Abstract

By up-shifting the relaxation oscillation peak and suppressing its relative intensity noise in a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) under intense injection-locking, the directly modulated transmission of optical 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) data-stream is demonstrated. The total bit rate of up to 20 Gbit/s within 5-GHz bandwidth is achieved by using the OFDM subcarrier pre-leveling technique. With increasing the injection-locking power from −12 to −3 dBm, the effective reduction on threshold current of the WRC-FPLD significantly shifts its relaxation oscillation frequency from 5 to 7.5 GHz. This concurrently induces an up-shift of the peak relative intensity noise (RIN) of the WRC-FPLD, and effectively suppresses the background RIN level to −104 dBc/Hz within the OFDM band between 3 and 6 GHz. The enhanced signal-to-noise ratio from 16 to 20 dB leads to a significant reduction of bit-error-rate (BER) of the back-to-back transmitted 16-QAM-OFDM data from 1.3 × 10−3 to 5 × 10−5, which slightly degrades to 1.1 × 10−4 after 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission. However, the enlarged injection-locking power from −12 to −3 dBm inevitably declines the modulation throughput and increases its negative throughput slope from −0.8 to −1.9 dBm/GHz. After pre-leveling the peak amplitude of the OFDM subcarriers to compensate the throughput degradation of the directly modulated WRC-FPLD, the BER under 25-km SMF transmission can be further improved to 3 × 10−5 under a receiving power of −3 dBm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Nowadays, the wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) is considered for the next-generation fiber-optic access service because of its unique features including dense channel with high capacity, strong security, easy upgradability, and high flexibility [13]. Many directly modulated light sources have been proposed for the use in either the central office (CO) or the optical network unit (ONU) of WDM-PON, such as the distributed feedback laser diodes (DFBLDs), reflective semiconductor amplifiers (RSOAs), and Fabry-Perot laser diode (FPLDs). Figure 1 schematically illustrates the end-facet reflectance dependent spectral characteristics of the aforementioned transmitters without and with injection-locking. These light sources can be either free-running or wavelength injection-locking to form the non-coherent [46] or coherent [79] transmitters, which effectively upgrade the transmission performance of optical data in the WDM-PON. Typically, the DFBLD with highest coherence is indeed the best choice for carrying the optical data for transmission [10, 11]. However, the DFBLD is also a non-universal transmitter with preset and almost non-variable wavelength for discrete WDM-PON channel, which consists of the lowest temperature dependent tunable range and makes it the most expensive solution for WDM-PON. To meet the demand of a colorless transmitter applicable for all WDM-PON channels, some works focused on using the wavelength injection-locked broadband light source have been proposed to release the cost issue of the traditional DFBLD transmitters used in WDM-PON [1214]. For example, the injection-locked RSOA [13] was proposed at early stage, which is able to cover more WDM-PON channels due to its wide tunable range. However, the non-coherence and low modulation bandwidth (<2.5 Gbit/s) of the RSOA transmitter limited the transmission capability for WDM-PON. Later on, Park et al. proposed the externally single-mode injection-locked RSOA with reduced mode beating noise and dispersion during long distance transmission [14].

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 The spectra of the RSOA, WRC-FPLD, FPLD, and DFB laser depend on different front-facet reflectance.

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Alternatively, the injection-locked FPLD has been proposed because of its higher coherence than the RSOA [1517]. On the other hand, a new class of injection-locked weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) [1820] has emerged with imperfect anti-reflection (AR) coating on the front-facet of a long-cavity FPLD. In contrast to the conventional FPLD, the longer cavity length of the WRC-FPLD effectively reduces its longitudinal mode spacing to increase dense WDM channels with sufficient mode number. The WRC-FPLD with lower front-facet reflectance provides higher injection efficiency and broader gain spectrum to cover more WDM channels. Recently, the coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) format has been proposed for next-generation PON to enable the transmitter with high data capacity and high spectral usage efficiency within a finite bandwidth [2123]. To provide a potential subscriber network with both the higher channel capacity and the data-format flexibility for fiber-to-the-home applications, it is necessary to fuse such a new-class data format into the WDM-PON in the near future. At present, the optical OFDM transmissions based on different transmitters for dense WDM-PON application have been successively demonstrated [2433]. The direct modulation of a single-mode DFBLD was considered as the most common candidate to carry the OFDM data to achieve the 30-Gbit/s transmission [24, 25], and the DFBLD based QAM-OFDM transmission was demonstrated for the WDM extended reach PON [26]. In addition, the optical OFDM was used for wavelength reused down-stream transmission at 10 Gbit/s [27], and the 7.5-Gbit/s OFDM transmission carried by a directly modulated injection-locked RSOA was demonstrated with a bandwidth usage of only 1 GHz [28]. Later on, the 40-Gbit/s OFDM PON was achieved by using an electroabsorption modulator (EAM) with the aid of subcarrier-adaptive modulation format and pre-emphasis [29]. Another approach using the dual-band Optical OFDM signal transmitted over 25-km SMF at a total bit rate of up to 19.125 Gbit/s was demonstrated by using the IMDD system with an integrated EAM and laser diode link [30]. More recently, the directly modulated and injection-locked FPLD for 16-QAM OFDM transmission at 10 Gbit/s was proposed as a colorless transmitter for the DWDM-PON [31, 32]. By externally modulating a mode-locked laser comb based multi-carrier transmitter, a novel WDM-OFDM PON scheme with a bit rate of 12.75 Gbit/s per channel was also demonstrated [33]. To increase the data bandwidth, the injection-locked WRC-FPLD under direct modulation was employed to transmit the OFDM data [34], and the OFDM with 3-GHz transmission bandwidth was carried by the WRC-FPLD packed in a common TO-can with a limited frequency response [35]. However, this kind of low-endface-reflectance WRC-FPLD transmitter usually accompanies with relaxation oscillation dependent relative intensity noise (RIN) band to restrict the OFDM modulation over 5 GHz.

In this work, we study the effect of RIN band shift in the WRC-FPLD modulation response, which can ameliorate the back-to-back and 25-km single mode fiber (SMF) 16-QAM OFDM transmission of up to 20 Gbit/s. The employment of the external injection-locking plays an important role to suppress and up-shift the relaxation oscillation induced RIN peak, so as to upgrade the directly modulated WRC-FPLD with 16-QAM OFDM transmission performance. By setting the OFDM data with a total bandwidth of 5 GHz band at central frequency of 3 GHz, and by using the subcarrier pre-leveling technique to compensate the declined frequency response of the directly modulated WRC-FPLD, the impaired the 16-QAM OFDM transmission delivered with the injection-locked WRC-FPLD based universal WDM-PON transmitter is demonstrated.

2. Experimental setup

Figure 2 illustrates the testing bench for the directly modulated and coherently injection-locked long-cavity WRC-FPLD with a limited bandwidth of 5 GHz for the OFDM transmission at a total bit rate of 20 Gbit/s. The gray region shows the device and bonding structures of the WRC-FPLD packed in a TO-56-can. In order to remain the dense and weak longitudinal modes with partial coherence for DWDM-PON application, the front-end facet reflectance of the WRC-FPLD was reduced to 1% and the cavity length of the WRC-FPLD was lengthened to 600 um as compared to a conventional FPLD with a front-end facet reflectance of 30% and a cavity length of 200 um. Such a design not only greatly reduces the power budget under injection-locking operation, but also provides an enlarged density of cavity modes to fit with the DWDM-PON channels. The WRC-FPLD exhibits numerous longitudinal modes spaced by 0.5 nm and ranged between 1570 and 1590 nm. To enhance the modulation bandwidth with suppressed the RIN level, a tunable laser with its wavelength optimized at 1580.65 nm serves as the coherent master to injection-lock the slave WRC-FPLD. The WRC-FPLD was biased at 35 mA (twice the threshold current of 17 mA) and injection-locked by adjusting the tunable laser power from −12 to 0 dBm. The temperature was controlled at 25°C to prevent wavelength drift. With the WRC-FPLD based transmitted in the central office (CO), the pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) data was serial-to-parallel mapped into the 16-QAM formatted data-stream.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 The pre-leveled 16-QAM OFDM testing bench for a directly modulated WRC-FPLD injection-locked by tunable laser at bit-rate of 20 Gbit/s. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator, DSO: digital signal oscilloscope, PRBS: pseudo random binary sequence, S/P: serial to parallel, F(ex): pre-level function, P/S: parallel to serial, IFFT: inverse fast Fourier transform, FFT: fast Fourier transform, SMF: single mode fiber. PD: photodetector, Amp: amplifier, TL: tunable laser.

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In our home-made MATLAB program for generating a QAM-OFDM formatted data-stream under a preset FFT size, the raw bit rate (D in unit of bit/sec) can be calculated by multiplying the requested subcarrier spacing (Δf in unit of 1/sec) with the subcarrier number (N, also means the number of QAM symbols) and the QAM level (m in unit of bit/symbol). The requested subcarrier spacing is defined as Δf = Sampling rate (samples/sec) / FFT size (samples). That is, the total raw bit rate D (bit/sec) = Δf (1/sec) × N (symbol) × m (bit/symbol). By substituting with the AWG sampling rate of 24 GS/s, the fast-Fourier transform (FFT) size of 512, the subcarrier number of 115 and QAM-level of 4, the exactly raw bit rate of the 16-QAM OFDM format used in our work is 21.56 Gbit/s. Since the HD-FEC is employed as the performance threshold, the net bit rate is modified as 20.05 Gbit/s after subtracting the FEC overhead of 7%. The amplitudes of the 16-QAM OFDM subcarriers were pre-leveled by a rising exponential function before converting into an analog waveform by an arbitrary waveform generator (Tektronix, AWG 7122B) with sampling rate of 24 GS/s. The WRC-FPLD was directly modulated by the AWG generated 16-QAM OFDM data in combination with a DC bias current via a bias tee. A tunable laser (Agilent, 8568B) simulated as a purely coherent master was employed to externally injection-lock the directly modulated WRC-FPLD after passing through a polarization controller. In the optical network units (ONUs), the injection-locked WRC-FPLD transmitter and its delivered OFDM data-stream transmitted through 25-km standard single mode fiber (SMF) was measured by an optical spectrum analyzer (Advantest, Q8384) and an optical receiver (Nortel, pp-10G) with a linear amplifier. The amplified analog data-stream was sampled by a real-time oscilloscope (Tektronix, DSO 71254) with a sampling rate of 100 GS/s. The time-domain OFDM waveform was then fast Fourier-transformed back to the frequency domain and decoded with homemade MATLAB demodulation software after resampling. The constellation plot, EVM and BER analyses of the back-to-back and 25-km SMF transmitted 16-QAM OFDM data carried by the coherently injection-locked and directly modulated long-cavity WRC-FPLD were compared each other. The RIN was measured by an optical spectrum analyzer (Agilent, 70001A + 70810B).

3. Results and discussions

To discuss the effect of relaxation oscillation induced noise in the WRC-FPLD on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) disturbance of the 16-QAM OFDM data, the RIN spectra of the WRC-FPLD injection-locked at different power levels are shown in Fig. 3(a). The RIN peak is gradually reduced and up-shifted by enlarging the injection power from −12 to 0 dBm. The separation the OFDM and RIN bands effectively enhanced the SNR of the QAM data carried by higher frequency OFDM subcarriers.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 (a) The relative intensity noise (RIN) spectra of the WRC-FPLD injection-locked under different injection-locking power levels (b) The SNR (top) and RIN (down) of the OFDM signal within the limited modulation bandwidth.

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Figure 3(b) shows that the SNR of the OFDM data stream transmission within the modulation bandwidth has a decreasing trend at higher frequencies due to the rising edge of the RIN band. Obviously, the SNR at higher offset frequencies can be improved from 16 to 20 dB, while the RIN concurrently suppresses its average level from −99 to −103 dBc/Hz at offset frequency below 5 GHz, associated with its peak up-shifted from 5 to 7.5 GHz by enlarging the injection level from −12 to −3 dBm. The RIN of the WRC-FPLD keeps almost unchanged with the injection power at offset frequency lower than 3 GHz, whereas it exponentially arises at beyond 3.5 GHz and needs to be suppressed with enlarging the injection level. As a result, the SNR of the 16-QAM data between the 81st and the 115th OFDM subcarriers can be improved by 3 dB at least. This essentially promote all of the WRC-FPLD delivered 16-QAM OFDM data beyond the detection criterion set with the forward error correction (requested a minimal SNR of 15.5 dB for corresponding BER of 3.8 × 10−3).

In principle, the threshold current of the injection-locked WRC-FPLD can be derived from the rate equations, which is a function of the ratio of injected photon number to the output photon number [36, 37]

Ith'q(Nth+ΔNinj)ηiτsIthΔIinj=qηiτs[VΓvgg'(1τp2κ1+α2SinjSB)+Ntr],=qηiτs(NthVΓvgg'2κ1+α2SinjSB)=IthqVΓvgg'ηiτs2κ1+α2SinjSB
where Ith and Ith denote the threshold currents of the WRC-FPLD at free-running and injection-locking condition, respectively. Nth is the required number of carriers of the WRC-FPLD at threshold condition. ΔNinj and ΔIinj are the carrier and current increments due to the external injection locking. q denotes the electron charge, ηi the internal quantum efficiency, τs the carrier lifetime, V the volume of the active gain region in the WRC-FPLD, Γ the optical confinement factor, vg the group velocity, g’ the differential gain coefficient (g’ = δg/δn), and τp the photon lifetime. κ the injection coupling coefficient given by vg/2L(1-Rfront)/(Rfront)0.5 [38], where Rfront is the front facet reflectivity of the WRC-FPLD, L the cavity length, α the linewidth enhancement factor, Sinj the externally injected photon number, SB the output photon number of the WRC-FPLD, and Ntr the transparency photon number. When the WRC-FPLD is externally injection-locked, the effective threshold current (Ith') is decreased due to the increasing of second term of the Eq. (1). The output photon number of the injection-locked WRC-FPLD can be rewritten as
SB=Γτpηiq(IBIth+qVηiτeΓvgg'κ1+α2SinjSB)Γτpηiq(IBIth'),
and the external injection-locking induced up-shift of the relaxation oscillation frequency (ωR) of the injection-locked WRC-FPLD can be expressed as
ωR=vgg'SBτp+κ1+α2SinjSB(1τs+vgg'SB)=(vgg'τp+κ1+α2SinjSBvgg')SB+1τsκ1+α2SinjSB=vgg'(1τp+κ1+α2SinjSB)Γτpηiq(IBIth+qVηiτeΓvgg'κ1+α2SinjSB)+1τsκ1+α2SinjSB,=ηiΓvgg'q(IBIth')+ηiΓvgg'τpqκ1+α2SinjSB(IBIth')+1τsκ1+α2SinjSB=ηiΓvgg'q(IBIth')+κ1+α2SinjSB[ηiΓvgg'τpq(IBIth')+1τs]=ωR,freerun2+Δωinj2
where ωR,free-run is the relaxation oscillation frequency of the WRC-FPLD at free-running condition and Δωinj is the incremental of the relaxation oscillation frequency for the WRC-FPLD due to the injection-locking. It interprets that the relaxation oscillation peak of the WRC-FPLD can be up-shifted to the higher frequency by either increasing the bias current or increasing the injection-locking power. Hence, as the WRC-FPLD is externally injection-locked, the effective threshold current is decreased. This also results in a corresponding change on the RIN of the WRC-FPLD under single-mode coherent injection-locking condition, as given by [39, 40]
RIN=16(Δν)STωR4τΔN2+2hCλP0[η0ηi(I+Ith')qP0/η0hν+(1η0)]=16(Δν)STωR4τΔN2+2hCλP0[η0(IB+Ith')(IBIth')+(1η0)],
where (Δv)ST denotes the modified Schawlow-Townes linewidth, τN the differential carrier lifetime, h the Planck constant, C the light speed, λ the wavelength, η0 the optical efficiency given by αm/(αm + αi), where αi and αm are internal and mirror loss of the WRC-FPLD respectively, and P0 the output power of the injection-locked WRC-FPLD. By substituting the Eq. (1) and Eq. (3) into the Eq. (4), the relaxation oscillation induced peak in the RIN spectrum of the WRC-FPLD can effectively be up-shifted and suppressed by employing the injection-locking technique, which is mainly attributed to the decreased effective threshold current and up-shifted relaxation oscillation frequency.

At free-running case, the filtered single-mode output exhibits an output of −3 dBm (as compared to the full-band output of 0 dBm). The output power of the WRCFPLD at bias current of 35 mA (twice the threshold condition) varies from 0.32 to 0.6 dBm as the injection-locking power enlarges from −12 to 0 dBm. Figure 4 shows the shifted RIN peak frequency at different Sinj/SB ratios (equivalent to the ratio of injection power to output power), which is in good agreement with a simulation curve modeled by using Eq. (3) with the inset parameters.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 The up-shifted frequency of the relaxation oscillation peak in the RIN spectrum of the WRC-FPLD while increasing the injection power level. Right inset: the simulation table with a list of corresponding parameters.

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Figure 5(a) indicates the BER performance of the back-to-back 20-Gbit/s OFDM data stream delivered by the WRC-FPLD biased at twice the threshold current and injection-locked at different powers. The related constellation plots of the optical 16-QAM OFDM data carried by WRC-FPLD at free-running and injection-locked cases with different injection-locking powers are shown in the inset, indicating that the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the optical OFDM data is reduced from 8.3% (BER = 2.5 × 10−3) at free-running to a minimum of 6.2% (BER = 4.98 × 10−5) when injection-locking at −3dBm. The EVM of the OFDM data is calculated from the constellation plot by using the following equation [41]:

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 (a) BER (Inset: constellation plots) and (b) RF spectra of the OFDM data back-to-back transmitted with colorless WRC-FPLD at different injection-locking powers.

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EVMrms=1Nn=1N|Sr(n)St(n)|2P01SNR,

where N denotes the number of measured symbols, Sr(n) the normalized received nth symbol which is corrupted by Gaussian noise, St(n) the ideally transmitted value of the nth symbol x(n), and P0 the maximum normalized power of ideal symbol. In the meantime, the EVM calculated from the measured SNR [42] is also used to check the consistency. As the injection level enlarges from −12 to −3 dBm, the bit-error-rate (BER) is improved by more than one order of magnitude (from 1.3 × 10−3 to 5 × 10−5). These results correlate well with the RIN improvement shown in Fig. 3(b), in which the RIN peak of the WRC-FPLD is exactly separated from the modulation band under an injection power of up to −3 dBm. Such an operation essentially leads to an enhancement on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the OFDM data stream within the modulation bandwidth. The intense injection-locking helps to increase the side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of the WRC-FPLD, however, which also causes the degraded high-frequency modulation response of the WRC-FPLD. The BER is increased when the injection level enlarges more than −3 dBm, while the degraded OFDM transmission is mainly impaired by the declined frequency response (associated with a negative slope of throughput power to frequency response) of the WRC-FPLD caused by intense injection, as shown in the frequency region smaller than the arrow indicated in Fig. 5(b).

The performance of OFDM transmission over 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF) is further characterized. Figure 6(a) shows the BER response of the 25-km SMF transmitted 16-QAM OFDM data with a total bandwidth of 5 GHz when delivered by using the directly modulated WRC-FPLD. Even after 25-km SMF transmission, the BER can be monotonically decreased to 1.1 × 10−4 by increasing the injection-locking power up to 3 dBm. The received OFDM spectra delivered by the WRC-FPLD at different injection-locking powers are shown in Fig. 6(b). Apparently, the negative throughput slope is significantly increased due to the intense of injection-locking and declined frequency response of the WRC-FPLD, which seriously distorts the OFDM spectra modulated on the WRC-FPLD carrier at intense injection condition. This is the reason to cause the reduced BER of the WRC-FPLD gradually saturated at 10−4 as the injection power enlarges from −9 to 3 dBm, in addition to the contribution of the relaxation oscillation noise peak up-shifted away from the OFDM modulation band. In Fig. 6(b), the green doc curves depict the RIN band of the WRC-FPLD, which are gradually up-shifted and attenuated to separate from the OFDM band. In contrast to the increasing BER of 16-QAM OFDM data carried by the WRC-FPLD at intense injection-locking power larger than −3 dBm in the back-to-back case (see Fig. 5(a)), the BER obtained at same condition after 25-km transmission becomes three times larger but still in a decreasing trend. This is mainly attributed to the dispersion effect during long-distance transmission, which eventually dominates over the declined modulation effect of the WRC-FPLD to degrade the BER of the 16-QAM OFDM data after 25-km transmission.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 (a) The BER and (b) the RF spectra of received OFDM data carried by WRC-FPLD under different injection-locking powers after 25-km SMF transmission. Left inset: the constellation plots without and with injection-locking at −3dBm.

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Owing to the declined frequency response of the WRC-FPLD under strong injection locking, the BER performance of the OFDM data stream transmission was limited. In previous works, the fine adjustment on the subcarrier amplitude to compensate the negative throughput slope (with a definition of R = dP/df in unit of dBm/GHz) of the modulation spectral response has been employed to improve the degraded BER. In this work, we also demonstrate such a subcarrier amplitude pre-leveling approach to flatten the modulation response of the injection-locked and directly modulated long-cavity WRC-FPLD. Figure 7(a) shows the pre-compensated 16-QAM OFDM spectra generated from the arbitrary waveform generator (AWG 7122B) with gradually enlarged positive throughput slopes prior to modulate the WRC-FPLD. Each subcarrier amplitude of the 16-QAM OFDM data was pre-leveled and several throughput slopes of R = 1.3, 1.9, 2.5 and 3.2 were preset for compensation. After 25-km SMF transmission, the spectra of these pre-compensated OFDM data stream with different throughput slopes directly modulated on the WRC-FPLD are received and shown in Fig. 7(b). To equivalently recover the declined frequency response of the WRC-FPLD under large bias and strong injection, it is observed from the modulated spectra that a positive throughput slope ranged between 1.9 and 2.5 can achieve the optimized compensation.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 RF spectra of the 16-QAM-OFDM data at different throughput slopes (a) before and (b) after transmission.

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As a result, Fig. 8(a) illustrates the optimized BER response as a function of the spectral pre-leveling slope for the 16-QAM OFDM data stream carried by the directly modulated long-cavity WRC-FPLD. The pre-leveling effectively improves the BER performance from 1.1 × 10−4 to 3 × 10−5 by setting the positive throughput slope as dP/df = 1.9 dBm/GHz for the subcarrier amplitude of the 16-QAM OFDM to be transmitted by the WRC-FPLD under injection-locking power of 0 dBm. The BER performance is inversely degraded if the spectral slope of the pre-leveled 16-QAM OFDM data is less or over compensated, as shown in Fig. 8(a). With a pre-leveled throughput slope of 1.9, the 16-QAM OFDM data reveal a better constellation plot as compared to that transmitted without pre-leveling, as shown in Fig. 8(b). As expected, the directly modulated WRC-FPLD greatly improves its transmission capability and performance via the coherent injection-locking and the OFDM subcarrier pre-leveling processes. Figure 8(c) reveals the receiving power sensitivities of the 16-QAM OFDM data stream transmitted back-to-back or over 25-km long SMF by using the directly modulated and injection-locked WRC-FPLD without and with pre-leveling. Under back-to-back transmission, the directly 16-QAM-OFDM modulated WRC-FPLD without pre-leveling can achieve a BER of 3.8 × 10−3 (the criterion set by forward error correction FEC) at a receiving power of −10 dBm, and the receiving power penalty of −1 dB can be obtained by pre-leveling the 16-QAM OFDM subcarrier amplitude prior to modulate the WRC-FPLD.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 (a) BER vs. pre-leveled throughput slope; (b) Constellation plots of without (top) and with (down) pre-leveled 16-QAM data; (c) BER of 16-QAM OFDM data carried by injection-locked WRC-FPLD vs. receiving power after back-to-back and 25-km transmissions with and without pre-leveling.

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After 25-km SMF transmission, the receiving power sensitivity is degraded to −8 dBm. The receiving power penalty further enlarged by 2 dB when comparing the back-to-back transmission with the 25-km transmission case. The receiving power penalty between the 25-km SMF and back-to-back transmitted OFDM data streams can be decreased to 0.75 dB after pre-leveling the subcarrier amplitudes. These results elucidate that the fusion of spectral pre-leveling techniques into the wavelength injection-locking WRC-FPLD based DWDM-PON transmitter can essentially compensate the modulated power declination, thus providing the BER of the 16-QAM OFDM data improved by almost one order of magnitude when transmitting over 25-km SMF by using the directly modulated and coherently injection-locked long-cavity WRC-FPLD.

4. Conclusion

The improved transmission of 16-QAM OFDM data with 5-GHz bandwidth by up-shifting and suppressing the relaxation oscillation induced relative intensity noise peak of the injection-locked and directly modulated WRC-FPLD is demonstrated. With injection-locking level enlarged from −12 to −3 dBm, the up-shifted RIN bands from 5 to 7.5 GHz effectively suppresses the noise level from −99 to −104 dBc/Hz at offset frequencies between 3 and 6 GHz, thus enhancing the SNR from 16 to 20 dB for the 16-QAM data carried by the OFDM subcarriers at higher offset frequencies. This improves the back-to-back transmission BER by more than one order of magnitude from 1.3 × 10−3 to 5 × 10−5. After 25-km transmission, the BER of the OFDM data can only be improved to 1.1 × 10−4 even with enlarging the injection-locking level up to 3 dBm. The degradation of BER by almost three times originates from the dispersion during long-distance transmission. The OFDM transmission is slightly distorted by the declined high-frequency response of the WRC-FPLD under intense injection-locking. The extremely large injection-locking power inevitably degrades the modulation throughput at high OFDM subcarrier frequencies and by enlarges the negative throughput slope from −0.8 to −1.9 dBm/GHz with injection level increased from −12 to −3 dBm. The OFDM data-stream pre-leveling technique effectively compensates the declined frequency response set by intense injection-locking, which improves the BER from 1.1 × 10−4 to 3 × 10−5 by setting the positive throughput slope as dP/df = 1.9 dBm/GHz for the subcarrier amplitude of the 16-QAM OFDM to be transmitted by the WRC-FPLD under injection-locking power of 0 dBm. After 25-km transmission, the fusion of pre-leveling and injection-locking promotes the receiving power sensitivity from −8 to −10 dBm at FEC limit, and reduces the power penalty between back-to-back and 25-km transmissions to only 2 dB. The up-shifted relaxation oscillation peak associated with the attenuated RIN level of the injection-locked WRC-FPLD facilitates the directly modulated 16-QAM OFDM transmission up to 20 Gbit/s.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the National Science Council, Taiwan, R.O.C., under grants 100-2623-E-002-002-ET and 101-2221-E-002-071-MY3, and Excellent Research Projects of National Taiwan University under grants 103R89081 and 103R89083.

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6. S.-J. Park, C.-H. Lee, K.-T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, J.-G. Ahn, and K.-H. Song, “Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multi-plexing passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(11), 2582–2591 (2004). [CrossRef]  

7. Z. Xu, Y.-J. Wen, W.-D. Zhong, C.-J. Chae, X.-F. Cheng, Y. Wang, C. Lu, and J. Shankar, “High-speed WDM-PON using CW injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2953–2962 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. C.-L. Tseng, C.-K. Liu, J.-J. Jou, W.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Shih, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “Bidirectional transmission using tunable fiber lasers and injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes for WDM access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 794–796 (2008). [CrossRef]  

9. S.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-L. Wang, G.-C. Lin, J.-W. Liaw, and G.-R. Lin, “Coherent injection-locking of long-cavity colorless laser diodes with low front-facet reflectance for DWDM-PON transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1501011 (2013). [CrossRef]  

10. M. Ibsen, S.-U. Alam, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin, and D. N. Payne, “8- and 16-channel all-fiber DFB laser WDM transmitters with integrated pump redundancy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1114–1116 (1999). [CrossRef]  

11. I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano, and R. Vodhanel, “10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulate signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 735–737 (2001). [CrossRef]  

12. A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review,” J. Opt. Netw. 4(11), 737–758 (2005). [CrossRef]  

13. E. Wong, K.-L. Lee, and T. Anderson, “Low-cost WDM passive optical network with directly-modulated self-seeding reflective SOA,” Electron. Lett. 42(5), 299–301 (2006). [CrossRef]  

14. S. J. Park, G. Y. Kim, and T. S. Park, “WDM-PON system based on the laser light injected reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 162–169 (2006). [CrossRef]  

15. S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1579–1581 (2005). [CrossRef]  

16. H.-C. Ji, I. Yamashita, and K.-I. Kitayama, “Cost-effective colorless WDM-PON delivering up/down-stream data and broadcast services on a single wavelength using mutually injected Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4520–4528 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. C. W. Chow and C. S. Wong, Member, IEEE, andH. K. Tsang, “All-Optical ASK/DPSK Label-Swapping and Buffering Using Fabry–Perot Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 363–370 (2004). [CrossRef]  

18. Y. S. Liao, H. C. Kuo, Y. J. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “Side-mode transmission diagnosis of a multichannel selectable injection-locked Fabry-Perot Laser Diode with anti-reflection coated front facet,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4859–4867 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. G.-R. Lin, T.-K. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, G.-C. Lin, and H.-L. Wang, “A weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode with injection locking mode number dependent transmission and noise performances,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(9), 1349–1355 (2010). [CrossRef]  

20. G.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Liao, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-C. Lin, H.-L. Wang, and Y.-J. Chen, “Long-cavity Fabry–Perot laser amplifier transmitter with enhanced injection-locking bandwidth for WDM-PON application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2925–2932 (2010). [CrossRef]  

21. W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006). [CrossRef]  

22. A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 131–138 (2007). [CrossRef]  

23. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. N. E. Jolley, H. Kee, R. Rickard, J. Tang, and K. Cordina, “Generation and propagation of a 1550-nm 10 Gbit/s optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal over 1000 m of multimode fiber using a directly modulated DFB,” in Tech. Digest of the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, 5 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 319–321.

25. J. M. Tang and K. Alan Shore, “30-Gb/s Signal transmission over 40-km directly modulated DFB-laser-based single-mode-fiber links without optical amplification and dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2318–2327 (2006). [CrossRef]  

26. C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, C.-L. Pan, and S. Chi, “WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12096–12101 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, and G.-K. Chang, “Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1545–1547 (2008). [CrossRef]  

28. R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gbit/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010). [CrossRef]  

29. R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of record high 19.125 Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM transmission over 25 km SMF in a simple EML-based IMDD system,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20666–20679 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012). [CrossRef]  

31. C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Sung, and Y.-L. Liu, “Demonstration of using injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode for 10 Gbit/s 16-QAM OFDM WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 48(15), 940–942 (2012). [CrossRef]  

32. H.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, J.-Y. Sung, Y.-L. Liu, and J. Chen, “Investigation of using injection-locked Fabry–Pe’rot laser diode with 10% front-facet reflectivity for short-reach to long-reach upstream PON access,” IEEE Photon. Journal 5(3), 7901208 (2013). [CrossRef]  

33. V. Vujicic, P. M. Anandarajah, C. Browning, and L. P. Barry, “WDM-OFDM-PON based on compatible SSB technique using a mode locked comb source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2058–2061 (2013). [CrossRef]  

34. Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, H.-Y. Wang, P.-C. Peng, H.-H. Lu, and G.-R. Lin, “Optical 16-QAM-52-OFDM transmission at 4 Gbit/s by directly modulating a coherently injection-locked colorless laser diode,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20071–20077 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, and G.-R. Lin, “Specific jacket SMA-Connected TO-Can package FPLD transmitter with direct modulation bandwidth beyond 6 GHz for 256-QAM single or multi subcarrier OOFDM up to 15 Gbit/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(1), 28–35 (2013). [CrossRef]  

36. Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, J. H. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode at unlasing condition,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4449–4456 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

37. K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, “Measurement of FM noise, AM noise, and field spectra of 1.3 µm InGaAsP DFB lasers and determination of the linewidth enhancement factor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(11), 1814–1818 (1985). [CrossRef]  

38. A. Murakam, “Phase locking and chaos synchronization in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 438–447 (2003). [CrossRef]  

39. C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982). [CrossRef]  

40. L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, New York, 1997), Chap. 3.

41. S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004). [CrossRef]  

42. R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 4th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (ICECE 2006), 408–411 (2006). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C.-H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1334–1336 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, and E. Salvadori, “Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(2), 125–143 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. D. Feldman, E. E. Harstead, S. Jiang, T. H. Wood, and M. Zirngibl, “An evaluation of architectures incorporating wavelength division multiplexing for broad-band fiber access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1546–1559 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. G.-R. Lin, T. K. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, G.-C. Lin, H.-L. Wang, and Y.-H. Lin, “200-GHz and 50-GHz AWG channelized linewidth dependent transmission of weak-resonant-cavity FPLD injection-locked by spectrally sliced ASE,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17739–17746 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 37(19), 1181–1182 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. S.-J. Park, C.-H. Lee, K.-T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, J.-G. Ahn, and K.-H. Song, “Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multi-plexing passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(11), 2582–2591 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. Z. Xu, Y.-J. Wen, W.-D. Zhong, C.-J. Chae, X.-F. Cheng, Y. Wang, C. Lu, and J. Shankar, “High-speed WDM-PON using CW injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2953–2962 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C.-L. Tseng, C.-K. Liu, J.-J. Jou, W.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Shih, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “Bidirectional transmission using tunable fiber lasers and injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes for WDM access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 794–796 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. S.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-L. Wang, G.-C. Lin, J.-W. Liaw, and G.-R. Lin, “Coherent injection-locking of long-cavity colorless laser diodes with low front-facet reflectance for DWDM-PON transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1501011 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Ibsen, S.-U. Alam, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin, and D. N. Payne, “8- and 16-channel all-fiber DFB laser WDM transmitters with integrated pump redundancy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1114–1116 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano, and R. Vodhanel, “10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulate signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 735–737 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review,” J. Opt. Netw. 4(11), 737–758 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. Wong, K.-L. Lee, and T. Anderson, “Low-cost WDM passive optical network with directly-modulated self-seeding reflective SOA,” Electron. Lett. 42(5), 299–301 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. J. Park, G. Y. Kim, and T. S. Park, “WDM-PON system based on the laser light injected reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 162–169 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1579–1581 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  16. H.-C. Ji, I. Yamashita, and K.-I. Kitayama, “Cost-effective colorless WDM-PON delivering up/down-stream data and broadcast services on a single wavelength using mutually injected Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4520–4528 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C. W. Chow and C. S. Wong, Member, IEEE, andH. K. Tsang, “All-Optical ASK/DPSK Label-Swapping and Buffering Using Fabry–Perot Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 363–370 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. S. Liao, H. C. Kuo, Y. J. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “Side-mode transmission diagnosis of a multichannel selectable injection-locked Fabry-Perot Laser Diode with anti-reflection coated front facet,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4859–4867 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. G.-R. Lin, T.-K. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, G.-C. Lin, and H.-L. Wang, “A weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode with injection locking mode number dependent transmission and noise performances,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(9), 1349–1355 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. G.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Liao, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-C. Lin, H.-L. Wang, and Y.-J. Chen, “Long-cavity Fabry–Perot laser amplifier transmitter with enhanced injection-locking bandwidth for WDM-PON application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2925–2932 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 131–138 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. N. E. Jolley, H. Kee, R. Rickard, J. Tang, and K. Cordina, “Generation and propagation of a 1550-nm 10 Gbit/s optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal over 1000 m of multimode fiber using a directly modulated DFB,” in Tech. Digest of the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, 5 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 319–321.
  25. J. M. Tang and K. Alan Shore, “30-Gb/s Signal transmission over 40-km directly modulated DFB-laser-based single-mode-fiber links without optical amplification and dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2318–2327 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  26. C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, C.-L. Pan, and S. Chi, “WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12096–12101 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, and G.-K. Chang, “Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1545–1547 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gbit/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  29. R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of record high 19.125 Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM transmission over 25 km SMF in a simple EML-based IMDD system,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20666–20679 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  31. C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Sung, and Y.-L. Liu, “Demonstration of using injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode for 10 Gbit/s 16-QAM OFDM WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 48(15), 940–942 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  32. H.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, J.-Y. Sung, Y.-L. Liu, and J. Chen, “Investigation of using injection-locked Fabry–Pe’rot laser diode with 10% front-facet reflectivity for short-reach to long-reach upstream PON access,” IEEE Photon. Journal 5(3), 7901208 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  33. V. Vujicic, P. M. Anandarajah, C. Browning, and L. P. Barry, “WDM-OFDM-PON based on compatible SSB technique using a mode locked comb source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2058–2061 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  34. Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, H.-Y. Wang, P.-C. Peng, H.-H. Lu, and G.-R. Lin, “Optical 16-QAM-52-OFDM transmission at 4 Gbit/s by directly modulating a coherently injection-locked colorless laser diode,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20071–20077 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, and G.-R. Lin, “Specific jacket SMA-Connected TO-Can package FPLD transmitter with direct modulation bandwidth beyond 6 GHz for 256-QAM single or multi subcarrier OOFDM up to 15 Gbit/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(1), 28–35 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  36. Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, J. H. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode at unlasing condition,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4449–4456 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, “Measurement of FM noise, AM noise, and field spectra of 1.3 µm InGaAsP DFB lasers and determination of the linewidth enhancement factor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(11), 1814–1818 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  38. A. Murakam, “Phase locking and chaos synchronization in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 438–447 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  39. C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  40. L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, New York, 1997), Chap. 3.
  41. S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  42. R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 4th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (ICECE 2006), 408–411 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2013 (4)

S.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-L. Wang, G.-C. Lin, J.-W. Liaw, and G.-R. Lin, “Coherent injection-locking of long-cavity colorless laser diodes with low front-facet reflectance for DWDM-PON transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1501011 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, J.-Y. Sung, Y.-L. Liu, and J. Chen, “Investigation of using injection-locked Fabry–Pe’rot laser diode with 10% front-facet reflectivity for short-reach to long-reach upstream PON access,” IEEE Photon. Journal 5(3), 7901208 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Vujicic, P. M. Anandarajah, C. Browning, and L. P. Barry, “WDM-OFDM-PON based on compatible SSB technique using a mode locked comb source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2058–2061 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, and G.-R. Lin, “Specific jacket SMA-Connected TO-Can package FPLD transmitter with direct modulation bandwidth beyond 6 GHz for 256-QAM single or multi subcarrier OOFDM up to 15 Gbit/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(1), 28–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, H.-Y. Wang, P.-C. Peng, H.-H. Lu, and G.-R. Lin, “Optical 16-QAM-52-OFDM transmission at 4 Gbit/s by directly modulating a coherently injection-locked colorless laser diode,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20071–20077 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of record high 19.125 Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM transmission over 25 km SMF in a simple EML-based IMDD system,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20666–20679 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Sung, and Y.-L. Liu, “Demonstration of using injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode for 10 Gbit/s 16-QAM OFDM WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 48(15), 940–942 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (5)

C.-L. Tseng, C.-K. Liu, J.-J. Jou, W.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Shih, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “Bidirectional transmission using tunable fiber lasers and injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes for WDM access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 794–796 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Ji, I. Yamashita, and K.-I. Kitayama, “Cost-effective colorless WDM-PON delivering up/down-stream data and broadcast services on a single wavelength using mutually injected Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4520–4528 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, C.-L. Pan, and S. Chi, “WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12096–12101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, and G.-K. Chang, “Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1545–1547 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

E. Wong, K.-L. Lee, and T. Anderson, “Low-cost WDM passive optical network with directly-modulated self-seeding reflective SOA,” Electron. Lett. 42(5), 299–301 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, G. Y. Kim, and T. S. Park, “WDM-PON system based on the laser light injected reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 162–169 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Tang and K. Alan Shore, “30-Gb/s Signal transmission over 40-km directly modulated DFB-laser-based single-mode-fiber links without optical amplification and dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2318–2327 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1579–1581 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Banerjee, Y. Park, F. Clarke, H. Song, S. Yang, G. Kramer, K. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) technologies for broadband access: a review,” J. Opt. Netw. 4(11), 737–758 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

C. W. Chow and C. S. Wong, Member, IEEE, andH. K. Tsang, “All-Optical ASK/DPSK Label-Swapping and Buffering Using Fabry–Perot Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chow and C. S. Wong, Member, IEEE, andH. K. Tsang, “All-Optical ASK/DPSK Label-Swapping and Buffering Using Fabry–Perot Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

S.-J. Park, C.-H. Lee, K.-T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, J.-G. Ahn, and K.-H. Song, “Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multi-plexing passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(11), 2582–2591 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, J. H. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode at unlasing condition,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4449–4456 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Murakam, “Phase locking and chaos synchronization in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 438–447 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 37(19), 1181–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano, and R. Vodhanel, “10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulate signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 735–737 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. Ibsen, S.-U. Alam, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin, and D. N. Payne, “8- and 16-channel all-fiber DFB laser WDM transmitters with integrated pump redundancy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1114–1116 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

R. D. Feldman, E. E. Harstead, S. Jiang, T. H. Wood, and M. Zirngibl, “An evaluation of architectures incorporating wavelength division multiplexing for broad-band fiber access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1546–1559 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C.-H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1334–1336 (1998).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, “Measurement of FM noise, AM noise, and field spectra of 1.3 µm InGaAsP DFB lasers and determination of the linewidth enhancement factor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(11), 1814–1818 (1985).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.-G.

Alam, S.-U.

M. Ibsen, S.-U. Alam, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin, and D. N. Payne, “8- and 16-channel all-fiber DFB laser WDM transmitters with integrated pump redundancy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1114–1116 (1999).
[Crossref]

Alan Shore, K.

Anandarajah, P. M.

V. Vujicic, P. M. Anandarajah, C. Browning, and L. P. Barry, “WDM-OFDM-PON based on compatible SSB technique using a mode locked comb source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2058–2061 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anderson, T.

E. Wong, K.-L. Lee, and T. Anderson, “Low-cost WDM passive optical network with directly-modulated self-seeding reflective SOA,” Electron. Lett. 42(5), 299–301 (2006).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J.

Athaudage, C.

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, A.

Bao, H.

Barry, L. P.

V. Vujicic, P. M. Anandarajah, C. Browning, and L. P. Barry, “WDM-OFDM-PON based on compatible SSB technique using a mode locked comb source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2058–2061 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boskovic, A.

I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano, and R. Vodhanel, “10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulate signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 735–737 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bouysse, P.

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Browning, C.

V. Vujicic, P. M. Anandarajah, C. Browning, and L. P. Barry, “WDM-OFDM-PON based on compatible SSB technique using a mode locked comb source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2058–2061 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chae, C.-J.

Chang, G.-K.

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, and G.-K. Chang, “Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1545–1547 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. C.

Chen, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, J.-Y. Sung, Y.-L. Liu, and J. Chen, “Investigation of using injection-locked Fabry–Pe’rot laser diode with 10% front-facet reflectivity for short-reach to long-reach upstream PON access,” IEEE Photon. Journal 5(3), 7901208 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Sung, and Y.-L. Liu, “Demonstration of using injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode for 10 Gbit/s 16-QAM OFDM WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 48(15), 940–942 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

H.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, J.-Y. Sung, Y.-L. Liu, and J. Chen, “Investigation of using injection-locked Fabry–Pe’rot laser diode with 10% front-facet reflectivity for short-reach to long-reach upstream PON access,” IEEE Photon. Journal 5(3), 7901208 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. H.

Chen, L.

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, and G.-K. Chang, “Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1545–1547 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. J.

Chen, Y.-J.

Cheng, T. K.

Cheng, T.-K.

Cheng, X.-F.

Chi, S.

Chi, Y.-C.

Choi, K.-M.

S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1579–1581 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chow, C. W.

C. W. Chow and C. S. Wong, Member, IEEE, andH. K. Tsang, “All-Optical ASK/DPSK Label-Swapping and Buffering Using Fabry–Perot Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chow, C.-W.

H.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, J.-Y. Sung, Y.-L. Liu, and J. Chen, “Investigation of using injection-locked Fabry–Pe’rot laser diode with 10% front-facet reflectivity for short-reach to long-reach upstream PON access,” IEEE Photon. Journal 5(3), 7901208 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Sung, and Y.-L. Liu, “Demonstration of using injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode for 10 Gbit/s 16-QAM OFDM WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 48(15), 940–942 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, C.-L. Pan, and S. Chi, “WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12096–12101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, Y. C.

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C.-H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1334–1336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Clarke, F.

Du, L. B.

Feldman, R. D.

Ford, C.

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 37(19), 1181–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Forestier, S.

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Giddings, R. P.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of record high 19.125 Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM transmission over 25 km SMF in a simple EML-based IMDD system,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20666–20679 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gbit/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grudinin, A. B.

M. Ibsen, S.-U. Alam, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin, and D. N. Payne, “8- and 16-channel all-fiber DFB laser WDM transmitters with integrated pump redundancy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1114–1116 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hallock, B.

I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano, and R. Vodhanel, “10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulate signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 735–737 (2001).
[Crossref]

Harstead, E. E.

Healey, P.

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 37(19), 1181–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hesse, R.

I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano, and R. Vodhanel, “10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulate signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 735–737 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C.-H.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, D.-Z.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, M.-F.

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, and G.-K. Chang, “Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1545–1547 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hugues-Salas, E.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of record high 19.125 Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM transmission over 25 km SMF in a simple EML-based IMDD system,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20666–20679 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gbit/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ibsen, M.

M. Ibsen, S.-U. Alam, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin, and D. N. Payne, “8- and 16-channel all-fiber DFB laser WDM transmitters with integrated pump redundancy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1114–1116 (1999).
[Crossref]

Islam, A. R.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 4th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (ICECE 2006), 408–411 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K.-T.

Ji, H.-C.

Jiang, S.

Jin, X. Q.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gbit/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[Crossref]

Johnston, L.

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 37(19), 1181–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jou, J.-J.

C.-L. Tseng, C.-K. Liu, J.-J. Jou, W.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Shih, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “Bidirectional transmission using tunable fiber lasers and injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes for WDM access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 794–796 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jung, D. K.

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C.-H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1334–1336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Keiser, G.

C.-L. Tseng, C.-K. Liu, J.-J. Jou, W.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Shih, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “Bidirectional transmission using tunable fiber lasers and injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes for WDM access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 794–796 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, “Measurement of FM noise, AM noise, and field spectra of 1.3 µm InGaAsP DFB lasers and determination of the linewidth enhancement factor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(11), 1814–1818 (1985).
[Crossref]

Kim, G. Y.

S. J. Park, G. Y. Kim, and T. S. Park, “WDM-PON system based on the laser light injected reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 162–169 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

Kitayama, K.-I.

Kramer, G.

Kuo, H. C.

Kuo, H.-C.

Lapierre, L.

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lealman, I.

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 37(19), 1181–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.-H.

S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1579–1581 (2005).
[Crossref]

S.-J. Park, C.-H. Lee, K.-T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, J.-G. Ahn, and K.-H. Song, “Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multi-plexing passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(11), 2582–2591 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C.-H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1334–1336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-L.

E. Wong, K.-L. Lee, and T. Anderson, “Low-cost WDM passive optical network with directly-modulated self-seeding reflective SOA,” Electron. Lett. 42(5), 299–301 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. S. W.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-L.

C.-L. Tseng, C.-K. Liu, J.-J. Jou, W.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Shih, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “Bidirectional transmission using tunable fiber lasers and injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes for WDM access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 794–796 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-M.

S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1579–1581 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, W.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-C.

Liao, Y. S.

Liao, Y.-S.

Liaw, J.-W.

S.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-L. Wang, G.-C. Lin, J.-W. Liaw, and G.-R. Lin, “Coherent injection-locking of long-cavity colorless laser diodes with low front-facet reflectance for DWDM-PON transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1501011 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.-C.

Lin, G.-R.

S.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-L. Wang, G.-C. Lin, J.-W. Liaw, and G.-R. Lin, “Coherent injection-locking of long-cavity colorless laser diodes with low front-facet reflectance for DWDM-PON transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1501011 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, and G.-R. Lin, “Specific jacket SMA-Connected TO-Can package FPLD transmitter with direct modulation bandwidth beyond 6 GHz for 256-QAM single or multi subcarrier OOFDM up to 15 Gbit/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(1), 28–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, H.-Y. Wang, P.-C. Peng, H.-H. Lu, and G.-R. Lin, “Optical 16-QAM-52-OFDM transmission at 4 Gbit/s by directly modulating a coherently injection-locked colorless laser diode,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20071–20077 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-R. Lin, T.-K. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, G.-C. Lin, and H.-L. Wang, “A weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode with injection locking mode number dependent transmission and noise performances,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(9), 1349–1355 (2010).
[Crossref]

G.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Liao, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-C. Lin, H.-L. Wang, and Y.-J. Chen, “Long-cavity Fabry–Perot laser amplifier transmitter with enhanced injection-locking bandwidth for WDM-PON application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2925–2932 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Liao, H. C. Kuo, Y. J. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “Side-mode transmission diagnosis of a multichannel selectable injection-locked Fabry-Perot Laser Diode with anti-reflection coated front facet,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4859–4867 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-R. Lin, T. K. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, G.-C. Lin, H.-L. Wang, and Y.-H. Lin, “200-GHz and 50-GHz AWG channelized linewidth dependent transmission of weak-resonant-cavity FPLD injection-locked by spectrally sliced ASE,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17739–17746 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, J. H. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode at unlasing condition,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4449–4456 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S.-C.

C.-L. Tseng, C.-K. Liu, J.-J. Jou, W.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Shih, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “Bidirectional transmission using tunable fiber lasers and injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes for WDM access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 794–796 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.-H.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-L. Wang, G.-C. Lin, J.-W. Liaw, and G.-R. Lin, “Coherent injection-locking of long-cavity colorless laser diodes with low front-facet reflectance for DWDM-PON transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1501011 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, W.-Y.

C.-L. Tseng, C.-K. Liu, J.-J. Jou, W.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Shih, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “Bidirectional transmission using tunable fiber lasers and injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes for WDM access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 794–796 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. H.

Lin, Y.-H.

Lin, Y.-M.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.-K.

C.-L. Tseng, C.-K. Liu, J.-J. Jou, W.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Shih, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “Bidirectional transmission using tunable fiber lasers and injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes for WDM access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 794–796 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.-L.

H.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, J.-Y. Sung, Y.-L. Liu, and J. Chen, “Investigation of using injection-locked Fabry–Pe’rot laser diode with 10% front-facet reflectivity for short-reach to long-reach upstream PON access,” IEEE Photon. Journal 5(3), 7901208 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Sung, and Y.-L. Liu, “Demonstration of using injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode for 10 Gbit/s 16-QAM OFDM WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 48(15), 940–942 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lowery, A. J.

Lu, C.

Lu, H.-H.

Maier, G.

Mallet, A.

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, M.

Moon, J.-H.

S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1579–1581 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moore, R.

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 37(19), 1181–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, B.

Mun, S.-G.

S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1579–1581 (2005).
[Crossref]

Murakam, A.

A. Murakam, “Phase locking and chaos synchronization in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 438–447 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nakano, J.

I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano, and R. Vodhanel, “10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulate signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 735–737 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nebus, J.-M.

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Okoshi, T.

K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, “Measurement of FM noise, AM noise, and field spectra of 1.3 µm InGaAsP DFB lasers and determination of the linewidth enhancement factor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(11), 1814–1818 (1985).
[Crossref]

Pan, C.-L.

Park, H.-J.

Park, S. J.

S. J. Park, G. Y. Kim, and T. S. Park, “WDM-PON system based on the laser light injected reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 162–169 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-J.

Park, T. S.

S. J. Park, G. Y. Kim, and T. S. Park, “WDM-PON system based on the laser light injected reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 162–169 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

Pattavina, A.

Payne, D. N.

M. Ibsen, S.-U. Alam, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin, and D. N. Payne, “8- and 16-channel all-fiber DFB laser WDM transmitters with integrated pump redundancy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1114–1116 (1999).
[Crossref]

Peng, P.-C.

Perrin, S.

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 37(19), 1181–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Qian, D.

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, and G.-K. Chang, “Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1545–1547 (2008).
[Crossref]

Quere, R.

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rahman, M. S.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 4th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (ICECE 2006), 408–411 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rivers, L.

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 37(19), 1181–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Roudas, I.

I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano, and R. Vodhanel, “10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulate signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 735–737 (2001).
[Crossref]

Salvadori, E.

Shafik, R. A.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 4th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (ICECE 2006), 408–411 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shankar, J.

Shieh, W.

W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shih, C.-W.

C.-L. Tseng, C.-K. Liu, J.-J. Jou, W.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Shih, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “Bidirectional transmission using tunable fiber lasers and injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes for WDM access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 794–796 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shih, F.-Y.

Shih, J.-L.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shin, S. K.

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C.-H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1334–1336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Song, H.

Song, K.-H.

Sung, J.-Y.

H.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, J.-Y. Sung, Y.-L. Liu, and J. Chen, “Investigation of using injection-locked Fabry–Pe’rot laser diode with 10% front-facet reflectivity for short-reach to long-reach upstream PON access,” IEEE Photon. Journal 5(3), 7901208 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Sung, and Y.-L. Liu, “Demonstration of using injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode for 10 Gbit/s 16-QAM OFDM WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 48(15), 940–942 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tang, J. M.

Tang, Y.

Tien, P.-L.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tomkos, I.

I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano, and R. Vodhanel, “10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulate signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 735–737 (2001).
[Crossref]

Townley, P.

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 37(19), 1181–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P.

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 37(19), 1181–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

C. W. Chow and C. S. Wong, Member, IEEE, andH. K. Tsang, “All-Optical ASK/DPSK Label-Swapping and Buffering Using Fabry–Perot Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tseng, C.-L.

C.-L. Tseng, C.-K. Liu, J.-J. Jou, W.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Shih, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “Bidirectional transmission using tunable fiber lasers and injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes for WDM access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 794–796 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vodhanel, R.

I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano, and R. Vodhanel, “10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulate signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 735–737 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vujicic, V.

V. Vujicic, P. M. Anandarajah, C. Browning, and L. P. Barry, “WDM-OFDM-PON based on compatible SSB technique using a mode locked comb source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2058–2061 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-H.

Wang, H.-L.

Wang, H.-Y.

Wang, Y.

Wei, C. C.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wei, J. L.

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gbit/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wen, Y.-J.

Wong, C. S.

C. W. Chow and C. S. Wong, Member, IEEE, andH. K. Tsang, “All-Optical ASK/DPSK Label-Swapping and Buffering Using Fabry–Perot Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wong, E.

E. Wong, K.-L. Lee, and T. Anderson, “Low-cost WDM passive optical network with directly-modulated self-seeding reflective SOA,” Electron. Lett. 42(5), 299–301 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wood, T. H.

Xu, Z.

Yamashita, I.

Yang, S.

Yeh, C.-H.

H.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, J.-Y. Sung, Y.-L. Liu, and J. Chen, “Investigation of using injection-locked Fabry–Pe’rot laser diode with 10% front-facet reflectivity for short-reach to long-reach upstream PON access,” IEEE Photon. Journal 5(3), 7901208 (2013).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Sung, and Y.-L. Liu, “Demonstration of using injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode for 10 Gbit/s 16-QAM OFDM WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 48(15), 940–942 (2012).
[Crossref]

C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, C.-L. Pan, and S. Chi, “WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12096–12101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, and G.-K. Chang, “Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1545–1547 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yuang, M. C.

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zervas, M. N.

M. Ibsen, S.-U. Alam, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin, and D. N. Payne, “8- and 16-channel all-fiber DFB laser WDM transmitters with integrated pump redundancy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1114–1116 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W.-D.

Zirngibl, M.

Electron. Lett. (4)

P. Healey, P. Townsend, C. Ford, L. Johnston, P. Townley, I. Lealman, L. Rivers, S. Perrin, and R. Moore, “Spectral slicing WDM-PON using wavelength-seeded reflective SOAs,” Electron. Lett. 37(19), 1181–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Wong, K.-L. Lee, and T. Anderson, “Low-cost WDM passive optical network with directly-modulated self-seeding reflective SOA,” Electron. Lett. 42(5), 299–301 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, “Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 42(10), 587–589 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, H.-Y. Chen, J.-Y. Sung, and Y.-L. Liu, “Demonstration of using injection-locked Fabry–Perot laser diode for 10 Gbit/s 16-QAM OFDM WDM-PON,” Electron. Lett. 48(15), 940–942 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

K. Kikuchi and T. Okoshi, “Measurement of FM noise, AM noise, and field spectra of 1.3 µm InGaAsP DFB lasers and determination of the linewidth enhancement factor,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(11), 1814–1818 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. Murakam, “Phase locking and chaos synchronization in injection-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(3), 438–447 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. W. Chow and C. S. Wong, Member, IEEE, andH. K. Tsang, “All-Optical ASK/DPSK Label-Swapping and Buffering Using Fabry–Perot Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(2), 363–370 (2004).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Lin, Y.-C. Chi, H.-L. Wang, G.-C. Lin, J.-W. Liaw, and G.-R. Lin, “Coherent injection-locking of long-cavity colorless laser diodes with low front-facet reflectance for DWDM-PON transmission,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(4), 1501011 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Journal (1)

H.-Y. Chen, C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, J.-Y. Sung, Y.-L. Liu, and J. Chen, “Investigation of using injection-locked Fabry–Pe’rot laser diode with 10% front-facet reflectivity for short-reach to long-reach upstream PON access,” IEEE Photon. Journal 5(3), 7901208 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

V. Vujicic, P. M. Anandarajah, C. Browning, and L. P. Barry, “WDM-OFDM-PON based on compatible SSB technique using a mode locked comb source,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2058–2061 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, and G.-K. Chang, “Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(18), 1545–1547 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 7.5 Gbit/s over 25-km SSMF using a 1-GHz RSOA,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(11), 745–747 (2010).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Tseng, C.-K. Liu, J.-J. Jou, W.-Y. Lin, C.-W. Shih, S.-C. Lin, S.-L. Lee, and G. Keiser, “Bidirectional transmission using tunable fiber lasers and injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes for WDM access networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 794–796 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Chen, C. C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, and J.-L. Shih, “A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 85–87 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ibsen, S.-U. Alam, M. N. Zervas, A. B. Grudinin, and D. N. Payne, “8- and 16-channel all-fiber DFB laser WDM transmitters with integrated pump redundancy,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(9), 1114–1116 (1999).
[Crossref]

I. Tomkos, B. Hallock, I. Roudas, R. Hesse, A. Boskovic, J. Nakano, and R. Vodhanel, “10-Gb/s transmission of 1.55-µm directly modulate signal over 100 km of negative dispersion fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(7), 735–737 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. K. Jung, S. K. Shin, C.-H. Lee, and Y. C. Chung, “Wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network based on spectrum-slicing techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(9), 1334–1336 (1998).
[Crossref]

S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, and C.-H. Lee, “Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength locked Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1579–1581 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

S. Forestier, P. Bouysse, R. Quere, A. Mallet, J.-M. Nebus, and L. Lapierre, “Joint optimization of the power-added efficiency and the error-vector measurement of 20-GHz pHEMT amplifier through a new dynamic bias-control method,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(4), 1132–1141 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (8)

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, and G.-R. Lin, “Specific jacket SMA-Connected TO-Can package FPLD transmitter with direct modulation bandwidth beyond 6 GHz for 256-QAM single or multi subcarrier OOFDM up to 15 Gbit/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(1), 28–35 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-J. Park, C.-H. Lee, K.-T. Jeong, H.-J. Park, J.-G. Ahn, and K.-H. Song, “Fiber-to-the-home services based on wavelength-division-multi-plexing passive optical network,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(11), 2582–2591 (2004).
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G. Maier, M. Martinelli, A. Pattavina, and E. Salvadori, “Design and cost performance of the multistage WDM-PON access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18(2), 125–143 (2000).
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R. D. Feldman, E. E. Harstead, S. Jiang, T. H. Wood, and M. Zirngibl, “An evaluation of architectures incorporating wavelength division multiplexing for broad-band fiber access,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(9), 1546–1559 (1998).
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A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, and J. Armstrong, “Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 131–138 (2007).
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G.-R. Lin, T.-K. Cheng, Y.-H. Lin, G.-C. Lin, and H.-L. Wang, “A weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode with injection locking mode number dependent transmission and noise performances,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(9), 1349–1355 (2010).
[Crossref]

G.-R. Lin, Y.-S. Liao, Y.-C. Chi, H.-C. Kuo, G.-C. Lin, H.-L. Wang, and Y.-J. Chen, “Long-cavity Fabry–Perot laser amplifier transmitter with enhanced injection-locking bandwidth for WDM-PON application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(20), 2925–2932 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Tang and K. Alan Shore, “30-Gb/s Signal transmission over 40-km directly modulated DFB-laser-based single-mode-fiber links without optical amplification and dispersion compensation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(6), 2318–2327 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (9)

G.-R. Lin, T. K. Cheng, Y.-C. Chi, G.-C. Lin, H.-L. Wang, and Y.-H. Lin, “200-GHz and 50-GHz AWG channelized linewidth dependent transmission of weak-resonant-cavity FPLD injection-locked by spectrally sliced ASE,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17739–17746 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xu, Y.-J. Wen, W.-D. Zhong, C.-J. Chae, X.-F. Cheng, Y. Wang, C. Lu, and J. Shankar, “High-speed WDM-PON using CW injection-locked Fabry-Pérot laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2953–2962 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-C. Ji, I. Yamashita, and K.-I. Kitayama, “Cost-effective colorless WDM-PON delivering up/down-stream data and broadcast services on a single wavelength using mutually injected Fabry-Perot laser diodes,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4520–4528 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Liao, H. C. Kuo, Y. J. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “Side-mode transmission diagnosis of a multichannel selectable injection-locked Fabry-Perot Laser Diode with anti-reflection coated front facet,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4859–4867 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Yeh, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, C.-L. Pan, and S. Chi, “WDM extended reach passive optical networks using OFDM-QAM,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12096–12101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Shieh, H. Bao, and Y. Tang, “Coherent optical OFDM: theory and design,” Opt. Express 16(2), 841–859 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, and J. M. Tang, “Experimental demonstration of record high 19.125 Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM transmission over 25 km SMF in a simple EML-based IMDD system,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20666–20679 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Chi, Y.-C. Li, H.-Y. Wang, P.-C. Peng, H.-H. Lu, and G.-R. Lin, “Optical 16-QAM-52-OFDM transmission at 4 Gbit/s by directly modulating a coherently injection-locked colorless laser diode,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20071–20077 (2012).
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Y. C. Chang, Y. H. Lin, J. H. Chen, and G.-R. Lin, “All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ format transformer with an injection-locked Fabry-Perot laser diode at unlasing condition,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4449–4456 (2004).
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Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

S. J. Park, G. Y. Kim, and T. S. Park, “WDM-PON system based on the laser light injected reflective semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 12(2), 162–169 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

N. E. Jolley, H. Kee, R. Rickard, J. Tang, and K. Cordina, “Generation and propagation of a 1550-nm 10 Gbit/s optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed signal over 1000 m of multimode fiber using a directly modulated DFB,” in Tech. Digest of the Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, 5 (Optical Society of America, 2005), pp. 319–321.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, and A. R. Islam, “On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics,” in 4th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (ICECE 2006), 408–411 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, New York, 1997), Chap. 3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The spectra of the RSOA, WRC-FPLD, FPLD, and DFB laser depend on different front-facet reflectance.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The pre-leveled 16-QAM OFDM testing bench for a directly modulated WRC-FPLD injection-locked by tunable laser at bit-rate of 20 Gbit/s. AWG: arbitrary waveform generator, DSO: digital signal oscilloscope, PRBS: pseudo random binary sequence, S/P: serial to parallel, F(ex): pre-level function, P/S: parallel to serial, IFFT: inverse fast Fourier transform, FFT: fast Fourier transform, SMF: single mode fiber. PD: photodetector, Amp: amplifier, TL: tunable laser.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The relative intensity noise (RIN) spectra of the WRC-FPLD injection-locked under different injection-locking power levels (b) The SNR (top) and RIN (down) of the OFDM signal within the limited modulation bandwidth.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The up-shifted frequency of the relaxation oscillation peak in the RIN spectrum of the WRC-FPLD while increasing the injection power level. Right inset: the simulation table with a list of corresponding parameters.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) BER (Inset: constellation plots) and (b) RF spectra of the OFDM data back-to-back transmitted with colorless WRC-FPLD at different injection-locking powers.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The BER and (b) the RF spectra of received OFDM data carried by WRC-FPLD under different injection-locking powers after 25-km SMF transmission. Left inset: the constellation plots without and with injection-locking at −3dBm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 RF spectra of the 16-QAM-OFDM data at different throughput slopes (a) before and (b) after transmission.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) BER vs. pre-leveled throughput slope; (b) Constellation plots of without (top) and with (down) pre-leveled 16-QAM data; (c) BER of 16-QAM OFDM data carried by injection-locked WRC-FPLD vs. receiving power after back-to-back and 25-km transmissions with and without pre-leveling.

Equations (5)

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I th ' q( N th +Δ N inj ) η i τ s I th Δ I inj = q η i τ s [ V Γ v g g' ( 1 τ p 2κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B )+ N tr ], = q η i τ s ( N th V Γ v g g' 2κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B ) = I th qV Γ v g g' η i τ s 2κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B
S B = Γ τ p η i q ( I B I th + qV η i τ e Γ v g g' κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B ) Γ τ p η i q ( I B I th ' ),
ω R = v g g' S B τ p + κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B ( 1 τ s + v g g' S B ) = ( v g g' τ p + κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B v g g' ) S B + 1 τ s κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B = v g g'( 1 τ p + κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B ) Γ τ p η i q ( I B I th + qV η i τ e Γ v g g' κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B )+ 1 τ s κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B , = η i Γ v g g' q ( I B I th ' )+ η i Γ v g g' τ p q κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B ( I B I th ' )+ 1 τ s κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B = η i Γ v g g' q ( I B I th ' )+ κ 1+ α 2 S inj S B [ η i Γ v g g' τ p q ( I B I th ' )+ 1 τ s ] = ω R,freerun 2 +Δ ω inj 2
RIN= 16 (Δν) ST ω R 4 τ ΔN 2 + 2hC λ P 0 [ η 0 η i ( I+ I th ' ) q P 0 / η 0 hν +(1 η 0 ) ]= 16 (Δν) ST ω R 4 τ ΔN 2 + 2hC λ P 0 [ η 0 ( I B + I th ' ) ( I B I th ' ) +(1 η 0 ) ],
EV M rms = 1 N n=1 N | S r (n) S t (n) | 2 P 0 1 SNR ,

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