Abstract

Virtually imaged phased arrays (VIPAs) offer a high potential for wafer-level integration and superior optical properties compared to conventional gratings. We introduce an elastomer-based tunable VIPA enabling fine tuning of the dispersion characteristics. It consists of a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer sandwiched between silver bottom and top coatings, which form the VIPA’s high reflective and semi-transparent mirror, respectively. The latter also acts as an electrode for Joule heating, such that the optical PDMS resonator cavity tuning is carried out via a combination of thermal expansion and the thermo-optic effect. Analogous to the free spectral range (FSR), based on a VIPA specific dispersion law, we introduce a new characteristic VIPA performance measure, namely the free angular range (FAR). We report a tuning span of one FAR achieved by a 7.2K temperature increase of a 170μm PDMS VIPA. Both resonance quality and tunability are analyzed in numerical simulations and experiments.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

By structuring the entrance face of a Fabry-Perot etalon its efficiency can be significantly improved [1]. Based on this modified layout Shirasaki introduced an optical spectral disperser referred to as virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) [2]. Compared to conventional diffraction gratings, VIPAs provide a larger angular dispersion. Their compactness and simple low-cost structure furthermore render them attractive as buildings blocks for several photonic applications including telecommunications, sensing, and imaging. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) has been demonstrated using a VIPA [2, 3]. VIPA based systems for chromatic dispersion compensation were reported [4, 5] and extended to tunable systems incorporating mechanical adjustment [6, 7] or spatial light modulators (SLM) [8]. Moreover, the VIPA acts as spectral disperser for millimeter-wave generation [9] or for pulse-shaping applications [10, 11], which allows for polarization mode dispersion compensation [12]. The combination of a VIPA with a diffraction grating, which creates a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral dispersion, leads to another promising field of applications. This includes improved WDM [13] and spectral molecular fingerprinting [14] as well as pulse shaping [15, 16]. VIPAs were furthermore utilized for spectrally encoded ultrafast imaging [17] and high-speed tomography [18] as well as simultaneous imaging and microsurgery [19] and infrared spectroscopy [20].

While VIPA based tunable optical systems have already been proposed [68, 15], the VIPA itself has not been reported as a tunable device yet. The proposed tunability offers an additional degree of freedom to many applications and may enable misalignment compensation, channel reconfiguration in WDM systems, and operating point adjustment in two-dimensional spectral dispersers. In this paper we introduce a tunable VIPA based on an elastomer cavity [21, 22]. This offers an active control of dispersion angles corresponding to distinct wavelengths. The device fabrication is subject to a simple elastomer molding process and is compatible to wafer-level integration.

The remainder of this paper is structured as follows. A brief analytical VIPA characterization is given and a new characteristic, namely the free angular range (FAR), is defined (Sec. 2). The tuning concept and fabrication is explained in section 3. Furthermore, the VIPA performance is investigated in both numerical and experimental analyses (Sec. 4). We investigate the tunability, the resonance quality, the dynamic behavior, and polarization effects.

2. Analytical characterization: dispersion law, free spectral range, free angular range

The VIPA is formed by a modified Fabry-Perot etalon [2], that is, by a tilted cavity embedded between a partially reflective rear mirror (≥ 95%) and a 100% front mirror. Incident light is typically focussed by a cylindrical lens and coupled into the device through the entrance window. Front reflection is suppressed by an anti-reflection coating leading to almost 100% transmitted energy. Multiple reflections inside the cavity produce an array of virtual sources interfering to a distinct dispersion pattern (Fig. 1). Hence, the VIPA acts as a spectral disperser, in which different wavelengths are dispersed to different output angles.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 VIPA principle. A focussed light beam is coupled into the cavity at the edge of the ideal front mirror, multiply reflected, and coupled out through the semi-transparent rear mirror. Coherent superposition leads to distinct wavelength specific output angles.

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After the VIPA was introduced, it was analyzed in simulations and experiments. The first analytic model was derived in form of Vega’s dispersion law [23]. The most recent model describing the VIPA dispersion was derived by Xiao [24] and reads

λm=2tncos(Θin)2ttan(Θin)cos(ΘVIPA)Θλtcos(Θin)Θλ2n.
The VIPA tilt angle is represented by ΘVIPA, the cavity thickness is given by t, n denotes the cavity material refractive index, m the dispersion order and λ the vacuum wavelength. Θin describes the chief ray propagation angle inside the cavity defined by sin(ΘVIPA) = n sin(Θin). This dispersion law is based on the Fresnel diffraction theory, takes paraxial waves and Gaussian beams into account, and provides an improved accuracy at small VIPA tilts compared to Vega’s plane-wave based derivation. Furthermore, recently a correction of Vega’s derivation has been published, which leads to Xiao’s dispersion law [25]. The corresponding free spectral range (FSR) is calculated by
ΔfFSR=c2tncos(Θin)2ttan(Θin)cos(ΘVIPA)Θλtcos(Θin)Θλ2n,
with the speed of light c.

At a fixed wavelength, the VIPA’s angular dispersion produces an angular distributed pattern of adjacent dispersion orders. In particular, two adjacent dispersion orders enclose a specific angular range. This angular range forms a characteristic of higher practical relevance compared to the FSR, since within this range a dispersion order’s output angle unambiguously corresponds to the predefined wavelength. In other words, the FSR (or free wavelength range) produces a uniquely defined angular spread for a fixed dispersion order, which we introduce as the VIPA’s free angular range (FAR). Employing Eq. (1), a straight forward computation yields the dispersion angle difference of two adjacent orders m and m + 1:

Θλ,mΘλ,m+1=C12+2n2+C2mC12+2n2+C2(m+1),
using the constants
C1=ntan(Θin)cos(ΘVIPA)cos(Θin)
and
C2=λntcos(Θin).

This expression depends on the dispersion order m, where usually only dispersion orders near the optical axis are of particular interest. The dispersion order m0 corresponding to a light ray parallel to the optical axis reads

m0=2tncos(Θin)λ.
Note that m0 not necessarily is an integer value. However, allowing the diffraction order in Eq. (6) to be a non-integer value, we define the FAR at 0° by the dispersion angle difference of half a diffraction order below and above m0. With respect to Eqs. (3)(5) we derive
ΔΘλFAR:=Θλ,m00.5Θλ,m0+0.5=C1212C2C12+12C2.

Using Eq. (1) an analytic modeling of the dispersion angle change upon tuning is achieved considering both thermal cavity expansion and thermal index change. With respect to the FAR (Eq. (7)) this allows for an evaluation of practically relevant tuning performance. To this end we introduce the relative dispersion angle change by dividing the absolute change ΔΘλ by the FAR, which reads

ΔΘλrel=ΔΘλΔΘλFAR.
Depending on the application either the absolute change of angle ΔΘλ or the relative change of angle ΔΘλrel is the relevant measure of performance. In the following both figures of merit will be evaluated for an experimental device.

3. PDMS based tunable VIPA implementation

In the dispersion law (Eq. (1)) the VIPA thickness t, the refractive index n and the wavelength λ contribute with respect to the same power. This indicates that the dispersion angle is highly sensitive not only to wavelength variations, but also to thickness change and refractive index variations. Hence, thickness or refractive index tuning allows for dispersion angle adjustment at a fixed wavelength. To this end, we use a thermally tunable PDMS slab as the VIPA internal layer, providing a high thermal expansion coefficient (3.1 · 10−4 1K) and a comparably low thermo-optic effect (1·10−4 1K) [26]. To form the optical cavity, this PDMS layer is sandwiched between a thick, highly reflective front silver layer on a glass substrate and a thinner, semi-transparent rear silver layer. Using current conduction through the rear silver layer the PDMS cavity is heated, which changes its optical properties and tunes the VIPA’s dispersion behavior (Fig. 2).

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) Tunable VIPA design. A PDMS layer is sandwiched between a highly reflective silver layer and a semi-transparent silver layer on a glass substrate and forms the VIPA cavity. Light is coupled into the cavity through the glass substrate. Current conduction through the semi-transparent silver layer heats the PDMS causing thermal expansion and a thermo-optic effect. (b) Photograph of a sample in the measurement setup showing six separate VIPAs on one substrate. The VIPA rear silver bar is contacted by filigree gold strands.

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The VIPAs are fabricated on standard 25mm × 25mm glass slide substrates. Using thermal metal evaporation the glass substrate is coated with a 80nm silver layer, forming the front VIPA reflector, which is structured using a shadow mask during evaporation to leave an entrance window. Subsequently, a PDMS film of 170μm or 340μm is produced by molding a PDMS filled cavity between a polymethylmethacrylat (PMMA) slab and the substrate using one (or a stack of two) cover slips as spacers at two opposite substrate edges. In order to achieve a maximum grade of layer parallelism, the cover slips are selected after an interferometric characterization and cut into halves. Bridge bars are used to clamp and fasten the cavity for overnight PDMS curing at 50°C. Removal of the PMMA slab yields the substrate with a PDMS film. A sparse oxygen plasma treatment (50W, 20s) prepares the PDMS surface for the rear silver layer evaporation, which is structured into separated 1.2mm-wide silver bars forming six separate VIPAs on a single substrate (Fig. 2(b)). The silver bars are contacted by gold strands for tuning via Joule heating.

4. Numerical and experimental device characterization

4.1. Numerical methods

Compared to a VIPA model using ideal mirrors the proposed VIPA uses silver mirrors showing different reflectance and phase shift properties, varying with angle of incidence and polarization. Therefore, the VIPA is considered a thin-film structure and can be modeled using the transfer matrix method (TMM), which allows for a device-specific angle-dependent transmittance calculation. In this contribution we perform TMM simulations according to the formulation described in [27, 28]. With respect to the fabricated device dimensions, the transfer matrix layer sequence reads: [glass - 80nm silver - 170μm PDMS - 25nm silver - vacuum]. The simulations and measurement results are compared in the experimental section. However, using this approach, the entrance window is ignored, as the TMM assumes infinite layer dimensions in the plane of layers. Hence, the front reflection is neglected and only a normalized transmittance is calculated. Furthermore, boundary effects are neglected and only plane-parallel layers can be calculated using the TMM. The influence of misalignment is analyzed using raytracing simulations.

Light experiences multiple reflections within the VIPA and is coupled out to a certain amount depending on the second mirror reflectance. This can be modeled by ray tracing simulations (ZEMAX) using a coherent superposition of out-coupled light resulting in the VIPA’s angular dispersion. Here, the VIPA is modeled as a tilted rectangular solid having a perfect reflecting front surface coating and a variable rear surface coating. In this case it is convenient to locate the light source within the VIPA. Coherent superposition of out-coupled light is achieved using a Fourier lens and a detector allowing for a reverse angular dispersion calculation. An additional rear-surface tilt angle is considered resulting in a wedge-shaped cavity and is therefore denoted as the ”wedge angle” in the following. The rear surface reflectance and the wedge angle are varied in the simulations and resulting effects are compared to the experiments.

Regarding the cavity refractive index, finite element simulations (COMSOL) reveal that top electrode thermal heating leads to a gradient index profile in the PDMS layer rather than a homogeneous refractive index change. However, this gradient turns out to be almost linear and does not have a significant influence on the optical behavior compared to a uniform average refractive index, which was verified by raytracing simulations. Hence, a uniform average index is assumed in both the dispersion law (Eq. (1)) and raytracing simulations.

4.2. Experimental characterization setup

The fabricated samples were experimentally characterized in an optical setup (Fig. 3). A widened helium-neon Laser beam is focussed in x-direction and coupled into the cavity through the entrance window. A slit diaphragm additionally limits the focussed beam size in y-direction to avoid coupling into adjacent regions of a structured rear mirror bar. The sample is located on a rotation unit to adjust the VIPA tilt. The angular dispersion profile is first mapped into position space using a Fourier lens and subsequently detected by an image sensor. Fourier lens focussing is achieved by a translation stage. The image sensor consists of a rotating diffuser, an objective lens and a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) camera to allow for speckle-free capturing of resonance images. The rear silver layer is contacted by gold wires (Fig. 2(b)) and the actuation current is controlled by a source measure unit (SMU).

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 A wide He-Ne Laser beam is focussed in x-direction onto the VIPA entrance window using a cylindrical lens. The size in y-direction is limited by a slit diaphragm. Using a Fourier lens the angular dispersion is mapped to a spatially resolved dispersion, that is imaged by an image sensor consisting of a rotating diffuser, an objective lens, and a CMOS sensor, which allows for speckle free image capture.

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4.3. Numerical and experimental results

4.3.1. Tunability and performance analysis

VIPA tuning is performed using an incremental actuation power increase per silver layer area within a predefined period up to 2.4mW/mm2. This was achieved by a current increase following a square root function leading to a linearly increasing actuation power at a constant resistance. Laser light is coupled into the VIPA at P-polarization, as the transmittance is maximized for incidence angles near the Brewster angle. Figure 4(a) shows resulting resonance images of a 170μm VIPA at 20° tilt actuated in 0.5s steps within 25s up to 2.4mW/mm2. At the beginning the two resonance orders near the optical axis comprise 34% and 40% of the overall transmitted energy. Different resonance orders are separated by dashed lines and show a distinct motion upon tuning. Precise resonance angles were determined using parabolic fits to the resonance profile peaks. These correspond to distinct dispersion angles (Fig. 4(b)). After approximately 13s actuation time a tuning through one FAR is achieved. According to the dispersion law (Eq. (1)), considering PDMS thermal expansion and thermo-optic coefficients, the dispersion angle change is related to an average PDMS temperature increase (Fig. 4(c)).

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) Resonance images at discrete points of time during a linearly increasing power actuation up to 2.4mW/mm2. Different resonance orders are separated by dashed lines and show a distinct motion upon actuation. (b) Dispersion angles corresponding to four resonance positions as a function of actuation time show a monotonic change. At about 13s a tuning span of one FAR is achieved. (c) Calculated average PDMS temperature increase shows a non-linear behavior. (d) The finesse as a function of actuation time reveals a decline of resonance quality.

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The temperature ΔT shows a non-linear increase. This is a result of a delay in the thermal energy flux, as well as a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) of the silver layer resistance RT), which increases the applied power P at a given current I according to Ohm’s law and P = RT)I2.

Resonance profiles noticeably degrade with higher actuation currents. Obviously, the silver and PDMS thermal expansion coefficient mismatch produces a surface deformation, leading to reduced resonance quality. This effect is quantified by the finesse

=resonancedistancefullwidthhalfmaximum
as a resonance quality measure (Fig. 4(c)). As the tuning span of one FAR is achieved at relatively low actuation, the finesse decrease is limited to approximately 30%. Possible improvements are a stiffening of the PDMS-silver interface by a seed layer or a separation of actuator and resonator cavity.

4.3.2. Optimization of VIPA tilt angle

Both analytical modeling and experiments reveal that the dispersion-angle change highly depends on the VIPA tilt. For a comparison, Figure 5 exemplarily shows the absolute and relative dispersion-angle change as a function of VIPA tilt and actuation time of a 170μm VIPA. Modeling and measurements are in good agreement. VIPA tilts near 0° and 90° induce the largest absolute tuning effect, whereas the relative dispersion angle change (Eq. (8)) shows a maximum effect for small tilts (Fig. 5(b),(d)). In measurements the VIPA is actuated linearly up to 2.0mW/mm2 within 10s corresponding to a maximum temperature increase of 7.2K. Calculations assume a linearly increasing temperature ΔT up to 7.2K within 10s. Modeling and measurements show a slight shape difference of the dispersion angle change over actuation, which again is a result of a delay in the thermal energy flux, as well as a PTC silver layer resistance.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Calculated and measured absolute (a,c) and relative (b,d) change of dispersion angle (Eq. (8)) upon tuning as a function of VIPA tilt and actuation time. An excellent agreement between simulation and measurement is achieved. Largest tuning effects occur for small VIPA tilts.

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4.3.3. Dynamic behavior

With respect to future applications, an understanding of the tunable VIPA’s dynamic behavior is crucial. To this end, the resonance shifts of two VIPA samples (170μm and 340μm) are exemplarily evaluated. The samples are actuated for the leading 15s of a 30s period, applying a constant current of 20mA. Light is coupled into the VIPA at 20° and P-polarization. Temperatures are fitted to the resonance shifts according to the previous section (Fig. 6).

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Dynamic behavior of a 170μm (a) and a 340μm (b) VIPA. The first 15 seconds both samples were actuated at 20mA. Additionally, fits of a heating and cooling model function are shown.

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Assuming a classical body heating or cooling process, one may expect a temperature increase complying with a 1− et/τ function. Experimentally we observe a high slope within the first second of heating and cooling followed by a slow, monotonic further temperature change. Additionally, the samples do not cool down to the initial temperature within 15s. The VIPA consists of different materials contributing to the overall heat flux inside the structure. The thin PDMS layer is directly heated and transfers thermal energy at a defined flux to the substrate, which has a much larger heat capacity. For that reason the VIPA has to be considered as a coupled system and heating is modeled using the sum of a short-term heating term and a long-term heating term given by

ΔTheating(t)=ΔT1(1et/τ1)+ΔT2(1et/τ2).
The cooling process is modeled analogously, with the additional constraint ΔT (t → ∞) = 0.
ΔTcooling(t)=ΔT0ΔT3(1et/τ3)(ΔT0ΔT3)(1et/τ4)

Here, ΔT{0,...,3} terms represent limit values of the separate heating / cooling processes. Model function fits to the measured data clearly exhibit a combination of a long term and a short term process (Table 1) and are in excellent agreement with the measured data (Fig. 6). We attribute the short term process to PDMS layer heating, as the 340μm shows approximately doubled values for τ1 and τ3. The time constants τ2 and τ4 reveal the long term process, which represents entire device heating, including the substrate. The cooling process fits yield larger time constants as the device is actively heated, but passively cools down by free convection.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Heating and cooling process time constants fitted to the measured data

4.3.4. Static characterization

While the fabricated VIPAs produce a distinct dispersion pattern, the finesse is still low compared to a predicted value (TMM simulations) of 19 at 20° VIPA tilt and P-polarization. Here, several static effects are involved that are shown and discussed in the following. A photograph of the sample from an off-optical-axis point of view shows an employed VIPA region (Fig. 7(a)). Multiple reflections at the rear silver layer and successive reflections at the front silver layer are clearly visible. This indicates partial scattering at the rear surface, induced by a silver cluster formation at the evaporated metal-polymer interface [29] leading to a significant reflectivity decrease. Figure 7(b) gives examples of poor resonance images at two incoupling spots of a 340μm VIPA sample showing several secondary peaks adjacent to the VIPA’s main resonance orders. Ray-tracing simulations reveal that these secondary peaks are due to wedge angles and local thickness alteration in the VIPA cavity. Surface characterization of the substrate and the PMMA slab shows surface irregularities of 1.5μm (≈ 2.4 · λ) causing wedge angles of up to 5 · 10−3°. Compared to measurement spots characterized in previous sections stronger thickness variations are present in Fig. 7(b). Simulated resonance profiles at different wedge angles for 95% and 50% rear mirror reflectivity reveal decreasing resonance profiles at increasing wedge angles (Fig. 7(c)). Higher reflectivity increases the resonance quality but renders the VIPA more sensitive to large wedge angles. At 95% rear mirror reflectivity a wedge angle of 10−2° (corresponding to a thickness variation of 6.9 ·λ) completely decomposes the resonance profile. In this case the higher reflectivity leads to larger beam propagation distances inside the cavity, which extends the interaction length with thickness variations. A simulated resonance image example with cavity wedge angles in both x- and y- direction shows secondary peaks as well, which are in good agreement with the observed effects (Fig. 7(d)).

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 (a) Photograph of a 340μm VIPA at 45° from an off-optical-axis point of view. Multiple reflections are visible, which is an indicator of scattered light from the rear surface. (b) Resulting resonance images of two different in-coupling spots show several secondary peaks. (c) Ray traced resonance profiles VIPA having different wedge angles in the cavity for a rear surface reflectance of 50% and 95%. An increasing wedge angle degrades the resonance profile. Here, a highly reflective rear surface makes the VIPA more sensitive to wedge angles. (d) Ray traced resonance image showing secondary peaks similar to the captured resonance images.

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As a finesse increase can be easily achieved by thicker silver layers, the main limiting factor affecting the VIPA resonance quality is the susceptibility to surface irregularities, which demands careful fabrication and highly planar substrates. An Overall light loss due to metallic reflection can be reduced by using a dielectric mirror instead of the first thick silver layer.

In previous sections P-polarized light was used for measurements. However, the polarization state has a significant influence on the resonance profiles. Figure 8(a) depicts colorized resonances resulting from S- and P-polarized light for three different VIPA tilts. At 70° VIPA tilt a distinct disparity of the different polarization states occurs. This effect is quantified by determination of the relative deviation of S- and P- polarized resonance profiles, which is calculated by dividing the absolute angular deviation by the FAR (Fig. 8(b)). The simulated relative deviation between S- and P- polarized light is obtained by TMM calculations and shows good agreement to the measured data. A maximum FAR deviation of 11% is observed, which is a result of a slightly different phase shift upon reflection at the silver layer for S- and P- polarized light.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Influence of polarization on a 340μm VIPA. (a) Colored overlay of equally scaled resonance images at different VIPA tilts (red S-polarized, green: P-polarized). Color fringes reveal a deviation between both S- and P-polarized resonance profiles. Additionally, resonance images of medial tilt angles yield the smallest FAR. (b) Measured and simulated deviation of P- to S-polarization related to the FAR.

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5. Conclusion

Based on analytical modeling, numerical simulations, and experimental characterization, we successfully have demonstrated proof of concept regarding polymer-based thermally tunable virtually imaged phased arrays. Small VIPA tilt angles yield largest tuning effects. Using a temperature increase of 7.2K a tuning within one FAR was achieved for a 170μm VIPA. In dynamic response the device yields short-term time constants of maximum 0.6s overlain by a long-term process, which is due to substrate heating / cooling. This can be avoided by an active heat sink or by using a self-supporting membrane cavity. As the device is very sensitive to temperature changes in an application a feedback regulation will be necessary. Due to silver reflectors the device is sensitive to the in-coupled light’s polarization state. Especially at large VIPA tilts, polarized light should be employed. The device is subject to well-established fabrication techniques and is promising for simple wafer-level integration. However, irregularities in the VIPA cavity impact the resonance quality. Hence, careful fabrication is necessary. In summary, we consider the tunable VIPA concept to be of particular interest for future applications in telecommunications and sensing.

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support within the SPP 1337 “Aktive Mikrooptik” of the German Research Foundation (DFG).

References and links

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References

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  1. C. F. McMillan, N. L. Parker, and D. R. Goosman, “Efficiency enhancements for Fabry-Perots used in velocimetry”, Appl. Opt. 28(5), 826–827 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Shirasaki, “Large angular dispersion by a virtually imaged phased array and its application to a wavelength demultiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 21(5), 366–368 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. Xiao and A. Weiner, “An eight-channel hyperfine wavelength demultiplexer using a virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 372–374 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Shirasaki, “Chromatic-dispersion compensator using virtually imaged phased array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1598–1600 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Garrett, A. Gnauck, M. Eiselt, R. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, “Demonstration of virtually-imaged phased-array device for tunable dispersion compensation in 16 times;10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 480 km standard fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000 4, 187–189 (2000).
  6. S. Cao, C. Lin, G. Barbarossa, and C. Yang, “Dynamically tunable dispersion slope compensation using a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA),” in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Applications/Ultraviolet and Blue Lasers and Their Applications/Ultralong Haul DWDM Transmission and Networking/WDM Components. Digest of the LEOS Summer Topica15–16 (2001).
  7. H. Ooi, K. Nakamura, Y. Akiyama, T. Takahara, T. Terahara, Y. Kawahata, H. Isono, and G. Ishikawa, “40-Gb/s WDM transmission with virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) variable dispersion compensators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(12) 2196–2203 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. G.-H. Lee, S. Xiao, and A. Weiner, “Optical Dispersion Compensator With 4000-ps/nm Tuning Range Using a Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA) and Spatial Light Modulator (SLM),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1819–1821 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Millimeter-wave arbitrary waveform generation with a direct space-to-time pulse shaper,” Opt. Lett. 27(15) 1345–1347 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Xiao, J. McKinney, and A. Weiner, “Photonic microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA) direct space-to-time pulse shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1936–1938 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. R. Supradeepa, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “New aspects of temporal dispersion in high-resolution Fourier pulse shaping: a quantitative description with virtually imaged phased array pulse shapers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(9) 1833–1844 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Miao, A. Weiner, L. Mirkin, and P. Miller, “All-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion (PMD) Compensation via Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA)-Based Pulse Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 545–547 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Xiao and A. Weiner, “2-D wavelength demultiplexer with potential for ≥ 1000 channels in the C-band,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2895–2902 (2004).
  14. S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. V. Supradeepa, D. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “A 2-D VIPA-grating pulse shaper with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator for broadband, high resolution, programmable amplitude and phase control,” in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society494–495 (2010).
  16. V. Supradeepa, C.-B. Huang, D. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in two dimensions: Towards higher complexity optical waveforms,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11878–11887 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242) 1145–1149 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. T. Shioda, T. Morisaki, T. Q. Banh, and K. Suzuki, “Two-dimensional single-shot tomography using a virtually imaged phased array and a spatial phase modulator,” Appl. Opt. 51(21) 5224–5230 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. K. K. Tsia, K. Goda, D. Capewell, and B. Jalali, “Simultaneous mechanical-scan-free confocal microscopy and laser microsurgery,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2099–2101 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. T. A. Johnson and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy based on a Yb:fiber femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B. 107(1), 31–39 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Kluge, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, and M. Gerken, “Modeling of electrically actuated elastomer structures for electro-optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. A 102 (2010).
  22. P. Metz, M. Krantz, S. Suhr, and M. Gerken, “Wavefront and polarization effects in actively tunable thin-film resonators for beam alignment in optical interconnects,” in 14th International Conference Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Warwick / UK (2012).
  23. A. Vega, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “Generalized Grating Equation for Virtually-Imaged Phased-Array Spectral Dispersers,” Appl. Opt. 42(20), 4152–4155 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. Xiao, A. Weiner, and C. Lin, “A dispersion law for virtually imaged phased-array spectral dispersers based on paraxial wave theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(4), 420–426 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. J. Gauthier, “Comment on Generalized grating equation for virtually imaged phased-array spectral dispersers,” Appl. Opt. 51(34), 8184–8186 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. B. Grzybowski, S. Brittain, and G. Whitesides, “Thermally actuated interferometric sensors based on the thermal expansion of transparent elastomeric media,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 2031–2037 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  27. M. Gerken and D. A. B. Miller, “Multilayer Thin-Film Structures with High Spatial Dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 42(7), 1330–1345 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. M. Gerken and D. Miller, “Wavelength demultiplexer using the spatial dispersion of multilayer thin-film structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1097–1099 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  29. V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunskus, K. Behnke, C. Bechtolsheim, A. Thran, and F. Faupel, “Formation of metal-polymer interfaces by metal evaporation: influence of deposition parameters and defects,” Microelectron. Eng. 50, 465–471 (2000).
    [Crossref]

2012 (3)

2010 (3)

C. Kluge, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, and M. Gerken, “Modeling of electrically actuated elastomer structures for electro-optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. A 102 (2010).

V. R. Supradeepa, E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “New aspects of temporal dispersion in high-resolution Fourier pulse shaping: a quantitative description with virtually imaged phased array pulse shapers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(9) 1833–1844 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. Supradeepa, D. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “A 2-D VIPA-grating pulse shaper with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator for broadband, high resolution, programmable amplitude and phase control,” in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society494–495 (2010).

2009 (2)

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242) 1145–1149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Tsia, K. Goda, D. Capewell, and B. Jalali, “Simultaneous mechanical-scan-free confocal microscopy and laser microsurgery,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2099–2101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

V. Supradeepa, C.-B. Huang, D. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in two dimensions: Towards higher complexity optical waveforms,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11878–11887 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Miao, A. Weiner, L. Mirkin, and P. Miller, “All-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion (PMD) Compensation via Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA)-Based Pulse Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 545–547 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

G.-H. Lee, S. Xiao, and A. Weiner, “Optical Dispersion Compensator With 4000-ps/nm Tuning Range Using a Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA) and Spatial Light Modulator (SLM),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1819–1821 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Xiao and A. Weiner, “An eight-channel hyperfine wavelength demultiplexer using a virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 372–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

S. Xiao and A. Weiner, “2-D wavelength demultiplexer with potential for ≥ 1000 channels in the C-band,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2895–2902 (2004).

S. Xiao, J. McKinney, and A. Weiner, “Photonic microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA) direct space-to-time pulse shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1936–1938 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, A. Weiner, and C. Lin, “A dispersion law for virtually imaged phased-array spectral dispersers based on paraxial wave theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

S. Cao, C. Lin, G. Barbarossa, and C. Yang, “Dynamically tunable dispersion slope compensation using a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA),” in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Applications/Ultraviolet and Blue Lasers and Their Applications/Ultralong Haul DWDM Transmission and Networking/WDM Components. Digest of the LEOS Summer Topica15–16 (2001).

2000 (2)

L. Garrett, A. Gnauck, M. Eiselt, R. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, “Demonstration of virtually-imaged phased-array device for tunable dispersion compensation in 16 times;10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 480 km standard fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000 4, 187–189 (2000).

V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunskus, K. Behnke, C. Bechtolsheim, A. Thran, and F. Faupel, “Formation of metal-polymer interfaces by metal evaporation: influence of deposition parameters and defects,” Microelectron. Eng. 50, 465–471 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

B. Grzybowski, S. Brittain, and G. Whitesides, “Thermally actuated interferometric sensors based on the thermal expansion of transparent elastomeric media,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 2031–2037 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Shirasaki, “Chromatic-dispersion compensator using virtually imaged phased array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1598–1600 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1989 (1)

Akiyama, Y.

Banh, T. Q.

Barbarossa, G.

S. Cao, C. Lin, G. Barbarossa, and C. Yang, “Dynamically tunable dispersion slope compensation using a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA),” in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Applications/Ultraviolet and Blue Lasers and Their Applications/Ultralong Haul DWDM Transmission and Networking/WDM Components. Digest of the LEOS Summer Topica15–16 (2001).

Bechtolsheim, C.

V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunskus, K. Behnke, C. Bechtolsheim, A. Thran, and F. Faupel, “Formation of metal-polymer interfaces by metal evaporation: influence of deposition parameters and defects,” Microelectron. Eng. 50, 465–471 (2000).
[Crossref]

Behnke, K.

V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunskus, K. Behnke, C. Bechtolsheim, A. Thran, and F. Faupel, “Formation of metal-polymer interfaces by metal evaporation: influence of deposition parameters and defects,” Microelectron. Eng. 50, 465–471 (2000).
[Crossref]

Brittain, S.

B. Grzybowski, S. Brittain, and G. Whitesides, “Thermally actuated interferometric sensors based on the thermal expansion of transparent elastomeric media,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 2031–2037 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cao, S.

S. Cao, C. Lin, G. Barbarossa, and C. Yang, “Dynamically tunable dispersion slope compensation using a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA),” in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Applications/Ultraviolet and Blue Lasers and Their Applications/Ultralong Haul DWDM Transmission and Networking/WDM Components. Digest of the LEOS Summer Topica15–16 (2001).

L. Garrett, A. Gnauck, M. Eiselt, R. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, “Demonstration of virtually-imaged phased-array device for tunable dispersion compensation in 16 times;10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 480 km standard fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000 4, 187–189 (2000).

Capewell, D.

Diddams, S. A.

T. A. Johnson and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy based on a Yb:fiber femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B. 107(1), 31–39 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ditlbacher, H.

C. Kluge, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, and M. Gerken, “Modeling of electrically actuated elastomer structures for electro-optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. A 102 (2010).

Eiselt, M.

L. Garrett, A. Gnauck, M. Eiselt, R. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, “Demonstration of virtually-imaged phased-array device for tunable dispersion compensation in 16 times;10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 480 km standard fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000 4, 187–189 (2000).

Faupel, F.

V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunskus, K. Behnke, C. Bechtolsheim, A. Thran, and F. Faupel, “Formation of metal-polymer interfaces by metal evaporation: influence of deposition parameters and defects,” Microelectron. Eng. 50, 465–471 (2000).
[Crossref]

Galler, N.

C. Kluge, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, and M. Gerken, “Modeling of electrically actuated elastomer structures for electro-optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. A 102 (2010).

Garrett, L.

L. Garrett, A. Gnauck, M. Eiselt, R. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, “Demonstration of virtually-imaged phased-array device for tunable dispersion compensation in 16 times;10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 480 km standard fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000 4, 187–189 (2000).

Gauthier, D. J.

Gerken, M.

C. Kluge, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, and M. Gerken, “Modeling of electrically actuated elastomer structures for electro-optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. A 102 (2010).

M. Gerken and D. A. B. Miller, “Multilayer Thin-Film Structures with High Spatial Dispersion,” Appl. Opt. 42(7), 1330–1345 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gerken and D. Miller, “Wavelength demultiplexer using the spatial dispersion of multilayer thin-film structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1097–1099 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Metz, M. Krantz, S. Suhr, and M. Gerken, “Wavefront and polarization effects in actively tunable thin-film resonators for beam alignment in optical interconnects,” in 14th International Conference Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Warwick / UK (2012).

Gnauck, A.

L. Garrett, A. Gnauck, M. Eiselt, R. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, “Demonstration of virtually-imaged phased-array device for tunable dispersion compensation in 16 times;10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 480 km standard fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000 4, 187–189 (2000).

Goda, K.

K. K. Tsia, K. Goda, D. Capewell, and B. Jalali, “Simultaneous mechanical-scan-free confocal microscopy and laser microsurgery,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2099–2101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242) 1145–1149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goosman, D. R.

Grzybowski, B.

B. Grzybowski, S. Brittain, and G. Whitesides, “Thermally actuated interferometric sensors based on the thermal expansion of transparent elastomeric media,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 2031–2037 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hamidi, E.

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.-B.

Ishikawa, G.

Isono, H.

Jalali, B.

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242) 1145–1149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Tsia, K. Goda, D. Capewell, and B. Jalali, “Simultaneous mechanical-scan-free confocal microscopy and laser microsurgery,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2099–2101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. A.

T. A. Johnson and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy based on a Yb:fiber femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B. 107(1), 31–39 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kawahata, Y.

Kluge, C.

C. Kluge, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, and M. Gerken, “Modeling of electrically actuated elastomer structures for electro-optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. A 102 (2010).

Krantz, M.

P. Metz, M. Krantz, S. Suhr, and M. Gerken, “Wavefront and polarization effects in actively tunable thin-film resonators for beam alignment in optical interconnects,” in 14th International Conference Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Warwick / UK (2012).

Leaird, D.

V. Supradeepa, D. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “A 2-D VIPA-grating pulse shaper with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator for broadband, high resolution, programmable amplitude and phase control,” in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society494–495 (2010).

V. Supradeepa, C.-B. Huang, D. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in two dimensions: Towards higher complexity optical waveforms,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11878–11887 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leaird, D. E.

Lee, G.-H.

G.-H. Lee, S. Xiao, and A. Weiner, “Optical Dispersion Compensator With 4000-ps/nm Tuning Range Using a Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA) and Spatial Light Modulator (SLM),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1819–1821 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

S. Xiao, A. Weiner, and C. Lin, “A dispersion law for virtually imaged phased-array spectral dispersers based on paraxial wave theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Vega, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “Generalized Grating Equation for Virtually-Imaged Phased-Array Spectral Dispersers,” Appl. Opt. 42(20), 4152–4155 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Cao, C. Lin, G. Barbarossa, and C. Yang, “Dynamically tunable dispersion slope compensation using a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA),” in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Applications/Ultraviolet and Blue Lasers and Their Applications/Ultralong Haul DWDM Transmission and Networking/WDM Components. Digest of the LEOS Summer Topica15–16 (2001).

Mao, C.

L. Garrett, A. Gnauck, M. Eiselt, R. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, “Demonstration of virtually-imaged phased-array device for tunable dispersion compensation in 16 times;10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 480 km standard fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000 4, 187–189 (2000).

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

McKinney, J.

S. Xiao, J. McKinney, and A. Weiner, “Photonic microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA) direct space-to-time pulse shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1936–1938 (2004).
[Crossref]

McKinney, J. D.

McMillan, C. F.

Metz, P.

P. Metz, M. Krantz, S. Suhr, and M. Gerken, “Wavefront and polarization effects in actively tunable thin-film resonators for beam alignment in optical interconnects,” in 14th International Conference Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Warwick / UK (2012).

Miao, H.

H. Miao, A. Weiner, L. Mirkin, and P. Miller, “All-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion (PMD) Compensation via Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA)-Based Pulse Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 545–547 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miller, D.

M. Gerken and D. Miller, “Wavelength demultiplexer using the spatial dispersion of multilayer thin-film structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1097–1099 (2003).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

Miller, P.

H. Miao, A. Weiner, L. Mirkin, and P. Miller, “All-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion (PMD) Compensation via Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA)-Based Pulse Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 545–547 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mirkin, L.

H. Miao, A. Weiner, L. Mirkin, and P. Miller, “All-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion (PMD) Compensation via Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA)-Based Pulse Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 545–547 (2008).
[Crossref]

Morisaki, T.

Nakamura, K.

Ooi, H.

Parker, N. L.

Shioda, T.

Shirasaki, M.

M. Shirasaki, “Chromatic-dispersion compensator using virtually imaged phased array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1598–1600 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Shirasaki, “Large angular dispersion by a virtually imaged phased array and its application to a wavelength demultiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 21(5), 366–368 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strunskus, T.

V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunskus, K. Behnke, C. Bechtolsheim, A. Thran, and F. Faupel, “Formation of metal-polymer interfaces by metal evaporation: influence of deposition parameters and defects,” Microelectron. Eng. 50, 465–471 (2000).
[Crossref]

Suhr, S.

P. Metz, M. Krantz, S. Suhr, and M. Gerken, “Wavefront and polarization effects in actively tunable thin-film resonators for beam alignment in optical interconnects,” in 14th International Conference Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Warwick / UK (2012).

Supradeepa, V.

V. Supradeepa, D. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “A 2-D VIPA-grating pulse shaper with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator for broadband, high resolution, programmable amplitude and phase control,” in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society494–495 (2010).

V. Supradeepa, C.-B. Huang, D. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in two dimensions: Towards higher complexity optical waveforms,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11878–11887 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Supradeepa, V. R.

Suzuki, K.

Takahara, T.

Terahara, T.

Thran, A.

V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunskus, K. Behnke, C. Bechtolsheim, A. Thran, and F. Faupel, “Formation of metal-polymer interfaces by metal evaporation: influence of deposition parameters and defects,” Microelectron. Eng. 50, 465–471 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tkach, R.

L. Garrett, A. Gnauck, M. Eiselt, R. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, “Demonstration of virtually-imaged phased-array device for tunable dispersion compensation in 16 times;10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 480 km standard fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000 4, 187–189 (2000).

Tsia, K. K.

K. K. Tsia, K. Goda, D. Capewell, and B. Jalali, “Simultaneous mechanical-scan-free confocal microscopy and laser microsurgery,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2099–2101 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242) 1145–1149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vega, A.

Weiner, A.

V. Supradeepa, D. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “A 2-D VIPA-grating pulse shaper with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator for broadband, high resolution, programmable amplitude and phase control,” in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society494–495 (2010).

V. Supradeepa, C.-B. Huang, D. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping in two dimensions: Towards higher complexity optical waveforms,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11878–11887 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Miao, A. Weiner, L. Mirkin, and P. Miller, “All-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion (PMD) Compensation via Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA)-Based Pulse Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 545–547 (2008).
[Crossref]

G.-H. Lee, S. Xiao, and A. Weiner, “Optical Dispersion Compensator With 4000-ps/nm Tuning Range Using a Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA) and Spatial Light Modulator (SLM),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1819–1821 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao and A. Weiner, “An eight-channel hyperfine wavelength demultiplexer using a virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 372–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, J. McKinney, and A. Weiner, “Photonic microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA) direct space-to-time pulse shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1936–1938 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao and A. Weiner, “2-D wavelength demultiplexer with potential for ≥ 1000 channels in the C-band,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2895–2902 (2004).

S. Xiao, A. Weiner, and C. Lin, “A dispersion law for virtually imaged phased-array spectral dispersers based on paraxial wave theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

Whitesides, G.

B. Grzybowski, S. Brittain, and G. Whitesides, “Thermally actuated interferometric sensors based on the thermal expansion of transparent elastomeric media,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 2031–2037 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

G.-H. Lee, S. Xiao, and A. Weiner, “Optical Dispersion Compensator With 4000-ps/nm Tuning Range Using a Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA) and Spatial Light Modulator (SLM),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1819–1821 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao and A. Weiner, “An eight-channel hyperfine wavelength demultiplexer using a virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 372–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, J. McKinney, and A. Weiner, “Photonic microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA) direct space-to-time pulse shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1936–1938 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao and A. Weiner, “2-D wavelength demultiplexer with potential for ≥ 1000 channels in the C-band,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2895–2902 (2004).

S. Xiao, A. Weiner, and C. Lin, “A dispersion law for virtually imaged phased-array spectral dispersers based on paraxial wave theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

S. Cao, C. Lin, G. Barbarossa, and C. Yang, “Dynamically tunable dispersion slope compensation using a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA),” in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Applications/Ultraviolet and Blue Lasers and Their Applications/Ultralong Haul DWDM Transmission and Networking/WDM Components. Digest of the LEOS Summer Topica15–16 (2001).

L. Garrett, A. Gnauck, M. Eiselt, R. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, “Demonstration of virtually-imaged phased-array device for tunable dispersion compensation in 16 times;10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 480 km standard fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000 4, 187–189 (2000).

Zaporojtchenko, V.

V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunskus, K. Behnke, C. Bechtolsheim, A. Thran, and F. Faupel, “Formation of metal-polymer interfaces by metal evaporation: influence of deposition parameters and defects,” Microelectron. Eng. 50, 465–471 (2000).
[Crossref]

23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society (1)

V. Supradeepa, D. Leaird, and A. Weiner, “A 2-D VIPA-grating pulse shaper with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator for broadband, high resolution, programmable amplitude and phase control,” in 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society494–495 (2010).

Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Applications/Ultraviolet and Blue Lasers and Their Applications/Ultralong Haul DWDM Transmission and Networking/WDM Components. Digest of the LEOS Summer Topica (1)

S. Cao, C. Lin, G. Barbarossa, and C. Yang, “Dynamically tunable dispersion slope compensation using a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA),” in Advanced Semiconductor Lasers and Applications/Ultraviolet and Blue Lasers and Their Applications/Ultralong Haul DWDM Transmission and Networking/WDM Components. Digest of the LEOS Summer Topica15–16 (2001).

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

C. Kluge, N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, and M. Gerken, “Modeling of electrically actuated elastomer structures for electro-optical modulation,” Appl. Phys. A 102 (2010).

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

T. A. Johnson and S. A. Diddams, “Mid-infrared upconversion spectroscopy based on a Yb:fiber femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. B. 107(1), 31–39 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Xiao, A. Weiner, and C. Lin, “A dispersion law for virtually imaged phased-array spectral dispersers based on paraxial wave theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(4), 420–426 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

M. Gerken and D. Miller, “Wavelength demultiplexer using the spatial dispersion of multilayer thin-film structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(8), 1097–1099 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao and A. Weiner, “An eight-channel hyperfine wavelength demultiplexer using a virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(2), 372–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Shirasaki, “Chromatic-dispersion compensator using virtually imaged phased array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(12), 1598–1600 (1997).
[Crossref]

G.-H. Lee, S. Xiao, and A. Weiner, “Optical Dispersion Compensator With 4000-ps/nm Tuning Range Using a Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA) and Spatial Light Modulator (SLM),” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1819–1821 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, J. McKinney, and A. Weiner, “Photonic microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a virtually imaged phased-array (VIPA) direct space-to-time pulse shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(8), 1936–1938 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Miao, A. Weiner, L. Mirkin, and P. Miller, “All-Order Polarization-Mode Dispersion (PMD) Compensation via Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA)-Based Pulse Shaper,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 545–547 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

V. Zaporojtchenko, T. Strunskus, K. Behnke, C. Bechtolsheim, A. Thran, and F. Faupel, “Formation of metal-polymer interfaces by metal evaporation: influence of deposition parameters and defects,” Microelectron. Eng. 50, 465–471 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature 445, 627–630 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242) 1145–1149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000 (1)

L. Garrett, A. Gnauck, M. Eiselt, R. Tkach, C. Yang, C. Mao, and S. Cao, “Demonstration of virtually-imaged phased-array device for tunable dispersion compensation in 16 times;10 Gb/s WDM transmission over 480 km standard fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2000 4, 187–189 (2000).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. Grzybowski, S. Brittain, and G. Whitesides, “Thermally actuated interferometric sensors based on the thermal expansion of transparent elastomeric media,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(4), 2031–2037 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

P. Metz, M. Krantz, S. Suhr, and M. Gerken, “Wavefront and polarization effects in actively tunable thin-film resonators for beam alignment in optical interconnects,” in 14th International Conference Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Warwick / UK (2012).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 VIPA principle. A focussed light beam is coupled into the cavity at the edge of the ideal front mirror, multiply reflected, and coupled out through the semi-transparent rear mirror. Coherent superposition leads to distinct wavelength specific output angles.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Tunable VIPA design. A PDMS layer is sandwiched between a highly reflective silver layer and a semi-transparent silver layer on a glass substrate and forms the VIPA cavity. Light is coupled into the cavity through the glass substrate. Current conduction through the semi-transparent silver layer heats the PDMS causing thermal expansion and a thermo-optic effect. (b) Photograph of a sample in the measurement setup showing six separate VIPAs on one substrate. The VIPA rear silver bar is contacted by filigree gold strands.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A wide He-Ne Laser beam is focussed in x-direction onto the VIPA entrance window using a cylindrical lens. The size in y-direction is limited by a slit diaphragm. Using a Fourier lens the angular dispersion is mapped to a spatially resolved dispersion, that is imaged by an image sensor consisting of a rotating diffuser, an objective lens, and a CMOS sensor, which allows for speckle free image capture.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Resonance images at discrete points of time during a linearly increasing power actuation up to 2.4mW/mm2. Different resonance orders are separated by dashed lines and show a distinct motion upon actuation. (b) Dispersion angles corresponding to four resonance positions as a function of actuation time show a monotonic change. At about 13s a tuning span of one FAR is achieved. (c) Calculated average PDMS temperature increase shows a non-linear behavior. (d) The finesse as a function of actuation time reveals a decline of resonance quality.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Calculated and measured absolute (a,c) and relative (b,d) change of dispersion angle (Eq. (8)) upon tuning as a function of VIPA tilt and actuation time. An excellent agreement between simulation and measurement is achieved. Largest tuning effects occur for small VIPA tilts.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Dynamic behavior of a 170μm (a) and a 340μm (b) VIPA. The first 15 seconds both samples were actuated at 20mA. Additionally, fits of a heating and cooling model function are shown.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Photograph of a 340μm VIPA at 45° from an off-optical-axis point of view. Multiple reflections are visible, which is an indicator of scattered light from the rear surface. (b) Resulting resonance images of two different in-coupling spots show several secondary peaks. (c) Ray traced resonance profiles VIPA having different wedge angles in the cavity for a rear surface reflectance of 50% and 95%. An increasing wedge angle degrades the resonance profile. Here, a highly reflective rear surface makes the VIPA more sensitive to wedge angles. (d) Ray traced resonance image showing secondary peaks similar to the captured resonance images.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Influence of polarization on a 340μm VIPA. (a) Colored overlay of equally scaled resonance images at different VIPA tilts (red S-polarized, green: P-polarized). Color fringes reveal a deviation between both S- and P-polarized resonance profiles. Additionally, resonance images of medial tilt angles yield the smallest FAR. (b) Measured and simulated deviation of P- to S-polarization related to the FAR.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Heating and cooling process time constants fitted to the measured data

Equations (11)

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λ m = 2 t n cos ( Θ in ) 2 t tan ( Θ in ) cos ( Θ VIPA ) Θ λ t cos ( Θ in ) Θ λ 2 n .
Δ f FSR = c 2 t n cos ( Θ in ) 2 t tan ( Θ in ) cos ( Θ VIPA ) Θ λ t cos ( Θ in ) Θ λ 2 n ,
Θ λ , m Θ λ , m + 1 = C 1 2 + 2 n 2 + C 2 m C 1 2 + 2 n 2 + C 2 ( m + 1 ) ,
C 1 = n tan ( Θ in ) cos ( Θ VIPA ) cos ( Θ in )
C 2 = λ n t cos ( Θ in ) .
m 0 = 2 t n cos ( Θ in ) λ .
Δ Θ λ FAR : = Θ λ , m 0 0.5 Θ λ , m 0 + 0.5 = C 1 2 1 2 C 2 C 1 2 + 1 2 C 2 .
Δ Θ λ rel = Δ Θ λ Δ Θ λ FAR .
= resonance distance full width half maximum
Δ T heating ( t ) = Δ T 1 ( 1 e t / τ 1 ) + Δ T 2 ( 1 e t / τ 2 ) .
Δ T cooling ( t ) = Δ T 0 Δ T 3 ( 1 e t / τ 3 ) ( Δ T 0 Δ T 3 ) ( 1 e t / τ 4 )

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