Abstract

We propose a fiber to submicron silicon waveguide vertical coupler utilizing germanium-on-silicon gratings. The germanium is epitaxially grown on silicon in the same step for building photodetectors. Coupling efficiency based on FDTD simulation is 76% at 1.55 µm and the optical 1dB bandwidth is 40 nm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Silicon photonics is a promising technology to address the exponentially growing demand on data bandwidth [1, 2]. High quality hybrid integrated lasers with narrow line width [3–5], high-speed modulators [6, 7] and photodetectors [8–11] have all been demonstrated. Transceivers and switch fabrics monolithically integrated with CMOS electronics for optical interconnects [12, 13], as wells as integrated photonics circuits (PICs) for coherent long haul and metro communications systems were also reported [14, 15]. However, due to the large mode mismatch between submicron silicon waveguide and glass fiber, large coupling loss imposes a serious constraint on the power budget of silicon based optical data links. An efficient fiber coupler has been a research focus for over a decade [16, 17], and substantial progresses have been reported [18–28]. An inverse taper edge coupler can be used to expand the mode size by gradually decreasing confinement factor, thus reducing coupling loss [17-18]. Such edge couplers also have the advantage of low wavelength dependence. But they have to appear at the edge of the die and are only accessible after wafers are diced. Polishing might be required to get optical quality facet. On the other hand, grating couplers (GC) can be placed anywhere on the wafer, and enable wafer-scale testing, which is critical for process design kit development and inline performance monitoring in high volume production [19–28].

Light scattered by the gratings satisfies Bragg condition,

kx=k0neffm2πΛ
where m is an integer, k0 is the wave number of the scattered light, k02=kx2+ky2,Λis the grating period, andneffis the waveguide effective index. Since the silicon layer is sandwiched between the buried oxide (BOX) of the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and top oxide cladding, the refractive index is symmetric beneath and above the grating. Each kx that satisfies Bragg condition corresponds to ± ky. Hence an equal amount of scattered power goes up and down, and maximal coupling efficiency is less than 50% for fully etched gratings. GC directionality can be defined as the ratio of optical power scattered upwards for ease of discussion. As light propagates to the grating region, the optical power in silicon gets depleted exponentially for uniform gratings, which does not match the Gaussian profile of standard single mode fibers and causes further insertion loss. As a result, the first fabricated standard grating couplers had a coupling efficiency of only 19% [16]. The mode mismatch can be mitigated by utilizing apodized gratings instead of uniform gratings [19, 21–23]. Various approaches on improving directionality have been reported, including adding bottom reflectors using either dielectric DBRs [21] or coated metal [24], or depositing dielectric layers, poly-silicon [19, 20] or silicon nitride [25], on top of gratings. Grating couplers with some particular enhanced features, such as low back reflection [26], wide bandwidth [27], and low polarization sensitivity [28] were also reported. A major drawback of approaches to break index symmetry in the literature is that either non-standard SOI wafer needs to be used, or the process complexity is increased, which will ultimately increase the cost of silicon based PICs.

In this paper, we propose a highly efficient grating coupler with germanium to enhance directionality. The germanium is epitaxially grown in the same step for building photodetectors, so no additional processing is needed. From finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation, coupling efficiency as high as 76%, corresponding to 1.2 dB insertion loss, could be achieved, with 1 dB bandwidth over 40 nm.

2. Selective growth of germanium

Since silicon is transparent in the 1.3 µm – 1.6 µm window, epitaxial germanium is commonly used as the light absorbing material of photodetectors in the silicon photonics platform [8–11]. Similar to silicon wet etch, which stops naturally at <111> facet due to a much slower etch rate, germanium growth rate also depends on crystal orientations. Growth rate in <311> is slower than <100>. Figure 1 shows a scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of germanium selectively grown on an <100> SOI wafer. Due to the growth rate selectivity, a trapezoid mesa is formed, which could be described by Wolf construction model [29]. A sidewall angle of 25 degrees is observed, determined by the facets between <311> and <100>.

 

Fig. 1 SEM image of Epi-Ge on an SOI wafer. Ge trapezoid base size is 8 µm x 11 µm. Unetched Si (220 nm thick) under Ge and partially etched Si (90 nm thick) surrounding unetched Si is also visible.

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Germanium in detectors usually has height between 500 nm and 800 nm, and width of a few microns. If the germanium strip width is narrower than 2 µm, two <311> facets intercept and a triangle at the top will form. Recently, photodetectors without doping in germanium and metal-germanium direct contact based on this property of germanium growth were reported [10, 11]. Figure 1(b) in [10] clearly illustrates the triangle top of narrow Ge strip. In the same epitaxy step, height of narrow germanium strips, between 200 nm and 250 nm wide, is expected to be about 200 nm, and can be fine-tuned by adjusting growth temperature, pressure and gas flow. With an absorption coefficient of 0.3 µm−1 [8], loss from absorption of 200 nm Ge is only 0.2 dB. On the other hand, the high real refractive index of Ge, 4.2, breaks symmetry of refractive index above and beneath silicon and significantly improves GC coupling efficiency. Since poly and single crystalline Ge were reported to have almost identical refractive index [30], performance of the Ge-assisted grating coupler is not sensitive to the crystal quality. Moreover, because threading dislocation glides to Ge/SiO2 interface and annihilates [31], dislocation density in gratings is expected to be much lower than that of Ge detector due to its smaller volume.

3. Device layout and simulation

The device we proposed is shown in Fig. 2. The substrate is an SOI wafer with 220 nm single crystalline silicon film and 2 µm BOX on top of a silicon handle. A 60 nm partial etch is first applied to create the silicon grating, then 200 nm oxide hard mask is deposited, planarized, and patterned, followed by germanium epitaxy. Finally 2 µm oxide is also deposited as top cladding. This process is compatible and could be merged into typical silicon photonics flow, such as the OpSIS-IME process [32]. Silicon is patterned before germanium deposition such that the high-resolution lithography used for silicon waveguide definition can be leveraged. It also enables better design flexibility, allowing hybrid silicon/germanium gratings instead of pure germanium gratings, as shown in Fig. 2.

 

Fig. 2 Schematic device cross-section.

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Germanium grating height is set to 230 nm, which is compatible with 500 nm to 800 nm thick Ge detectors in the same epitaxy step. Grating tooth and trench width are design variables. We performed FDTD simulations of the structure in Fig. 2 using a commercial software package [33]. Complex refractive index of Ge is used to take both directionality improvement and light absorption into account. Light in TE0 mode is launched in the silicon waveguide, and propagates into the grating region. Scattered light is monitored in a plane parallel to the wafer above the gratings. Coupling efficiency is determined by the overlap integral of the fiber mode and captured electromagnetic field profile. The smallest grating size was set to 80 nm, which is available in state-of-the-art silicon photonics processes [13, 34, 35]. 20 periods of gratings are used. Non-uniform gratings are used to improve the mode overlap with the Gaussian profile of a standard single mode fiber. The strength of the first few gratings is kept low by using narrow grating tooth and wide trench width. Then grating tooth width is increased. and trench width decreased, to gradually increase scattering efficiency, as summarized in Table 1 and Table 2.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Grating Tooth Width in nm

Tables Icon

Table 2. Grating Ttrench Width in nm

The electric field pattern near the grating region without and with the germanium are plotted in Fig. 3. With the help of germanium grating, directionality increases by over a factor of two, from 39% to 92%, which is also visible in Fig. 3. Some interference pattern is also observed below the gratings, which is due to the reflection at BOX / silicon handle wafer interface.

 

Fig. 3 Electric field pattern near the grating region (a) without and (b) with germanium.

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Simulated grating coupler spectrum is shown in Fig. 4. The fiber angle was set to 19.5 degrees to tune the peak response to near 1.55 µm. At the optimal wavelength, coupling efficiency is 76%, or 1.2 dB, which is comparable to devices reported in the literature [18–28]. The 1 dB optical bandwidth is 40 nm, larger than the full C-Band telecom window.

 

Fig. 4 Grating coupler coupling efficiency as a function of wavelength.

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We also examined the device fabrication sensitivity. Most sensitive geometry parameters are the slab layer thickness, depending on silicon partial etch depth, labeled by h in Fig. 2, and the germanium grating height. The coupling efficiency as a function of these two parameters is plotted in Fig. 5. Within 10 nm processing non-uniformity, the coupling efficiency is drifts by 0.1 dB, which is acceptable in practical applications. The optimal grating height is near 230 nm, which provides optimal scattering strength, while keeping the absorption low. The coupling efficiency monotonically increases until the optimal slab thickness of 180 nm (not shown in Fig. 5). The slab layer thickness is set to 160 nm in the simulations, as this is typical value used [30] and could be reliably fabricated.

 

Fig. 5 Coupling efficiency as a function of slab thickness and germanium grating height.

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5. Conclusions

To conclude, we propose a novel grating coupler with high efficiency and simple fabrication procedure. We presented a design using FDTD simulation that has a coupling efficiency of 76% and 1 dB bandwidth of 40 nm. The device can be easily integrated into typical silicon photonics device processes without increasing the cost and complexity.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Ari Novack for the SEM image. We would also like to thank Gernot Pomrenke of AFOSR for his support of the OpSIS effort, through both a PECASE award (FA9550-13-1-0027) and funding for OpSIS (FA9550-10-l-0439). The authors would also like to thank Mentor Graphics and Lumerical for their support of the OpSIS project.

References and links

1. R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006). [CrossRef]  

2. M. Hochberg, N. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013). [CrossRef]  

3. S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, A. Le Liepvre, F. Lelarge, D. Make, G.-H. Duan, D. Bordel, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Demonstration of a heterogeneously integrated III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3784–3792 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1172–1180 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. Y. Zhang, S. Yang, H. Guan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Sagnac loop mirror and micro-ring based laser cavity for silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(15), 17872–17879 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013). [CrossRef]  

7. H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

8. N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Q. Lo, “310 GHz gain-bandwidth product Ge/Si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11031–11036 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. T.-Y. Liow, N. Duan, A. E.-J. Lim, X. Tu, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Waveguide Ge/Si avalanche photodetector with a unique low-height-profile device structure,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Paper M2G.6 (2014). [CrossRef]  

11. Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006). [CrossRef]  

13. B. G. Lee, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. M. Kuchta, M. H. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. L. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Monolithic silicon integration of scaled photonic switch fabrics, CMOS logic, and device driver circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 743–751 (2014). [CrossRef]  

14. P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

15. C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, D. Vermeulen, T. Nielsen, S. Azemati, S. Stulz, G. McBrien, X.-M. Xu, B. Mikkelsen, M. Givehchi, C. Rasmussen, and S. Y. Park, “Single-chip silicon photonics 100-Gb/s coherent transceiver,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Paper Th5C.1 (2014). [CrossRef]  

16. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002). [CrossRef]  

17. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1302–1304 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. B. Ben Bakir, A. Vazquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (< 1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010). [CrossRef]  

19. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency Silicon-on-Insulator grating coupler based on a poly-Silicon overlay,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11622–11630 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011). [CrossRef]  

22. L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013). [CrossRef]  

23. C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible high efficiency double-etched apodized waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7868–7874 (2013). [PubMed]  

24. W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, B. J. F. Taylor, H. Jayatilleka, G.-Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Wide bandwidth and high coupling efficiency Si3N4-on-SOI dual-level grating coupler,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10938–10947 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20652–20662 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. Q. Zhong, V. Veerasubramanian, Y. Wang, W. Shi, D. Patel, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, L. Chrostowski, R. Bojko, and D. V. Plant, “Focusing-curved subwavelength grating couplers for ultra-broadband silicon photonics optical interfaces,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18224–18231 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimizing polarization-diversity couplers for Si-photonics: reaching the -1dB coupling efficiency threshold,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14769–14781 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012). [CrossRef]  

30. A. R. Hilton, Sr., “Infrared refractive-index measurement results for single-crystal and polycrystal germanium,” Proc. SPIE 1498, Tactical Infrared Systems, 128–137 (1991).

31. H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999). [CrossRef]  

32. Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, T. Pinguet, Z. Xuan, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon multi-project wafer platforms for optoelectronic system integration,” IEEE 9th Intern. Conf. Group IV Photonics, 63–65 (2012). [CrossRef]  

33. https://www.lumerical.com/tcad-products/fdtd/.

34. E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65nm CMOS technologies,” European Solid State Circuits Conference, 131–134 (2014). [CrossRef]  

35. S.-H. Jeong, D. Shimura, T. Simoyama, M. Seki, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, K. Koshino, T. Horikawa, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Low-loss, flat-topped and spectrally uniform silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order CROW fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30163–30174 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Hochberg, N. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, A. Le Liepvre, F. Lelarge, D. Make, G.-H. Duan, D. Bordel, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Demonstration of a heterogeneously integrated III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3784–3792 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1172–1180 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Zhang, S. Yang, H. Guan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Sagnac loop mirror and micro-ring based laser cavity for silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(15), 17872–17879 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).
  8. N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Q. Lo, “310 GHz gain-bandwidth product Ge/Si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11031–11036 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T.-Y. Liow, N. Duan, A. E.-J. Lim, X. Tu, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “Waveguide Ge/Si avalanche photodetector with a unique low-height-profile device structure,” Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Paper M2G.6 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. G. Lee, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. M. Kuchta, M. H. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. L. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Monolithic silicon integration of scaled photonic switch fabrics, CMOS logic, and device driver circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 743–751 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).
  15. C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, D. Vermeulen, T. Nielsen, S. Azemati, S. Stulz, G. McBrien, X.-M. Xu, B. Mikkelsen, M. Givehchi, C. Rasmussen, and S. Y. Park, “Single-chip silicon photonics 100-Gb/s coherent transceiver,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Paper Th5C.1 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  17. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “Nanotaper for compact mode conversion,” Opt. Lett. 28(15), 1302–1304 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. B. Ben Bakir, A. Vazquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (< 1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency Silicon-on-Insulator grating coupler based on a poly-Silicon overlay,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11622–11630 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible high efficiency double-etched apodized waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7868–7874 (2013).
    [PubMed]
  24. W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, B. J. F. Taylor, H. Jayatilleka, G.-Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Wide bandwidth and high coupling efficiency Si3N4-on-SOI dual-level grating coupler,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10938–10947 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2014 (11)

S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1172–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, H. Guan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Sagnac loop mirror and micro-ring based laser cavity for silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(15), 17872–17879 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. M. Kuchta, M. H. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. L. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Monolithic silicon integration of scaled photonic switch fabrics, CMOS logic, and device driver circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 743–751 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, B. J. F. Taylor, H. Jayatilleka, G.-Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Wide bandwidth and high coupling efficiency Si3N4-on-SOI dual-level grating coupler,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10938–10947 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20652–20662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhong, V. Veerasubramanian, Y. Wang, W. Shi, D. Patel, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, L. Chrostowski, R. Bojko, and D. V. Plant, “Focusing-curved subwavelength grating couplers for ultra-broadband silicon photonics optical interfaces,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18224–18231 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimizing polarization-diversity couplers for Si-photonics: reaching the -1dB coupling efficiency threshold,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14769–14781 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible high efficiency double-etched apodized waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7868–7874 (2013).
[PubMed]

S.-H. Jeong, D. Shimura, T. Simoyama, M. Seki, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, K. Koshino, T. Horikawa, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Low-loss, flat-topped and spectrally uniform silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order CROW fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30163–30174 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Hochberg, N. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, A. Le Liepvre, F. Lelarge, D. Make, G.-H. Duan, D. Bordel, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Demonstration of a heterogeneously integrated III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3784–3792 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vazquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (< 1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency Silicon-on-Insulator grating coupler based on a poly-Silicon overlay,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11622–11630 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Almeida, V. R.

Analui, B.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

Andreani, L. C.

Aroca, R.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Assefa, S.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency Silicon-on-Insulator grating coupler based on a poly-Silicon overlay,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11622–11630 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baeyens, Y.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Baks, C. W.

Baldi, D.

E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65nm CMOS technologies,” European Solid State Circuits Conference, 131–134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barwicz, T.

Ben Bakir, B.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vazquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (< 1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

Berroth, M.

Bessette, J. T.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bojko, R.

Bordel, D.

Buhl, L. L.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Burghartz, J.

Butschke, J.

Cai, Y.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Carroll, L.

Cassan, E.

Chandrasekhar, S.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Chen, K. M.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-K.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Chrostowski, L.

Cristiani, I.

Crozat, P.

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ding, L.

Ding, R.

M. Hochberg, N. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Duan, G.-H.

Duan, N.

Ejzak, G. A.

Fedeli, J.-M.

S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, A. Le Liepvre, F. Lelarge, D. Make, G.-H. Duan, D. Bordel, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Demonstration of a heterogeneously integrated III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3784–3792 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vazquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (< 1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fédéli, J. M.

Flueckiger, J.

Galland, C.

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gerace, D.

Ghilioni, A.

E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65nm CMOS technologies,” European Solid State Circuits Conference, 131–134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, S.

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gould, M.

Green, W. M. J.

Grund, D. W.

Guan, H.

Guckenberger, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

Harris, N.

M. Hochberg, N. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, J. M.

He, L.

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

Horikawa, T.

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Jaeger, N. A. F.

Jany, C.

Jayatilleka, H.

Jeong, S.-H.

Keyvaninia, S.

Khater, M. H.

Kiewra, E.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kopp, C.

Koshino, K.

Krauss, T. F.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kucharski, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuchta, D. M.

Kunze, A.

Lamponi, M.

Le Liepvre, A.

Lee, B. G.

Lee, K. K.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lelarge, F.

Lepage, G.

Letzkus, F.

Li, C.

Li, X.

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

Li, Z.

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

Lim, A. E.-J.

Lim, D. R.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liow, T.-Y.

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

Liu, Y.

S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1172–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, G.-Q.

Luan, H.-C.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lyan, P.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vazquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (< 1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Magill, P.

Make, D.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Masini, G.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Minoia, G.

E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65nm CMOS technologies,” European Solid State Circuits Conference, 131–134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Morito, K.

Narasimha, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Novack, A.

S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1172–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hochberg, N. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ohtsuka, M.

Ophir, N.

Orobtchouk, R.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vazquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (< 1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Osmond, J.

Panepucci, R. R.

Patel, D.

Petropoulos, P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Plant, D. V.

Polzer, A.

Poon, J. K. S.

Porte, H.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Porzier, C.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vazquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (< 1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Prather, D.

Reinholm, C.

Repossi, M.

E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65nm CMOS technologies,” European Solid State Circuits Conference, 131–134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rimolo-Donadio, R.

Roelkens, G.

Roman, A.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vazquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (< 1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rylyakov, A. V.

Sacher, W. D.

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Samani, A.

Sandland, J. G.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schow, C. L.

Seki, M.

Selvaraja, S.

Shank, S. M.

Shi, W.

Shimura, D.

Simoyama, T.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Svelto, F.

E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65nm CMOS technologies,” European Solid State Circuits Conference, 131–134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

Taylor, B. J. F.

Temporiti, E.

E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65nm CMOS technologies,” European Solid State Circuits Conference, 131–134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

Vazquez de Gyves, A.

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vazquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (< 1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

Veerasubramanian, V.

Verheyen, P.

Vermeulen, D.

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vogel, W.

Wada, K.

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Xiao, X.

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

Xu, H.

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

Xuan, Z.

M. Hochberg, N. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

Yang, X.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
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Yang, Y.

Yokoyama, N.

Yu, J.

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

Yu, M.

Yu, Y.

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

Yun, H.

Zaoui, W. S.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, Y.

Zhong, Q.

Zimmermann, H.

Zimmermann, L.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H.-C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, “An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949–955 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, Z. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Demonstration and characterization of high-speed silicon depletion-mode Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 3400110 (2014).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, L. L. Buhl, R. Aroca, Y. Baeyens, and Y.-K. Chen, “Monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuits for compact 100+ Gb/s coherent optical receivers and transmitters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 6100108 (2014).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, S. Liu, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, J.-M. Fedeli, Y. Hu, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Yang, P. Petropoulos, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High performance Mach–Zehnder-based silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 3400510 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41(12), 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. He, Y. Liu, C. Galland, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-efficiency nonuniform grating coupler realized with 248-nm optical lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(14), 1358–1361 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Ben Bakir, A. Vazquez de Gyves, R. Orobtchouk, P. Lyan, C. Porzier, A. Roman, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Low-loss (< 1 dB) and polarization-insensitive edge fiber couplers fabricated on 200-mm silicon-on-insulator wafers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 739–741 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Solid-State Circ. Mag. (1)

M. Hochberg, N. Harris, R. Ding, Y. Zhang, A. Novack, Z. Xuan, and T. Baehr-Jones, “Silicon photonics: the next fabless semiconductor industry,” IEEE Solid-State Circ. Mag. 5(1), 48–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (15)

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, M. Gould, N. Ophir, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, K. Bergman, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A high-responsivity photodetector absent metal-germanium direct contact,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11367–11375 (2014).
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S. Keyvaninia, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, C. Jany, M. Lamponi, A. Le Liepvre, F. Lelarge, D. Make, G.-H. Duan, D. Bordel, and J.-M. Fedeli, “Demonstration of a heterogeneously integrated III-V/SOI single wavelength tunable laser,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3784–3792 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Yang, Y. Zhang, D. W. Grund, G. A. Ejzak, Y. Liu, A. Novack, D. Prather, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “A single adiabatic microring-based laser in 220 nm silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1172–1180 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, S. Yang, H. Guan, A. E.-J. Lim, G.-Q. Lo, P. Magill, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Sagnac loop mirror and micro-ring based laser cavity for silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Express 22(15), 17872–17879 (2014).
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N. Duan, T.-Y. Liow, A. E.-J. Lim, L. Ding, and G. Q. Lo, “310 GHz gain-bandwidth product Ge/Si avalanche photodetector for 1550 nm light detection,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11031–11036 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, A. Polzer, D. Marris-Morini, J. Osmond, J. M. Hartmann, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, C. Kopp, H. Zimmermann, and J. M. Fédéli, “Zero-bias 40Gbit/s germanium waveguide photodetector on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1096–1101 (2012).
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G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High efficiency Silicon-on-Insulator grating coupler based on a poly-Silicon overlay,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11622–11630 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-H. Jeong, D. Shimura, T. Simoyama, M. Seki, N. Yokoyama, M. Ohtsuka, K. Koshino, T. Horikawa, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “Low-loss, flat-topped and spectrally uniform silicon-nanowire-based 5th-order CROW fabricated by ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300-mm SOI wafer,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30163–30174 (2013).
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C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible high efficiency double-etched apodized waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7868–7874 (2013).
[PubMed]

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, B. J. F. Taylor, H. Jayatilleka, G.-Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Wide bandwidth and high coupling efficiency Si3N4-on-SOI dual-level grating coupler,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10938–10947 (2014).
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Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20652–20662 (2014).
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Q. Zhong, V. Veerasubramanian, Y. Wang, W. Shi, D. Patel, S. Ghosh, A. Samani, L. Chrostowski, R. Bojko, and D. V. Plant, “Focusing-curved subwavelength grating couplers for ultra-broadband silicon photonics optical interfaces,” Opt. Express 22(15), 18224–18231 (2014).
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L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimizing polarization-diversity couplers for Si-photonics: reaching the -1dB coupling efficiency threshold,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14769–14781 (2014).
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Opt. Lett. (1)

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. Liu, R. Camacho-Aguilera, J. T. Bessette, X. Sun, X. Wang, Y. Cai, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si optoelectronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(8), 3354–3360 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

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Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, T. Pinguet, Z. Xuan, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon multi-project wafer platforms for optoelectronic system integration,” IEEE 9th Intern. Conf. Group IV Photonics, 63–65 (2012).
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E. Temporiti, G. Minoia, M. Repossi, D. Baldi, A. Ghilioni, and F. Svelto, “A 3D-Integrated 25Gbps silicon photonics receiver in PIC25G and 65nm CMOS technologies,” European Solid State Circuits Conference, 131–134 (2014).
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C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, D. Vermeulen, T. Nielsen, S. Azemati, S. Stulz, G. McBrien, X.-M. Xu, B. Mikkelsen, M. Givehchi, C. Rasmussen, and S. Y. Park, “Single-chip silicon photonics 100-Gb/s coherent transceiver,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Paper Th5C.1 (2014).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SEM image of Epi-Ge on an SOI wafer. Ge trapezoid base size is 8 µm x 11 µm. Unetched Si (220 nm thick) under Ge and partially etched Si (90 nm thick) surrounding unetched Si is also visible.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic device cross-section.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electric field pattern near the grating region (a) without and (b) with germanium.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Grating coupler coupling efficiency as a function of wavelength.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Coupling efficiency as a function of slab thickness and germanium grating height.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Grating Tooth Width in nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Grating Ttrench Width in nm

Equations (1)

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k x = k 0 n eff m 2π Λ

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