Abstract

We demonstrate a passive mode-locked Er:Yb doped double-clad ring fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber. By adjusting the polarization controller and minimizing the cavity loss, the laser can operate at hundreds of harmonics of the fundamental repetition frequency of the resonator with the central wavelength of 1.61 μm. Up to 683rd harmonic (which corresponds to 5.882 GHz) of the fundamental repetition frequency was achieved.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

High repetition rates ultrashort pulses are very important since they can be utilized to high bit rate optical communication [1], arbitrary wave form generation [2] and biological imaging [3], etc. In net negative dispersion fiber laser (β2 < 0), when the pump power increases beyond a certain value, multipulses will form in the cavity because of the energy quantization effect [4]. Under certain conditions they can self-arrange to create a stable and well-organized pulse train with repetition rates far beyond the fundamental cavity frequency (free spectral range of the cavity) [5]. This technology is an efficient method to get high repetition rates ultrashort pulses, and is called high-order passive harmonic mode-locking (HML). Although HML has been observed since many years, some fundamental properties are still pointed out. As a matter of fact, it has been recently demonstrated that an external continuous wave can force a multipulse laser to operate in HML regime [6]. Moreover, the origin of pulse shortening mechanism in HML fiber lasers has also been studied [7]. Many high-order passive HML erbium-doped fiber lasers based on different mode locking patterns have been reported: 140th HML (1.2 GHz) [8], 322nd HML (3.079 GHz) [9], 634th HML (10 GHz) [10] and 337th HML (1.80 GHz) [11] in nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) mode-locked fiber laser; 61st HML (1.692 GHz) in carbon nanotube (CNT) mode-locked fiber laser [12]; 46th HML (0.49 GHz) [13], 21st HML (2.22 GHz) [14] and 101st HML (555 MHz) [15] in graphene mode-locked fiber laser; 418th HML (2.04 GHz) in topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser [16]; 369th HML (2.5 GHz) in molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) mode-locked fiber laser [17]. Note however that all the above researches are focused on C-band (1530–1565 nm).

In modern optical communication systems, dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) transmission systems are being developed to meet the rapidly growing data traffic demands. Conventional C-band is actually not enough for the current DWDM applications and systems, new wavelength ranges are being sought and investigated in order to widen the communications transmission capacity. This makes the L-band (1565–1625 nm) critical because it can be efficiently utilized to transport multi terabit traffic [18]. Further more, ultrafast lasers in L-band can also find other applications such as spectroscopy [19] and biomedical diagnostics [20], etc. In erbium-doped fiber lasers, theoretical and experimental approaches indicate that the emission wavelength depends on the cavity losses or on the active fiber length and dopant concentration [21]. Although erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) itself has a very low-gain at L-band, L-band operation have been realized in fiber lasers implement low cavity loss [22–24], a long length of erbium-doped fiber [25, 26] and higher erbium concentration [27]. Then L-band mode locked fiber lasers have attracted much attention in recent years [28–31]. We have recently shown that the control of the linear losses of the cavity in a filterless figure-of-eight laser allows to obtain continuous wave regime or mode-locked operation above 1.6 µm [32]. Following this principle we have built a unidirectional ring cavity passively mode-locked with graphene saturable absorber (GSA) operating above 1.6 µm. GSA has unique properties such as low losses, high modulation depth and wavelength independent, and is widely used in C-band mode-locked fiber lasers [33–37]. Based on its lower losses and wavelength independent, GSA may be helpful to realize a low loss laser cavity and achieve L-band pulsed operation by using a C-band EDFA. In this paper, we demonstrate an Er:Yb doped double-clad ring fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber. High-order passive HML operating above 1.6 μm in the soliton regime is reported for the first time to our best knowledge. The highest recorded repetition rate was 5.882 GHz, which corresponds to the 683rd harmonic of the fundamental cavity frequency (8.618 MHz).

2. Experimental setup

The experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1. We use a C-band double-clad Er:Yb doped fiber amplifier manufactured by Keopsys. Two identical laser diodes operating at 980 nm and emitting about 3 W each are used in a counter propagating geometry. The 8 m-long double-clad fiber has a second-order dispersion of −15 ps2/km. We use a polarization-independent isolator (PI-ISO) to force unidirectional operation of the cavity and a polarization controller (PC) to adjust the state of polarization in the cavity. The cavity length is about 23.8 m, including 15.8 m standard telecommunications single mode fibers (SMF) with GVD of −22 ps2/km. The net cavity dispersion was about −0.468 ps2. A 10% output coupler is used to extract the power from the cavity. The output beam is detected with a high-speed photodiode (Newport TIA 1200 13 GHz) and analyzed with either a high-speed oscilloscope (Tektronix TDS 6124C12 GHz, 40 GS/s) or an electronic spectrum analyzer (Rohde & Schwarz FSP Spectrum Analyzer 9 kHz–13.6 GHz). Pulse duration is measured with an optical autocorrelator (Femtochrome FR-103 XL) with a scanning range scalable to about 170 ps, and an optical spectrum analyzer (Anritsu MS 9710C) is also used.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Experimental setup. DCF: double-clad fiber, VSP: v-groove side-pumping, OC: output coupler, PC: polarization controller, PI-ISO: polarization-independent isolator.

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The GSA with an average of 4 monolayer thickness is made by transferring a commercially available graphene film mounted on a nickel substrate onto a fiber pigtail. We purchased the graphene sample (10 mm x 10 mm graphene on nickel/SiO2/Si substrate) from the Graphene Laboratories Inc. Figure 2 shows the production process of the GSA. The detailed making process can be seen in ref. 13. The nonsaturable loss of our GSA is ~25%.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Production process of the GSA.

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3. Experimental results and discussion

In our previous works using the same EDFA in a ring cavity, only C-band output was observed [9, 38, 39]. As said in the introduction, low cavity loss maybe helpful to realize long wavelength operation. We have successfully used this approach to realize a figure-of-eight laser operating above 1.6 µm [32]. Here, long wavelength emission at 1.61 μm was also obtained because of the low cavity loss. With a pump power above 1.2 W, mode locking with hundred solitons is readily achieved, but most of the corresponding regimes do not consist in regularly spaced pulses. Instead, they usually formed a bunch in which many soliton pulses grouped themselves into a tight packet. Figure 3(a) shows the oscilloscope trace of the soliton bunch. The width of the bunch is 3–4 ns, and the repetition frequency shown by the inset in Fig. 3(a) is 8.618 MHz which corresponded to the fundamental cavity frequency. The spectrum with a spectral width of 0.95 nm and the corresponding autocorrelation trace are shown in Fig. 3(b). They indicate there are many solitons with the pulse width of 2.9 ps in perpetual motion in the bunch as confirmed by the large pedestal in the autocorrelation trace. Nearly bound states of solitons in the bunch can be obtained by carefully adjusting the PC as demonstrated in Fig. 3(c). Indeed, the optical spectrum points out a modulation which suggests that coherence starts to occur between pulses. The inset in Fig. 3(c) shows the autocorrelation trace which exhibits many sharp peaks separated by 16 ps reveals that there exists some order at small scale. Soliton liquid has been used to describe this state which has been studied in our previous works [38, 39].

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) Temporal trace and RF spectrum (inset) of the soliton bunch. (b) Spectrum and autocorrelation trace (inset) of the soliton bunch. (c) Spectrum and autocorrelation trace (inset) of the bound states in the bunch. (d) Process from soliton bunch to high order harmonic mode locking.

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Starting from the bunch state and adjusting the orientation of the PC, solitons get loose from the bunch. Further adjusting the PC, it is finally obtained high order harmonic mode locking in which all solitons are nearly identical and equidistant. Figure 3(d) shows the process from soliton bunch to high order harmonic mode locking by changing the orientation of the PC with pump power of 1.5 W. It should be noted that the last step (corresponding to the PC orientation from 93° to 94°) is sudden, i.e. during this step, very slight change of the PC will cause large number of solitons get loose from the bunch suddenly, then the bunch disappears and the harmonic mode locking is progressively formed.

Pump power does not definitely fix the repetition frequency because different repetition rates can be achieved by adjusting the PC with a fixed pump power. However, it is necessary to increase the pump power if higher repetition frequencies are desired. With increasing the pump power from 1.2 to 2.1 W, the repetition frequency is enlarged from 0.773 to 5.882 GHz. Note that each time the pump power is varied it is necessary to slightly adjust the PC to retrieve HML. Figure 4(a) shows the RF spectra of different repetition frequencies with different pump powers. Due to relatively strong competition between the fundamental and the harmonic frequency components at higher-order HML, the stability of the solitons decreases as the repetition frequency increases [7], this causes the decrease of the supermode suppression from 35 dB to 19 dB. Indeed, for high repetition frequency the time jitter is high. Inset of Fig. 4(a) shows the RF spectrum of 5.882 GHz harmonic mode locking output measured with 110 MHz span, a supermode suppression of 19 dB is obtained. Figure 4(b) shows the temporal trace of 5.882 GHz harmonic mode locking and the corresponding optical spectrum. The spectra with different repetition frequencies have the same central wavelength of 1610 nm and comparable shapes. The pulses with different repetition frequencies almost have the same widths about 2.9 ps.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) RF spectrum of 0.733, 1.458, 2.104 and 5.882 GHz harmonic mode locking output measured with 10 GHz span. Inset of (a): RF spectrum of 5.882 GHz harmonic mode locking output measured with 110 MHz span. (b) Temporal trace of 5.882 GHz harmonic mode locking. Inset of (b): Corresponding spectrum.

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To avoid destroying the GSA in the experiment, we use the maximum pump power of 2.1 W to generate the output power of 52 mW, with a corresponding output energy of 8.8 pJ per pulse. With pump power above 2.1 W, GSAs suffer from irreversible damages. Although by using a coupler with higher output coupling ratio is helpful to protect the GSA and increase the output power, but it will result in C-band emission due to the high loss of the cavity.

4. Conclusion

We have demonstrated an Er:Yb doped double-clad mode-locked fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber. The variation of the output wavelength with the additional loss in the cavity was studied. By minimizing the cavity loss, emission wavelength above 1.6 μm was achieved by using a C-band EDFA. Soliton bunch and bound state were observed in the fiber laser. By adjusting the PC and varying the pump power, high-order harmonic-mode-locked pulses with different repetition frequencies could be obtained. Pulses with 683rd harmonic of the fundamental repetition frequency, central wavelength of 1610 nm, duration of 2.9 ps and energy of 8.8 pJ were obtained with the pump power of 2.1 W. To our best knowledge this high-order HML is a record with GSA based mode-locked fiber lasers.

Acknowledgments

Yichang Meng benefits from a post-doctoral grant from the Région Pays de la Loire. This work has been partially supported by the European Community through FEDER contract.

References and Links

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2. T. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, “Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a mode locked external cavity semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(11), 1608–1610 (2002). [CrossRef]  

3. S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. M. Liu, C. Y. Lin, H. J. Tsai, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3093–3099 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053809 (2005). [CrossRef]  

5. D. Panasenko, P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, J. V. Moloney, M. Mansuripur, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er-Yb femtosecond ring fiber oscillator with 1.1 W average power and GHz repetition rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 853–855 (2006). [CrossRef]  

6. A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser through continuous external optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 312, 1–6 (2014). [CrossRef]  

7. K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012). [CrossRef]  

8. Z. X. Zhang, L. Zhan, X. X. Yang, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Passive harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with scalable repetition rate up to 1.2 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 592–596 (2007). [CrossRef]  

9. F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-cladfiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011). [CrossRef]  

11. M. S. Kang, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, “Passive mode-locking of fiber ring laser at the 337th harmonic using gigahertz acoustic core resonances,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 561–563 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. C. S. Jun, J. H. Im, S. H. Yoo, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “Low noise GHz passive harmonic mode-locking of soliton fiber laser using evanescent wave interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19775–19780 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. Y. Meng, S. Zhang, X. Li, H. Li, J. Du, and Y. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012). [CrossRef]  

15. P. F. Zhu, Z. B. Lin, Q. Y. Ning, Z. R. Cai, X. B. Xing, J. Liu, W. C. Chen, Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser by using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).

16. Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. M. Liu, X. W. Zheng, Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. H. Ono, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, and Y. Ohishi, “1.58 μm band gain-flattened erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for WDM transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(3), 490–496 (1999). [CrossRef]  

19. J. Marshall, G. Stewart, and G. Whitenett, “Design of a tunable L-band multi-wavelength laser system for application to gas spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1023–1031 (2006). [CrossRef]  

20. O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004). [CrossRef]  

21. P. Franco, M. Midrio, A. Tozzato, M. Romagnoli, and F. Fontana, “Characterization and optimization criteria for filterless erbium-doped fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(6), 1090–1097 (1994). [CrossRef]  

22. M. Melo, O. Frazao, A. L. J. Teixeira, L. A. Gomes, J. R. F. D. Rocha, and H. M. Salgado, “Tunable L-band erbium-doped fibre ring laser by means of induced cavity loss using a fibre taper,” Appl. Phys. B 77(1), 139–142 (2003). [CrossRef]  

23. G. R. Lin, J. Y. Chang, Y. S. Liao, and H. H. Lu, “L-band Erbium-doped fiber laser with coupling-ratio controlled wavelength tunability,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9743–9749 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. G. R. Lin and J. Y. Chang, “Femtosecond mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber ring laser with intra-cavity loss controlled full L-band wavelength tunability,” Opt. Express 15(1), 97–103 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Ngo, C. Chan, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Effects of active fiber length on the tunability of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3622–3627 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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27. X. Feng, Y. Liu, S. Yuan, G. Kai, W. Zhang, and X. Dong, “L-band switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on a multimode fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3834–3839 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008). [CrossRef]  

29. I. Hernandez-Romano, D. Mandridis, D. A. May-Arrioja, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and P. J. Delfyett, “Mode-locked fiber laser using an SU8/SWCNT saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2122–2124 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. Y. H. Lin, J. Y. Lo, W. H. Tseng, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Self-amplitude and self-phase modulation of the charcoal mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25184–25196 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, S. Ruan, P. Yan, H. Zhang, Y. H. Tsang, J. Yang, and G. Huang, “Three operation regimes with an L-band ultrafast fiber laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(4), 716–722 (2014). [CrossRef]  

32. K. Guesmi, Y. Meng, A. Niang, P. Mouchel, M. Salhi, F. Bahloul, R. Attia, and F. Sanchez, “1.6 μm emission based on linear loss control in a Er:Yb doped double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6383–6386 (2014). [CrossRef]  

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34. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010). [CrossRef]  

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38. F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 107–114 (2010). [CrossRef]  

39. F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of solitons compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. H. Schmeckebier, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, D. Arsenijević, and D. Bimberg, “Complete pulse characterization of quantum dot mode-locked lasers suitable for optical communication up to 160 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3415–3425 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. T. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, “Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a mode locked external cavity semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(11), 1608–1610 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. M. Liu, C. Y. Lin, H. J. Tsai, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053809 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Panasenko, P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, J. V. Moloney, M. Mansuripur, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er-Yb femtosecond ring fiber oscillator with 1.1 W average power and GHz repetition rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 853–855 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser through continuous external optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 312, 1–6 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. X. Zhang, L. Zhan, X. X. Yang, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Passive harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with scalable repetition rate up to 1.2 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 592–596 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-cladfiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. S. Kang, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russell, “Passive mode-locking of fiber ring laser at the 337th harmonic using gigahertz acoustic core resonances,” Opt. Lett. 38(4), 561–563 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C. S. Jun, J. H. Im, S. H. Yoo, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “Low noise GHz passive harmonic mode-locking of soliton fiber laser using evanescent wave interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19775–19780 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Meng, S. Zhang, X. Li, H. Li, J. Du, and Y. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. F. Zhu, Z. B. Lin, Q. Y. Ning, Z. R. Cai, X. B. Xing, J. Liu, W. C. Chen, Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser by using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
  16. Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. M. Liu, X. W. Zheng, Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. H. Ono, M. Yamada, T. Kanamori, S. Sudo, and Y. Ohishi, “1.58 μm band gain-flattened erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for WDM transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(3), 490–496 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Marshall, G. Stewart, and G. Whitenett, “Design of a tunable L-band multi-wavelength laser system for application to gas spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1023–1031 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  20. O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  21. P. Franco, M. Midrio, A. Tozzato, M. Romagnoli, and F. Fontana, “Characterization and optimization criteria for filterless erbium-doped fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(6), 1090–1097 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Melo, O. Frazao, A. L. J. Teixeira, L. A. Gomes, J. R. F. D. Rocha, and H. M. Salgado, “Tunable L-band erbium-doped fibre ring laser by means of induced cavity loss using a fibre taper,” Appl. Phys. B 77(1), 139–142 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  23. G. R. Lin, J. Y. Chang, Y. S. Liao, and H. H. Lu, “L-band Erbium-doped fiber laser with coupling-ratio controlled wavelength tunability,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9743–9749 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. G. R. Lin and J. Y. Chang, “Femtosecond mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber ring laser with intra-cavity loss controlled full L-band wavelength tunability,” Opt. Express 15(1), 97–103 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Ngo, C. Chan, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Effects of active fiber length on the tunability of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3622–3627 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. X. Dong, N. Q. Ngo, P. Shum, H. Y. Tam, and X. Dong, “Linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser with over 100 nm tuning range,” Opt. Express 11(14), 1689–1694 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. X. Feng, Y. Liu, S. Yuan, G. Kai, W. Zhang, and X. Dong, “L-band switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on a multimode fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3834–3839 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  29. I. Hernandez-Romano, D. Mandridis, D. A. May-Arrioja, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and P. J. Delfyett, “Mode-locked fiber laser using an SU8/SWCNT saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2122–2124 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. Y. H. Lin, J. Y. Lo, W. H. Tseng, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Self-amplitude and self-phase modulation of the charcoal mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25184–25196 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, S. Ruan, P. Yan, H. Zhang, Y. H. Tsang, J. Yang, and G. Huang, “Three operation regimes with an L-band ultrafast fiber laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(4), 716–722 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  32. K. Guesmi, Y. Meng, A. Niang, P. Mouchel, M. Salhi, F. Bahloul, R. Attia, and F. Sanchez, “1.6 μm emission based on linear loss control in a Er:Yb doped double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6383–6386 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  33. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  34. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  36. Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  37. Y. Cui and X. Liu, “Graphene and nanotube mode-locked fiber laser emitting dissipative and conventional solitons,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18969–18974 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 107–114 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  39. F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of solitons compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2014 (4)

2013 (5)

2012 (3)

Y. Meng, S. Zhang, X. Li, H. Li, J. Du, and Y. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Schmeckebier, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, D. Arsenijević, and D. Bimberg, “Complete pulse characterization of quantum dot mode-locked lasers suitable for optical communication up to 160 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3415–3425 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 107–114 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of solitons compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

G. R. Lin and J. Y. Chang, “Femtosecond mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber ring laser with intra-cavity loss controlled full L-band wavelength tunability,” Opt. Express 15(1), 97–103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. X. Zhang, L. Zhan, X. X. Yang, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Passive harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with scalable repetition rate up to 1.2 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 592–596 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

D. Panasenko, P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, J. V. Moloney, M. Mansuripur, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er-Yb femtosecond ring fiber oscillator with 1.1 W average power and GHz repetition rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 853–855 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. R. Lin, J. Y. Chang, Y. S. Liao, and H. H. Lu, “L-band Erbium-doped fiber laser with coupling-ratio controlled wavelength tunability,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9743–9749 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Marshall, G. Stewart, and G. Whitenett, “Design of a tunable L-band multi-wavelength laser system for application to gas spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1023–1031 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053809 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Feng, Y. Liu, S. Yuan, G. Kai, W. Zhang, and X. Dong, “L-band switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on a multimode fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3834–3839 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

T. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, “Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a mode locked external cavity semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(11), 1608–1610 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

Abeles, J. H.

T. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, “Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a mode locked external cavity semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(11), 1608–1610 (2002).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-cladfiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Amrani, F.

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser through continuous external optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 312, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 107–114 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of solitons compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arsenijevic, D.

Attia, R.

Bae, M. K.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bahloul, F.

Bao, Q. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bimberg, D.

Cai, Z. R.

P. F. Zhu, Z. B. Lin, Q. Y. Ning, Z. R. Cai, X. B. Xing, J. Liu, W. C. Chen, Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser by using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).

Chan, C.

Chang, J. Y.

Chen, S. Y.

Chen, W. C.

P. F. Zhu, Z. B. Lin, Q. Y. Ning, Z. R. Cai, X. B. Xing, J. Liu, W. C. Chen, Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser by using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).

Cheng, K. N.

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. Y.

Chu, S. W.

Cui, Y.

Delfyett, P. J.

I. Hernandez-Romano, D. Mandridis, D. A. May-Arrioja, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and P. J. Delfyett, “Mode-locked fiber laser using an SU8/SWCNT saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2122–2124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, “Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a mode locked external cavity semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(11), 1608–1610 (2002).
[Crossref]

Depriest, C. M.

T. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, “Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a mode locked external cavity semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(11), 1608–1610 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dong, X.

Du, J.

Feng, X.

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fiol, G.

Fontana, F.

Franco, P.

Frazao, O.

M. Melo, O. Frazao, A. L. J. Teixeira, L. A. Gomes, J. R. F. D. Rocha, and H. M. Salgado, “Tunable L-band erbium-doped fibre ring laser by means of induced cavity loss using a fibre taper,” Appl. Phys. B 77(1), 139–142 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gomes, L. A.

M. Melo, O. Frazao, A. L. J. Teixeira, L. A. Gomes, J. R. F. D. Rocha, and H. M. Salgado, “Tunable L-band erbium-doped fibre ring laser by means of induced cavity loss using a fibre taper,” Appl. Phys. B 77(1), 139–142 (2003).
[Crossref]

Grelu, P.

Grudinin, A.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guan, B. O.

Guesmi, K.

Haboucha, A.

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 107–114 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, W. S.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hao, Y.

Hasan, T.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hennrich, F.

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hernandez-Romano, I.

Huang, G.

Im, J. H.

Jang, S. Y.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Joly, N. Y.

Jun, C. S.

Kaczmarek, P.

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-cladfiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kai, G.

Kanamori, T.

Kang, M. S.

Kim, B. Y.

Komarov, A.

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser through continuous external optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 312, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 107–114 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053809 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krzempek, K.

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-cladfiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leblond, H.

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser through continuous external optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 312, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 107–114 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of solitons compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053809 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, X.

Liao, Y. S.

Lin, C. Y.

Lin, G. R.

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, J. Y. Lo, W. H. Tseng, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Self-amplitude and self-phase modulation of the charcoal mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25184–25196 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z. B.

P. F. Zhu, Z. B. Lin, Q. Y. Ning, Z. R. Cai, X. B. Xing, J. Liu, W. C. Chen, Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser by using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).

Liu, H.

Liu, J.

P. F. Zhu, Z. B. Lin, Q. Y. Ning, Z. R. Cai, X. B. Xing, J. Liu, W. C. Chen, Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser by using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).

Liu, M.

Liu, T. M.

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

Lo, J. Y.

Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, H. H.

Luo, A. P.

Luo, S. Y.

Z. X. Zhang, L. Zhan, X. X. Yang, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Passive harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with scalable repetition rate up to 1.2 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 592–596 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z. C.

Mandridis, D.

Mansuripur, M.

D. Panasenko, P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, J. V. Moloney, M. Mansuripur, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er-Yb femtosecond ring fiber oscillator with 1.1 W average power and GHz repetition rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 853–855 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marshall, J.

J. Marshall, G. Stewart, and G. Whitenett, “Design of a tunable L-band multi-wavelength laser system for application to gas spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1023–1031 (2006).
[Crossref]

May-Arrioja, D. A.

Melo, M.

M. Melo, O. Frazao, A. L. J. Teixeira, L. A. Gomes, J. R. F. D. Rocha, and H. M. Salgado, “Tunable L-band erbium-doped fibre ring laser by means of induced cavity loss using a fibre taper,” Appl. Phys. B 77(1), 139–142 (2003).
[Crossref]

Meng, Y.

Meuer, C.

Midrio, M.

Milne, W. I.

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J. V.

D. Panasenko, P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, J. V. Moloney, M. Mansuripur, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er-Yb femtosecond ring fiber oscillator with 1.1 W average power and GHz repetition rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 853–855 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mouchel, P.

Ngo, N.

Ngo, N. Q.

Ni, Z. H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Niang, A.

K. Guesmi, Y. Meng, A. Niang, P. Mouchel, M. Salhi, F. Bahloul, R. Attia, and F. Sanchez, “1.6 μm emission based on linear loss control in a Er:Yb doped double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6383–6386 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser through continuous external optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 312, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nikodem, M.

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-cladfiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ning, Q. Y.

P. F. Zhu, Z. B. Lin, Q. Y. Ning, Z. R. Cai, X. B. Xing, J. Liu, W. C. Chen, Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser by using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).

Ohishi, Y.

Okhotnikov, O.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ono, H.

Panasenko, D.

D. Panasenko, P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, J. V. Moloney, M. Mansuripur, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er-Yb femtosecond ring fiber oscillator with 1.1 W average power and GHz repetition rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 853–855 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pessa, M.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

D. Panasenko, P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, J. V. Moloney, M. Mansuripur, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er-Yb femtosecond ring fiber oscillator with 1.1 W average power and GHz repetition rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 853–855 (2006).
[Crossref]

Polynkin, A.

D. Panasenko, P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, J. V. Moloney, M. Mansuripur, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er-Yb femtosecond ring fiber oscillator with 1.1 W average power and GHz repetition rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 853–855 (2006).
[Crossref]

Polynkin, P.

D. Panasenko, P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, J. V. Moloney, M. Mansuripur, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er-Yb femtosecond ring fiber oscillator with 1.1 W average power and GHz repetition rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 853–855 (2006).
[Crossref]

Popa, D.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qi, Y. L.

Rocha, J. R. F. D.

M. Melo, O. Frazao, A. L. J. Teixeira, L. A. Gomes, J. R. F. D. Rocha, and H. M. Salgado, “Tunable L-band erbium-doped fibre ring laser by means of induced cavity loss using a fibre taper,” Appl. Phys. B 77(1), 139–142 (2003).
[Crossref]

Romagnoli, M.

Rotermund, F.

Rozhin, A. G.

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ruan, S.

Russell, P. St. J.

Salgado, H. M.

M. Melo, O. Frazao, A. L. J. Teixeira, L. A. Gomes, J. R. F. D. Rocha, and H. M. Salgado, “Tunable L-band erbium-doped fibre ring laser by means of induced cavity loss using a fibre taper,” Appl. Phys. B 77(1), 139–142 (2003).
[Crossref]

Salhi, M.

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser through continuous external optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 312, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Guesmi, Y. Meng, A. Niang, P. Mouchel, M. Salhi, F. Bahloul, R. Attia, and F. Sanchez, “1.6 μm emission based on linear loss control in a Er:Yb doped double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6383–6386 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 107–114 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of solitons compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sanchez, F.

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser through continuous external optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 312, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Guesmi, Y. Meng, A. Niang, P. Mouchel, M. Salhi, F. Bahloul, R. Attia, and F. Sanchez, “1.6 μm emission based on linear loss control in a Er:Yb doped double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6383–6386 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of solitons compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 107–114 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, P. Grelu, and F. Sanchez, “Passively mode-locked erbium-doped double-clad fiber laser operating at the 322nd harmonic,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2120–2122 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053809 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

Scardaci, V.

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schmeckebier, H.

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shum, P.

Sobon, G.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-cladfiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sotor, J.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stewart, G.

J. Marshall, G. Stewart, and G. Whitenett, “Design of a tunable L-band multi-wavelength laser system for application to gas spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1023–1031 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sudo, S.

Sun, C. K.

Sun, Z.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tam, H. Y.

Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Teixeira, A. L. J.

M. Melo, O. Frazao, A. L. J. Teixeira, L. A. Gomes, J. R. F. D. Rocha, and H. M. Salgado, “Tunable L-band erbium-doped fibre ring laser by means of induced cavity loss using a fibre taper,” Appl. Phys. B 77(1), 139–142 (2003).
[Crossref]

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tozzato, A.

Tsai, H. J.

Tsai, T. H.

Tsang, Y. H.

Tseng, W. H.

Turpin, T.

T. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, “Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a mode locked external cavity semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(11), 1608–1610 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. Zhao, Y. Wang, S. Ruan, P. Yan, H. Zhang, Y. H. Tsang, J. Yang, and G. Huang, “Three operation regimes with an L-band ultrafast fiber laser passively mode-locked by graphene oxide saturable absorber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 31(4), 716–722 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wen, S. C.

White, I. H.

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Whitenett, G.

J. Marshall, G. Stewart, and G. Whitenett, “Design of a tunable L-band multi-wavelength laser system for application to gas spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1023–1031 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. I.

Xia, Y. X.

Z. X. Zhang, L. Zhan, X. X. Yang, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Passive harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with scalable repetition rate up to 1.2 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 592–596 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xing, X. B.

P. F. Zhu, Z. B. Lin, Q. Y. Ning, Z. R. Cai, X. B. Xing, J. Liu, W. C. Chen, Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser by using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).

Xu, W. C.

Yamada, M.

Yamashita, S.

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yan, P.

Yan, Y. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

Yang, X. X.

Z. X. Zhang, L. Zhan, X. X. Yang, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Passive harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with scalable repetition rate up to 1.2 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 592–596 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yeom, D. I.

Yilmaz, T.

T. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, “Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a mode locked external cavity semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(11), 1608–1610 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. H.

Yuan, S.

Zhan, L.

Z. X. Zhang, L. Zhan, X. X. Yang, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Passive harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with scalable repetition rate up to 1.2 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 592–596 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, W.

Zhang, Z. X.

Z. X. Zhang, L. Zhan, X. X. Yang, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Passive harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with scalable repetition rate up to 1.2 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 592–596 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, J.

Zhao, L. M.

Zheng, X. W.

Zhu, P. F.

P. F. Zhu, Z. B. Lin, Q. Y. Ning, Z. R. Cai, X. B. Xing, J. Liu, W. C. Chen, Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser by using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

F. Amrani, A. Haboucha, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Dissipative solitons compounds in a fiber laser: analogy with the states of the matter,” Appl. Phys. B 99(1–2), 107–114 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Melo, O. Frazao, A. L. J. Teixeira, L. A. Gomes, J. R. F. D. Rocha, and H. M. Salgado, “Tunable L-band erbium-doped fibre ring laser by means of induced cavity loss using a fibre taper,” Appl. Phys. B 77(1), 139–142 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, V. Scardaci, W. I. Milne, I. H. White, F. Hennrich, and A. C. Ferrari, “L-band ultrafast fiber laser mode locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(6), 061114 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Song, S. Y. Jang, W. S. Han, and M. K. Bae, “Graphene mode-lockers for fiber lasers functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051122 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Yilmaz, C. M. Depriest, T. Turpin, J. H. Abeles, and P. J. Delfyett, “Toward a photonic arbitrary waveform generator using a mode locked external cavity semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(11), 1608–1610 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Panasenko, P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, J. V. Moloney, M. Mansuripur, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er-Yb femtosecond ring fiber oscillator with 1.1 W average power and GHz repetition rates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 853–855 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

K. N. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. Yamashita, and G. R. Lin, “Harmonic order-dependent pulsewidth shortening of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1542–1552 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

P. F. Zhu, Z. B. Lin, Q. Y. Ning, Z. R. Cai, X. B. Xing, J. Liu, W. C. Chen, Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser by using a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).

Z. X. Zhang, L. Zhan, X. X. Yang, S. Y. Luo, and Y. X. Xia, “Passive harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser with scalable repetition rate up to 1.2 GHz,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(8), 592–596 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Marshall, G. Stewart, and G. Whitenett, “Design of a tunable L-band multi-wavelength laser system for application to gas spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 1023–1031 (2006).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys. 6(1), 177 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-Yb double-cladfiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Niang, F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, A. Komarov, and F. Sanchez, “Harmonic mode-locking in a fiber laser through continuous external optical injection,” Opt. Commun. 312, 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Amrani, M. Salhi, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Characterization of solitons compounds in a passively mode-locked high power fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(24), 5224–5230 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (13)

Y. Cui and X. Liu, “Graphene and nanotube mode-locked fiber laser emitting dissipative and conventional solitons,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18969–18974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, J. Y. Lo, W. H. Tseng, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Self-amplitude and self-phase modulation of the charcoal mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25184–25196 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. R. Lin, J. Y. Chang, Y. S. Liao, and H. H. Lu, “L-band Erbium-doped fiber laser with coupling-ratio controlled wavelength tunability,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9743–9749 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. R. Lin and J. Y. Chang, “Femtosecond mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber ring laser with intra-cavity loss controlled full L-band wavelength tunability,” Opt. Express 15(1), 97–103 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Dong, P. Shum, N. Ngo, C. Chan, B. O. Guan, and H. Y. Tam, “Effects of active fiber length on the tunability of erbium-doped fiber ring lasers,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3622–3627 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Dong, N. Q. Ngo, P. Shum, H. Y. Tam, and X. Dong, “Linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser with over 100 nm tuning range,” Opt. Express 11(14), 1689–1694 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Feng, Y. Liu, S. Yuan, G. Kai, W. Zhang, and X. Dong, “L-band switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on a multimode fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3834–3839 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. M. Liu, C. Y. Lin, H. J. Tsai, and C. K. Sun, “In vivo developmental biology study using noninvasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,” Opt. Express 11(23), 3093–3099 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Schmeckebier, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, D. Arsenijević, and D. Bimberg, “Complete pulse characterization of quantum dot mode-locked lasers suitable for optical communication up to 160 Gbit/s,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3415–3425 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. W. Zheng, Y. L. Qi, H. Liu, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, C. J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber for 2.5 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22841–22846 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Jun, J. H. Im, S. H. Yoo, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “Low noise GHz passive harmonic mode-locking of soliton fiber laser using evanescent wave interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19775–19780 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Meng, S. Zhang, X. Li, H. Li, J. Du, and Y. Hao, “Multiple-soliton dynamic patterns in a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6685–6692 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Komarov, H. Leblond, and F. Sanchez, “Multistability and hysteresis phenomena in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 053809 (2005).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup. DCF: double-clad fiber, VSP: v-groove side-pumping, OC: output coupler, PC: polarization controller, PI-ISO: polarization-independent isolator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Production process of the GSA.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Temporal trace and RF spectrum (inset) of the soliton bunch. (b) Spectrum and autocorrelation trace (inset) of the soliton bunch. (c) Spectrum and autocorrelation trace (inset) of the bound states in the bunch. (d) Process from soliton bunch to high order harmonic mode locking.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) RF spectrum of 0.733, 1.458, 2.104 and 5.882 GHz harmonic mode locking output measured with 10 GHz span. Inset of (a): RF spectrum of 5.882 GHz harmonic mode locking output measured with 110 MHz span. (b) Temporal trace of 5.882 GHz harmonic mode locking. Inset of (b): Corresponding spectrum.

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