Abstract

We demonstrate the generation and demultiplexing of quantum correlated photons on a monolithic photonic chip composed of silicon and silica-based waveguides. Photon pairs generated in a nonlinear silicon waveguide are successfully separated into two optical channels of an arrayed-waveguide grating fabricated on a silica-based waveguide platform.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Integrated waveguide technology has proven useful for the large-scale integration of quantum information systems on photonic chips [1], thanks to its compactness and circuit stability. In this context, intense study is under way on the development of on-chip quantum components, such as quantum processing circuits [28], quantum light sources [921], and single photon detectors [2224]. Moreover, to fully exploit the advantages of integrated photonics, it is ideal to integrate these different components on a single substrate. Motivated by this goal, several researchers have recently demonstrated the hybrid [25] or monolithic [2628] integration of different quantum-optical components.

The quantum light sources include photon pair sources, which can serve as entangled photon pairs or heralded single photons. A photon pair source can be realized by employing, for example, four-wave mixing in nonlinear Si waveguides [911, 14, 15, 20]. A mature fabrication technology for Si photonic circuits has already made it possible to realize complex quantum sources on a chip [17,18,26]. However, Si-based quantum sources suffer from the nonlinear absorption of photons at a high excitation regime due to the free-carrier plasma effect, which can be eliminated by employing waveguides with other materials such as a chalcogenide glass [12] or gallium indium phosphide [19]. Quantum circuits can also be realized by using integrated waveguides with cores made of Si [5], GaAs [7] or silica-based materials [24, 6, 8]. Of these approaches, silica-based waveguide technology has realized planar lightwave circuits with a significantly large scale for classical optical communication [29, 30]; this capability will facilitate the construction of large-scale quantum circuits in the near future. In addition, the low nonlinearity of silica [31] helps us to avoid the generation of unwanted photons by the intense pump fields used for photon pair generation in the quantum light sources. To exploit these advantages, the integration of quantum light sources and silica waveguides is an attractive technology with which to construct on-chip quantum information systems. A significant step in this direction is the integration of a photon pair source with its interface, namely a photon-pair demultiplexer, for direct connection to a quantum circuit.

In this paper, we demonstrate the monolithic integration of a Si waveguide photon pair source and a photon-pair demutiplexer employing a silica-based arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). In Sec. 2, we investigate the photon pair generation property of the monolithic waveguide platform. By performing experiments using waveguides of various lengths, we confirm that the contribution of our silica-based waveguide to unnecessary photon generation is negligible. In Sec. 3, we demonstrate the on-chip generation and demultiplexing of a correlated photon pairs using a monolithic circuit consisting of a Si-wire photon pair source and a silica-based AWG. We show that the chip is capable of generating quantum correlated photons and guiding them into different output ports.

2. Photon pair generation properties on a Si-silica monolithic waveguide platform

Figure 1(a) is a schematic diagram of a monolithic waveguide platform made of Si and silicon-rich silica (SiOx) [32]. We first fabricate a silicon wire rib waveguide by electron-beam lithography and electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma etching on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The SiOx waveguides are fabricated in a region from which the top Si layer of SOI substrate has been removed by reactive ion etching (RIE). In that region, the SiOx layer is deposited by ECR plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD) at low temperature. Then the cores of the SiOx waveguides are fabricated by photolithography and RIE. Finally, the SiO2 layer is deposited by ECR PE-CVD. The SiOx waveguides have a core-cladding index contrast of ∼ 3%. We also fabricate spot-size converters (SSCs) with a tapered Si waveguide for the low-loss connection of the Si and SiOx waveguides. The cross-sectional dimensions of each waveguide are shown in Fig. 1(b). We use several devices with different combinations of Si and SiOx waveguide lengths, LSi and LSiOx, as shown in the table in Fig. 1(a). The propagation losses of the Si and SiOx waveguides, αSi and αSiOx, are estimated by the cut-back method to be approximately − 2.1 and − 1.8 ± 0.2 dB/cm for the fundamental transverse-electric (TE) mode, respectively. These values remain unchanged at least in the wavelength range between 1540 and 1580 nm. The propagation losses can be further improved [33].

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 (a) Si-silica monolithic waveguide platform for an integrated photonic quantum information system. LSi and LSiOx are the lengths of each waveguide section. The table shows the waveguide length combinations used in the experiment. (b) Cross-sectional views of each waveguide section. The silica overcladding and Si substrate are omitted for clarity.

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To investigate the nonlinearity in the monolithic waveguide, we undertake a photon pair generation experiment using the device with a cascaded structure consisting of a Si and a SiOx waveguide shown in Fig. 1(a). The experimental setup is depicted in Fig. 2. The LiNbO3 intensity modulator (IM) modulates a continuous beam from the light source operating at a wavelength λp of 1551.1 nm into a train of pump pulses with a temporal full-width at half maximum (FWHM) Δt of 200 ps and a repetition rate R of 100 MHz. The pulses are amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), filtered with a band-pass filter BPF (3-dB bandwidth: 0.2 nm) to eliminate amplified spontaneous emission noise, and then launched into the waveguides with a lensed fiber from the Si waveguide side. The input polarization is set at the fundamental TE mode. The in- and out-coupling efficiency with the chip, ηcouple, is approximately − 1 dB/facet, which includes the connection loss at the SSC (typically − 0.35 dB [34]).

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Experimental setup for photon-pair generation experiment of Si-silica monolithic waveguide chip. IM: LiNbO3 intensity modulator, EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, BPF: band-pass filter, WDM filter: wavelength-division multiplexing filter, SPCM: single-photon counting module.

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In nonlinear waveguides such as a Si waveguide, a correlated pair of signal and idler photons are created via a χ(3) spontaneous four-wave mixing (SFWM) process following the annihilation of two photons inside the pump pulse [9, 10]. The χ(3) nonlinearity of Si is 200 times higher than that of silica. In addition, the core area of a Si waveguide is approximately two orders of magnitude smaller than that of our SiOx waveguide. Thus we can expect the Si part to play a major role in correlated photon pair generation. However, this should be confirmed experimentally since SiOx has a material composition different from that of standard silica. We should also investigate the noise photon generation characteristics in the SiOx waveguide, since the Raman scattered photons in fused silica waveguides such as optical fibers [35, 36] are a potential source of noise.

The optical fields output from the side of the SiOx waveguide including the correlated photons were collected by another lensed fiber. Then, the light was introduced into the fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) filter and the wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) filter, which separated the signal and idler photons into different fiber channels. Here the total pump-wavelength suppression of the FBG and WDM filters exceeds 130 dB. Each output port of the WDM filter has center wavelengths of 1546.4 nm (λs) and 1556.0 nm (λi) with a passband width Δν of 0.12 THz (0.96 nm). Finally, the photons are received by avalanche-photodiode-based single photon counting modules (SPCMs) (id210, id Quantique) that operated at a gate frequency of 100 MHz synchronized with the pump repetition rate R. The quantum efficiency ηQE, gate width, dark count rate d, and dead time of the detectors were 21 %, 1.0 ns, 2.1 kHz, and 10 μs, respectively. The overall transmittance of the filtration system ηf is approximately − 3.8 dB. The raw coincidence rate Dc (including the accidental coincidence count) and the raw accidental coincidence rate Dc,a were determined by measuring the time correlation of the signals output from the two SPCMs using a time-interval analyzer. From these values, we can also estimate signal-to-noise ratio of photon pairs, that is, coincidence to accidental coincidence ratio (CAR = Dc/Dc,a).

Figures 3(a) and 3(b) are the net photon pair generation rate (at the waveguide output end of the SiOx waveguide side) as a function of the waveguide length. Fig. 3(a) shows the LSiOx dependence obtained using waveguides (i), (v), (vi), whereas Fig. 3(b) is the LSi dependence with waveguides (i) to (iv). We used three waveguides for each length condition. Here we estimated the net photon pair generation rate at the end of the SiOx waveguide, μc, using

μc=DcDc,aRηtotal2,
where ηtotal = ηcoupleηfηQEηgate with ηgate being the ratio of the active gates to the 100 MHz clock rate [20]. The number of active detector gates decreases due to the finite detector dead time set in our experiment. The measurement time was 60 s for each data point to obtain good statistics.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Photon pair generation rate as a function of (a) SiOx and (b) Si length, respectively. The pump peak power Pp is fixed at 37 mW. The dashed curves show the fitting results as described in the text. (c) The net photon generation rate inside the wavelength band for the signal photons at the end of the Si waveguide versus Pp. (d) Coincidence to accidental coincidence ratio (CAR) values as a function of Pp. The curves show the results of numerical calculations as described in the text.

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In more detail, Fig. 3(a) shows that the pair generation rate decreases monotonically with increases in LSiOx, in contrast to the LSi dependence shown in Fig. 3(b). This strongly suggests that the contribution of the SiOx waveguide as a photon pair source is negligible. Assuming that the SiOx waveguide is a passive transmission line to the photon pairs generated in the Si waveguide section, μc should follow μcηSiOx2, where ηSiOx = eαSiOxLSiOx is the transmittance in the SiOx waveguide. A fitted function with this relation is shown as a dashed curve in Fig. 3(b). The experimental results are well explained by the fitting. From the fitting we obtained an αSiOx value of − 2.4 ± 0.4 dB/cm, which is similar to the value obtained with the cut-back method. These results suggest that the SiOx waveguide works as a passive circuit without the creation of a significant number of unwanted photon pairs inside it. We further confirm this by analyzing CAR values later.

On the other hand, in Fig. 3(b) we find that μc increases with increases in LSi, and then starts to decrease in the LSi > 2.37 cm region. The latter is considered to be due to the propagation loss in the Si waveguide. Taking the linear propagation loss into account, the photon pair generation rate at the end of the first Si waveguide μ′c can be written as

μc=ΔνΔt(γPpLeff)2ηSi2,
where γ is the nonlinear constant of the Si waveguide, Pp = P/(RΔt) is the coupled pump peak power, and Leff is the effective Si waveguide length associated with Leff=1eαSiLSiα. ηSi = eαSiLSi is the linear transmittance of the Si waveguide that causes the intrinsic loss of the photon pairs [37, 38]. The dashed curve in Fig. 3(b) shows a fitted function using μc=ηSiOx2μc and Eq. (2) with a fitting parameters γ = 161 /W/m and αSi = 2.0 dB/cm. The experimental data are well explained by the fitting. The γ value obtained from the fitting is slightly lower than that of channel-type Si wire waveguides [10, 11]. This is because the present rib-type waveguide has a larger effective mode area than a channel waveguide.

Noise photons, such as Raman scattered photons, can contaminate wavelength channels for the correlated photons. To investigate the generation of noise photons in our SiOx waveguide, we plot single count rate μ′s as a function of Pp in Fig. 3(c). Here μ′s is the photon generation rate in the signal wavelength channel at the end of the Si waveguide part (before the SiOx waveguide) estimated by μs=NsRηtotalηSiOx, where Ns is the raw single count rate measured by the SPCM set in the signal channel excluding the dark count rate of the detector. From Fig. 3(c), we find that the μ′s values remain the same regardless of LSiOx (by comparing the results obtained with waveguides (i), (v) and (vi)). This means that a negligible number of noise photons are generated in the SiOx waveguide. The dashed curve shows a second-order polynomial fitting to the data obtained for the waveguide (i). In addition to the Pp2 component that originated from the SFWM, we can see the Pp1 component in the low excitation regime. This indicates that processes other than SFWM, for example inelastic scattering in the Si waveguide part, contribute little [39].

Finally, Fig. 3(d) shows the measured coincidence to accidental coincidence ratio (CAR = Dc/Dc,a) from three waveguides with the same LSi with respect to Pp. The maximum CAR of around 100 shows the strong quantum correlation of the photon pairs. We see that the overall CAR values decrease with increases in LSiOx. If the SiOx waveguides generated a negligible number of noise photons, this reduction should be explained by the linear propagation loss of the photons in the SiOx waveguides. To confirm this, we estimated CAR using

CAR=η2ηSiOx2μc(ηtotalμs+d)(ηtotalμi+d)+1,
here we calculated μc using Eq. (2) with γ = 161 /W/m, which we obtained from the fitting above. For μ′s we used the fitted functions for waveguide (i) represented by the dashed curve in Fig. 3(c); we obtained the μ′i function in the same way. The estimated CAR is shown by the solid curve in Fig. 2(d), which agrees well with the experimental data for waveguide (i). Next, we replace the LSiOx value with 2.93 and 4.49 cm in the calculation above, and plot the results as dashed and dot-dashed curves, respectively. The two curves well describe the experimental data obtained with waveguides (v) and (vi). Thus, we confirmed that the decrease in CAR with increases in SiOx waveguide length can be explained by the photon loss in the SiOx part. This also indicates that no significant noise photons are created in the SiOx waveguide.

3. On-chip generation and wavelength-division demultiplexing of photon pairs

We have shown that our SiOx waveguide works as a low-nonlinear circuit without creating a significant number of noise photons. Next we attempt to monolithically integrate the Si-wire photon pair source and its passive wavelength demultiplexing filter on the same chip.

Figure 4(a) is a schematic diagram of the monolithic device fabricated in the manner described in Sec. 2, together with the experimental setup. In the device, correlated photon pairs are created via the SFWM in the first Si rib waveguide (LSi = 1.37 cm), and subsequently spectrally separated by the on-chip SiOx AWG into different output channels. Our AWG has 16 output channels designed to have a 200 GHz channel spacing. AWGs are commonly used for separating photon pairs generated via SFWM in integrated waveguides [10, 1214, 19, 20]. The monolithic integration of the AWG and SFWM-based photon pair source thus provides a compact and stable photon pair source and a heralded single photon source. It is also a key technology for the implementation of a multiplexed single photon source [25]. Moreover, our monolithic AWG can be used as an interface between a photon pair source and a linear-optic quantum circuit.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) Monolithic chip housing a Si wire photon pair source and a silica-based arrayed waveguide grating, illustrated with the experimental setup. (b) Transmission spectra of AWG output ports, from which photon pairs are collected.

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The pump pulses for the experiment are obtained using the setup shown in Fig. 2 (for Δt = 200 ps, R = 100 MHz, λp = 1560.5 nm). We choose to collect photons output from a pair of waveguides that are 3 channels away from the center output port. With this channel separation we obtain a pump-to-signal (or idler) wavelength separation similar to that of the experiments described in Sec. 2. We show the transmission spectra of the two AWG outputs in Fig. 4(b). Here the 3-dB passband widths of the transmission windows are approximately 80 GHz. All the 16 channels of our SiOx AWG can be used with similar performances [32]. The SSCs with Si tapers are fabricated between the Si waveguide and the AWG for their low-loss connection. The output optical fields are collected by optical fibers with a high numerical aperture. Then the photons are introduced into spectral filters, each of which consists of an FBG notch filter and a BPF for the suppression of residual pump fields. Further on-chip suppression of the pump field is also possible by integrating filters additionally [42, 43]. The 3-dB bandwidth of the BPFs Δν are 100 GHz, which covers the AWG passbands. Finally, the photons are received by SPCMs and a coincidence measurement is performed with a time-interval analyzer. The overall transmittance of the filters ηf is −2.8 dB and the AWG insertion loss ηAWG is −7.7 dB. The quantum efficiency ηQE and dark count rate d of the SPCM are 24% and 5.1 kHz, respectively, in the present experiment.

To complete the integration and characterization of the device, Fig. 5(a) shows the net photon pair generation rate estimated using Eq. (1) as a function of the pump peak power Pp. The data exhibit good Pp2 dependence, indicating photon pair generation via the SFWM process. The solid line shows the estimation obtained with Eq. (2) and μc=ηAWG2μc using the same γ value of 161 /W/m obtained from the fitting in Sec. 2. The experimental result agrees well with the calculation. Hence the observed photon pairs are considered to be generated via SFWM in the Si waveguide.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a) Net photon pair generation rate as a function of pump peak power Pp. The dashed curve shows the theoretical calculation result. (b) CAR values as a function of Pp. The solid curve shows a calculation result. The dashed and dot-dashed curves are estimations of the lower AWG insertion loss and lower dark count rate, respectively, described in the text.

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Figure 5(b) shows the measured CAR as a function of Pp. We obtained a maximum CAR of around 30. The value is well above CAR = 2, which is the limit accessible with classical light [40]. This indicates that the quantum correlation between photons was preserved even after they had passed through the integrated AWG. Thus, our chip successfully generated and demultiplexed quantum correlated photons on the monolithic device. Next we analyze the obtained CAR values. The solid curve shows CAR values estimated using Eq. (3) in accordance with the procedure employed to obtain the solid curve in Fig. 3(c). The curve agrees well with the experimental data. The dashed curve shows the CAR values for ηAWG = 0, exhibiting a maximum CAR of up to 80. Hence, reducing the AWG insertion loss is effective in improving CAR. We also show the CAR values obtained when the detector dark count rate d = 20 (Hz). This suggests that we can further improve the maximum CAR by using SPCMs with low dark count rates such as superconducting single photon detectors with similar dark count rates [41].

4. Conclusion

We have demonstrated the on-chip generation and demultiplexing of quantum correlated photon pairs using a monolithic waveguide platform composed of Si and silica-based waveguides. Furthermore, we have shown that the silica part of the monolithic platform does not contribute to noise photon generation. The device can be used as a compact correlated photon pair source, and will be useful for many quantum information applications including wavelength-division multiplexing quantum communication technologies [44] and heralded single photon sources [15]. Moreover, the silica-based AWG can provide an interface between a Si-based photon pair source and silica-based lightwave circuits, which are useful as linear-optics-based quantum circuits. The wavelength-multiplexing capability is also beneficial for constructing a circuit that harnesses high-dimensional quantum states using path and frequency degrees of freedom [45] (for which a careful choice of AWG channels will be necessary to avoid noise photons at a small-detuning regime [20, 39]). Thus, the present platform will prove useful for monolithic source-circuit integration with a view to achieving the full-scale integration of on-chip quantum processors.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to Dr. Kaoru Shimizu for fruitful discussions.

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33. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, P. Sungbong, H. Nishi, R. Kou, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011). [CrossRef]  

34. T. Hiraki, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, R. Kou, H. Fukuda, K. Takeda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and K. Yamada, “Si-Ge-silica monolithic integration platform and its application to a 22-Gb/s 16-ch WDM receiver,” IEEE Photonics Journal 5(4), 4500407 (2013). [CrossRef]  

35. M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(7), 983–985 (2002). [CrossRef]  

36. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A 70(3), 031802 (2004). [CrossRef]  

37. C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

38. Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, “Silicon waveguides for creating quantum-correlated photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 3140(31), 3140–3142 (2006). [CrossRef]  

39. S. Clemmen, A. Perret, J. Safioui, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, S. Gorza, P. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Low-power inelastic light scattering at small detunings in silicon wire waveguides at telecom wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(8), 1977–1982 (2012). [CrossRef]  

40. R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light, 3rd ed. (Oxford University, 2000).

41. T. Inagaki, N. Matsuda, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and H. Takesue, “Entanglement distribution over 300 km of fiber,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23241–23249 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

42. S. Kamei, A. Kaneko, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, Y. Inoue, and Y. Hibino, “Crosstalk reduction in arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer/demultiplexer using cascade connection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(5), 1929–1938 (2005). [CrossRef]  

43. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005). [CrossRef]  

44. K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, Y. Nambu, A. Tomita, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, M. Sasaki, and A. Tajima, “High-speed wavelength-division multiplexing quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 223–225 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

45. C. Schaeff, R. Polster, R. Lapkiewicz, R. Fickler, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Scalable fiber integrated source for higher-dimensional path-entangled photonic quNits,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16145–16153 (2012). [CrossRef]  

References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  40. R. Loudon, The Quantum Theory of Light, 3rd ed. (Oxford University, 2000).
  41. T. Inagaki, N. Matsuda, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and H. Takesue, “Entanglement distribution over 300 km of fiber,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23241–23249 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. S. Kamei, A. Kaneko, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, Y. Inoue, and Y. Hibino, “Crosstalk reduction in arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer/demultiplexer using cascade connection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(5), 1929–1938 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  43. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  44. K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, Y. Nambu, A. Tomita, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, M. Sasaki, and A. Tajima, “High-speed wavelength-division multiplexing quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 223–225 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (6)

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327(15), 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, M. Bentivegna, D. J. Brod, A. Crespi, F. Flamini, S. Giacomini, G. Milani, R. Ramponi, P. Mataloni, R. Osellame, E. F. Galvão, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental validation of photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photon. 8(8), 615–620 (2014).

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photon. 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, R. J. Coles, J. O’Hara, B. Royall, E. Clarke, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Monolithic integration of a quantum emitter with a compact on-chip beam-splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231107 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Boitier, A. Orieux, C. Autebert, A. Lemaître, E. Galopin, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Favero, G. Leo, and S. Ducci, “Electrically injected photon-pair source at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(18), 183901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, Z. Zhou, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide photon-number-resolving detectors for quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 111116 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Hiraki, H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, R. Kou, H. Fukuda, K. Takeda, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, and K. Yamada, “Si-Ge-silica monolithic integration platform and its application to a 22-Gb/s 16-ch WDM receiver,” IEEE Photonics Journal 5(4), 4500407 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Olislager, J. Safioui, S. Clemmen, K. P. Huy, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Silicon-on-insulator integrated source of polarization-entangled photons,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1960–1962 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Clark, C. Husko, M. J. Collins, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Heralded single-photon source in a III–V photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 649–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Matsuda, H. Takesue, K. Shimizu, Y. Tokura, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Slow light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in photonic-crystal coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 8596–8604 (2013).

T. Inagaki, N. Matsuda, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and H. Takesue, “Entanglement distribution over 300 km of fiber,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23241–23249 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

K. Yoshino, M. Fujiwara, A. Tanaka, S. Takahashi, Y. Nambu, A. Tomita, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, Z. Wang, M. Sasaki, and A. Tajima, “High-speed wavelength-division multiplexing quantum key distribution system,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 223–225 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schaeff, R. Polster, R. Lapkiewicz, R. Fickler, S. Ramelow, and A. Zeilinger, “Scalable fiber integrated source for higher-dimensional path-entangled photonic quNits,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16145–16153 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Davanço, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Horn, P. Abolghasem, B. J. Bijlani, D. Kang, A. S. Helmy, and G. Weihs, “Monolithic source of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 153605 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Matsuda, H. Le Jeannic, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, W. J. Munro, K. Shimizu, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and H. Takesue, “A monolithically integrated polarization entangled photon pair source on a silicon chip,” Sci. Rep. 2, 817 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New. J. Phys. 14(4), 045003 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Clemmen, A. Perret, J. Safioui, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, S. Gorza, P. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Low-power inelastic light scattering at small detunings in silicon wire waveguides at telecom wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(8), 1977–1982 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. H. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, P. Sungbong, H. Nishi, R. Kou, H. Shinojima, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 516–525 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, G. D. Marshall, A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. G. Thompson, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generation of correlated photon pairs in a chalcogenide As2S3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051101 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Lobino, G. D. Marshall, C. Xiong, A. S. Clark, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, M. G. Thompson, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O’Brien, “Correlated photon-pair generation in a periodically poled MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate reverse proton exchanged waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081110 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, C. Monat, A. S. Clark, C. Grillet, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Steel, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, J. G. Rarity, and B. J. Eggleton, “Slow-light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3413–3415 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

T. D. Ladd, F. Jelezko, R. Laflamme, Y. Nakamura, C. Monroe, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum computers,” Nature 464(7285), 45–53 (2010).
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A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum walks of correlated photons,” Science 329(5998), 1500–1503 (2010).
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H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, S. Park, R. Kou, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Monolithic integration of a silica-based arrayed waveguide grating filter and silicon variable optical attenuators based on p-i-n carrier-injection structure,” Appl. Phys. Express 3, 102203 (2010).
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2009 (3)

2008 (1)

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
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2007 (1)

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201108 (2007).
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2006 (2)

2005 (2)

S. Kamei, A. Kaneko, M. Ishii, T. Shibata, Y. Inoue, and Y. Hibino, “Crosstalk reduction in arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer/demultiplexer using cascade connection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(5), 1929–1938 (2005).
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T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology”, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
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2004 (1)

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A 70(3), 031802 (2004).
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2002 (2)

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(7), 983–985 (2002).
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Y. Hibino, “Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(5), 1090–1101 (2002).
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Abolghasem, P.

R. Horn, P. Abolghasem, B. J. Bijlani, D. Kang, A. S. Helmy, and G. Weihs, “Monolithic source of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 153605 (2012).
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Agha, I.

M. Davanço, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261104 (2012).
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Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin and G. P. Agrawal, “Silicon waveguides for creating quantum-correlated photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 3140(31), 3140–3142 (2006).
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Alibart, O.

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
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Asobe, M.

Assefa, S.

M. Davanço, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261104 (2012).
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F. Najafi, J. Mower, N. Harris, F. Bellei, A. Dane, C. Lee, P. Kharel, F. Marsili, S. Assefa, K. K. Berggren, and D. Englund, “On-chip detection of entangled photons by scalable integration of single-photon detectors,” arXiv:1405.4244 [physics.optics].

Autebert, C.

F. Boitier, A. Orieux, C. Autebert, A. Lemaître, E. Galopin, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Favero, G. Leo, and S. Ducci, “Electrically injected photon-pair source at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(18), 183901 (2014).
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Baets, R.

Baets, R. G.

Barbieri, M.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
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Beetz, J.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327(15), 49–55 (2014).
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D. Sahin, A. Gaggero, Z. Zhou, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide photon-number-resolving detectors for quantum photonic integrated circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 111116 (2013).
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Bellei, F.

F. Najafi, J. Mower, N. Harris, F. Bellei, A. Dane, C. Lee, P. Kharel, F. Marsili, S. Assefa, K. K. Berggren, and D. Englund, “On-chip detection of entangled photons by scalable integration of single-photon detectors,” arXiv:1405.4244 [physics.optics].

Bentivegna, M.

N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, M. Bentivegna, D. J. Brod, A. Crespi, F. Flamini, S. Giacomini, G. Milani, R. Ramponi, P. Mataloni, R. Osellame, E. F. Galvão, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental validation of photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photon. 8(8), 615–620 (2014).

Berggren, K. K.

F. Najafi, J. Mower, N. Harris, F. Bellei, A. Dane, C. Lee, P. Kharel, F. Marsili, S. Assefa, K. K. Berggren, and D. Englund, “On-chip detection of entangled photons by scalable integration of single-photon detectors,” arXiv:1405.4244 [physics.optics].

Bijlani, B. J.

R. Horn, P. Abolghasem, B. J. Bijlani, D. Kang, A. S. Helmy, and G. Weihs, “Monolithic source of photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(15), 153605 (2012).
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Bogaerts, W.

Boitier, F.

F. Boitier, A. Orieux, C. Autebert, A. Lemaître, E. Galopin, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Favero, G. Leo, and S. Ducci, “Electrically injected photon-pair source at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(18), 183901 (2014).
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Bonneau, D.

J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photon. 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
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J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327(15), 49–55 (2014).
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D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New. J. Phys. 14(4), 045003 (2012).
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M. Lobino, G. D. Marshall, C. Xiong, A. S. Clark, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, M. G. Thompson, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O’Brien, “Correlated photon-pair generation in a periodically poled MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate reverse proton exchanged waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081110 (2011).
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Bounouar, S.

K. D. Jöns, U. Rengstl, M. Oster, F. Hargart, M. Heldmaier, S. Bounouar, S. M. Ulrich, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Monolithic on-chip integration of semiconductor waveguides, beamsplitters and single-photon sources,” arXiv:1403.7174 [quant-ph].

Brod, D. J.

N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, M. Bentivegna, D. J. Brod, A. Crespi, F. Flamini, S. Giacomini, G. Milani, R. Ramponi, P. Mataloni, R. Osellame, E. F. Galvão, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental validation of photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photon. 8(8), 615–620 (2014).

Bromberg, Y.

A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, J. C. F. Matthews, N. Matsuda, A. Politi, K. Poulios, X.-Q. Zhou, Y. Lahini, N. Ismail, K. Wörhoff, Y. Bromberg, Y. Silberberg, M. G. Thompson, and J. L. O’Brien, “Quantum walks of correlated photons,” Science 329(5998), 1500–1503 (2010).
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Choi, D.-Y.

C. Xiong, G. D. Marshall, A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. G. Thompson, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generation of correlated photon pairs in a chalcogenide As2S3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Clark, A. S.

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
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A. S. Clark, C. Husko, M. J. Collins, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Heralded single-photon source in a III–V photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 649–651 (2013).
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C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, G. D. Marshall, A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. G. Thompson, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generation of correlated photon pairs in a chalcogenide As2S3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051101 (2011).
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M. Lobino, G. D. Marshall, C. Xiong, A. S. Clark, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, M. G. Thompson, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O’Brien, “Correlated photon-pair generation in a periodically poled MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate reverse proton exchanged waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081110 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, C. Monat, A. S. Clark, C. Grillet, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Steel, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, J. G. Rarity, and B. J. Eggleton, “Slow-light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3413–3415 (2011).
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Clarke, E.

N. Prtljaga, R. J. Coles, J. O’Hara, B. Royall, E. Clarke, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Monolithic integration of a quantum emitter with a compact on-chip beam-splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231107 (2014).
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Clemmen, S.

Coles, R. J.

N. Prtljaga, R. J. Coles, J. O’Hara, B. Royall, E. Clarke, A. M. Fox, and M. S. Skolnick, “Monolithic integration of a quantum emitter with a compact on-chip beam-splitter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(23), 231107 (2014).
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Collins, M. J.

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
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A. S. Clark, C. Husko, M. J. Collins, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Heralded single-photon source in a III–V photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 649–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Combrié, S.

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. S. Clark, C. Husko, M. J. Collins, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Heralded single-photon source in a III–V photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 649–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crespi, A.

N. Spagnolo, C. Vitelli, M. Bentivegna, D. J. Brod, A. Crespi, F. Flamini, S. Giacomini, G. Milani, R. Ramponi, P. Mataloni, R. Osellame, E. F. Galvão, and F. Sciarrino, “Experimental validation of photonic boson sampling,” Nat. Photon. 8(8), 615–620 (2014).

Cryan, M. J.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dane, A.

F. Najafi, J. Mower, N. Harris, F. Bellei, A. Dane, C. Lee, P. Kharel, F. Marsili, S. Assefa, K. K. Berggren, and D. Englund, “On-chip detection of entangled photons by scalable integration of single-photon detectors,” arXiv:1405.4244 [physics.optics].

Datta, A.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Davanço, M.

M. Davanço, J. R. Ong, A. B. Shehata, A. Tosi, I. Agha, S. Assefa, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, S. Mookherjea, and K. Srinivasan, “Telecommunications-band heralded single photons from a silicon nanophotonic chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(26), 261104 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Rossi, A.

A. S. Clark, C. Husko, M. J. Collins, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Heralded single-photon source in a III–V photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 649–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorenbos, S. N.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327(15), 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New. J. Phys. 14(4), 045003 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Lobino, G. D. Marshall, C. Xiong, A. S. Clark, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, M. G. Thompson, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O’Brien, “Correlated photon-pair generation in a periodically poled MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate reverse proton exchanged waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081110 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, G. D. Marshall, A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. G. Thompson, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generation of correlated photon pairs in a chalcogenide As2S3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ducci, S.

F. Boitier, A. Orieux, C. Autebert, A. Lemaître, E. Galopin, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Favero, G. Leo, and S. Ducci, “Electrically injected photon-pair source at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(18), 183901 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edamatsu, K.

N. Matsuda, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, “Observation of optical-fibre Kerr nonlinearity at the single-photon level,” Nat. Photon. 3(2), 95–98 (2009).
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Eggleton, B. J.

T. Meany, L. A. Ngah, M. J. Collins, A. S. Clark, R. J. Williams, B. J. Eggleton, M. J. Steel, M. J. Withford, O. Alibart, and S. Tanzilli, “Hybrid photonic circuit for multiplexed heralded single photons,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), L42–L46 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. S. Clark, C. Husko, M. J. Collins, G. Lehoucq, S. Xavier, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Heralded single-photon source in a III–V photonic crystal,” Opt. Lett. 38(5), 649–651 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. A. Husko, A. S. Clark, M. J. Collins, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, G. Lehoucq, I. H. Rey, T. F. Krauss, C. Xiong, and B. J. Eggleton, “Multi-photon absorption limits to heralded single photon sources,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3087 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lobino, G. D. Marshall, C. Xiong, A. S. Clark, D. Bonneau, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, M. G. Thompson, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O’Brien, “Correlated photon-pair generation in a periodically poled MgO doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate reverse proton exchanged waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 081110 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Xiong, C. Monat, A. S. Clark, C. Grillet, G. D. Marshall, M. J. Steel, J. Li, L. O’Faolain, T. F. Krauss, J. G. Rarity, and B. J. Eggleton, “Slow-light enhanced correlated photon pair generation in a silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3413–3415 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, G. D. Marshall, A. Peruzzo, M. Lobino, A. S. Clark, D.-Y. Choi, S. J. Madden, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, T. Zijlstra, V. Zwiller, M. G. Thompson, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Steel, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, and J. L. O’Brien, “Generation of correlated photon pairs in a chalcogenide As2S3 waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(5), 051101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Emplit, P.

Engin, E.

J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327(15), 49–55 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Bonneau, E. Engin, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Quantum interference and manipulation of entanglement in silicon wire waveguide quantum circuits,” New. J. Phys. 14(4), 045003 (2012).
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A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
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N. Matsuda, H. Le Jeannic, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, W. J. Munro, K. Shimizu, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and H. Takesue, “A monolithically integrated polarization entangled photon pair source on a silicon chip,” Sci. Rep. 2, 817 (2012).
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Tang, H. X.

W. H. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High-speed and high-efficiency travelling wave single-photon detectors embedded in nanophotonic circuits,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1325 (2012).
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J. W. Silverstone, D. Bonneau, K. Ohira, N. Suzuki, H. Yoshida, N. Iizuka, M. Ezaki, C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, R. H. Hadfield, V. Zwiller, G. D. Marshall, J. G. Rarity, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “On-chip quantum interference between silicon photon-pair sources,” Nat. Photon. 8(2), 104–108 (2014).
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J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
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J. Wang, A. Santamato, P. Jiang, D. Bonneau, E. Engin, J. W. Silverstone, M. Lermer, J. Beetz, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, S. N. Dorenbos, V. Zwiller, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Gallium arsenide (GaAs) quantum photonic waveguide circuits,” Opt. Commun. 327(15), 49–55 (2014).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Si-silica monolithic waveguide platform for an integrated photonic quantum information system. LSi and LSiOx are the lengths of each waveguide section. The table shows the waveguide length combinations used in the experiment. (b) Cross-sectional views of each waveguide section. The silica overcladding and Si substrate are omitted for clarity.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for photon-pair generation experiment of Si-silica monolithic waveguide chip. IM: LiNbO3 intensity modulator, EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, BPF: band-pass filter, WDM filter: wavelength-division multiplexing filter, SPCM: single-photon counting module.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photon pair generation rate as a function of (a) SiO x and (b) Si length, respectively. The pump peak power Pp is fixed at 37 mW. The dashed curves show the fitting results as described in the text. (c) The net photon generation rate inside the wavelength band for the signal photons at the end of the Si waveguide versus Pp. (d) Coincidence to accidental coincidence ratio (CAR) values as a function of Pp. The curves show the results of numerical calculations as described in the text.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Monolithic chip housing a Si wire photon pair source and a silica-based arrayed waveguide grating, illustrated with the experimental setup. (b) Transmission spectra of AWG output ports, from which photon pairs are collected.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Net photon pair generation rate as a function of pump peak power Pp. The dashed curve shows the theoretical calculation result. (b) CAR values as a function of Pp. The solid curve shows a calculation result. The dashed and dot-dashed curves are estimations of the lower AWG insertion loss and lower dark count rate, respectively, described in the text.

Equations (3)

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μ c = D c D c , a R η total 2 ,
μ c = Δ ν Δ t ( γ P p L eff ) 2 η Si 2 ,
CAR = η 2 η SiO x 2 μ c ( η total μ s + d ) ( η total μ i + d ) + 1 ,

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