Abstract

We demonstrated an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on Bi2Se3 topological insulator (TI). Different from previous TI-mode-locked fiber lasers in which TIs were mixed with film-forming agent, we used a special way to paste a well-proportioned pure TI on a fiber end-facet. In this way, the effect of the film-forming agent could be removed, thus the heat deposition was relieved and damage threshold could be improved. The modulation depth of the Bi2Se3 film was measured to be 5.2%. When we used the Bi2Se3 film in the Yb-doped fiber laser, the mode locked pulses with pulse energy of 0.756 nJ, pulse width of 46 ps and the repetition rate of 44.6 MHz were obtained. The maximum average output power was 33.7 mW. When the pump power exceeded 270 mW, the laser can operate in multiple pulse state that six-pulse regime can be realized. This contribution indicates that Bi2Se3 has an attractive optoelectronic property at 1μm waveband.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In recent years, passively mode-locked fiber lasers have been extensively investigated because of their many advantages over actively mode-locked lasers, such as compact structure, low cost [13]. A lot of passive mode-locking techniques have been applied into fiber lasers, in which nonlinear loop mirror based on nonlinear interferometry and nonlinear polarization rotation depended on Kerr nonlinearity have been widely used to obtain high-power, low cost and compact ultrafast lasers [46]. Semiconductor saturable absorption mirrors (SESAM) are quite mature but still limited by complex fabrication methods, narrower wavelength operation range and expensiveness [7]. A family of carbon materials including single-wall carbon nanotubes, oxide-graphene, graphene, with advantages of wide operation wavelength range and cost effective, can be applied to mode-locking in fiber lasers [812]. Despite of all these, researchers always seek better saturable absorber (SA) to assist mode-locking.

Recently, topological insulators such as Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 have attracted much attention for their promising applications in fiber lasers [1317]. Topological insulator is a novel kind of quantum electronic matter which behaves metallic states in surface but insulator states in interior [1821]. Bi2Se3 has a topologically non-trivial energy gap of about 0.2-0.3eV, so it shows saturable absorption effect when the light wavelength is shorter than 4.1μm (0.3eV) [18, 19]. The saturable absorbers of carbon nanotube, graphene and graphene oxide, topological insulators have the advantages of easy fabrication and cheap cost. However, carbon nanotube’s working wavelengths were connected with the diameter of the nanotubes. Graphene and graphene oxide could be used as wideband SAs. The saturable absorbers based on topological insulators have the advantages of low saturation intensity, broad effective bandwidth. As to our result, it was noteworthy that saturable optical intensity (580 MW/cm2@800 nm) was also less than that (2.77 GW/cm2@800 nm) of single-layer graphene [22, 23]. Recently, Chujun Zhao et al. firstly demonstrated a wavelength-tunable erbium-doped picosecond soliton fiber laser with Bi2Se3 saturable absorber [24]. A 2 GHz passively harmonic-mode-locked fiber laser by Bi2Te3 was reported by Zhi-Chao Luo et al. [25]. This indicated that Bi2Te3 have both high nonlinear effect and saturable absorption character [26]. Y. H. Lin et al. obtained 403 fs pulses by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 particles [27]. To date, the shortest pulse width generated from a mode-locked fiber laser by TI was 128 fs [28]. The above results all operated near 1.5 μm. At 2 μm waveband, a pulse width of 795 fs was achieved at a wavelength of 1935 nm from a thulium/holmium co-doped fiber ring cavity [29]. At 1 μm waveband, Q-switched fiber laser had already been achieved [22]. Cheolhwan Chi et al. realized the dissipative-soliton mode locked fiber laser using a bulk Bi2Te3 at 1.06 µm with a pulse width of 230 ps and output power of 0.86 mW [13]. However, mode locked fiber lasers operating near 1µm using Bi2Se3 had not been reported.

In this paper, we demonstrated an Yb-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on pure Bi2Se3 saturable absorber at 1 μm waveband. This laser implemented an all-fiber structure with all-normal dispersion state. The Bi2Se3 was absorbed on the fiber end-facet without film-forming agent, exempt from unnecessary absorption of film-forming agent. The maximum power output of the laser was 33.7 mW and the pulse width was 46 ps.

2. Preparation of Bi2Se3 and the Bi2Se3 SA

Preparation of Bi2Se3 was similar to Ref [30, 31]. The polyol method was utilized to synthesize TI. We selected Bi2Se3 nano-sheets solution that had the reaction time of 180 min. In order to remove the impurity, the Bi2Se3 solution was washed with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and centrifuged several times. Dispersion suspensions of Bi2Se3 in deionized water solution were prepared by centrifugation and ultrasonication agitation for 1 hour, as shown in Fig. 1(a). The Bi2Se3 solution was observed by atomic force microscope (AFM), as shown in Fig. 1(b). The thickness of the TI: Bi2Se3 NPs was about 10-15 nm. The thickness of the single-layer Bi2Se3 was 0.96 nm [31], so the TI: Bi2Se3 we obtained were estimated to be 10-16 layers.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) Bi2Se3 deionized water solution. (b) The AFM image of Bi2Se3 nano-sheets. (c) Photographic image of Bi2Se3-SA film. (d) The nonlinear transmittance of the pure Bi2Se3.

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Figure 2 shows the procedures of the preparation of pure Bi2Se3-SA (BS-SA) film. Firstly, filter paper (FP) (GVWP02500 Millipore) with the pore size of 0.22 μm was immersed in deionized water until it soaked completely, as shown in Fig. 2(a). Then Bi2Se3 water solution was dropwise added on the filter paper slowly, as displayed in Fig. 2(b). The pure Bi2Se3 remained on the surface of filter paper due to the diameter of Bi2Se3 morphologies (1.2 μm) was larger than the pore size of the filter paper. Put the filter paper with Bi2Se3 in drying oven until filter paper dried thoroughly, as displayed in Fig. 1(c). Thirdly, shear a small piece from the prepared Bi2Se3 filter paper and put it on the face of a fiber end-facet, as shown in Fig. 2(c). At last, put the fiber end-facet with the Bi2Se3 filter paper into acetone solution to remove the filter paper (Fig. 2(d)). The filter paper needed washing quite a few times. We would observe the fiber end-facet each time and replace new acetone solution to make sure that the filter paper was removed thoroughly and the surface of Bi2Se3 film was smooth. In this way, pure Bi2Se3 film was perfectly deposited on the fiber connector and BS-SA was achieved.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Procedures of the preparation of pure Bi2Se3-SA film.

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We used open-aperture Z-scan technology to investigate the nonlinear saturable absorption of Bi2Se3. The central wavelength of the source (Mira-900F Coherent Inc.) was near 812 nm [18, 22]. The nonlinear transmission was shown in Fig. 1(d). The nonlinear modulation depth and saturable energy density were ~5.2% and ~70 μJ/cm2 respectively. The saturable optical intensity of Bi2Se3 was 580 MW/cm2 at 800 nm. The Bi2Se3 non-saturable loss of 56.5% was relative large, primarily due to the scattering and the absorption of residual impurities. Furthermore, Bi2Se3 film pasted on the fiber end-facet was thick and the filter paper may have not been washed away by acetone solution completely, which would also lead to the increase of the non-saturable loss.

3. Laser experiment and results

The schematic of all-normal dispersion mode-locked fiber laser was shown in Fig. 3(a). The fiber laser was pumped by a 980 nm laser diode via a 980/1030 nm wavelength division multiplexer (WDM). A 22-cm Yb-doped fiber (YDF, LIEKKI Yb1200-4/125) with peak core absorption 1200 dB/m at 976 nm and the dispersion parameter −43ps/(nm⋅km) at 1031nm was used as the gain medium. One polarization controller (PC) was used to adjust the intra-cavity polarization and stabilize the mode-locked operation. A polarization insensitive isolator (PI-ISO) was introduced to force laser operating unidirectionally. Pigtail (Nufern 1060xp) of PI-ISO with −42ps/(nm⋅km) at 1031nm was 47 cm. A 51-cm polarization maintaining fiber (PMF, Nufern PM980-xp) with beat length of 2.5 mm at 980 nm and dispersion parameter of −43ps/(nm⋅km) at 1031nm was employed as polarization filter. When the light coupled into the PM fiber, birefringence of PM fiber led to the accumulation of a relative phase difference in the fast and slow axes, corresponding to wavelength-dependent rotation of the polarization state. This could induce Sine periodic filter effect. Longer PM fiber would result in a narrower bandwidth [32, 33]. The birefringence and filter bandwidth were calculated to be ~4.12 × 10−4 and ~2.6 nm respectively. The laser was coupled out using a 30% output coupler (OC). The pigtail of WDM and OC (OFS-980) was 154cm.The rest fibers were Nufern 1060xp and the length was 177cm. The total cavity length was ~4.51 m.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of the all normal-dispersion fiber laser with a TI-SA. (b) The output power of the fiber laser versus pump power in three laser states: CW output, single pulse output, two-six pulses output.

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Self-started mode-locking occurred when pump power reached 153 mW as shown in Fig. 3(b). Stable mode-locking could be obtained when pump power varied within 153 mW to 270 mW. Figure 4(a) showed the typical spectrum of the mode-locked fiber laser at 230 mW. Intensity modulation of pulses was weak. Here, the central wavelength and 3-dB spectral bandwidth were 1031.7 nm and 2.5 nm, respectively. The spectral bandwidth was close to that of the birefringence fiber. The spectrum with steep edges displayed typical character of the all-normal dispersion fiber lasers [34]. The corresponding oscilloscope trace was depicted in Fig. 4(b).

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) Spectrum of the fiber laser at pump power of 230 mW. (b) A typical mode-locking pulse train. (c) RF spectrum of the mode-locked laser. Inset: spectrum in 1GHz span. (d) Autocorrelation trace.

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The pulse width was deduced to be 46 ps from the autocorrelation trace (Fig. 4(d)), which was larger than the common dissipative soliton lasers in short cavity length. This was due to the relatively narrower spectrum of 2.5 nm for the existence of the filter effect, corresponding to a Gaussian Fourier-transform-limited pulse width of 625 fs. Furthermore the all-normal dispersion cavity had a large net positive dispersion, which also contributed to the large pulse width. With suitable extra-cavity compression by dispersion-compensation elements, the pulse width could be compressed to less than 1 ps.

The RF spectrum of the laser with a repetition rate of 44.6 MHz was shown in Fig. 4(c). The signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the fundamental frequency was about 58 dB. RF spectrum appeared a small noise, but the difference of major peak and small noise was more than 60 dB and RF spectrum in 1GHz span was also stable, which demonstrated the stability of the mode-locking. The maximum average output power was 33.7 mW at the pump power of 270 mW when the laser operated in single pulse state.

Multi-pulses output can be realized when pump power exceeded 270 mW. When pump power increased from 273 mW to 310 mW, pulse traces can split successively and stably from one-pulse state to four-pulse state, as shown in Figs. 5(a)-(d). When pump power was further increased, intracavity power had approached to Bi2Se3-SA film damage threshold. So when the laser operated at five-pulse and six-pulse state, some instability would occur, which is as shown in Figs. 5(e)-(f). We attributed this splitting phenomenon to the highly-nonlinear refractive index of topological insulators [23, 24] and the accumulation of nonlinear phase shift. When the pump power exceeded 335 mW, mode-locking could not be observed. Furthermore, when we adjusted the position of the polarization controller precisely, mode-locking could not be constructed, which indicated that the Bi2Se3 film had been damaged. At the same time, in order to verify whether NPR mechanism had effect on this laser, we removed the Bi2Se3 film from the surface of the fiber end-facet and mode-locking could not be obtained. So we think Bi2Se3 film played a key role in the mode locking mechanism.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a)-(f) Typical pulse train of multi-pulse state.

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4. Summary

We demonstrated an all-fiber Yb-doped mode-locked laser based on Bi2Se3 saturable absorber. The Bi2Se3 saturable absorber was prepared by filter paper transfer method. Using this method, we could deposit pure TI on fiber connector and avoid influence of film-forming agent. With the BS-SA, stable mode locking of Yb-doped fiber laser was obtained. The central wavelength, spectral width and pulse width were measured to be 1031.7 nm, 2.5 nm and 46 ps respectively. To the best of our knowledge, it is first time to obtain mode-locking at 1μm wavelength by Bi2Se3. Furthermore, the mode locking could sustain in multi-pulse state due to high-nonlinear refractive index of BS-SA, up to six-pulse regime could be obtained.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the 973 Program (Grant No. 2013CB922404), the National Scientific Research Project of China (Grant No. 61177047) and the Key Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61235010)

References and links

1. P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012). [CrossRef]  

2. B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010). [CrossRef]  

3. W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, M. Erkintalo, J. S. Y. Chen, and V. Kruglov, “Mode-locked femtosecond all-normal all-PM Yb-doped fiber laser using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10545–10551 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. I. N. Duling. III, “All-fiber ring soliton laser mode locked with a nonlinear mirror,” Opt. Lett. 16(8), 539–541 (1991).

6. H. Liu, Z. Liu, E. S. Lamb, and F. Wise, “Self-similar erbium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 1019–1021 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Tunable and switchable multiwavelength passively mode-locked fiber laser based on SESAM and inline birefringence comb filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(1), 64–70 (2011). [CrossRef]  

8. Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O’Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009). [CrossRef]  

9. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010). [CrossRef]  

10. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. Z. B. Liu, X. Y. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3024–3026 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, and C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012). [CrossRef]  

13. C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal-dispersion dissipative-soliton fiber laser at 1.06 µm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105106 (2014). [CrossRef]  

14. J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014). [CrossRef]  

17. Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

18. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013). [CrossRef]  

19. H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009). [CrossRef]  

20. Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009). [CrossRef]  

22. Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. S. Lu, S. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Saturable absorption in graphene at 800 nm band,” Proc. SPIE 8555, 855512 (2012). [CrossRef]  

24. C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012). [CrossRef]  

25. Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. L. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014). [CrossRef]  

28. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130 fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13244–13249 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. Z. Yu, Y. Song, J. Tian, Z. Dou, H. Guoyu, K. Li, H. Li, and X. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched fiber laser with high quality topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ film,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11508–11515 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. Z. Zhang, B. Öktem, and F. Ö. Ilday, “All-fiber-integrated soliton-similariton laser with in-line fiber filter,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3489–3491 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

33. K. Ozgören and F. Ö. Ilday, “All-fiber all-normal dispersion laser with a fiber-based Lyot filter,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1296–1298 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(2), 140–148 (2008). [CrossRef]  

References

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  • |

  1. P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, M. Erkintalo, J. S. Y. Chen, and V. Kruglov, “Mode-locked femtosecond all-normal all-PM Yb-doped fiber laser using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10545–10551 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. I. N. Duling. III, “All-fiber ring soliton laser mode locked with a nonlinear mirror,” Opt. Lett. 16(8), 539–541 (1991).
  6. H. Liu, Z. Liu, E. S. Lamb, and F. Wise, “Self-similar erbium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 1019–1021 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Tunable and switchable multiwavelength passively mode-locked fiber laser based on SESAM and inline birefringence comb filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(1), 64–70 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O’Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Z. B. Liu, X. Y. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3024–3026 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, and C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal-dispersion dissipative-soliton fiber laser at 1.06 µm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).
  18. H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. S. Lu, S. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Saturable absorption in graphene at 800 nm band,” Proc. SPIE 8555, 855512 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  25. Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. L. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130 fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13244–13249 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. Z. Yu, Y. Song, J. Tian, Z. Dou, H. Guoyu, K. Li, H. Li, and X. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched fiber laser with high quality topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ film,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11508–11515 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. Z. Zhang, B. Öktem, and F. Ö. Ilday, “All-fiber-integrated soliton-similariton laser with in-line fiber filter,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3489–3491 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. K. Ozgören and F. Ö. Ilday, “All-fiber all-normal dispersion laser with a fiber-based Lyot filter,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1296–1298 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(2), 140–148 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2014 (10)

H. Liu, Z. Liu, E. S. Lamb, and F. Wise, “Self-similar erbium-doped fiber laser with large normal dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 1019–1021 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal-dispersion dissipative-soliton fiber laser at 1.06 µm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105106 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. L. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130 fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13244–13249 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, Y. Song, J. Tian, Z. Dou, H. Guoyu, K. Li, H. Li, and X. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched fiber laser with high quality topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ film,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11508–11515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

2012 (7)

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, M. Erkintalo, J. S. Y. Chen, and V. Kruglov, “Mode-locked femtosecond all-normal all-PM Yb-doped fiber laser using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10545–10551 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, S. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Saturable absorption in graphene at 800 nm band,” Proc. SPIE 8555, 855512 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, and C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, B. Öktem, and F. Ö. Ilday, “All-fiber-integrated soliton-similariton laser with in-line fiber filter,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3489–3491 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

Z. B. Liu, X. Y. He, and D. N. Wang, “Passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber filled with few-layered graphene oxide solution,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3024–3026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Tunable and switchable multiwavelength passively mode-locked fiber laser based on SESAM and inline birefringence comb filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(1), 64–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Ozgören and F. Ö. Ilday, “All-fiber all-normal dispersion laser with a fiber-based Lyot filter,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1296–1298 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O’Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

1991 (1)

Abramski, K. M.

Aguergaray, C.

Akhmediev, N.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

Analytis, J. G.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bansil, A.

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. L. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broderick, N. G. R.

Cai, Z.

Cai, Z. P.

Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, and C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cava, R. J.

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. S. Y.

Chen, S.

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, S. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Saturable absorption in graphene at 800 nm band,” Proc. SPIE 8555, 855512 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

Cheng, H. H.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, and C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chi, C.

C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal-dispersion dissipative-soliton fiber laser at 1.06 µm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chong, A.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(2), 140–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chu, J. H.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dou, Z.

Dresselhaus, M. S.

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duling, I. N.

Erkintalo, M.

Fang, Z.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O’Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fisher, I. R.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grauer, D.

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grelu, P.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grodecki, K.

Guoyu, H.

Hasan, M. Z.

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O’Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, X. Y.

Hor, Y. S.

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, D.

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Huang, Y. Z.

Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, and C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hussain, Z.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilday, F. Ö.

Jhon, Y. M.

Jung, M.

Koo, J.

Kruglov, V.

Lamb, E. S.

Lee, J.

Lee, J. H.

Lee, K.

Lee, S.

Li, H.

Li, K.

Li, Y.

Lin, G. R.

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. L. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. F.

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. L. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. L. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z.

Lin, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Liu, C.

Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Liu, C. X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

Liu, M.

Liu, Z.

Liu, Z. B.

Liu, Z. K.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, D. H.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, S. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Saturable absorption in graphene at 800 nm band,” Proc. SPIE 8555, 855512 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, A. P.

Luo, Z.

Luo, Z. C.

Luo, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, and C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Macherzynski, W.

Mo, S. K.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Neill, W.

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O’Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oktem, B.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Öktem, B.

Ozgören, K.

Pal, A.

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paletko, P.

Park, J.

Peng, B.

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, Z.

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popa, D.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O’Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, X.

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qi, X. L.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qian, D.

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Renninger, W. H.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(2), 140–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rozhin, A. G.

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O’Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z. X.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sobon, G.

Song, Y.

Song, Y. W.

Soni, A.

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sotor, J.

Sun, L. P.

Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Sun, Z.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O’Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, W. H.

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. L. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ülgüdür, C.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, D. N.

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O’Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J. Z.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, and C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. T.

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, S. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Saturable absorption in graphene at 800 nm band,” Proc. SPIE 8555, 855512 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wen, S. C.

Weng, J.

Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wise, F.

Wise, F. W.

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chong, W. H. Renninger, and F. W. Wise, “Properties of normal-dispersion femtosecond fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(2), 140–148 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wray, L.

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. I.

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. L. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, D. D.

Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Wu, J. Y.

Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Q.

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, B.

Xu, H.

Xu, H. Y.

Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Xu, W. C.

Yang, C. Y.

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. L. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, C. C.

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, and C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

Zhang, H.

H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, S. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Saturable absorption in graphene at 800 nm band,” Proc. SPIE 8555, 855512 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S. C.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, C.

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Lu, S. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Saturable absorption in graphene at 800 nm band,” Proc. SPIE 8555, 855512 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, N.

Zhao, Y.

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, X. W.

Zheng, Z.

S. Lu, S. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Saturable absorption in graphene at 800 nm band,” Proc. SPIE 8555, 855512 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, A. G. Rozhin, F. Wang, T. Hasan, D. Popa, W. O’Neill, and A. C. Ferrari, “A compact, high power, ultrafast laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 253102 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Pulse shaping and evolution in normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 389–398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Luo, C. Liu, Y. Z. Huang, D. D. Wu, J. Y. Wu, H. Y. Xu, Z. P. Cai, Z. Q. Lin, L. P. Sun, and J. Weng, “Topological-Insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Z. C. Luo, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Tunable and switchable multiwavelength passively mode-locked fiber laser based on SESAM and inline birefringence comb filter,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(1), 64–70 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Z. Wang, H. H. Cheng, Z. P. Cai, and C. C. Ye, “Multiwavelength dissipative-soliton generation in Yb-fiber laser using graphene-deposited fiber-taper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1539–1542 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal-dispersion dissipative-soliton fiber laser at 1.06 µm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. H. Lin, C. Y. Yang, S. F. Lin, W. H. Tseng, Q. L. Bao, C. I. Wu, and G. R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Zhang, Z. Peng, A. Soni, Y. Zhao, Y. Xiong, B. Peng, J. Wang, M. S. Dresselhaus, and Q. Xiong, “Raman spectroscopy of few-quintuple layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets,” Nano Lett. 11(6), 2407–2414 (2011).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (2)

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
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Y. Xia, D. Qian, D. Hsieh, L. Wray, A. Pal, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “Observation of a large-gap topological-insulator class with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 398–402 (2009).
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Opt. Express (8)

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
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S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
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Z. Yu, Y. Song, J. Tian, Z. Dou, H. Guoyu, K. Li, H. Li, and X. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched fiber laser with high quality topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ film,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11508–11515 (2014).
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J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130 fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13244–13249 (2014).
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M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y. W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
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J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014).
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H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
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C. Aguergaray, N. G. R. Broderick, M. Erkintalo, J. S. Y. Chen, and V. Kruglov, “Mode-locked femtosecond all-normal all-PM Yb-doped fiber laser using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10545–10551 (2012).
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Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Lu, S. Chen, Z. Zheng, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, and S. Wen, “Saturable absorption in graphene at 800 nm band,” Proc. SPIE 8555, 855512 (2012).
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Science (1)

Y. L. Chen, J. G. Analytis, J. H. Chu, Z. K. Liu, S. K. Mo, X. L. Qi, H. J. Zhang, D. H. Lu, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, I. R. Fisher, Z. Hussain, and Z. X. Shen, “Experimental realization of a three-dimensional topological insulator, Bi2Te3.,” Science 325(5937), 178–181 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Bi2Se3 deionized water solution. (b) The AFM image of Bi2Se3 nano-sheets. (c) Photographic image of Bi2Se3-SA film. (d) The nonlinear transmittance of the pure Bi2Se3.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Procedures of the preparation of pure Bi2Se3-SA film.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of the all normal-dispersion fiber laser with a TI-SA. (b) The output power of the fiber laser versus pump power in three laser states: CW output, single pulse output, two-six pulses output.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Spectrum of the fiber laser at pump power of 230 mW. (b) A typical mode-locking pulse train. (c) RF spectrum of the mode-locked laser. Inset: spectrum in 1GHz span. (d) Autocorrelation trace.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a)-(f) Typical pulse train of multi-pulse state.

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