Abstract

We report room-temperature Raman scattering studies of nominally undoped (100) GaAs1−xBix epitaxial layers exhibiting Bi-induced (p-type) longitudinal-optical-plasmon-coupled (LOPC) modes for 0.018 ≤ x ≤ 0.048. Redshifts in the GaAs-like optical modes due to alloying are evaluated and are paralleled by strong damping of the LOPC. The relative integrated Raman intensities of LO(Γ) and LOPC ALO/ALOPC are characteristic of heavily doped p-GaAs, with a remarkable near total screening of the LO(Γ) phonon (ALO/ALOPC → 0) for larger Bi concentrations. A method of spectral analysis is set out which yields estimates of hole concentrations in excess of 5 × 1017cm−3 and correlates with the Bi molar fraction. These findings are in general agreement with recent electrical transport measurements performed on the alloy, and while the absolute size of the hole concentrations differ, likely origins for the discrepancy are discussed. We conclude that the damped LO-phonon-hole-plasmon coupling phenomena plays a dominant role in Raman scattering from unpassivated nominally undoped GaAsBi.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Dilute incorporation of large Bi atoms into GaAs induces changes to the physical and electronic properties of the host [14]. Bi induces a (temperature-independent) strong decrease in the bandgap energy and a giant increase in the spin-orbit splitting [57]. Thus GaAsBi is an emerging material receiving considerable attention for scientific and technological interests, with applications spanning IR optics, optoelectronics [8], and terahertz [9]. These attractive properties are mainly related to the large disparity in atomic size and electronegativity between Bi and As, and to the relativistic corrections induced by the bismuth. Recently, Nargelas et al. [10] showed alloying nominally undoped GaAs with group V Bi counterintuitively introduces p-type carriers: holes thermally excited from Bi-induced acceptor levels lying 26.8 meV above the valence band edge [11]. Pettinari et al. [12] revealed – through electrical transport measurements – that the hole concentration rises with x up to p = 2.4 × 1017cm−3 at x = 10.6%. They [13] further demonstrated that the acceptor states are passivated through hydrogen incorporation. Needless to say, within the context of current research on GaAsBi applications, these recent results have large implications for future technological interests.

In polar semiconductors like GaAs, LO(Γ) phonons couple strongly with the collective oscillations of the free-carrier system (plasmons). The extent of coupling, or mixing, is greatest when the two modes are of comparable energies and depends strongly on carrier concentration. For n-GaAs this results in two LO-plasmon-coupled (LOPC) branches, L+(upper) and L(lower), for a given plasma frequency ωp. However, due to large carrier damping, only one LOPC mode is generally observed in p-GaAs [14]. Figure 1 shows the uncoupled and coupled modes with the single observable damped LOPC mode for p-GaAs near the LO and TO frequencies with increasing hole concentration [15]. Given the native acceptors in GaAsBi, one would expect damped LOPC modes in the Raman spectra (RS) for sufficiently large carrier concentrations. An early Raman study of GaAs1−xBix uncovered, along with new Ga-Bi center optical modes, damped LOPC modes for x ≤ 2.4% [16]. The free charge carriers were attributed to a carbon contamination and the concentration estimated to be greater than 1018 cm−3 [16].

 

Fig. 1 Predicted [17] frequencies of the coupled modes (L+ and L) and the plasma mode (ωp) as a function of hole concentration. The dashed line shows the general behavior of the single damped LOPC mode observed in p-GaAs.

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The determination of native hole concentrations in dilute and unpassivated GaAsBi is very important for device fabrication. The Hall effect is typically the method used for measuring the carrier concentration in semiconductors, which requires fabrication of ohmic contacts. In this paper, Raman scattering from the LO-phonon-hole-plasmon coupled mode is investigated in nominally undoped GaAs1−xBix for x ≤ 0.048. From a detailed examination of Raman features, our spectral analysis reveals that hole concentrations exceed 5 × 1017cm−3 and correlate with the Bi molar fraction. Interestingly, samples with larger Bi contents display significant or near total screening of the LO(Γ) band. While the absolute size of the hole concentrations determined here diverge from the transport measurements of Pettinari et al. [12], likely origins for the discrepancy are discussed.

2. Experiment

2.1. Sample details

Our (100) GaAs1−xBix samples are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy for Bi concentrations 0.018≤ x ≤ 0.0478. Two sets of samples were grown, denoted A and B, having nominal epilayer thicknesses 1 μm and 0.3 μm, respectively. Bi content was found by combining X-ray diffraction [18], energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and photoluminescence [19]. More details of the samples are given elsewhere [20].

2.2. Experimental setup

Room-temperature RS were acquired in a quasi-backscattering configuration on the (100) surface using a Jobin-Yvon HR800 integrated micro-Raman setup with Olympus 100× microscope, 20 mW HeNe laser, working at 633 nm, and air-cooled CCD detector. Dispersion was by a 1800 g/mm diffraction grating (spectral resolution 0.2 cm−1). Correct instrument calibration was verified by checking the position of the Si band at ± 520.7 cm−1. With the addition of two linear polarizers, measurements were performed in experimental configuration described as −c(E⃗incident, E⃗scattered)c. For our samples, the epilayer thicknesses are large compared to the optical absorption depth dopt = 1/(2α), so that there is negligible signal from the substrate. While it is known that the incorporation of large Bi atoms into the GaAs matrix deteriorates optical quality, we observe a consistent RS lineshape from representative probing locations across all the samples studied here. Optically defective samples were omitted from the study.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2(a) shows a typical depolarized RS of (100) GaAs1−xBix, for x = 0.043, showing a two-mode behavior (GaBi-, GaAs-like optical modes) with small disorder-activated GaAs-like signatures weakly contributing to the background [18]. Figure 2(b) expands the RS over the GaAs-like TO and LO frequency range for four different quasi-backscattering geometries. Here z and −z represent the incident and scattered photon directions (001) and (001̄), while x = (100), y = (010), X = (11̄0), and Y = (110). According to the Raman selection rules (zincblende, Td site symmetry), the LO(Γ) phonon is allowed for −z(Y, Y)z and −z(x, y)z but forbidden in −z(Y, X)z and −z(x, x)z, while TO(Γ) is always forbidden. The appearance of the symmetry-forbidden TO mode (in all polarizations) can be attributed to bismuth-induced disorder in the lattice, resulting in a relaxation of the Raman selection rules. The contribution to the Raman efficiency of the coupled modes from the electro-optic mechanism is not total while the unscreened LO band is present, meaning the observed LOPC modes are phonon-like and should obey the Raman selection rules. The strong feature just below TO (∼266 cm−1) obeys the same Raman selection rules as the LO band and indicates a LOPC mode in heavily doped (>1019 cm−3) p-GaAs [17, 15, 21, 22]. We do not observe the L+ branch at higher frequencies, confirming the p-type nature of the free carrier present in GaAsBi. Similar RS were measured for all nine GaAsBi samples. It should be noted that while we observe weak GaBi-like center optical bands over the whole compositional range, we do not see hole plasmons interacting with the GaBi-like LO(Γ) phonon since the coupling strength is approximately proportional to the phonon content.

 

Fig. 2 RS of (100) GaAs1−xBix for x = 0.043. (a) The two-mode behavior of the ternary alloy in a depolarized quasi-backscattering geometry over Raman shifts of 120–350 cm−1. (b) Expanded over GaAs-like optical frequency range for different polarization configurations (offset vertically for clarity).

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For RS in a −z(Y, Y)z geometry, Lorentzian oscillators are assigned to each feature to deconvolute the GaAs1−xBix Raman spectrum, as shown in Fig. 3 for x = 0, 0.018, 0.0274, 0.0301, 0.043 and 0.0478. The peak positions of TO and LO (and subsequently LOPC) are seen to linearly decrease with alloying. The peak frequency and broadening versus Bi content for all samples are summarized in Fig. 4. From the linear fit of these data, we obtain the composition dependence of the GaAs-like TO(Γ) and LO(Γ) modes in strained (100)-oriented GaAs1−xBix:

ω(TO,LO)(cm1)=ω(TO,LO)0+Δω(TO,LO)×x,
where the measured redshift value for the TO band is ΔωTO = −27(±4) cm−1 and the value for the LO phonon redshift agrees well with our previous study [18] at ΔωLO = −71(±3) cm−1. Figure 1 indicates that for low hole doping the LOPC mode is slightly blueshifted relative to ωLO before redshifting towards ωTO (crossing at p ∼ 5 × 1018 cm−3) with increasing hole concentrations and reaching ωTO at higher concentrations (p ≥5×1020 cm−3). In our data, as the Bi molar fraction increases, the LOPC mode not only generally increases in intensity, but also softens well below TO for the entire compositional range studied. It is clear when comparing our data with representative p-GaAs LOPC lineshapes in the 1018– 1020 cm−3 doping range [15], we are well into the ‘final stage’ of the asymptotic approach to TO from LO. The further shift can be accounted for by the absence of lattice relaxation in the strained GaAs1−xBix epilayers, which manifests itself through a weaker dependence on the Bi content for ωTO than ωLO, and consequently a reduction in the ionic plasma frequency associated with the LO phonon, ΩGaAs2=(ωLO2ωTO2) [23].

The fact the LOPC peak frequency for our lowest Bi content is well below that expected (not measured directly for this sample) as well as only having a scattering intensity comparable to that of the LO band, suggests damping effects dominate the phonon-hole-plamson interaction in GaAsBi. The damping constant of the plasma oscillation Γp can be evaluated by the hole scattering rate as

Γp=τ1=eμm*,
where e is the electrical charge, τ, μ, and m* are the average scattering relaxation time, hole mobility, and effective mass of the free carrier, respectively. The intrinsically low hole mobility μh, due to large hole effective mass mh*, damps the coupled mode and induces broadening. The damping is more severe for GaAsBi than for GaAs since additional scattering mechanisms exist in a highly mismatched ternary alloy. Pettinari et al. [12] measured an order of magnitude reduction in μh for GaAs1−xBix for x < 6% with corresponding increase in mh*. The FWHM of the two GaAs-like optical modes in Fig. 4 shows a similar steady increase as a result of Bi-induced disorder, while the LOPC peak broadens more rapidly. The coupled linewidth, which corresponds to mode damping, is roughly in inverse proportion to the phonon content of the mode [26]. From Fig. 1, the coupled mode should only dampen and broaden in the vicinity of ωp crossing ωLO. These data further support the notion of a large Bi dependent damping constant, however further measurements on more dilute alloys (x ≤ 0.018) would aid comparison.

 

Fig. 3 Normalized RS of GaAs1−xBix for x = 0, 0.018, 0.0274, 0.0301, 0.043, and 0.0478 at room temperature for 633 nm excitation in −z(Y, Y)z scattering geometry. The filled areas give the contribution of distinct modes to the overall fit (solid line) of our data (open circles). For clarity, traces have been normalized and offset vertically. The vacant area corresponds to disorder activated modes.

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Fig. 4 Measurement of frequency shifts of the TO, LO and LOPC bands as a function of Bi fraction. Dashed lines represent the frequencies of the two center optical modes for GaAs (x = 0) and the inset shows the FWHM of each of the modes.

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Conventional spectral analysis of the LOPC mode to study hole densities in p-type GaAs [21] assumes that the TO and LO frequencies, and other physical parameters of GaAs, do not drastically change over the doping concentrations used. The compositional redshift of the bands observed here introduces a problem in implementing such techniques into our analysis. However, by careful examination of the relative integrated scattering intensities of the LO and LOPC modes, we can spectroscopically estimate carrier concentrations [14].

We must first derive an expression of the Raman scattering cross section by taking into account the presence of a surface depletion region of width d [24] and adopt a simple two-layer (surface depletion layer/bulk material) model [25]. For optical penetration depths > d, the RS exhibits both LOPC modes from the bulk and unscreened LO phonon components from the depletion layer. The thickness of the surface depletion layer for large hole concentrations is estimated using the Schottky model

d=(2ε0εSVBep)1/2,
where VB and εS are the band bending and static dielectric constant, respectively. The inverse relationship of d on p implies that as hole concentrations rise the LO phonon scattering volume approaches zero. When the LOPC mode changes from phonon-like to plasmon-like the LO band is said to be totally screened. Thus the intensity of the LO phonon scattered within the depletion layer essentially depends on the size of d and the penetration depth of the probe beam; however, we assume the Raman scattering by LO phonons in the depletion layer is similar to that in a undoped crystal. Given the low Bi content of our samples, we estimate that the Raman scattering cross section of the unscreened LO mode is similar to that in pristine GaAs. Light scattering from charge density fluctuations are not considered because the intensity is estimated to be of the order of 10−3 less than the phonon scattering intensity in p-GaAs. Then the integrated intensity of the LO phonon band for an opaque semiconductor with absorption coefficient α and d ≤ 1/α, is [27]
ALO=A0[1exp(2αd)].
Here A0 is the intensity observed in a low concentration or undoped crystal where the plasmon frequency is too low to affect the LO phonon [28]. Since the integrated Raman intensity is proportional to the scattering volume, it follows that
A0=ζSALOPC+ALO,
where ζS = ILO/ILOPC is the calculated area cross section from pure LO phonons and LOPC in a volume element, by Eq. 4. The depletion layer thickness for large hole concentrations can be estimated experimentally using equations Eqs. 4 and 5 by
d=12αln(1+ζAζS).
Here ζA = ALO/ALOPC is the ratio of the measured integrated intensities of the unscreened LO band from the depletion layer and the LOPC mode from the bulk. From the decomposition of the superimposed Raman features and equating Eqs. 3 and 6, we evaluate the hole concentration using
p=8ε0εSα2VBe[ln(1+ζAζS)]2.

Figure 5(a) gives our experimentally derived values of ζA for GaAs1−xBix. Comparing ILO for x = 0 with ILOPC for GaAs1−xBix, leads to the ζS values in the inset. The intensity of the LOPC band increases relative to the unscreened LO mode for increasing x (see Fig. 3; the LO phonon contributions are greatly reduced for higher Bi contents). For the small Bi contents studied here, the LO band experiences almost total screening, due to the narrowing of the surface depletion layer. For comparison, the LO phonon in p-GaAs is only rendered invisible (ALO/ALOPC → 0) for p > 5×1019 cm−3, thus our observations here for nominally undoped GaAsBi are stunning.

 

Fig. 5 (a) Experimentally determined values of ζA for all GaAsBi samples. (b) The theoretically expected [14] values of ζA (solid lines) for p-GaAs as a function of hole concentration. The horizontal and vertical ranges shown are from Pettinari et al. [12] and our optical measurements, respectively. The inset shows ζS for samples set A and B, used to calculate the two theoretical traces.

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Pettinari et al. [12] performed Hall-effect experiments on 30–56 nm thick GaAs1−xBix epitaxial layers for 0.06 ≤ x ≤ 0.106 and found that the hole concentration rose from ∼4 × 1013 cm−3 for x = 0.6% to 2.4 × 1017cm−3 at x = 10.6%. This suggests in our samples the carrier concentrations should not exceed p ∼ 3 × 1015cm−3. To quantitatively evaluate p using Eq. 7, Bi-induced perturbations in the physical constants of the semiconductor must be considered. Though the optical constants of GaAsBi are not well known, there are good estimates for changes in complex dielectric function and absorption coefficient [29, 30]; the band bending may be estimated assuming Fermi pinning at the Bi-induced acceptor states [11]. However, including these factors increases the spectroscopic estimation of p by only a factor of 2 to 4, rather than orders of magnitude. Alternatively, the hole concentration strongly depends on the values of ζA and ζS and the Raman efficiency of the LO phonon in theory can depend on x, which would abnegate use of a constant ζS. On close examination we find values for ζS differ between sets A and B, but are consistent across the same set. Thus it is reasonable to assume that ζS has weak Bi dependence over the range studied here and the difference between sets A and B is more likely due to their differing low optical qualities (caused by growing the epi-layers away from stoichiometric conditions to introduce Bi into the GaAs matrix). Thus we present the theoretical [17] p dependence of ζA for the host p-type GaAs in Fig. 5(b). With a conservatively low [31, 32] value of ζS = 0.732 we estimate the hole concentration to exceed 5 × 1017cm−3. The transport results of Pettinari et al. [12] are far smaller. Attempting to reconcile the two sets of results, we suggest our larger hole concentrations are due to thicker epitaxial layers. The thinner epilayers of Pettinari et al. [12] are closer to a pristine and evenly distributed GaAsBi system, with lower density of bismuth pair or cluster states than thicker layers [33]. On the other hand, we fully concur that hole concentrations rise with increasing Bi molar fraction. Theoretical examination into the formation of Bi-induced acceptor states located above the valence band during the growth may shed light on the discrepancy. The source of the single mode behavior in p-type GaAs has been traced to the intra-heavy-hole transitions, though for the simplified analysis presented here, contributions to the RS from intra-light-hole and inter-valence-band scattering mechanisms are omitted [15]. The GaAaBi band structure experiences most of its shift in the valence band and the acceptor state is pinned 26.8 meV above the valence band edge; these factors cannot be overlooked in better describing the strong damped hole-plasma-coupling phenomena.

4. Conclusion

To conclude, we have observed damped LOPC modes through Raman scattering experiments for nominally undoped GaAs1−xBix. By examining the redshifts and broadening of the GaAs-like LO, TO and LOPC bands, strong damping is found to dominate the phonon-hole-plasmon coupling, which softens well below ωTO for large x. Our spectral analysis reveals that the native hole concentration correlates with the Bi molar fraction and exceed 5 × 1017cm−3. The comparatively large carrier densities measured here in a purely optical experiment are attributed to the relatively large thicknesses of our samples. Considering the extensively researched GaAs semiconductor, the results presented here represent an important contribution to further theoretical and experimental investigation of Bi incorporation in GaAs, as well as of the unusual properties of GaAsBi alloys.

Acknowledgments

We thank the Australian Research Council for support and acknowledge the contributions of S. Novikov. O. M. Lemine and M. Henini acknowledge King Abdul-Aziz City for Sciences and Technology (KACST) for financial support. The work in University of Arkansas was supported by NSF Career Award No. DMR-1149605.

References and links

1. K. Oe, “Characteristics of semiconductor alloy GaAs1−xBix,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2801–2806 (2002). [CrossRef]  

2. K. Alberi, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, K. Bertulis, and A. Krotkus, “Valence band anticrossing in GaAs1−xBix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051909 (2007). [CrossRef]  

3. S. Francoeur, S. Tixier, E. Young, T. Tiedje, and A. Mascarenhas, “Bi isoelectronic impurities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 085209 (2008). [CrossRef]  

4. G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A Patané, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of Bi incorporation on the electronic properties of GaAs: Carrier masses, hole mobility, and Bi-induced acceptor states,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(4), 779–786 (2013). [CrossRef]  

5. S. Francoeur, M. J. Seong, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, M. Adamcyk, and T. Tiedje, “Band gap of GaAs1−xBix, 0<x<3.6%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3874 (2003). [CrossRef]  

6. J. Yoshida, T. Kita, O. Wada, and K. Oe, “Temperature dependence of GaAs1−xBix band gap studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 371–374 (2003). [CrossRef]  

7. B. Fluegel, S. Francoeur, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Giant spin-orbit bowing in GaAs1−xBix,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(6), 067205 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. S. J. Sweeney and S. R. Jin, “Bismide-nitride alloys: Promising for efficient light emitting devices in the near-and mid-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(4), 043110 (2013). [CrossRef]  

9. K. Bertulis, A. Krotkus, G. Aleksejenko, V. Pačebutas, R. Adomavičius, G. Molis, and S. Marcinkevičius, “GaBiAs: A material for optoelectronic terahertz devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201112 (2006). [CrossRef]  

10. S. Nargelas, K. Jaračiūnas, K. Bertulis, and V. Pačebutas, “Hole diffusivity in GaAsBi alloys measured by a picosecond transient grating technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 082115 (2011). [CrossRef]  

11. G. Pettinari, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Compositional evolution of Bi-induced acceptor states in GaAs1−xBix alloy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 201201 (2011). [CrossRef]  

12. G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Bi-induced p-type conductivity in nominally undoped Ga(AsBi),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 092109 (2012). [CrossRef]  

13. G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of hydrogen on the electronic properties of Ga(AsBi) alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 222103 (2012). [CrossRef]  

15. G. Irmer, M. Wenzel, and J. Monecke, “Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra of p-type GaAs:Zn,” Phys. Rev. B 56(15), 9524 (1997). [CrossRef]  

16. K. Wan and J. F. Young, “Interaction of longitudinal-optic phonons with free holes as evidenced in Raman spectra from Be-doped p-type GaAs,” Phys Rev. B. 41(15), 10772 (1990). [CrossRef]  

17. P. Verma, K. Oe, M. Yamada, H. Harima, M. Herms, and G. Irmer, “Raman studies on GaAs1−xBix and InAs1−xBix,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1657 (2001). [CrossRef]  

14. R. Fukasawa and S. Perkowitz, “Raman-scattering spectra of coupled LO-phonon-hole-plasmon modes in p-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 50(19), 14119 (1994). [CrossRef]  

18. J. A. Steele, R. A. Lewis, M. Henini, O. M. Lemine, and A. Alkaoud, “Raman scattering studies of strain effects in (100) and (311)B GaAs1−xBix epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193516 (2013). [CrossRef]  

19. X. Lu, D. A. Beaton, R. B. Lewis, T. Tiedje, and Yong Zhang, “Composition dependence of photoluminescence of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041903 (2009). [CrossRef]  

20. M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007). [CrossRef]  

21. K. Wan, J. F. Young, R. L. S. Devine, W. T. Moore, A. J. Spring Thorpe, C. J. Miner, and P. Mandeville, “Free-carrier density determination in p-type GaAs using Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-phonon modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(11), 5598 (1988). [CrossRef]  

22. A. Mlayah, R. Carles, G. Landa, E. Bedel, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, “Raman study of longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupling and disorder effects in heavily Be-doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(7), 4064 (1991). [CrossRef]  

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28. K. Murase, S. Katayama, Y. Ando, and H. Kawamura, “Observation of a coupled phonon-damped-plasmon mode in n-GaAs by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1481 (1974). [CrossRef]  

29. N. B. Sedrine, M. Moussa, H. Fitouri, A. Rebey, B. El Jani, and R. Chtourou, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of GaAs1−xBix material grown on GaAs substrate by atmospheric pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011910 (2009). [CrossRef]  

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References

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  1. K. Oe, “Characteristics of semiconductor alloy GaAs1−xBix,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2801–2806 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  2. K. Alberi, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, K. Bertulis, and A. Krotkus, “Valence band anticrossing in GaAs1−xBix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051909 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Francoeur, S. Tixier, E. Young, T. Tiedje, and A. Mascarenhas, “Bi isoelectronic impurities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 085209 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A Patané, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of Bi incorporation on the electronic properties of GaAs: Carrier masses, hole mobility, and Bi-induced acceptor states,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(4), 779–786 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Francoeur, M. J. Seong, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, M. Adamcyk, and T. Tiedje, “Band gap of GaAs1−xBix, 0<x<3.6%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3874 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Yoshida, T. Kita, O. Wada, and K. Oe, “Temperature dependence of GaAs1−xBix band gap studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 371–374 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Fluegel, S. Francoeur, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Giant spin-orbit bowing in GaAs1−xBix,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(6), 067205 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. J. Sweeney and S. R. Jin, “Bismide-nitride alloys: Promising for efficient light emitting devices in the near-and mid-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(4), 043110 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Bertulis, A. Krotkus, G. Aleksejenko, V. Pačebutas, R. Adomavičius, G. Molis, and S. Marcinkevičius, “GaBiAs: A material for optoelectronic terahertz devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201112 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Nargelas, K. Jaračiūnas, K. Bertulis, and V. Pačebutas, “Hole diffusivity in GaAsBi alloys measured by a picosecond transient grating technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 082115 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Pettinari, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Compositional evolution of Bi-induced acceptor states in GaAs1−xBix alloy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 201201 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Bi-induced p-type conductivity in nominally undoped Ga(AsBi),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 092109 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of hydrogen on the electronic properties of Ga(AsBi) alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 222103 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Irmer, M. Wenzel, and J. Monecke, “Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra of p-type GaAs:Zn,” Phys. Rev. B 56(15), 9524 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Wan and J. F. Young, “Interaction of longitudinal-optic phonons with free holes as evidenced in Raman spectra from Be-doped p-type GaAs,” Phys Rev. B. 41(15), 10772 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. Verma, K. Oe, M. Yamada, H. Harima, M. Herms, and G. Irmer, “Raman studies on GaAs1−xBix and InAs1−xBix,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1657 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. Fukasawa and S. Perkowitz, “Raman-scattering spectra of coupled LO-phonon-hole-plasmon modes in p-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 50(19), 14119 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. A. Steele, R. A. Lewis, M. Henini, O. M. Lemine, and A. Alkaoud, “Raman scattering studies of strain effects in (100) and (311)B GaAs1−xBix epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193516 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. X. Lu, D. A. Beaton, R. B. Lewis, T. Tiedje, and Yong Zhang, “Composition dependence of photoluminescence of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041903 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. K. Wan, J. F. Young, R. L. S. Devine, W. T. Moore, A. J. Spring Thorpe, C. J. Miner, and P. Mandeville, “Free-carrier density determination in p-type GaAs using Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-phonon modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(11), 5598 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  22. A. Mlayah, R. Carles, G. Landa, E. Bedel, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, “Raman study of longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupling and disorder effects in heavily Be-doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(7), 4064 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  23. G. Lucovsky, R. M. Martin, and E. Burstein, “Localized effective charges in diatomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 4(4), 1367 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. Fukasawa, S. Katayama, A. Hasegawa, and K. Ohta, “Analysis of Raman spectra from heavily doped p-GaAs,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 57(10), 3632–3640 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  25. L. H. Dubois and B. R. Zegarski, “Electron-energy-loss study of the space-charge region at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 35(17), 9128 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  26. T. Yuasa, S. Naritsuka, M. Mannoh, K. Shinozaki, K. Yamanaka, Y. Nomura, M. Mihara, and M. Ishii, “Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-LO-phonon modes in n-type AlxGa1−xAs,” Phys. Rev. B. 33(2), 1222 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Pinczuk, A. A. Ballman, R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, and J. M. Worlock, “Raman scattering studies of surface space charge layers and Schottky barrier formation in InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(5), 1168 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  28. K. Murase, S. Katayama, Y. Ando, and H. Kawamura, “Observation of a coupled phonon-damped-plasmon mode in n-GaAs by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1481 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  29. N. B. Sedrine, M. Moussa, H. Fitouri, A. Rebey, B. El Jani, and R. Chtourou, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of GaAs1−xBix material grown on GaAs substrate by atmospheric pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011910 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. Mbarki and A. Rebey, “First-principles calculation of the physical properties of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(10), 105020 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. J. Seong, S. H. Chun, H. M. Cheong, N. Samarth, and A. Mascarenhas, “Spectroscopic determination of hole density in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 033202 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  32. I. T. Yoon and T. W. Kang, “Analysis of Raman scattering of Ga1−xMnxAs dilute magnetic semiconductor,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321(14), 2257–2259 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Kreitman and D. L. Barnett, “Probability tables for clusters of foreign atoms in simple lattices assuming next-nearest-neighbor interactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 43(2), 364 (1965).
    [Crossref]

2013 (3)

G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A Patané, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of Bi incorporation on the electronic properties of GaAs: Carrier masses, hole mobility, and Bi-induced acceptor states,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(4), 779–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. J. Sweeney and S. R. Jin, “Bismide-nitride alloys: Promising for efficient light emitting devices in the near-and mid-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(4), 043110 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. A. Steele, R. A. Lewis, M. Henini, O. M. Lemine, and A. Alkaoud, “Raman scattering studies of strain effects in (100) and (311)B GaAs1−xBix epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193516 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Bi-induced p-type conductivity in nominally undoped Ga(AsBi),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 092109 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of hydrogen on the electronic properties of Ga(AsBi) alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 222103 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Nargelas, K. Jaračiūnas, K. Bertulis, and V. Pačebutas, “Hole diffusivity in GaAsBi alloys measured by a picosecond transient grating technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 082115 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Compositional evolution of Bi-induced acceptor states in GaAs1−xBix alloy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 201201 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Mbarki and A. Rebey, “First-principles calculation of the physical properties of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(10), 105020 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

I. T. Yoon and T. W. Kang, “Analysis of Raman scattering of Ga1−xMnxAs dilute magnetic semiconductor,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321(14), 2257–2259 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. B. Sedrine, M. Moussa, H. Fitouri, A. Rebey, B. El Jani, and R. Chtourou, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of GaAs1−xBix material grown on GaAs substrate by atmospheric pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011910 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, D. A. Beaton, R. B. Lewis, T. Tiedje, and Yong Zhang, “Composition dependence of photoluminescence of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041903 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Francoeur, S. Tixier, E. Young, T. Tiedje, and A. Mascarenhas, “Bi isoelectronic impurities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 085209 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

K. Alberi, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, K. Bertulis, and A. Krotkus, “Valence band anticrossing in GaAs1−xBix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051909 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

B. Fluegel, S. Francoeur, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Giant spin-orbit bowing in GaAs1−xBix,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(6), 067205 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bertulis, A. Krotkus, G. Aleksejenko, V. Pačebutas, R. Adomavičius, G. Molis, and S. Marcinkevičius, “GaBiAs: A material for optoelectronic terahertz devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201112 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

S. Francoeur, M. J. Seong, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, M. Adamcyk, and T. Tiedje, “Band gap of GaAs1−xBix, 0<x<3.6%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3874 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Yoshida, T. Kita, O. Wada, and K. Oe, “Temperature dependence of GaAs1−xBix band gap studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 371–374 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

K. Oe, “Characteristics of semiconductor alloy GaAs1−xBix,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2801–2806 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. J. Seong, S. H. Chun, H. M. Cheong, N. Samarth, and A. Mascarenhas, “Spectroscopic determination of hole density in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 033202 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

P. Verma, K. Oe, M. Yamada, H. Harima, M. Herms, and G. Irmer, “Raman studies on GaAs1−xBix and InAs1−xBix,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1657 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

G. Irmer, M. Wenzel, and J. Monecke, “Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra of p-type GaAs:Zn,” Phys. Rev. B 56(15), 9524 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. Fukasawa and S. Perkowitz, “Raman-scattering spectra of coupled LO-phonon-hole-plasmon modes in p-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 50(19), 14119 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. Mlayah, R. Carles, G. Landa, E. Bedel, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, “Raman study of longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupling and disorder effects in heavily Be-doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(7), 4064 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

K. Wan and J. F. Young, “Interaction of longitudinal-optic phonons with free holes as evidenced in Raman spectra from Be-doped p-type GaAs,” Phys Rev. B. 41(15), 10772 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

K. Wan, J. F. Young, R. L. S. Devine, W. T. Moore, A. J. Spring Thorpe, C. J. Miner, and P. Mandeville, “Free-carrier density determination in p-type GaAs using Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-phonon modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(11), 5598 (1988).
[Crossref]

R. Fukasawa, S. Katayama, A. Hasegawa, and K. Ohta, “Analysis of Raman spectra from heavily doped p-GaAs,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 57(10), 3632–3640 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

L. H. Dubois and B. R. Zegarski, “Electron-energy-loss study of the space-charge region at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 35(17), 9128 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

T. Yuasa, S. Naritsuka, M. Mannoh, K. Shinozaki, K. Yamanaka, Y. Nomura, M. Mihara, and M. Ishii, “Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-LO-phonon modes in n-type AlxGa1−xAs,” Phys. Rev. B. 33(2), 1222 (1986).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

A. Pinczuk, A. A. Ballman, R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, and J. M. Worlock, “Raman scattering studies of surface space charge layers and Schottky barrier formation in InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(5), 1168 (1979).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

K. Murase, S. Katayama, Y. Ando, and H. Kawamura, “Observation of a coupled phonon-damped-plasmon mode in n-GaAs by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1481 (1974).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

G. Lucovsky, R. M. Martin, and E. Burstein, “Localized effective charges in diatomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 4(4), 1367 (1971).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

M. Kreitman and D. L. Barnett, “Probability tables for clusters of foreign atoms in simple lattices assuming next-nearest-neighbor interactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 43(2), 364 (1965).
[Crossref]

Adamcyk, M.

S. Francoeur, M. J. Seong, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, M. Adamcyk, and T. Tiedje, “Band gap of GaAs1−xBix, 0<x<3.6%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3874 (2003).
[Crossref]

Adomavicius, R.

K. Bertulis, A. Krotkus, G. Aleksejenko, V. Pačebutas, R. Adomavičius, G. Molis, and S. Marcinkevičius, “GaBiAs: A material for optoelectronic terahertz devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alberi, K.

K. Alberi, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, K. Bertulis, and A. Krotkus, “Valence band anticrossing in GaAs1−xBix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aleksejenko, G.

K. Bertulis, A. Krotkus, G. Aleksejenko, V. Pačebutas, R. Adomavičius, G. Molis, and S. Marcinkevičius, “GaBiAs: A material for optoelectronic terahertz devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alkaoud, A.

J. A. Steele, R. A. Lewis, M. Henini, O. M. Lemine, and A. Alkaoud, “Raman scattering studies of strain effects in (100) and (311)B GaAs1−xBix epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193516 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ando, Y.

K. Murase, S. Katayama, Y. Ando, and H. Kawamura, “Observation of a coupled phonon-damped-plasmon mode in n-GaAs by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1481 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ballman, A. A.

A. Pinczuk, A. A. Ballman, R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, and J. M. Worlock, “Raman scattering studies of surface space charge layers and Schottky barrier formation in InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(5), 1168 (1979).
[Crossref]

Barnett, D. L.

M. Kreitman and D. L. Barnett, “Probability tables for clusters of foreign atoms in simple lattices assuming next-nearest-neighbor interactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 43(2), 364 (1965).
[Crossref]

Beaton, D. A.

X. Lu, D. A. Beaton, R. B. Lewis, T. Tiedje, and Yong Zhang, “Composition dependence of photoluminescence of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bedel, E.

A. Mlayah, R. Carles, G. Landa, E. Bedel, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, “Raman study of longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupling and disorder effects in heavily Be-doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(7), 4064 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bertulis, K.

S. Nargelas, K. Jaračiūnas, K. Bertulis, and V. Pačebutas, “Hole diffusivity in GaAsBi alloys measured by a picosecond transient grating technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 082115 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Alberi, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, K. Bertulis, and A. Krotkus, “Valence band anticrossing in GaAs1−xBix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051909 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Bertulis, A. Krotkus, G. Aleksejenko, V. Pačebutas, R. Adomavičius, G. Molis, and S. Marcinkevičius, “GaBiAs: A material for optoelectronic terahertz devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burstein, E.

G. Lucovsky, R. M. Martin, and E. Burstein, “Localized effective charges in diatomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 4(4), 1367 (1971).
[Crossref]

Capizzi, M.

G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A Patané, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of Bi incorporation on the electronic properties of GaAs: Carrier masses, hole mobility, and Bi-induced acceptor states,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(4), 779–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Bi-induced p-type conductivity in nominally undoped Ga(AsBi),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 092109 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of hydrogen on the electronic properties of Ga(AsBi) alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 222103 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Compositional evolution of Bi-induced acceptor states in GaAs1−xBix alloy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 201201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carles, R.

A. Mlayah, R. Carles, G. Landa, E. Bedel, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, “Raman study of longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupling and disorder effects in heavily Be-doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(7), 4064 (1991).
[Crossref]

Cheong, H. M.

M. J. Seong, S. H. Chun, H. M. Cheong, N. Samarth, and A. Mascarenhas, “Spectroscopic determination of hole density in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 033202 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chisholm, M. F.

M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Christianen, P. C. M.

G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A Patané, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of Bi incorporation on the electronic properties of GaAs: Carrier masses, hole mobility, and Bi-induced acceptor states,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(4), 779–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Compositional evolution of Bi-induced acceptor states in GaAs1−xBix alloy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 201201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chtourou, R.

N. B. Sedrine, M. Moussa, H. Fitouri, A. Rebey, B. El Jani, and R. Chtourou, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of GaAs1−xBix material grown on GaAs substrate by atmospheric pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011910 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chun, S. H.

M. J. Seong, S. H. Chun, H. M. Cheong, N. Samarth, and A. Mascarenhas, “Spectroscopic determination of hole density in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 033202 (2002).
[Crossref]

Devine, R. L. S.

K. Wan, J. F. Young, R. L. S. Devine, W. T. Moore, A. J. Spring Thorpe, C. J. Miner, and P. Mandeville, “Free-carrier density determination in p-type GaAs using Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-phonon modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(11), 5598 (1988).
[Crossref]

Dubois, L. H.

L. H. Dubois and B. R. Zegarski, “Electron-energy-loss study of the space-charge region at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 35(17), 9128 (1987).
[Crossref]

Dubon, O. D.

K. Alberi, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, K. Bertulis, and A. Krotkus, “Valence band anticrossing in GaAs1−xBix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051909 (2007).
[Crossref]

El Jani, B.

N. B. Sedrine, M. Moussa, H. Fitouri, A. Rebey, B. El Jani, and R. Chtourou, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of GaAs1−xBix material grown on GaAs substrate by atmospheric pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011910 (2009).
[Crossref]

Engelkamp, H.

G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A Patané, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of Bi incorporation on the electronic properties of GaAs: Carrier masses, hole mobility, and Bi-induced acceptor states,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(4), 779–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Compositional evolution of Bi-induced acceptor states in GaAs1−xBix alloy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 201201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fitouri, H.

N. B. Sedrine, M. Moussa, H. Fitouri, A. Rebey, B. El Jani, and R. Chtourou, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of GaAs1−xBix material grown on GaAs substrate by atmospheric pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011910 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fluegel, B.

B. Fluegel, S. Francoeur, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Giant spin-orbit bowing in GaAs1−xBix,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(6), 067205 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francoeur, S.

S. Francoeur, S. Tixier, E. Young, T. Tiedje, and A. Mascarenhas, “Bi isoelectronic impurities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 085209 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Fluegel, S. Francoeur, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Giant spin-orbit bowing in GaAs1−xBix,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(6), 067205 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Francoeur, M. J. Seong, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, M. Adamcyk, and T. Tiedje, “Band gap of GaAs1−xBix, 0<x<3.6%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3874 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fukasawa, R.

R. Fukasawa and S. Perkowitz, “Raman-scattering spectra of coupled LO-phonon-hole-plasmon modes in p-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 50(19), 14119 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. Fukasawa, S. Katayama, A. Hasegawa, and K. Ohta, “Analysis of Raman spectra from heavily doped p-GaAs,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 57(10), 3632–3640 (1988).
[Crossref]

Harima, H.

P. Verma, K. Oe, M. Yamada, H. Harima, M. Herms, and G. Irmer, “Raman studies on GaAs1−xBix and InAs1−xBix,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1657 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hasegawa, A.

R. Fukasawa, S. Katayama, A. Hasegawa, and K. Ohta, “Analysis of Raman spectra from heavily doped p-GaAs,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 57(10), 3632–3640 (1988).
[Crossref]

Henini, M.

J. A. Steele, R. A. Lewis, M. Henini, O. M. Lemine, and A. Alkaoud, “Raman scattering studies of strain effects in (100) and (311)B GaAs1−xBix epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193516 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Herms, M.

P. Verma, K. Oe, M. Yamada, H. Harima, M. Herms, and G. Irmer, “Raman studies on GaAs1−xBix and InAs1−xBix,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1657 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ibáñez, J.

M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Irmer, G.

P. Verma, K. Oe, M. Yamada, H. Harima, M. Herms, and G. Irmer, “Raman studies on GaAs1−xBix and InAs1−xBix,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1657 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Irmer, M. Wenzel, and J. Monecke, “Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra of p-type GaAs:Zn,” Phys. Rev. B 56(15), 9524 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ishii, M.

T. Yuasa, S. Naritsuka, M. Mannoh, K. Shinozaki, K. Yamanaka, Y. Nomura, M. Mihara, and M. Ishii, “Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-LO-phonon modes in n-type AlxGa1−xAs,” Phys. Rev. B. 33(2), 1222 (1986).
[Crossref]

Jaraciunas, K.

S. Nargelas, K. Jaračiūnas, K. Bertulis, and V. Pačebutas, “Hole diffusivity in GaAsBi alloys measured by a picosecond transient grating technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 082115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jin, S. R.

S. J. Sweeney and S. R. Jin, “Bismide-nitride alloys: Promising for efficient light emitting devices in the near-and mid-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(4), 043110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, T. W.

I. T. Yoon and T. W. Kang, “Analysis of Raman scattering of Ga1−xMnxAs dilute magnetic semiconductor,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321(14), 2257–2259 (2009).
[Crossref]

Katayama, S.

R. Fukasawa, S. Katayama, A. Hasegawa, and K. Ohta, “Analysis of Raman spectra from heavily doped p-GaAs,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 57(10), 3632–3640 (1988).
[Crossref]

K. Murase, S. Katayama, Y. Ando, and H. Kawamura, “Observation of a coupled phonon-damped-plasmon mode in n-GaAs by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1481 (1974).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, H.

K. Murase, S. Katayama, Y. Ando, and H. Kawamura, “Observation of a coupled phonon-damped-plasmon mode in n-GaAs by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1481 (1974).
[Crossref]

Kita, T.

J. Yoshida, T. Kita, O. Wada, and K. Oe, “Temperature dependence of GaAs1−xBix band gap studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 371–374 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kreitman, M.

M. Kreitman and D. L. Barnett, “Probability tables for clusters of foreign atoms in simple lattices assuming next-nearest-neighbor interactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 43(2), 364 (1965).
[Crossref]

Krotkus, A.

K. Alberi, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, K. Bertulis, and A. Krotkus, “Valence band anticrossing in GaAs1−xBix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051909 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Bertulis, A. Krotkus, G. Aleksejenko, V. Pačebutas, R. Adomavičius, G. Molis, and S. Marcinkevičius, “GaBiAs: A material for optoelectronic terahertz devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Landa, G.

A. Mlayah, R. Carles, G. Landa, E. Bedel, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, “Raman study of longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupling and disorder effects in heavily Be-doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(7), 4064 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lemine, O. M.

J. A. Steele, R. A. Lewis, M. Henini, O. M. Lemine, and A. Alkaoud, “Raman scattering studies of strain effects in (100) and (311)B GaAs1−xBix epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193516 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lewis, R. A.

J. A. Steele, R. A. Lewis, M. Henini, O. M. Lemine, and A. Alkaoud, “Raman scattering studies of strain effects in (100) and (311)B GaAs1−xBix epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193516 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lewis, R. B.

X. Lu, D. A. Beaton, R. B. Lewis, T. Tiedje, and Yong Zhang, “Composition dependence of photoluminescence of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

G. Pettinari, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Compositional evolution of Bi-induced acceptor states in GaAs1−xBix alloy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 201201 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, D. A. Beaton, R. B. Lewis, T. Tiedje, and Yong Zhang, “Composition dependence of photoluminescence of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, X. M.

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Bi-induced p-type conductivity in nominally undoped Ga(AsBi),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 092109 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of hydrogen on the electronic properties of Ga(AsBi) alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 222103 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lucovsky, G.

G. Lucovsky, R. M. Martin, and E. Burstein, “Localized effective charges in diatomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 4(4), 1367 (1971).
[Crossref]

Maan, J. C.

G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A Patané, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of Bi incorporation on the electronic properties of GaAs: Carrier masses, hole mobility, and Bi-induced acceptor states,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(4), 779–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Compositional evolution of Bi-induced acceptor states in GaAs1−xBix alloy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 201201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mandeville, P.

K. Wan, J. F. Young, R. L. S. Devine, W. T. Moore, A. J. Spring Thorpe, C. J. Miner, and P. Mandeville, “Free-carrier density determination in p-type GaAs using Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-phonon modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(11), 5598 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mannoh, M.

T. Yuasa, S. Naritsuka, M. Mannoh, K. Shinozaki, K. Yamanaka, Y. Nomura, M. Mihara, and M. Ishii, “Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-LO-phonon modes in n-type AlxGa1−xAs,” Phys. Rev. B. 33(2), 1222 (1986).
[Crossref]

Marcinkevicius, S.

K. Bertulis, A. Krotkus, G. Aleksejenko, V. Pačebutas, R. Adomavičius, G. Molis, and S. Marcinkevičius, “GaBiAs: A material for optoelectronic terahertz devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Martin, R. M.

G. Lucovsky, R. M. Martin, and E. Burstein, “Localized effective charges in diatomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 4(4), 1367 (1971).
[Crossref]

Mascarenhas, A.

S. Francoeur, S. Tixier, E. Young, T. Tiedje, and A. Mascarenhas, “Bi isoelectronic impurities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 085209 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Fluegel, S. Francoeur, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Giant spin-orbit bowing in GaAs1−xBix,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(6), 067205 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Francoeur, M. J. Seong, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, M. Adamcyk, and T. Tiedje, “Band gap of GaAs1−xBix, 0<x<3.6%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3874 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. J. Seong, S. H. Chun, H. M. Cheong, N. Samarth, and A. Mascarenhas, “Spectroscopic determination of hole density in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 033202 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mbarki, M.

M. Mbarki and A. Rebey, “First-principles calculation of the physical properties of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(10), 105020 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mihara, M.

T. Yuasa, S. Naritsuka, M. Mannoh, K. Shinozaki, K. Yamanaka, Y. Nomura, M. Mihara, and M. Ishii, “Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-LO-phonon modes in n-type AlxGa1−xAs,” Phys. Rev. B. 33(2), 1222 (1986).
[Crossref]

Miner, C. J.

K. Wan, J. F. Young, R. L. S. Devine, W. T. Moore, A. J. Spring Thorpe, C. J. Miner, and P. Mandeville, “Free-carrier density determination in p-type GaAs using Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-phonon modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(11), 5598 (1988).
[Crossref]

Misiewicz, J.

M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mlayah, A.

A. Mlayah, R. Carles, G. Landa, E. Bedel, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, “Raman study of longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupling and disorder effects in heavily Be-doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(7), 4064 (1991).
[Crossref]

Molina, S. I.

M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Molis, G.

K. Bertulis, A. Krotkus, G. Aleksejenko, V. Pačebutas, R. Adomavičius, G. Molis, and S. Marcinkevičius, “GaBiAs: A material for optoelectronic terahertz devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Monecke, J.

G. Irmer, M. Wenzel, and J. Monecke, “Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra of p-type GaAs:Zn,” Phys. Rev. B 56(15), 9524 (1997).
[Crossref]

Moore, W. T.

K. Wan, J. F. Young, R. L. S. Devine, W. T. Moore, A. J. Spring Thorpe, C. J. Miner, and P. Mandeville, “Free-carrier density determination in p-type GaAs using Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-phonon modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(11), 5598 (1988).
[Crossref]

Moussa, M.

N. B. Sedrine, M. Moussa, H. Fitouri, A. Rebey, B. El Jani, and R. Chtourou, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of GaAs1−xBix material grown on GaAs substrate by atmospheric pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011910 (2009).
[Crossref]

Muñoz-Yagüe, A.

A. Mlayah, R. Carles, G. Landa, E. Bedel, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, “Raman study of longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupling and disorder effects in heavily Be-doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(7), 4064 (1991).
[Crossref]

Murase, K.

K. Murase, S. Katayama, Y. Ando, and H. Kawamura, “Observation of a coupled phonon-damped-plasmon mode in n-GaAs by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1481 (1974).
[Crossref]

Nahory, R. E.

A. Pinczuk, A. A. Ballman, R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, and J. M. Worlock, “Raman scattering studies of surface space charge layers and Schottky barrier formation in InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(5), 1168 (1979).
[Crossref]

Nargelas, S.

S. Nargelas, K. Jaračiūnas, K. Bertulis, and V. Pačebutas, “Hole diffusivity in GaAsBi alloys measured by a picosecond transient grating technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 082115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Naritsuka, S.

T. Yuasa, S. Naritsuka, M. Mannoh, K. Shinozaki, K. Yamanaka, Y. Nomura, M. Mihara, and M. Ishii, “Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-LO-phonon modes in n-type AlxGa1−xAs,” Phys. Rev. B. 33(2), 1222 (1986).
[Crossref]

Nomura, Y.

T. Yuasa, S. Naritsuka, M. Mannoh, K. Shinozaki, K. Yamanaka, Y. Nomura, M. Mihara, and M. Ishii, “Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-LO-phonon modes in n-type AlxGa1−xAs,” Phys. Rev. B. 33(2), 1222 (1986).
[Crossref]

Novikov, S. V.

M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oe, K.

J. Yoshida, T. Kita, O. Wada, and K. Oe, “Temperature dependence of GaAs1−xBix band gap studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 371–374 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Oe, “Characteristics of semiconductor alloy GaAs1−xBix,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2801–2806 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Verma, K. Oe, M. Yamada, H. Harima, M. Herms, and G. Irmer, “Raman studies on GaAs1−xBix and InAs1−xBix,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1657 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ohta, K.

R. Fukasawa, S. Katayama, A. Hasegawa, and K. Ohta, “Analysis of Raman spectra from heavily doped p-GaAs,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 57(10), 3632–3640 (1988).
[Crossref]

Pacebutas, V.

S. Nargelas, K. Jaračiūnas, K. Bertulis, and V. Pačebutas, “Hole diffusivity in GaAsBi alloys measured by a picosecond transient grating technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 082115 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Bertulis, A. Krotkus, G. Aleksejenko, V. Pačebutas, R. Adomavičius, G. Molis, and S. Marcinkevičius, “GaBiAs: A material for optoelectronic terahertz devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Patané, A

G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A Patané, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of Bi incorporation on the electronic properties of GaAs: Carrier masses, hole mobility, and Bi-induced acceptor states,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(4), 779–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Patané, A.

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of hydrogen on the electronic properties of Ga(AsBi) alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 222103 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Bi-induced p-type conductivity in nominally undoped Ga(AsBi),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 092109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Perkowitz, S.

R. Fukasawa and S. Perkowitz, “Raman-scattering spectra of coupled LO-phonon-hole-plasmon modes in p-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 50(19), 14119 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pettinari, G.

G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A Patané, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of Bi incorporation on the electronic properties of GaAs: Carrier masses, hole mobility, and Bi-induced acceptor states,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(4), 779–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Bi-induced p-type conductivity in nominally undoped Ga(AsBi),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 092109 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of hydrogen on the electronic properties of Ga(AsBi) alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 222103 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Compositional evolution of Bi-induced acceptor states in GaAs1−xBix alloy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 201201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pinczuk, A.

A. Pinczuk, A. A. Ballman, R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, and J. M. Worlock, “Raman scattering studies of surface space charge layers and Schottky barrier formation in InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(5), 1168 (1979).
[Crossref]

Polimeni, A.

G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A Patané, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of Bi incorporation on the electronic properties of GaAs: Carrier masses, hole mobility, and Bi-induced acceptor states,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(4), 779–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Bi-induced p-type conductivity in nominally undoped Ga(AsBi),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 092109 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of hydrogen on the electronic properties of Ga(AsBi) alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 222103 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Compositional evolution of Bi-induced acceptor states in GaAs1−xBix alloy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 201201 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pollack, M. A.

A. Pinczuk, A. A. Ballman, R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, and J. M. Worlock, “Raman scattering studies of surface space charge layers and Schottky barrier formation in InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(5), 1168 (1979).
[Crossref]

Rebey, A.

M. Mbarki and A. Rebey, “First-principles calculation of the physical properties of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(10), 105020 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. B. Sedrine, M. Moussa, H. Fitouri, A. Rebey, B. El Jani, and R. Chtourou, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of GaAs1−xBix material grown on GaAs substrate by atmospheric pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011910 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sales, D. L.

M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Samarth, N.

M. J. Seong, S. H. Chun, H. M. Cheong, N. Samarth, and A. Mascarenhas, “Spectroscopic determination of hole density in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 033202 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schmidbauer, M.

M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sedrine, N. B.

N. B. Sedrine, M. Moussa, H. Fitouri, A. Rebey, B. El Jani, and R. Chtourou, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of GaAs1−xBix material grown on GaAs substrate by atmospheric pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011910 (2009).
[Crossref]

Seong, M. J.

S. Francoeur, M. J. Seong, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, M. Adamcyk, and T. Tiedje, “Band gap of GaAs1−xBix, 0<x<3.6%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3874 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. J. Seong, S. H. Chun, H. M. Cheong, N. Samarth, and A. Mascarenhas, “Spectroscopic determination of hole density in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 033202 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shafi, M.

M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shinozaki, K.

T. Yuasa, S. Naritsuka, M. Mannoh, K. Shinozaki, K. Yamanaka, Y. Nomura, M. Mihara, and M. Ishii, “Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-LO-phonon modes in n-type AlxGa1−xAs,” Phys. Rev. B. 33(2), 1222 (1986).
[Crossref]

Spring Thorpe, A. J.

K. Wan, J. F. Young, R. L. S. Devine, W. T. Moore, A. J. Spring Thorpe, C. J. Miner, and P. Mandeville, “Free-carrier density determination in p-type GaAs using Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-phonon modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(11), 5598 (1988).
[Crossref]

Steele, J. A.

J. A. Steele, R. A. Lewis, M. Henini, O. M. Lemine, and A. Alkaoud, “Raman scattering studies of strain effects in (100) and (311)B GaAs1−xBix epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193516 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sweeney, S. J.

S. J. Sweeney and S. R. Jin, “Bismide-nitride alloys: Promising for efficient light emitting devices in the near-and mid-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(4), 043110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tiedje, T.

G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A Patané, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of Bi incorporation on the electronic properties of GaAs: Carrier masses, hole mobility, and Bi-induced acceptor states,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(4), 779–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of hydrogen on the electronic properties of Ga(AsBi) alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 222103 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Bi-induced p-type conductivity in nominally undoped Ga(AsBi),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 092109 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Compositional evolution of Bi-induced acceptor states in GaAs1−xBix alloy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 201201 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, D. A. Beaton, R. B. Lewis, T. Tiedje, and Yong Zhang, “Composition dependence of photoluminescence of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041903 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Francoeur, S. Tixier, E. Young, T. Tiedje, and A. Mascarenhas, “Bi isoelectronic impurities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 085209 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Fluegel, S. Francoeur, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Giant spin-orbit bowing in GaAs1−xBix,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(6), 067205 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Francoeur, M. J. Seong, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, M. Adamcyk, and T. Tiedje, “Band gap of GaAs1−xBix, 0<x<3.6%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3874 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tixier, S.

S. Francoeur, S. Tixier, E. Young, T. Tiedje, and A. Mascarenhas, “Bi isoelectronic impurities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 085209 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Fluegel, S. Francoeur, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Giant spin-orbit bowing in GaAs1−xBix,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(6), 067205 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Francoeur, M. J. Seong, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, M. Adamcyk, and T. Tiedje, “Band gap of GaAs1−xBix, 0<x<3.6%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3874 (2003).
[Crossref]

Turyanska, L.

M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Verma, P.

P. Verma, K. Oe, M. Yamada, H. Harima, M. Herms, and G. Irmer, “Raman studies on GaAs1−xBix and InAs1−xBix,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1657 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wada, O.

J. Yoshida, T. Kita, O. Wada, and K. Oe, “Temperature dependence of GaAs1−xBix band gap studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 371–374 (2003).
[Crossref]

Walukiewicz, W.

K. Alberi, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, K. Bertulis, and A. Krotkus, “Valence band anticrossing in GaAs1−xBix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wan, K.

K. Wan and J. F. Young, “Interaction of longitudinal-optic phonons with free holes as evidenced in Raman spectra from Be-doped p-type GaAs,” Phys Rev. B. 41(15), 10772 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. Wan, J. F. Young, R. L. S. Devine, W. T. Moore, A. J. Spring Thorpe, C. J. Miner, and P. Mandeville, “Free-carrier density determination in p-type GaAs using Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-phonon modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(11), 5598 (1988).
[Crossref]

Wenzel, M.

G. Irmer, M. Wenzel, and J. Monecke, “Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra of p-type GaAs:Zn,” Phys. Rev. B 56(15), 9524 (1997).
[Crossref]

Worlock, J. M.

A. Pinczuk, A. A. Ballman, R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, and J. M. Worlock, “Raman scattering studies of surface space charge layers and Schottky barrier formation in InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(5), 1168 (1979).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

P. Verma, K. Oe, M. Yamada, H. Harima, M. Herms, and G. Irmer, “Raman studies on GaAs1−xBix and InAs1−xBix,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1657 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yamanaka, K.

T. Yuasa, S. Naritsuka, M. Mannoh, K. Shinozaki, K. Yamanaka, Y. Nomura, M. Mihara, and M. Ishii, “Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-LO-phonon modes in n-type AlxGa1−xAs,” Phys. Rev. B. 33(2), 1222 (1986).
[Crossref]

Yoon, I. T.

I. T. Yoon and T. W. Kang, “Analysis of Raman scattering of Ga1−xMnxAs dilute magnetic semiconductor,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321(14), 2257–2259 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, J.

J. Yoshida, T. Kita, O. Wada, and K. Oe, “Temperature dependence of GaAs1−xBix band gap studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 371–374 (2003).
[Crossref]

Young, E.

S. Francoeur, S. Tixier, E. Young, T. Tiedje, and A. Mascarenhas, “Bi isoelectronic impurities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 085209 (2008).
[Crossref]

Young, E. C.

B. Fluegel, S. Francoeur, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Giant spin-orbit bowing in GaAs1−xBix,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(6), 067205 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, J. F.

K. Wan and J. F. Young, “Interaction of longitudinal-optic phonons with free holes as evidenced in Raman spectra from Be-doped p-type GaAs,” Phys Rev. B. 41(15), 10772 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. Wan, J. F. Young, R. L. S. Devine, W. T. Moore, A. J. Spring Thorpe, C. J. Miner, and P. Mandeville, “Free-carrier density determination in p-type GaAs using Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-phonon modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(11), 5598 (1988).
[Crossref]

Yu, K. M.

K. Alberi, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, K. Bertulis, and A. Krotkus, “Valence band anticrossing in GaAs1−xBix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051909 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yuasa, T.

T. Yuasa, S. Naritsuka, M. Mannoh, K. Shinozaki, K. Yamanaka, Y. Nomura, M. Mihara, and M. Ishii, “Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-LO-phonon modes in n-type AlxGa1−xAs,” Phys. Rev. B. 33(2), 1222 (1986).
[Crossref]

Zegarski, B. R.

L. H. Dubois and B. R. Zegarski, “Electron-energy-loss study of the space-charge region at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 35(17), 9128 (1987).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Yong

X. Lu, D. A. Beaton, R. B. Lewis, T. Tiedje, and Yong Zhang, “Composition dependence of photoluminescence of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

K. Alberi, O. D. Dubon, W. Walukiewicz, K. M. Yu, K. Bertulis, and A. Krotkus, “Valence band anticrossing in GaAs1−xBix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051909 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Francoeur, M. J. Seong, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, M. Adamcyk, and T. Tiedje, “Band gap of GaAs1−xBix, 0<x<3.6%,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3874 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Bertulis, A. Krotkus, G. Aleksejenko, V. Pačebutas, R. Adomavičius, G. Molis, and S. Marcinkevičius, “GaBiAs: A material for optoelectronic terahertz devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201112 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Nargelas, K. Jaračiūnas, K. Bertulis, and V. Pačebutas, “Hole diffusivity in GaAsBi alloys measured by a picosecond transient grating technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 082115 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Bi-induced p-type conductivity in nominally undoped Ga(AsBi),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 092109 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, A. Patané, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. M. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of hydrogen on the electronic properties of Ga(AsBi) alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 222103 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, D. A. Beaton, R. B. Lewis, T. Tiedje, and Yong Zhang, “Composition dependence of photoluminescence of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(4), 041903 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Henini, J. Ibáñez, M. Schmidbauer, M. Shafi, S. V. Novikov, L. Turyanska, S. I. Molina, D. L. Sales, M. F. Chisholm, and J. Misiewicz, “Molecular beam epitaxy of GaBiAs on (311)B GaAs substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251909 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. B. Sedrine, M. Moussa, H. Fitouri, A. Rebey, B. El Jani, and R. Chtourou, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of GaAs1−xBix material grown on GaAs substrate by atmospheric pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(1), 011910 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

J. A. Steele, R. A. Lewis, M. Henini, O. M. Lemine, and A. Alkaoud, “Raman scattering studies of strain effects in (100) and (311)B GaAs1−xBix epitaxial layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(19), 193516 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Wan, J. F. Young, R. L. S. Devine, W. T. Moore, A. J. Spring Thorpe, C. J. Miner, and P. Mandeville, “Free-carrier density determination in p-type GaAs using Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-phonon modes,” J. Appl. Phys. 63(11), 5598 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. Mlayah, R. Carles, G. Landa, E. Bedel, and A. Muñoz-Yagüe, “Raman study of longitudinal optical phonon-plasmon coupling and disorder effects in heavily Be-doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(7), 4064 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. Verma, K. Oe, M. Yamada, H. Harima, M. Herms, and G. Irmer, “Raman studies on GaAs1−xBix and InAs1−xBix,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(3), 1657 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. J. Sweeney and S. R. Jin, “Bismide-nitride alloys: Promising for efficient light emitting devices in the near-and mid-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(4), 043110 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Kreitman and D. L. Barnett, “Probability tables for clusters of foreign atoms in simple lattices assuming next-nearest-neighbor interactions,” J. Chem. Phys. 43(2), 364 (1965).
[Crossref]

J. Magn. Magn. Mater. (1)

I. T. Yoon and T. W. Kang, “Analysis of Raman scattering of Ga1−xMnxAs dilute magnetic semiconductor,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321(14), 2257–2259 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

R. Fukasawa, S. Katayama, A. Hasegawa, and K. Ohta, “Analysis of Raman spectra from heavily doped p-GaAs,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 57(10), 3632–3640 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Pinczuk, A. A. Ballman, R. E. Nahory, M. A. Pollack, and J. M. Worlock, “Raman scattering studies of surface space charge layers and Schottky barrier formation in InP,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16(5), 1168 (1979).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Oe, “Characteristics of semiconductor alloy GaAs1−xBix,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2801–2806 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Yoshida, T. Kita, O. Wada, and K. Oe, “Temperature dependence of GaAs1−xBix band gap studied by photoreflectance spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 371–374 (2003).
[Crossref]

Phys Rev. B. (1)

K. Wan and J. F. Young, “Interaction of longitudinal-optic phonons with free holes as evidenced in Raman spectra from Be-doped p-type GaAs,” Phys Rev. B. 41(15), 10772 (1990).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (7)

L. H. Dubois and B. R. Zegarski, “Electron-energy-loss study of the space-charge region at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 35(17), 9128 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. J. Seong, S. H. Chun, H. M. Cheong, N. Samarth, and A. Mascarenhas, “Spectroscopic determination of hole density in the ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga1−xMnxAs,” Phys. Rev. B 66(3), 033202 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Francoeur, S. Tixier, E. Young, T. Tiedje, and A. Mascarenhas, “Bi isoelectronic impurities in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 77(8), 085209 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Pettinari, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, X. Lu, and T. Tiedje, “Compositional evolution of Bi-induced acceptor states in GaAs1−xBix alloy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(20), 201201 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Fukasawa and S. Perkowitz, “Raman-scattering spectra of coupled LO-phonon-hole-plasmon modes in p-type GaAs,” Phys. Rev. B 50(19), 14119 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. Irmer, M. Wenzel, and J. Monecke, “Light scattering by a multicomponent plasma coupled with longitudinal-optical phonons: Raman spectra of p-type GaAs:Zn,” Phys. Rev. B 56(15), 9524 (1997).
[Crossref]

G. Lucovsky, R. M. Martin, and E. Burstein, “Localized effective charges in diatomic crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 4(4), 1367 (1971).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

T. Yuasa, S. Naritsuka, M. Mannoh, K. Shinozaki, K. Yamanaka, Y. Nomura, M. Mihara, and M. Ishii, “Raman scattering from coupled plasmon-LO-phonon modes in n-type AlxGa1−xAs,” Phys. Rev. B. 33(2), 1222 (1986).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. Murase, S. Katayama, Y. Ando, and H. Kawamura, “Observation of a coupled phonon-damped-plasmon mode in n-GaAs by Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1481 (1974).
[Crossref]

B. Fluegel, S. Francoeur, A. Mascarenhas, S. Tixier, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Giant spin-orbit bowing in GaAs1−xBix,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(6), 067205 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

G. Pettinari, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, H. Engelkamp, P. C. M. Christianen, J. C. Maan, A Patané, and T. Tiedje, “Effects of Bi incorporation on the electronic properties of GaAs: Carrier masses, hole mobility, and Bi-induced acceptor states,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250(4), 779–786 (2013).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Mbarki and A. Rebey, “First-principles calculation of the physical properties of GaAs1−xBix alloys,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(10), 105020 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Predicted [17] frequencies of the coupled modes (L+ and L) and the plasma mode (ωp) as a function of hole concentration. The dashed line shows the general behavior of the single damped LOPC mode observed in p-GaAs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 RS of (100) GaAs1−xBix for x = 0.043. (a) The two-mode behavior of the ternary alloy in a depolarized quasi-backscattering geometry over Raman shifts of 120–350 cm−1. (b) Expanded over GaAs-like optical frequency range for different polarization configurations (offset vertically for clarity).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized RS of GaAs1−xBix for x = 0, 0.018, 0.0274, 0.0301, 0.043, and 0.0478 at room temperature for 633 nm excitation in −z(Y, Y)z scattering geometry. The filled areas give the contribution of distinct modes to the overall fit (solid line) of our data (open circles). For clarity, traces have been normalized and offset vertically. The vacant area corresponds to disorder activated modes.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measurement of frequency shifts of the TO, LO and LOPC bands as a function of Bi fraction. Dashed lines represent the frequencies of the two center optical modes for GaAs (x = 0) and the inset shows the FWHM of each of the modes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimentally determined values of ζA for all GaAsBi samples. (b) The theoretically expected [14] values of ζA (solid lines) for p-GaAs as a function of hole concentration. The horizontal and vertical ranges shown are from Pettinari et al. [12] and our optical measurements, respectively. The inset shows ζS for samples set A and B, used to calculate the two theoretical traces.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ω ( TO , LO ) ( cm 1 ) = ω ( TO , LO ) 0 + Δ ω ( TO , LO ) × x ,
Γ p = τ 1 = e μ m * ,
d = ( 2 ε 0 ε S V B e p ) 1 / 2 ,
A LO = A 0 [ 1 exp ( 2 α d ) ] .
A 0 = ζ S A LOPC + A LO ,
d = 1 2 α ln ( 1 + ζ A ζ S ) .
p = 8 ε 0 ε S α 2 V B e [ ln ( 1 + ζ A ζ S ) ] 2 .

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