Abstract

We develop a prototype of optically-steered X-band phased array antenna with capabilities of multi-band and multi-beam operations. It exploits high-speed wavelength tunable lasers for optical true-time delays over a dispersive optical fiber link, enabling agile, broadband and vibration-free RF beam steering with large angle.

©2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Phased array antenna (PAA) based on traditional electronic phase-shifters have an intrinsic nature of narrow band, which limits their applications in remote sensing, communications and broadcasting [13]. In order to steer wideband beams, photonic beamforming techniques have been proposed to implement optical true-time delays over optical channels for phase shifting of optically-carried RF (radio frequency) signals, enabling the vector sum of fields from the end antenna elements to be independent of frequency [49]. The optical true-time delay facilitates small size, light weight, low-power consumption as well as immunity to electromagnetic interference. As such, the photonic PAA technique has significant advantages over electrical counterparts with improved bandwidth and squint-free operation [4].

Many photonic beamforming schemes have been proposed and demonstrated by using various techniques, including acoustic optics [10,11], Fourier optics [12,13], fiber grating [1417], waveguide circuits [18,19], photonic crystal fiber [20], and slow light [2123]. However, existing beamforming approaches are still far from meeting requirements for viable applications in terms of performances, manufacturability and cost. In addition, most of them require a large number of delay lines consisting of various photonic components including laser sources, optical switches, fibers, gratings, as well as sophisticated electronic components and accessories. Besides their limited operation speed and low optical efficiency, the complexity of these beamforming architectures makes the whole system expensive and difficult to realize [4].

In this paper, we report a prototype development of a photonic phased array antenna which exploits high-speed optical wavelength tuning based on electro-optic effect through a highly-dispersive optical fiber link for optical true-time delays. The output wavelength of the tunable laser is the only variable for beamforming in the proposed photonic PAA prototype, providing incremental true-time delays for all antenna elements simultaneously. Continuous beam steering is obtained by varying the wavelength of optical waves that propagates through the dispersive optical fiber link. Multi-band and multi-beam operations are realized by using additional tunable wavelengths based on the simple wavelength-division-multiplexing technique.

2. High-speed multi-band multi-beam PAA prototype

Figure 1 shows a schematic of our optically-steered phased array antenna system which can provide continuous variable optical true-time delays for two different RF-tunable channels, capable of auto-cascaded duplications for all antenna elements through a fiber-optic integrated dispersion network. Our recent technological advance in high-speed wavelength tunable lasers based on a novel electro-optic effect [24] permits the development of this highly-agile PAA system with simplified control scheme for multi-beam wideband operations. More importantly, only one set of fiber-optic true-time-delay beamformer is needed for two different RF channels and all antenna elements, providing fast scanning for simultaneous and independent two-beam operations. It has all the advantages over other approaches while further increasing scanning speed, reducing the system complexity, weight, and power budget by eliminating the complicated optoelectronic controlling and massive optical components such as optical switches, fiber Bragg gratings, and laser diodes.

 

Fig. 1 Schematic architecture of proposed photonic PAA. WTL: high-speed wavelength tunable laser; EOM: electro-optic modulator; RFTO: RF tunable oscillator; AMP: low-noise amplifier; PMF: polarization-maintaining fiber; FS: fiber splitter; DCF: dispersion compensating fiber; TGF: telecommunication grade fiber; PDA: photodetector array; PTA: phase trimmer array; AA: antenna array.

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Based on the design architecture, we fabricated a compact optically-steered X-band PAA prototype as shown in Fig. 2. The prototype dimension is about 7.6 cm × 20.3 cm × 43.2 cm. In our system, there are two RF channels which can work simultaneously or individually depended on the applications. RF-tunable oscillators (Stellex YIG Oscillator 8-10 GHz Tunable) are used to provide two RF channel signals which then drive the associated electro-optic waveguide modulators (Fujitsu FTM7921ER) after amplified by two low-noise RF amplifiers (3.5-11GHz Low-noise Amplifiers). The wavelength tunable lasers are modulated by the electro-optic waveguide modulators to generate optical RF signals in the two RF-optical channels which can work independently to support multiple RF frequencies.

 

Fig. 2 (a) Front and (b) back views of the optically-steered X-band PAA prototype.

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The optically-carried RF signals are combined and then divided into 8 individual optical channels through a 2 x 8 fiber optic splitter. The optical traveling time in the 8 individual optical channels are incrementally delayed by the fiber link which consists of the dispersion compensating fibers. To fabricate such fiber-optic true-time-delay lines with precision time delays, the optical fibers are cut with precision lengths based on the calculation for true-time-delay beamforming. The dispersion compensating fiber produces a wavelength-dependent optical true-time delay [25], given by

ΔT=DLΔλ 
where Δλ is the wavelength change, D is the dispersion coefficient, and L is the fiber length increment. Thus, the generated time-delay is simply proportional to the change of wavelength (Δλ). For the one-dimensional N-element PAA, only one time delay is required between each consecutive fiber channel. The required integer multiplication of time delay (N.ΔT) is realized by sequentially increasing the lengths of dispersive optical fiber for each channel of antenna elements, in order to form a RF beam directed at an angle θ, given by
θ=sin1(cTd)
where ΔT is the associated time delay, c is the speed of light, and d is the spacing distance between adjacent antenna elements.

For an 8-element phased array antenna with d = 15 mm, the calculated fiber length increment L is 6.85 m, by assuming the maximum scanning angle of 60°. In the calculation, the dispersion coefficient D = −253 ps/nm/km and wavelength tuning range of Δλ = 25 nm are used. To obtain the required integer multiplication of time delay, the dispersion optical fibers are cut by sequentially increasing the lengths for each antenna element, i.e., 0 m, 6.85 m, 13.69 m, 20.54 m, 27.38 m, 34.23 m, 41.08 m and 47.92 m. The cut dispersion compensating fibers are then spliced with telecommunication grade single-mode optical fibers for linear phase compensation. The length of each conventional single-mode fiber is arranged to equalize the delay time among each element at the center operating wavelength (1550 nm). As such, the 8 spliced optical fibers have equal lengths. Please note we neglect the dispersion of the telecommunication grade fibers since it is much smaller than that of the dispersion compensating fiber. At the central wavelength, the initial emitting angle from the antenna array can be easily set to a direction normal to the antenna array facet by adjusting the phase trimmer array (PTA) as shown in Fig. 1.

High-speed photodetectors (Multiplex MTRX192L) are used to convert optical modulated signals into microwave signals which connect to the RF antenna elements through 8 phase trimmers. The phase trimmers correct the possible phase errors including fiber length cutting errors. The phase-adjusted RF signals are emitted to free space through the 8 antenna elements after amplified by onboard RF amplifiers for each channel. The RF electromagnetic waves constructively interfere to form a RF beam directing at an angle, depended on the time delay between antenna elements.

3. Characterization of the photonic PAA prototype

We first test the RF tuning capability of our multi-band optically-steered X-band PAA prototype. Both RF oscillators are tunable in X-band frequency range from about 8 GHz to 10 GHz by changing their tuning voltages, respectively. The two RF channels are independent and thus can be tuned separately or simultaneously. However, the RF tuning only changes the operation bands rather than steers the RF beams constructed from the end of antenna array.

To steer the RF beam, optical wavelength tuning takes place to generate optical true-time delays through the dispersion fiber optic channels. In other words, the true-time-delay beamforming enables RF-independent broadband beam steering. Figure 3 shows RF beam steered angles as optical wavelength changes. The RF beam direction can be scanned over a large angle by changing the laser wavelength, which agrees well with the calculation result based on Eqs. (1) and (2). The RF beam divergence of full angle is measured about 15 degrees and the beam can be steered to about 40 degrees from the direction normal to the antenna array facet. In addition, with different RF frequencies, we found that the steered angles of RF beam are consistent in tuning the optical wavelength, indicating the broadband RF operation is feasible. The angular deviation at the same optical wavelength arises from measurement errors as well as system errors such as phase adjustment inaccuracy, insertion loss difference between each fiber channels, fiber cutting and splicing errors.

 

Fig. 3 RF beam steered angles of different frequencies as a function of optical wavelength. The solid line is calculated result.

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In our prototype, we use 8 elements in the antenna array for feasibility demonstration. Small beam divergence with less angular deviation can be obtained by using large number of elements. In addition, we can further improve the maximal swept angle and beam quality of current antenna by precise calibration of power and phase for each optical and RF channels. Some electronic components in the system, such as photodetectors, amplifier and RF oscillators, also need be precisely calibrated to eliminate noises and errors. In principle, a phased array with multiple faceted segments providing some degree of curvature allows beam steering in a wider angular range [26].

In the experiments, the electro-optic wavelength tunable laser, developed by us based on high-speed electro-optic scanner technology, are employed to provide wavelength selection with the tuning speed as fast as 107 nm/s, which corresponds to a RF beam steering speed of 15 degree/μs. The new laser also delivers 50 mW average power with near 100 nm swept range and 0.5 nm linewidth. These parameters are necessary for further optimization of the prototype performance.

We have also demonstrated that two RF beams with different frequencies can be operated independently by using two wavelength-tunable lasers. As shown in Fig. 1, two lasers are modulated by separate electro-optic modulators to produce two independent optically-carried RF signals which can be tuned in both optical and RF frequencies. The two signals are first combined and then divided into 8 optical channels by the 2 × 8 fiber splitter. The length increment of dispersion fibers between adjacent optical channels produces an optical true-time-delay which depends on the optical wavelength. When the two lasers are tuned at different wavelengths, their carried RF waves experience different true time delays propagating in the dispersion compensating fibers. Therefore, two independent RF beams which may come with either same or different frequencies are generated from the end of the antenna array, pointing to two directions that are corresponding to the optical wavelengths of two wavelength-tunable lasers. Figure 4 shows experimental results of two generated RF beams detected at far field by a horn antenna receiver that is connected to a microwave spectral analyzer. We first tune the two lasers to the same wavelengths so that the two RF beams with different frequencies (8.58 GHz and 9.11 GHz) are both pointed to the horn antenna receiver. As such, both RF signals are detected and displayed on the spectral analyzer as shown in Fig. 4(a). Then, one laser is tuned about 10 nm away from the initial wavelength, which enables the corresponding RF beam (8.58 GHz) steered completely away from the horn antenna (Fig. 4(b)). Figure 4(c) shows the 9.11 GHz RF beam is steered with a relatively small angle by fine tuning the wavelength of another laser, so that the partial beam are still collected the horn detector. The experiments demonstrate that our prototype can steer two independent RF beams by using two wavelength-tunable lasers.

 

Fig. 4 Display of optically steering of two RF beams with our X-band PPA. (a) Both RF beams are detected with the two lasers tuned to the same wavelength. Only one RF beam of 8.58GHz (b) and 9.11GHz (c) is steered by changing the wavelength of associated laser.

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4. Conclusion

We develop and demonstrate a prototype of optically-steered X-band phased array antenna by exploiting high-speed wavelength tunable lasers for optical true-time delays. The output wavelength of the tunable laser is the only variable in this prototype for agile, vibration-free RF beam steering with large angle. The true-time-delay beamforming enables RF-independent broadband beam steering with no beam squint effect. In addition, two RF beams with different frequencies can be operated simultaneously and independently by using two wavelength-tunable lasers. Our prototype eliminates the complicated optoelectronic controlling and massive optical components, enabling significant reduction of system complexity, weight, and power consumption. It will have great applications in wireless communications and remote sensing with capabilities of multi-band and multi-beam operations.

Acknowledgments

This research work was partially supported by NASA SBIR research program (contract number: NNX11CA52C).

References and links

1. R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas (Wiley and Co., 1998).

2. R. J. Mailloux, Phased Array Antenna Handbook (Artech House, 1994).

3. M. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

4. J. P. Yao, “A tutorial on microwave photonics,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newsletter 26(2), 4–12 (2012).

5. W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991). [CrossRef]  

6. H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, and E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 241–243 (1997). [CrossRef]  

7. Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, and J. Yang, “Wideband true-time-delay beam former that employs a tunable chirped fiber grating prism,” Appl. Opt. 42(13), 2273–2277 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. B. M. Jung, J. D. Shin, and B. G. Kim, “Optical true time-delay for two-dimensional X-band phased array antennas,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 877–879 (2007). [CrossRef]  

9. R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, and C. A. Villarruel, “Continuously-tunable microwave photonic true-time-delay based on a fiber-coupled beam deflector and diffraction grating,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5371–5378 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. N. A. Riza, “An acoustooptic-phased-array antenna beamformer for multiple simultaneous beam generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 807–809 (1992). [CrossRef]  

11. K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, and K. Morito, “Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1187–1188 (2004). [CrossRef]  

12. I. Samil Yetik and A. Nehorai, “Beamforming using the fractional Fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51(6), 1663–1668 (2003). [CrossRef]  

13. Y. Ji, K. Inagaki, R. Miura, and Y. Karasawa, “Optical processor for multibeam microwave receive array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 822–824 (1996). [CrossRef]  

14. J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “Dispersion-induced bandwidth limitation of variable true time delay lines based on linearly chirped fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 209–211 (1998). [CrossRef]  

15. R. A. Minasian and K. E. Alameh, “High capacity optical beam forming for phased arrays with fiber gratings and frequency conversion for beat noise control,” Appl. Opt. 38(21), 4665–4670 (1999). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. Y. O. Barmenkov, J. L. Cruz, A. Díez, and M. V. Andrés, “Electrically tunable photonic true-time-delay line,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17859–17864 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. T. J. Eom, S. J. Kim, T. Y. Kim, C. S. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical pulse multiplication and temporal coding using true time delay achieved by long-period fiber gratings in dispersion compensating fiber,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6410–6420 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. S. Tang, R. T. Chen, and J. Foshee, “Polymeric waveguide circuits for airborne photonic phased array antennas,” IEEE Circuits and Devices 16(1), 10–16 (2000). [CrossRef]  

19. S. Fathpour and N. A. Riza, “Silicon-photonics-based wideband radar beamforming: basic design,” Opt. Eng. 49(1), 018201 (2010). [CrossRef]  

20. M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 375–377 (2008). [CrossRef]  

21. I. Gasulla, J. Sancho, J. Capmany, J. Lloret, and S. Sales, “Intermodulation and harmonic distortion in slow light Microwave Photonic phase shifters based on Coherent Population oscillations in SOAs,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25677–25692 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. S. Chin, L. Thévenaz, J. Sancho, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, and D. Dolfi, “Broadband true time delay for microwave signal processing, using slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22599–22613 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, J. S. Wang, J. G. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Q. Qi, L. Xie, W. Chen, X. Wang, and W. Han, “True-time delay line with separate carrier tuning using dual-parallel MZM and stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12312–12324 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007). [CrossRef]  

25. K. M. Madziar and J. Dawidczyk, “Modelling of the dispersion coefficient for the optical beam forming for phased array anttneas,” Proc. SPIE 6347, 6347101–6347106 (2006).

26. N. H. Noordin, T. Arslan, B. Flynn, and A. T. Erdogan, “Low-cost antenna array with wide scan angle property,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 6(15), 1717–1727 (2012). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas (Wiley and Co., 1998).
  2. R. J. Mailloux, Phased Array Antenna Handbook (Artech House, 1994).
  3. M. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems (McGraw-Hill, 2001).
  4. J. P. Yao, “A tutorial on microwave photonics,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newsletter 26(2), 4–12 (2012).
  5. W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, and E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 241–243 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, and J. Yang, “Wideband true-time-delay beam former that employs a tunable chirped fiber grating prism,” Appl. Opt. 42(13), 2273–2277 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. B. M. Jung, J. D. Shin, and B. G. Kim, “Optical true time-delay for two-dimensional X-band phased array antennas,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 877–879 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, and C. A. Villarruel, “Continuously-tunable microwave photonic true-time-delay based on a fiber-coupled beam deflector and diffraction grating,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5371–5378 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. N. A. Riza, “An acoustooptic-phased-array antenna beamformer for multiple simultaneous beam generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 807–809 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, and K. Morito, “Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1187–1188 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. I. Samil Yetik and A. Nehorai, “Beamforming using the fractional Fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51(6), 1663–1668 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. Ji, K. Inagaki, R. Miura, and Y. Karasawa, “Optical processor for multibeam microwave receive array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 822–824 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “Dispersion-induced bandwidth limitation of variable true time delay lines based on linearly chirped fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 209–211 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. A. Minasian and K. E. Alameh, “High capacity optical beam forming for phased arrays with fiber gratings and frequency conversion for beat noise control,” Appl. Opt. 38(21), 4665–4670 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Y. O. Barmenkov, J. L. Cruz, A. Díez, and M. V. Andrés, “Electrically tunable photonic true-time-delay line,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17859–17864 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. T. J. Eom, S. J. Kim, T. Y. Kim, C. S. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical pulse multiplication and temporal coding using true time delay achieved by long-period fiber gratings in dispersion compensating fiber,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6410–6420 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. S. Tang, R. T. Chen, and J. Foshee, “Polymeric waveguide circuits for airborne photonic phased array antennas,” IEEE Circuits and Devices 16(1), 10–16 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Fathpour and N. A. Riza, “Silicon-photonics-based wideband radar beamforming: basic design,” Opt. Eng. 49(1), 018201 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 375–377 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  21. I. Gasulla, J. Sancho, J. Capmany, J. Lloret, and S. Sales, “Intermodulation and harmonic distortion in slow light Microwave Photonic phase shifters based on Coherent Population oscillations in SOAs,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25677–25692 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. Chin, L. Thévenaz, J. Sancho, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, and D. Dolfi, “Broadband true time delay for microwave signal processing, using slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22599–22613 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, J. S. Wang, J. G. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Q. Qi, L. Xie, W. Chen, X. Wang, and W. Han, “True-time delay line with separate carrier tuning using dual-parallel MZM and stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12312–12324 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. K. M. Madziar and J. Dawidczyk, “Modelling of the dispersion coefficient for the optical beam forming for phased array anttneas,” Proc. SPIE 6347, 6347101–6347106 (2006).
  26. N. H. Noordin, T. Arslan, B. Flynn, and A. T. Erdogan, “Low-cost antenna array with wide scan angle property,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 6(15), 1717–1727 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. P. Yao, “A tutorial on microwave photonics,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newsletter 26(2), 4–12 (2012).

N. H. Noordin, T. Arslan, B. Flynn, and A. T. Erdogan, “Low-cost antenna array with wide scan angle property,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 6(15), 1717–1727 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

2008 (1)

M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 375–377 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

B. M. Jung, J. D. Shin, and B. G. Kim, “Optical true time-delay for two-dimensional X-band phased array antennas,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 877–879 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. M. Madziar and J. Dawidczyk, “Modelling of the dispersion coefficient for the optical beam forming for phased array anttneas,” Proc. SPIE 6347, 6347101–6347106 (2006).

2004 (2)

T. J. Eom, S. J. Kim, T. Y. Kim, C. S. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical pulse multiplication and temporal coding using true time delay achieved by long-period fiber gratings in dispersion compensating fiber,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6410–6420 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, and K. Morito, “Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1187–1188 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

I. Samil Yetik and A. Nehorai, “Beamforming using the fractional Fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51(6), 1663–1668 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, J. P. Yao, and J. Yang, “Wideband true-time-delay beam former that employs a tunable chirped fiber grating prism,” Appl. Opt. 42(13), 2273–2277 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Tang, R. T. Chen, and J. Foshee, “Polymeric waveguide circuits for airborne photonic phased array antennas,” IEEE Circuits and Devices 16(1), 10–16 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “Dispersion-induced bandwidth limitation of variable true time delay lines based on linearly chirped fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 209–211 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, and E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 241–243 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Y. Ji, K. Inagaki, R. Miura, and Y. Karasawa, “Optical processor for multibeam microwave receive array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 822–824 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

N. A. Riza, “An acoustooptic-phased-array antenna beamformer for multiple simultaneous beam generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 807–809 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[Crossref]

Alameh, K. E.

Andrés, M. V.

Arslan, T.

N. H. Noordin, T. Arslan, B. Flynn, and A. T. Erdogan, “Low-cost antenna array with wide scan angle property,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 6(15), 1717–1727 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barmenkov, Y. O.

Berger, P.

Bernstein, N.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bourderionnet, J.

Bucholtz, F.

Capmany, J.

Chen, M. Y.

M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 375–377 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. T.

M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 375–377 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Tang, R. T. Chen, and J. Foshee, “Polymeric waveguide circuits for airborne photonic phased array antennas,” IEEE Circuits and Devices 16(1), 10–16 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Chin, S.

Corral, J. L.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “Dispersion-induced bandwidth limitation of variable true time delay lines based on linearly chirped fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 209–211 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cruz, J. L.

Dawidczyk, J.

K. M. Madziar and J. Dawidczyk, “Modelling of the dispersion coefficient for the optical beam forming for phased array anttneas,” Proc. SPIE 6347, 6347101–6347106 (2006).

Díez, A.

Doi, M.

K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, and K. Morito, “Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1187–1188 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dolfi, D.

Duan, B.

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eom, T. J.

Erdogan, A. T.

N. H. Noordin, T. Arslan, B. Flynn, and A. T. Erdogan, “Low-cost antenna array with wide scan angle property,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 6(15), 1717–1727 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fathpour, S.

S. Fathpour and N. A. Riza, “Silicon-photonics-based wideband radar beamforming: basic design,” Opt. Eng. 49(1), 018201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Flynn, B.

N. H. Noordin, T. Arslan, B. Flynn, and A. T. Erdogan, “Low-cost antenna array with wide scan angle property,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 6(15), 1717–1727 (2012).
[Crossref]

Foshee, J.

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Tang, R. T. Chen, and J. Foshee, “Polymeric waveguide circuits for airborne photonic phased array antennas,” IEEE Circuits and Devices 16(1), 10–16 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fuster, J. M.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “Dispersion-induced bandwidth limitation of variable true time delay lines based on linearly chirped fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 209–211 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gasulla, I.

Han, W.

Hashimoto, N.

K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, and K. Morito, “Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1187–1188 (2004).
[Crossref]

Inagaki, K.

Y. Ji, K. Inagaki, R. Miura, and Y. Karasawa, “Optical processor for multibeam microwave receive array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 822–824 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y.

Y. Ji, K. Inagaki, R. Miura, and Y. Karasawa, “Optical processor for multibeam microwave receive array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 822–824 (1996).
[Crossref]

Johns, S.

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, and E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 241–243 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jung, B. M.

B. M. Jung, J. D. Shin, and B. G. Kim, “Optical true time-delay for two-dimensional X-band phased array antennas,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 877–879 (2007).
[Crossref]

Karasawa, Y.

Y. Ji, K. Inagaki, R. Miura, and Y. Karasawa, “Optical processor for multibeam microwave receive array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 822–824 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. G.

B. M. Jung, J. D. Shin, and B. G. Kim, “Optical true time-delay for two-dimensional X-band phased array antennas,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 877–879 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. J.

Kim, T. Y.

Laming, R. I.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “Dispersion-induced bandwidth limitation of variable true time delay lines based on linearly chirped fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 209–211 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Lee, J. J.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[Crossref]

Li, W.

Liu, J. G.

Liu, Y.

Lloret, J.

Madziar, K. M.

K. M. Madziar and J. Dawidczyk, “Modelling of the dispersion coefficient for the optical beam forming for phased array anttneas,” Proc. SPIE 6347, 6347101–6347106 (2006).

Marti, J.

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “Dispersion-induced bandwidth limitation of variable true time delay lines based on linearly chirped fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 209–211 (1998).
[Crossref]

Minasian, R. A.

Miura, R.

Y. Ji, K. Inagaki, R. Miura, and Y. Karasawa, “Optical processor for multibeam microwave receive array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 822–824 (1996).
[Crossref]

Morito, K.

K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, and K. Morito, “Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1187–1188 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nakazawa, T.

K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, and K. Morito, “Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1187–1188 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nehorai, A.

I. Samil Yetik and A. Nehorai, “Beamforming using the fractional Fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51(6), 1663–1668 (2003).
[Crossref]

Newberg, I. L.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ng, W.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[Crossref]

Noordin, N. H.

N. H. Noordin, T. Arslan, B. Flynn, and A. T. Erdogan, “Low-cost antenna array with wide scan angle property,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 6(15), 1717–1727 (2012).
[Crossref]

Park, C. S.

Payson, P.

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, and E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 241–243 (1997).
[Crossref]

Qi, X. Q.

Riza, N. A.

S. Fathpour and N. A. Riza, “Silicon-photonics-based wideband radar beamforming: basic design,” Opt. Eng. 49(1), 018201 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. A. Riza, “An acoustooptic-phased-array antenna beamformer for multiple simultaneous beam generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 807–809 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sales, S.

Samil Yetik, I.

I. Samil Yetik and A. Nehorai, “Beamforming using the fractional Fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51(6), 1663–1668 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sancho, J.

Schermer, R. T.

Shin, J. D.

B. M. Jung, J. D. Shin, and B. G. Kim, “Optical true time-delay for two-dimensional X-band phased array antennas,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 877–879 (2007).
[Crossref]

Soref, R. A.

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, and E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 241–243 (1997).
[Crossref]

Subbaraman, H.

M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 375–377 (2008).
[Crossref]

Takabayashi, K.

K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, and K. Morito, “Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1187–1188 (2004).
[Crossref]

Takada, K.

K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, and K. Morito, “Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1187–1188 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tang, S.

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Tang, R. T. Chen, and J. Foshee, “Polymeric waveguide circuits for airborne photonic phased array antennas,” IEEE Circuits and Devices 16(1), 10–16 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tangonan, G.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[Crossref]

Thévenaz, L.

Tomabechi, S.

K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, and K. Morito, “Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1187–1188 (2004).
[Crossref]

Toughlian, E. N.

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, and E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 241–243 (1997).
[Crossref]

Villarruel, C. A.

Walston, A. A.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. S.

Wang, L. X.

Wang, X.

Xie, L.

Yang, J.

Yao, J. P.

Zhu, N. H.

Zmuda, H.

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, and E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 241–243 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (3)

K. Takabayashi, K. Takada, N. Hashimoto, M. Doi, S. Tomabechi, T. Nakazawa, and K. Morito, “Widely (132 nm) wavelength tunable laser using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 40(19), 1187–1188 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Ji, K. Inagaki, R. Miura, and Y. Karasawa, “Optical processor for multibeam microwave receive array antennas,” Electron. Lett. 32(9), 822–824 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, and R. I. Laming, “Dispersion-induced bandwidth limitation of variable true time delay lines based on linearly chirped fiber gratings,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 209–211 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE Circuits and Devices (1)

S. Tang, R. T. Chen, and J. Foshee, “Polymeric waveguide circuits for airborne photonic phased array antennas,” IEEE Circuits and Devices 16(1), 10–16 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Soc. Newsletter (1)

J. P. Yao, “A tutorial on microwave photonics,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newsletter 26(2), 4–12 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

B. M. Jung, J. D. Shin, and B. G. Kim, “Optical true time-delay for two-dimensional X-band phased array antennas,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(12), 877–879 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Zmuda, R. A. Soref, P. Payson, S. Johns, and E. N. Toughlian, “Photonic beamformer for phased array antennas using a fiber grating prism,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(2), 241–243 (1997).
[Crossref]

N. A. Riza, “An acoustooptic-phased-array antenna beamformer for multiple simultaneous beam generation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(7), 807–809 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Chen, H. Subbaraman, and R. T. Chen, “Photonic crystal fiber beamformer for multiple X-band phased-array antenna transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(5), 375–377 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

I. Samil Yetik and A. Nehorai, “Beamforming using the fractional Fourier transform,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 51(6), 1663–1668 (2003).
[Crossref]

IET Microw. Antennas Propag. (1)

N. H. Noordin, T. Arslan, B. Flynn, and A. T. Erdogan, “Low-cost antenna array with wide scan angle property,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 6(15), 1717–1727 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, “The first demonstration of an optically steered microwave phased array antenna using true-time-delay,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(9), 1124–1131 (1991).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Fathpour and N. A. Riza, “Silicon-photonics-based wideband radar beamforming: basic design,” Opt. Eng. 49(1), 018201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Y. O. Barmenkov, J. L. Cruz, A. Díez, and M. V. Andrés, “Electrically tunable photonic true-time-delay line,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17859–17864 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Eom, S. J. Kim, T. Y. Kim, C. S. Park, and B. Lee, “Optical pulse multiplication and temporal coding using true time delay achieved by long-period fiber gratings in dispersion compensating fiber,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6410–6420 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, and C. A. Villarruel, “Continuously-tunable microwave photonic true-time-delay based on a fiber-coupled beam deflector and diffraction grating,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5371–5378 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gasulla, J. Sancho, J. Capmany, J. Lloret, and S. Sales, “Intermodulation and harmonic distortion in slow light Microwave Photonic phase shifters based on Coherent Population oscillations in SOAs,” Opt. Express 18(25), 25677–25692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chin, L. Thévenaz, J. Sancho, S. Sales, J. Capmany, P. Berger, J. Bourderionnet, and D. Dolfi, “Broadband true time delay for microwave signal processing, using slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22599–22613 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li, N. H. Zhu, L. X. Wang, J. S. Wang, J. G. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Q. Qi, L. Xie, W. Chen, X. Wang, and W. Han, “True-time delay line with separate carrier tuning using dual-parallel MZM and stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced slow light,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12312–12324 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Foshee, S. Tang, Y. Tang, X. Wang, and B. Duan, “A novel high-speed electro-optic beam scanner based on KTN crystals,” Proc. SPIE 6709, 670908 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. M. Madziar and J. Dawidczyk, “Modelling of the dispersion coefficient for the optical beam forming for phased array anttneas,” Proc. SPIE 6347, 6347101–6347106 (2006).

Other (3)

R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas (Wiley and Co., 1998).

R. J. Mailloux, Phased Array Antenna Handbook (Artech House, 1994).

M. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic architecture of proposed photonic PAA. WTL: high-speed wavelength tunable laser; EOM: electro-optic modulator; RFTO: RF tunable oscillator; AMP: low-noise amplifier; PMF: polarization-maintaining fiber; FS: fiber splitter; DCF: dispersion compensating fiber; TGF: telecommunication grade fiber; PDA: photodetector array; PTA: phase trimmer array; AA: antenna array.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Front and (b) back views of the optically-steered X-band PAA prototype.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 RF beam steered angles of different frequencies as a function of optical wavelength. The solid line is calculated result.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Display of optically steering of two RF beams with our X-band PPA. (a) Both RF beams are detected with the two lasers tuned to the same wavelength. Only one RF beam of 8.58GHz (b) and 9.11GHz (c) is steered by changing the wavelength of associated laser.

Equations (2)

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ΔT=DLΔλ 
θ= sin 1 ( c T d )

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