Abstract

Resonance behaviors of the fundamental resonance mode of diabolo metal bar optical antennas are investigated by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulations and a dipole oscillator model. It is found that as the waist of the diabolo metal bar optical antenna is reduced, optical energy absorption cross section and near field enhancement at resonance increase significantly. Also reduction of the diabolo waist width causes red-shift of the resonant wavelengths in the spectra of absorption cross-section, scattering cross-section, and the near electric field. A dipole oscillator model including the self-inductance force is used to fit the FDTD numerical simulation results. The dipole oscillator model characterizes well the resonance behaviors of narrow waist diabolo metal bar optical antennas.

©2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Optical antennas [14] are potentially useful for many applications such as molecular bio-sensing [5, 6], surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) [7, 8], nonlinear optics [9], photochemistry [10], enhanced photo-detection [11, 12], and nanolithography [13, 14]. Optical antennas with various configurations such as bowties [1528], metal nanorods [2933] and nanoparticles [3438] have been investigated in the past few years. Recently, rectangular metal bar optical antennas are also investigated [3947]. Previous efforts on metal bar optical antennas focused on the effects of rectangular metal bar dimensions, array period, and substrate materials. In this paper, we investigate the fundamental mode resonance behavior of narrow waist metal bar optical antennas on a transparent substrate. Narrow waist metal bar optical antennas have similar geometric configuration as bowtie optical antennas [1528]. A bowtie optical antenna consists of two triangular shape metal patches separated with a small gap. Electromagnetic field enhancement is inside the gap between two metal patches. A narrow waist metal bar optical antenna also consists of two triangular shape metal patches that are physically connected together without a gap. The strong electromagnetic field enhancement is near the two ends of the metal bars similar as the rectangular metal bar optical antennas. The reduced waist width of the metal bars provides an additional freedom to control the resonance behaviors of the optical antennas. Because the geometric configuration of narrow waist metal patch or metal bar optical antennas exhibits the configuration of diabolos, they are also called “diabolo antennas” [48, 49]. Previous works on diabolo antennas focused on the magnetic field enhancement caused by the reduction of the waist of diabolo antennas. In this work, we focus on the electric field enhancement of diabolo metal bar optical antennas and the effect of the reduced waist width on absorption and scattering cross-sections. In this paper, we first present finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations for absorption and scattering cross-sections of narrow waist diabolo metal bar antennas of different waist widths. Then, we use a dipole oscillator model including the self-inductance force to fit the FDTD simulation results. Finally, we show that diabolo metal bar antennas have strongly enhanced electric field near two ends of the metal antenna bars and strongly enhanced electric field surrounding the metal antennas.

2. Surface plasmon resonance of diabolo metal bar optical antennas

Figure 1 shows a diabolo shape narrow waist gold metal bar optical antenna on a sapphire substrate. The top view of the diabolo antenna is shown in the insert of Fig. 1. The physical length of the metal bar l is 1.1 μm in the x direction. The width of the bar is 260 nm at the two ends of the antenna bar in the y direction. The thickness of the metal film h is 65 nm, uniformly in the z direction. The waist width in the middle of the antenna bar is w in the y direction. When the antenna assumes a rectangular shape, the waist width is equal to the width at the ends, i.e. w = 260 nm. The excitation optical wave is a plane wave normally incident onto the metal antenna from the top in the air with the polarization in the x direction and propagates in the z direction.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 A three-dimensional (3D) perspective of a narrow waist gold metal bar optical antenna on a sapphire substrate. The insert above shows the top view of the diabolo optical antenna.

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Using a finite difference time domain (FDTD) software code developed by the Lumerical Solution, Inc., we investigate the resonance properties of diabolo metal bar optical antennas of different waist widths. FDTD simulations obtain the full vectorial solutions of the Maxwell’s equations to find the optical response of the antennas with a plane wave excitation. Perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary conditions are used in the all boundaries of the simulation region. The simulation region has a volume of 2.9 μm by 2.9 μm in the x and y directions and 3.5 μm in the z direction. The electric permittivity of the gold film and the optical constant of the sapphire substrate are obtained from Ref [50]. A total-field scattered-field source (TFSF) is used in all simulations. The TFSF source injects a short pulse with a temporal Gaussian envelope. Two analysis groups, each of which consists of a box of power monitors, lay in the scattering-field and total-field region. The scattering-field group is used to collect the net optical power scattered from the metal bar antenna, while the total-field group is used to get the absorbed power. The scattering and absorption cross-sections are obtained by dividing the scattered power and the absorbed power by the intensity of the incident optical wave.

Scattering cross-section and absorption cross-section are calculated versus the free space wavelength for different metal bar antennas. The results are plotted in Fig. 2. It can be seen that there are two resonance modes in the metal bar optical antennas. One is the fundamental resonance mode that occurs at a longer wavelength. Another is the high order resonance mode that occurs at a shorter wavelength. The high order mode resonance is much weaker than the fundamental mode resonance. In this work, we focus only on the fundamental mode resonance. Figure 2(a) shows scattering cross-section versus the wavelength for metal bar waist widths of w = 260 nm, 210 nm, 160 nm, 110 nm, 63 nm, and 30 nm. The peak scattering wavelengths are 4.03 μm, 4.20 μm, 4.38 μm, 4.54 μm, 4.71 μm, and 4.93 μm, respectively. It also can be seen that as the waist width decreases, resonance wavelength shifts to longer wavelength, and the scattering cross-section first increases, then decreases. The scattering cross-section reaches the maximum at the waist width of 63 nm. Figure 2(b) shows the absorption cross-section versus the wavelength for diabolo gold bar antennas with different waist widths w = 260 nm, 210 nm, 160 nm, 110 nm, 63 nm, and 30 nm. The peak absorption wavelengths are 4.12 μm, 4.42 μm, 4.48 μm, 4.64 μm, 4.77 μm, and 4.99 μm, respectively. The peak absorption cross-section wavelengths are slightly longer than the peak scattering cross-section wavelengths. As the waist width decreases, both the scattering and absorption cross section peak wavelengths shift to longer wavelengths and the absorption cross-section increases significantly.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) Scattering cross-section and (b) absorption cross-section of narrow waist gold bar diabolo antennas versus the free space wavelength.

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To understand the resonance behavior of the narrow waist metal bar optical antennas, we use a dipole oscillator model to fit the numerical simulation results [5155]. In the dipole oscillator model, the electron location is at x(ω, t). Each electron has the electric charge of qe = 1.60 × 10−19 C and the electron mass me = 9.11 × 10−31 kg. In the dipole oscillator model, the spring constant of the dipole is κ. The oscillator is driven by a harmonic electric field with angular frequency ω. The internal damping coefficient of the dipole oscillator is Γa. The radiation coefficient of the oscillator is Γs [51]. The self-induced inductance force due to the electric charge oscillation is characterized as Ll with the unit of henry per meter (H/m). The self- inductance force is proportional to the change rate of the electrical current as

F=qeLldIdt=qe2Lld2x(ω,t)dt2.

The dipole oscillator model can be written as

med2x(ω,t)dt2+Γadx(ω,t)dt+κx(ω,t)=qeE0ejωt+Γsd3x(ω,t)dt3qe2Lld2x(ω,t)dt2.
By moving the inductance force term to the left side of the equation and defining the effective electron mass me*=me+qe2Ll, we have
me*d2x(ω,t)dt2+Γadx(ω,t)dt+κx=qeE0ejωt+Γsd3x(ω,t)dt3.
Assuming the electron motion x(ω, t) = x0(ω) ejωt, the solution of Eq. (3) can be obtained as
x(ω,t)=x0(ω)ejωt=(q/me*)E0ω02ω2+jωme*(Γa+ω2Γs)ejωt.
In Eq. (4), x0(ω) is the complex amplitude of the dipole oscillation and ω0=κ/me*. Time-averaged power dissipated by the oscillator can be written as P(ω) = F*(ω)[jω x0(ω)], where F*(ω) is the complex conjugate of the force applied to the electrons. Therefore, the total scattered and absorbed power can be written as
Psca(ω)=N2ω4Γs|x0(ω)|2
Pabs(ω)=N2ω2Γa|x0(ω)|2
where N is the number of electrons participated in the oscillation. The scattering cross-section Csca (ω) and the absorption cross-section Cabs (ω) can be obtained as
Csca(ω)=Psca(ω)/I0
Cabs(ω)=Pabs(ω)/I0,
where I0=12μ0ε0|E0|2 is the intensity of the incident optical wave.

We use the dipole oscillator model to fit the numerically calculated scattering and absorption cross-sections in Fig. 2. From Eqs. (5)-(8), we can see that ratio of the radiation coefficient Γs to the internal damping coefficient Γa is

ΓsΓa=1ω2Cscat(ω)Cabs(ω).
Because Γs and Γa are frequency independent, we have
ΓsΓa=1ωo2Cscat(ωo)Cabs(ωo).
Equation (10) provides a constraint for Γs and Γa in the dipole oscillator model.

Figure 3 shows the dipole oscillator model fitting for the scattering cross-section and the absorption cross-section of diabolo optical antennas with waist width of w = 30 nm, 63 nm, 110 nm, 160 nm, 210 nm, and 260 nm respectively. The solid line curves are FDTD simulation results. The dashed lines are fitted curves with the dipole oscillator model. The blue and red colors indicate the scattering cross-section and absorption cross-section, respectively. It can be seen that the dipole oscillator model fits well the FDTD simulation results.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Dipole oscillator model fittings for scattering and absorption cross-sections of diabolo metal bars with different waist widths of (a) 30 nm, (b) 63 nm, (c) 110 nm, (d) 160 nm, (e) 210 nm, and (f) 260 nm.

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In Table 1, we summarize the physical parameters used in the oscillator model for fitting the FDTD simulation results. The physical parameters are: effective electron mass me*, intrinsic oscillation frequency ωo, internal damping coefficient Γa, radiation coefficient Γs, and number of electrons N participated in the oscillation. In the table, we list the ratio of the effective electron mass to the electron rest mass me*/me. It can be seen that as the waist width is reduced, the effective mass of electrons increases due to the increase of the self-inductance. It has been known that as the width of a metal strip is reduced, the self-inductance increases [5659]. Here we show that the increase of self-inductance can be characterized by the increase of the effective electron mass in the dipole oscillator. It also can be seen that as the waist width of the diabolo antenna decreases, the internal damping coefficient Γa increases. This is due to the increase of the resistance and the energy absorption in the narrow waist metal antennas. From Fig. 3, it can be seen that as the waist width is reduced from 260 nm to 30 nm, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) line-width of the resonance curve decreases, although the internal damping coefficient Γa and the absorption cross-section increase. This is because the optical absorption cross section is much smaller than the scattering cross section and the effective electron mass me* increases quickly as the waist of diabolo metal bar is reduced. From Eq. (4), the line-width is approximately(Γa+ωo2Γs)/me*. The increase of the electron mass reduces the line-width more effectively than the line-width widening caused by the increase of the internal damping.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Physical parameters in the dipole oscillator model for the diabolo optical antennas

From the fitting parameters shown above, it can be seen that the number of electrons participated in oscillation N decreases due to the reduction of the waist width and the volume. After dividing the number of electrons by the metal antenna volume, it is found that number of electrons per unit volume N/V increases. N/V equals to 2.90 x 1029, 3.13 x 1029, 3.42 x 1029, 3.75 x 1029, 4.10 x 1029, and 4.28 x 1029 m-3 for waist width w=260 nm, 210 nm, 160 nm, 110 nm, 63 nm, and 30 nm, respectively. This indicates more electrons participate in the oscillation in term of the density. It is known that due to the skin effect, not all electrons in metal antennas interact equally with the excitation electromagnetic field. Also, because the metal antenna is placed on a dielectric substrate, the coupled bound electrons in dielectric substrate also contribute to the oscillation. Additionally, we calculate the spring constant κ = meο2 with the oscillation frequency ωo and the effective electron mass me*. The spring constant κ is 0.287, 0.289, 0.286, 0.279, 0.265, and 0.246 kg/s2 for the waist width of w = 260, 210, 160, 110, 63, and 30 nm, respectively. The spring constant decreases slightly as the waist width decreases, which indicates the attraction force between the positive and negative charges in the dipole oscillator becomes weaker as the waist width is reduced.

For biochemical sensor applications, localized electric field enhancement is most desirable. To investigate the electric field enhancement, a near field point monitor is used and located 20 nm distance from one end of the metal bar along the longitudinal axis of the antenna. The distance of the near field point monitor from the sapphire substrate surface is 32.5 nm, the half of the gold film thickness. The incident optical wave is from the above of diabolo metal bars in the air as described in Fig. 1. We calculated the near electric field intensity at this point location as a function of the wavelength for different waist width antennas. Figure 4 shows the electric field intensity at the point monitor versus the wavelength for metal bars with the waist width of w = 260 nm, 210 nm, 160 nm, 110 nm, 63 nm, and 30 nm. The resonance wavelengths are 4.377 μm, 4.423μm, 4.477μm, 4.567 μm, 4.685 μm, and 4.849 μm, respectively. It can also be seen that there are two resonance modes in the narrow waist metal bars. One is the fundamental resonance mode that occurs at a longer wavelength. Another is the high order resonance mode that occurs at a shorter wavelength. The high order mode resonance is much weaker than the fundamental mode resonance. Here we focus only on the fundamental mode resonance. From Fig. 4, it can be seen that as the waist width is reduced, the resonance wavelength shifts to longer wavelengths and the near field at the resonance is enhanced due to the reduction of the waist width. As the waist width decreases, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the near field resonance curve also decreases.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 (a) Electric field intensity at a point monitor near one end of narrow waist diabolo metal bar antennas versus the free space wavelength. (b) Dipole oscillator model fitted near electric field resonance curves.

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We calculated the electric field intensity distributions of narrow waist metal bar diabolo optical antennas with waist widths of 260 nm, 210 nm, 160 nm, 110 nm, 63 nm, and 30 nm at their near field resonance wavelengths of 4.377 μm, 4.423μm, 4.477μm, 4.567 μm, 4.685 μm, and 4.849 μm respectively. The two-dimensional electric field intensity distributions at the middle plane of the gold metal bar antennas (32.5 nm above the sapphire substrate surface and 32.5 nm below the gold film top surface) are plotted in the logarithmic scale in Fig. 5. It can be seen that the metal bar diabolo antennas have stronger near electric field enhancement than the rectangular metal bar antennas. This property is very desirable for biochemical sensor applications that demand strong near field enhancement and large surface interaction areas.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 The electric field intensity distribution at the resonance wavelengths of narrow waist metal bar antennas with waist widths: (a) w = 30 nm, (b) w = 63 nm, (c) w = 110 nm, (d) w = 160 nm, (e) w = 210 nm, and (f) w = 260 nm. Their resonance wavelengths are (a) 4.849 μm, (b) 4.685 μm, (c) 4.567 μm, (d) 4.477 μm, (e) 4.423 μm, and (f) 4.377 μm, respectively.

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For the biochemical sensor applications, targeted molecules are bonded on the metal bar surfaces. Here we define an integration parameter U as the integration of the electric field intensity over a contour of 10 nm outside of the diabolo metal bar on the middle plane of the antenna bar (32.5 nm above the substrate) at the near field resonance wavelength, i.e.

U=|E|2dl.
The integration contour is shown as the white dashed line in the insert of Fig. 6(a). The resonance enhanced electric field intensity integration versus the waist width is plotted and shown in Fig. 6(a). It can be seen that as the waist width decreases, the near field intensity integration increases, which indicates more electric field energy around the diabolo antennas than the rectangular metal bar antenna. To diminish the effect of surrounding physical contour length increase due to the narrowing of the metal bar waist, we define an averaged near electric field intensity as
|E|2=|E|2dldl.
Averaged near electric field intensities at the resonance wavelengths are also calculated for diabolo antennas of different waist widths. The result is shown in Fig. 6(b). It can be seen that as the waist width decreases, the averaged near electric field intensity increases. This property is very desirable for biochemical sensor applications.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 (a) The line integration of resonance enhanced near electric field intensity surrounding diabolo metal bar antennas. The insert shows the integration contour 10 nm outside of the diabolo antenna. (b) The averaged near electric field intensity at resonance versus the waist width.

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3. Summary

In this paper, we investigated the resonance properties of diabolo shape metal bar optical antennas by using FDTD simulations and a dipole oscillator model. The scattering and absorption cross-sections and the near field resonance of diabolo metal bar optical antennas were calculated with FDTD numerical simulations and then fitted with a dipole oscillator model including the self-inductance force. It is found that by reducing the waist width of the diabolo metal bars, resonance wavelengths found in the scattering cross-section, absorption cross-section, and the near electric field all shift to longer wavelengths. As the waist width decreases, absorption cross-section increases dramatically and near field enhancement at the resonance increases significantly. In the dipole oscillator model, the self-inductance force is first included to describe the resonance behaviors of the metal bar optical antennas. It is found that as the waist width of the diabolo metal bar is reduced, the self-inductance force increases, which is indicated as the increase of the effective electron mass in the dipole oscillator model.

Although diabolo metal bar optical antennas investigated have resonance wavelengths in the infrared region, findings in this work can be applied to other wavelength regions by scaling the dimensions of the metal antennas. Diabolo metal bar optical antennas support stronger near field resonance than rectangular metal bar antennas. Additionally, diabolo metal bar optical antennas have larger optical absorption cross-sections than rectangular metal bar antennas. The new optical resonance properties of diabolo optical antennas reported in this paper are potentially useful for optical sensing and energy harvesting applications.

Acknowledgments

This work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through the award NSF-0814103 and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through the grant NNX12AI09A. Zeyu Pan acknowledges the support from the Alabama Graduate Research Scholarship Program.

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46. S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

47. B. S. Simpkins, J. P. Long, O. J. Glembocki, J. Guo, J. D. Caldwell, and J. C. Owrutsky, “Pitch-dependent resonances and near-field coupling in infrared nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27725–27739 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

48. N. Zhou, E. C. Kinzel, and X. Xu, “Complementary bowtie aperture for localizing and enhancing optical magnetic field,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2764–2766 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

49. T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

50. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, San Diego, 1997).

51. M. A. Kats, N. Yu, P. Genevet, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Effect of radiation damping on the spectral response of plasmonic components,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21748–21753 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

52. S. Bruzzone, M. Malvaldi, G. P. Arrighini, and C. Guidotti, “Light scattering by gold nanoparticles: Role of simple dielectric models,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10853–10858 (2004). [CrossRef]  

53. B. M. Ross and L. P. Lee, “Comparison of near- and far-field measures for plasmon resonance of metallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 896–898 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

54. J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1280–1283 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

55. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics 3th ed. (Wiley, 1998).

56. E. B. Rosa, “The self and mutual inductances of linear conductors,” Bur. Stand. (U. S.), Bull. 4(2), 301–344 (1908). [CrossRef]  

57. C. P. Huang, X. G. Yin, H. Huang, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Study of plasmon resonance in a gold nanorod with an LC circuit model,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6407–6413 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

58. K. Steinberg, M. Scheffler, and M. Dressel, “Microwave inductance of thin metal strips,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 96102–96103 (2010). [CrossRef]  

59. M. Staffaroni, J. Conway, S. Vedantam, J. Tang, and E. Yablonovitch, “Circuit analysis in metal-optics,” Photon. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. 10(1), 166–176 (2012). [CrossRef]  

References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. N. Zhou, E. C. Kinzel, and X. Xu, “Complementary bowtie aperture for localizing and enhancing optical magnetic field,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2764–2766 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  49. T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  50. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, San Diego, 1997).
  51. M. A. Kats, N. Yu, P. Genevet, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Effect of radiation damping on the spectral response of plasmonic components,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21748–21753 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  53. B. M. Ross and L. P. Lee, “Comparison of near- and far-field measures for plasmon resonance of metallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 896–898 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  54. J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1280–1283 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  55. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics 3th ed. (Wiley, 1998).
  56. E. B. Rosa, “The self and mutual inductances of linear conductors,” Bur. Stand. (U. S.), Bull. 4(2), 301–344 (1908).
    [Crossref]
  57. C. P. Huang, X. G. Yin, H. Huang, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Study of plasmon resonance in a gold nanorod with an LC circuit model,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6407–6413 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  58. K. Steinberg, M. Scheffler, and M. Dressel, “Microwave inductance of thin metal strips,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 96102–96103 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  59. M. Staffaroni, J. Conway, S. Vedantam, J. Tang, and E. Yablonovitch, “Circuit analysis in metal-optics,” Photon. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. 10(1), 166–176 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (13)

V. Liberman, R. Adato, A. Mertiri, A. A. Yanik, K. Chen, T. H. Jeys, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Angle-and polarization-dependent collective excitation of plasmonic nanoarrays for surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11202–11212 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1280–1283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Zhou, E. C. Kinzel, and X. Xu, “Complementary bowtie aperture for localizing and enhancing optical magnetic field,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2764–2766 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, N. Yu, P. Genevet, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Effect of radiation damping on the spectral response of plasmonic components,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21748–21753 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: a parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Weber, P. Albella, P. Alonso-González, F. Neubrech, H. Gui, T. Nagao, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Longitudinal and transverse coupling in infrared gold nanoantenna arrays: long range versus short range interaction regimes,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15047–15061 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3888–3912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Ueno and H. Misawa, “Photochemical reaction fields with strong coupling between a photon and a molecule,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 221(2-3), 130–137 (2011).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Huang, H.-H. Hsiao, Y.-T. Chang, H.-H. Chen, Y.-W. Jiang, H.-F. Huang, P.-E. Chang, H.-C. Chang, and S.-C. Lee, “Extraordinary transmission through a silver film perforated with bowtie-shaped aperture array in midinfrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 253107 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Zhong, Y. Wang, R. He, and X. Zhou, “Investigation of plasmonics resonance infrared bowtie metal antenna,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 231–237 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (8)

I. A. Ibrahim, M. Mivelle, T. Grosjean, J. T. Allegre, G. W. Burr, and F. I. Baida, “Bowtie-shaped nanoaperture: a modal study,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2448–2450 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ding, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Surface plasmon resonances in silver bowtie nanoantennas with varied bow angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 124314 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, C.-H. Wu, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Radiative engineering of plasmon lifetimes in embedded nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4526–4537 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Steinberg, M. Scheffler, and M. Dressel, “Microwave inductance of thin metal strips,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 96102–96103 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (6)

2008 (4)

E. Cubukcu, E. J. Nanfang Yu, L. Smythe, K. B. Diehl, Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245403 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Bharadwaj, P. Anger, and L. Novotny, “Nanoplasmonic enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence,” Nanotechnology 18(4), 044017 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Rao, L. Hesselink, and J. S. Harris, “High-intensity bowtie-shaped nano-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for near-field optics,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 1995–1997 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Optical scattering resonances of single and coupled dimer plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17736–17746 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (7)

S. W. Prescott and P. Mulvaney, “Gold nanorod extinction spectra,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 123504 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. Romero, J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Plasmons in nearly touching metallic nanoparticles: singular response in the limit of touching dimers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9988–9999 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 303–307 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, “Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 361–364 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153110 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Brioude, X. C. Jiang, and M. P. Pileni, “Optical properties of gold nanorods: DDA simulations supported by experiments,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(27), 13138–13142 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Bruzzone, M. Malvaldi, G. P. Arrighini, and C. Guidotti, “Light scattering by gold nanoparticles: Role of simple dielectric models,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10853–10858 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[Crossref]

1908 (1)

E. B. Rosa, “The self and mutual inductances of linear conductors,” Bur. Stand. (U. S.), Bull. 4(2), 301–344 (1908).
[Crossref]

Adam, P. M.

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 303–307 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adato, R.

Aizpurua, J.

D. Weber, P. Albella, P. Alonso-González, F. Neubrech, H. Gui, T. Nagao, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Longitudinal and transverse coupling in infrared gold nanoantenna arrays: long range versus short range interaction regimes,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15047–15061 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Romero, J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Plasmons in nearly touching metallic nanoparticles: singular response in the limit of touching dimers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9988–9999 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aksu, S.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Albella, P.

Alkorta, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allegre, J. T.

Alonso-González, P.

Altug, H.

V. Liberman, R. Adato, T. H. Jeys, B. G. Saar, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Rational design and optimization of plasmonic nanoarrays for surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20(11), 11953–11967 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Liberman, R. Adato, A. Mertiri, A. A. Yanik, K. Chen, T. H. Jeys, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Angle-and polarization-dependent collective excitation of plasmonic nanoarrays for surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11202–11212 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, C.-H. Wu, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Radiative engineering of plasmon lifetimes in embedded nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4526–4537 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amrania, H.

V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: a parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amsden, J. J.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anger, P.

P. Bharadwaj, P. Anger, and L. Novotny, “Nanoplasmonic enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence,” Nanotechnology 18(4), 044017 (2007).
[Crossref]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arrighini, G. P.

S. Bruzzone, M. Malvaldi, G. P. Arrighini, and C. Guidotti, “Light scattering by gold nanoparticles: Role of simple dielectric models,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10853–10858 (2004).
[Crossref]

Artar, A.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bachelot, R.

W. Ding, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Surface plasmon resonances in silver bowtie nanoantennas with varied bow angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 124314 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Ding, R. Bachelot, R. Espiau de Lamaestre, D. Macias, A. L. Baudrion, and P. Royer, “Understanding near/far-field engineering of optical dimer antennas through geometry modification,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21228–21239 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baida, F. I.

T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Ibrahim, M. Mivelle, T. Grosjean, J. T. Allegre, G. W. Burr, and F. I. Baida, “Bowtie-shaped nanoaperture: a modal study,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2448–2450 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barchiesi, D.

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 303–307 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baudrion, A. L.

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 438–483 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Bharadwaj, P. Anger, and L. Novotny, “Nanoplasmonic enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence,” Nanotechnology 18(4), 044017 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bijeon, J. L.

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 303–307 (2006).
[Crossref]

Billot, L.

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 303–307 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brioude, A.

A. Brioude, X. C. Jiang, and M. P. Pileni, “Optical properties of gold nanorods: DDA simulations supported by experiments,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(27), 13138–13142 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruzzone, S.

S. Bruzzone, M. Malvaldi, G. P. Arrighini, and C. Guidotti, “Light scattering by gold nanoparticles: Role of simple dielectric models,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10853–10858 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bryant, G. W.

Burr, G. W.

T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Ibrahim, M. Mivelle, T. Grosjean, J. T. Allegre, G. W. Burr, and F. I. Baida, “Bowtie-shaped nanoaperture: a modal study,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2448–2450 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caldwell, J. D.

Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, N. Yu, P. Genevet, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Effect of radiation damping on the spectral response of plasmonic components,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21748–21753 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Cubukcu and F. Capasso, “Optical nanorod antennas as dispersive one-dimensional Fabry–Perot resonators for surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201101 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Cubukcu, E. J. Nanfang Yu, L. Smythe, K. B. Diehl, Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-C.

S.-Y. Huang, H.-H. Hsiao, Y.-T. Chang, H.-H. Chen, Y.-W. Jiang, H.-F. Huang, P.-E. Chang, H.-C. Chang, and S.-C. Lee, “Extraordinary transmission through a silver film perforated with bowtie-shaped aperture array in midinfrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 253107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, P.-E.

S.-Y. Huang, H.-H. Hsiao, Y.-T. Chang, H.-H. Chen, Y.-W. Jiang, H.-F. Huang, P.-E. Chang, H.-C. Chang, and S.-C. Lee, “Extraordinary transmission through a silver film perforated with bowtie-shaped aperture array in midinfrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 253107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.-T.

S.-Y. Huang, H.-H. Hsiao, Y.-T. Chang, H.-H. Chen, Y.-W. Jiang, H.-F. Huang, P.-E. Chang, H.-C. Chang, and S.-C. Lee, “Extraordinary transmission through a silver film perforated with bowtie-shaped aperture array in midinfrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 253107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-H.

S.-Y. Huang, H.-H. Hsiao, Y.-T. Chang, H.-H. Chen, Y.-W. Jiang, H.-F. Huang, P.-E. Chang, H.-C. Chang, and S.-C. Lee, “Extraordinary transmission through a silver film perforated with bowtie-shaped aperture array in midinfrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 253107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

Conley, N. R.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conway, J.

M. Staffaroni, J. Conway, S. Vedantam, J. Tang, and E. Yablonovitch, “Circuit analysis in metal-optics,” Photon. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. 10(1), 166–176 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cornelius, T. W.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crozier,

E. Cubukcu, E. J. Nanfang Yu, L. Smythe, K. B. Diehl, Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[Crossref]

Crozier, K. B.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu and F. Capasso, “Optical nanorod antennas as dispersive one-dimensional Fabry–Perot resonators for surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201101 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Cubukcu, E. J. Nanfang Yu, L. Smythe, K. B. Diehl, Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[Crossref]

de la Chapelle, M. L.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deutsch, B.

Diehl, K. B.

E. Cubukcu, E. J. Nanfang Yu, L. Smythe, K. B. Diehl, Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ding, W.

W. Ding, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Surface plasmon resonances in silver bowtie nanoantennas with varied bow angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 124314 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Ding, R. Bachelot, R. Espiau de Lamaestre, D. Macias, A. L. Baudrion, and P. Royer, “Understanding near/far-field engineering of optical dimer antennas through geometry modification,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21228–21239 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dokmeci, M. R.

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dressel, M.

K. Steinberg, M. Scheffler, and M. Dressel, “Microwave inductance of thin metal strips,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 96102–96103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods,” J. Phys. Chem. B 103(40), 8410–8426 (1999).
[Crossref]

Engheta, N.

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Erramilli, S.

Espiau de Lamaestre, R.

W. Ding, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Surface plasmon resonances in silver bowtie nanoantennas with varied bow angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 124314 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Ding, R. Bachelot, R. Espiau de Lamaestre, D. Macias, A. L. Baudrion, and P. Royer, “Understanding near/far-field engineering of optical dimer antennas through geometry modification,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21228–21239 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3888–3912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, H.

Fischer, U. C.

T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francescato, Y.

V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: a parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franzl, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

García De Abajo, F. J.

Garcia-Etxarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Etxarri, A.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

Giannini, V.

V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: a parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3888–3912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Optical scattering resonances of single and coupled dimer plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17736–17746 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Glembocki, O. J.

Gómez Rivas, J.

Grimault, A. S.

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 303–307 (2006).
[Crossref]

Grosjean, T.

T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. A. Ibrahim, M. Mivelle, T. Grosjean, J. T. Allegre, G. W. Burr, and F. I. Baida, “Bowtie-shaped nanoaperture: a modal study,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2448–2450 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Guidotti, C.

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P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
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A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
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[Crossref]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
[Crossref]

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J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
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S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
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K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
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C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
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P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 899–903 (2004).
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K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
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Toury, T.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ueno, K.

K. Ueno and H. Misawa, “Photochemical reaction fields with strong coupling between a photon and a molecule,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 221(2-3), 130–137 (2011).
[Crossref]

Uppuluri, S. M.

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, “Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 361–364 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N.

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vedantam, S.

M. Staffaroni, J. Conway, S. Vedantam, J. Tang, and E. Yablonovitch, “Circuit analysis in metal-optics,” Photon. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. 10(1), 166–176 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vial, A.

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 303–307 (2006).
[Crossref]

von Plessen, G.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, “Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 361–364 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

W. Zhong, Y. Wang, R. He, and X. Zhou, “Investigation of plasmonics resonance infrared bowtie metal antenna,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 231–237 (2011).
[Crossref]

Weber, D.

Wei, Q. H.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[Crossref]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilk, T.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, O.

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C.-H.

Xu, X.

N. Zhou, E. C. Kinzel, and X. Xu, “Complementary bowtie aperture for localizing and enhancing optical magnetic field,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2764–2766 (2011).
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E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153110 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, “Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 361–364 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yablonovitch, E.

M. Staffaroni, J. Conway, S. Vedantam, J. Tang, and E. Yablonovitch, “Circuit analysis in metal-optics,” Photon. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. 10(1), 166–176 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yanik, A. A.

V. Liberman, R. Adato, A. Mertiri, A. A. Yanik, K. Chen, T. H. Jeys, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Angle-and polarization-dependent collective excitation of plasmonic nanoarrays for surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11202–11212 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, C.-H. Wu, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Radiative engineering of plasmon lifetimes in embedded nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4526–4537 (2010).
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S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X. G.

Yu, N.

Zhang, X.

K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, W.

W. Zhong, Y. Wang, R. He, and X. Zhou, “Investigation of plasmonics resonance infrared bowtie metal antenna,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 231–237 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, N.

Zhou, X.

W. Zhong, Y. Wang, R. He, and X. Zhou, “Investigation of plasmonics resonance infrared bowtie metal antenna,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 231–237 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y. Y.

Zuloaga, J.

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1280–1283 (2011).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Aksu, M. Huang, A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, S. Selvarasah, M. R. Dokmeci, and H. Altug, “Flexible plasmonics on unconventional and nonplanar substrates,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4422–4430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Zhong, Y. Wang, R. He, and X. Zhou, “Investigation of plasmonics resonance infrared bowtie metal antenna,” Appl. Phys. B 105(2), 231–237 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S.-Y. Huang, H.-H. Hsiao, Y.-T. Chang, H.-H. Chen, Y.-W. Jiang, H.-F. Huang, P.-E. Chang, H.-C. Chang, and S.-C. Lee, “Extraordinary transmission through a silver film perforated with bowtie-shaped aperture array in midinfrared region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 253107 (2011).
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E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(15), 153110 (2006).
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E. Cubukcu and F. Capasso, “Optical nanorod antennas as dispersive one-dimensional Fabry–Perot resonators for surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201101 (2009).
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Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Billot, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, A. S. Grimault, A. Vial, D. Barchiesi, J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, and P. Royer, “Surface enhanced Raman scattering on gold nanowire arrays: evidence of strong multipolar surface plasmon resonance enhancement,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 422(4-6), 303–307 (2006).
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Chem. Rev. (1)

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. A. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3888–3912 (2011).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Cubukcu, E. J. Nanfang Yu, L. Smythe, K. B. Diehl, Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antennas and related devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(6), 1448–1461 (2008).
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J. Appl. Phys. (3)

W. Ding, R. Bachelot, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Surface plasmon resonances in silver bowtie nanoantennas with varied bow angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(12), 124314 (2010).
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S. W. Prescott and P. Mulvaney, “Gold nanorod extinction spectra,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 123504 (2006).
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K. Steinberg, M. Scheffler, and M. Dressel, “Microwave inductance of thin metal strips,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(9), 96102–96103 (2010).
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J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. (1)

K. Ueno and H. Misawa, “Photochemical reaction fields with strong coupling between a photon and a molecule,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 221(2-3), 130–137 (2011).
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J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

A. Brioude, X. C. Jiang, and M. P. Pileni, “Optical properties of gold nanorods: DDA simulations supported by experiments,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(27), 13138–13142 (2005).
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Nano Lett. (10)

J. Zuloaga and P. Nordlander, “On the energy shift between near-field and far-field peak intensities in localized plasmon systems,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1280–1283 (2011).
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V. Giannini, Y. Francescato, H. Amrania, C. C. Phillips, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in nanoscale plasmonic systems: a parameter-free modeling approach,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2835–2840 (2011).
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S. Aksu, A. A. Yanik, R. Adato, A. Artar, M. Huang, and H. Altug, “High-throughput nanofabrication of infrared plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for vibrational nanospectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2511–2518 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Grosjean, M. Mivelle, F. I. Baida, G. W. Burr, and U. C. Fischer, “Diabolo nanoantenna for enhancing and confining the magnetic optical field,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1009–1013 (2011).
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P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, “Plasmon hybridization in nanoparticle dimers,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 899–903 (2004).
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K. H. Su, Q. H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold particles,” Nano Lett. 3(8), 1087–1090 (2003).
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D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Gap-dependent optical coupling of single “bowtie” nanoantennas resonant in the visible,” Nano Lett. 4(5), 957–961 (2004).
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M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase-resolved mapping of the near-field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3524–3528 (2010).
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A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: Utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 355–360 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, “Nanolithography using high transmission nanoscale bowtie apertures,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 361–364 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

P. Bharadwaj, P. Anger, and L. Novotny, “Nanoplasmonic enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence,” Nanotechnology 18(4), 044017 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (2)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Novotny and N. van Hulst, “Antennas for light,” Nat. Photonics 5(2), 83–90 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun. 220(1-3), 137–141 (2003).
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Opt. Express (11)

I. Romero, J. Aizpurua, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García De Abajo, “Plasmons in nearly touching metallic nanoparticles: singular response in the limit of touching dimers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9988–9999 (2006).
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W. Ding, R. Bachelot, R. Espiau de Lamaestre, D. Macias, A. L. Baudrion, and P. Royer, “Understanding near/far-field engineering of optical dimer antennas through geometry modification,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21228–21239 (2009).
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H. Fischer and O. J. F. Martin, “Engineering the optical response of plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 16(12), 9144–9154 (2008).
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B. S. Simpkins, J. P. Long, O. J. Glembocki, J. Guo, J. D. Caldwell, and J. C. Owrutsky, “Pitch-dependent resonances and near-field coupling in infrared nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27725–27739 (2012).
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D. Weber, P. Albella, P. Alonso-González, F. Neubrech, H. Gui, T. Nagao, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and A. Pucci, “Longitudinal and transverse coupling in infrared gold nanoantenna arrays: long range versus short range interaction regimes,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15047–15061 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, C.-H. Wu, G. Shvets, and H. Altug, “Radiative engineering of plasmon lifetimes in embedded nanoantenna arrays,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4526–4537 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Liberman, R. Adato, T. H. Jeys, B. G. Saar, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Rational design and optimization of plasmonic nanoarrays for surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 20(11), 11953–11967 (2012).
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V. Liberman, R. Adato, A. Mertiri, A. A. Yanik, K. Chen, T. H. Jeys, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Angle-and polarization-dependent collective excitation of plasmonic nanoarrays for surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11202–11212 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Huang, X. G. Yin, H. Huang, and Y. Y. Zhu, “Study of plasmon resonance in a gold nanorod with an LC circuit model,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6407–6413 (2009).
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O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Optical scattering resonances of single and coupled dimer plasmonic nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17736–17746 (2007).
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M. A. Kats, N. Yu, P. Genevet, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Effect of radiation damping on the spectral response of plasmonic components,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21748–21753 (2011).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Photon. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. (1)

M. Staffaroni, J. Conway, S. Vedantam, J. Tang, and E. Yablonovitch, “Circuit analysis in metal-optics,” Photon. Nanostruct. Fund. Appl. 10(1), 166–176 (2012).
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Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. Li, A. Salandrino, and N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: a Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245403 (2007).
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A. Sundaramurthy, K. B. Crozier, G. S. Kino, D. P. Fromm, P. J. Schuck, and W. E. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 165409 (2005).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Sönnichsen, T. Franzl, T. Wilk, G. von Plessen, J. Feldmann, O. Wilson, and P. Mulvaney, “Drastic reduction of plasmon damping in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(7), 077402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
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Phys. Stat. Solidi B (1)

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-sensitive vibrational spectroscopy of protein monolayers with plasmonic nanoantenna arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science 308(5728), 1607–1609 (2005).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A three-dimensional (3D) perspective of a narrow waist gold metal bar optical antenna on a sapphire substrate. The insert above shows the top view of the diabolo optical antenna.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Scattering cross-section and (b) absorption cross-section of narrow waist gold bar diabolo antennas versus the free space wavelength.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dipole oscillator model fittings for scattering and absorption cross-sections of diabolo metal bars with different waist widths of (a) 30 nm, (b) 63 nm, (c) 110 nm, (d) 160 nm, (e) 210 nm, and (f) 260 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Electric field intensity at a point monitor near one end of narrow waist diabolo metal bar antennas versus the free space wavelength. (b) Dipole oscillator model fitted near electric field resonance curves.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The electric field intensity distribution at the resonance wavelengths of narrow waist metal bar antennas with waist widths: (a) w = 30 nm, (b) w = 63 nm, (c) w = 110 nm, (d) w = 160 nm, (e) w = 210 nm, and (f) w = 260 nm. Their resonance wavelengths are (a) 4.849 μm, (b) 4.685 μm, (c) 4.567 μm, (d) 4.477 μm, (e) 4.423 μm, and (f) 4.377 μm, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The line integration of resonance enhanced near electric field intensity surrounding diabolo metal bar antennas. The insert shows the integration contour 10 nm outside of the diabolo antenna. (b) The averaged near electric field intensity at resonance versus the waist width.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Physical parameters in the dipole oscillator model for the diabolo optical antennas

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F= q e L l dI dt = q e 2 L l d 2 x(ω,t) d t 2 .
m e d 2 x(ω,t) d t 2 + Γ a dx(ω,t) dt +κx(ω,t)= q e E 0 e jωt + Γ s d 3 x(ω,t) d t 3 q e 2 L l d 2 x(ω,t) d t 2 .
m e * d 2 x(ω,t) d t 2 + Γ a dx(ω,t) dt +κx= q e E 0 e jωt + Γ s d 3 x(ω,t) d t 3 .
x(ω,t)= x 0 (ω) e jωt = ( q/ m e * ) E 0 ω 0 2 ω 2 +j ω m e * ( Γ a + ω 2 Γ s ) e jωt .
P sca ( ω )= N 2 ω 4 Γ s | x 0 ( ω ) | 2
P abs ( ω )= N 2 ω 2 Γ a | x 0 ( ω ) | 2
C sca ( ω )= P sca ( ω )/ I 0
C abs ( ω )= P abs ( ω )/ I 0 ,
Γ s Γ a = 1 ω 2 C scat (ω) C abs (ω) .
Γ s Γ a = 1 ω o 2 C scat ( ω o ) C abs ( ω o ) .
U = | E | 2 d l .
| E | 2 = | E | 2 d l d l .

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