( P p + P s ) P i +2 γ i ( P s P i P p 2 ) 1/2 sinθ,
φ p z = β 2p 2 P p 2 P p T 2 + β 2p 2 ( φ p T ) 2 + γ p P p + 2π λ p δ n fp +2 γ p ( P s + P i )+2 γ p ( P s P i ) 1/2 cosθ,
φ s z = d s φ s T β 2s 2 P s 2 P s T 2 + β 2s 2 ( φ s T ) 2 + γ s P s + 2π λ s δ n fs +2 γ s ( P p + P i )+ γ s ( P p 2 P i P s ) 1/2 cosθ,
φ i z = d i φ i T β 2i 2 P i 2 P i T 2 + β 2i 2 ( φ i T ) 2 + γ i P i + 2π λ i δ n fi +2 γ i ( P p + P s )+ γ i ( P p 2 P s P i ) 1/2 cosθ,
θ( z )=Δβz+ φ s ( z )+ φ i ( z )2 φ p ( z )
σ j =1.45× 10 21 ( λ j / λ ref ) 2 m 2 , ζ j =1.35× 10 27 ( λ j / λ ref ) 2 m 3 ,
N c (z,t) t = π β TPA h ω p A eff 2 P p (z,t) 2 N c (z,t) τ c ,
A eff = | | e t | 2 dA | 2 | e t | 4 dA

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