Abstract

The effect of heat-treatment on the near-infrared (NIR) luminescence properties was studied in Bi-doped borate glasses. The luminescence intensity generally decreases with the increase of temperature, and the thermal stability can be improved by nearly 4.5 times with addition of 5 mol% La2O3. Collaborative studies by using steady photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra, luminescence decay curve, differential thermal analysis (DTA), Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate that the luminescence decrement is associated with the agglomeration of Bi active centers during heat-treatment. The improvement of the thermal stability of NIR luminescence with the addition of La2O3 is benefited from the enhancement of structure rigidity due to the strong cationic field strength of La3+. The results not only provide valuable guidance for suppressing performance degradation of Bi-doped glass during fiber drawing process, but also present an effective way to control the luminescence properties of main group elements in glasses from the perspective of glass structure.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

With the rapid growth of information demand, which will reach 100-1000 Pbit/s per fiber in 20 years, it’s a big challenge for the present optical fiber communication system to realize a super-big-capacity optical communication. One of the approaches that have been proposed is widening the spectral region for the information transmission [1], for example, effort has been done to broaden the presently widely used rare-earth ions doped fiber amplifiers’ amplification bandwidth. Although some valuable results have been obtained [2], the potential of this route is still limited due to the native luminescence nature of 4f-4f electronic transition of rare-earth ions, therefore leaving most of the optical fiber’s low optical loss spectra region of 1300-1700 nm being not used [1, 3].

In recent years, Bi-doped glasses have gained increasing attention due to its broadband and tunable near-infrared (NIR) emission in the range of 1000-1700 nm with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) even over 300 nm in some cases [1, 4], which make it a promising material for the application in broadband optical amplification. Besides, when co-doped with proper active ions, its luminescence could even cover the entire low optical loss spectra region [5, 6]. Although NIR luminescence with high efficiency have been reported successively in various types of bulk glass systems such as silicate [710], germanate [1113], borate [14], phosphate [15], chalcogenide [16], and germanium silicate [17, 18], the amplification gain and laser performance in Bi-doped glass fiber leaves much to be desired [1921]. One possible reason is that Bi related centers present rich and strong absorption bands in the whole visible and NIR wavebands, which leads to the serious self-absorption during resonance oscillation.

In stark contrast to the rare-earth and transition-metal ions with relatively simple ionic state in glass matrix, Bi has been identified to be present in various forms, including Bi3+, Bi2+, Bi+, Bi atom, Bi cluster and Bi nanocrystal. We recognized that the activation energy of the chemical transformations of these species is relatively low. So the thermal activation during fiber drawing process is anticipated to be sufficient enough to trigger the transformation of Bi species. From this point of view, the previous simple optimization of the optical performance of Bi-doped bulk glass is far from content and the study of thermal annealing dependence of optical properties is an inseparable part of the research. However, there is seldom investigation about the effect of heat-treatment on the NIR luminescence properties of Bi-doped glasses. In the present contribution, we carefully studied the thermal stability of NIR luminescence of Bi-doped borate glasses. The NIR luminescence intensity decreased sharply and almost disappeared when heat-treated at 690 °C for 2 h. We proposed a way of improving the thermal stability of borate glasses by regulating the structure rigidity of glass. The NIR luminescence degradation can be firmly suppressed with the addition of La3+ for enhancement of the structure rigidity. The results provide valuable guidance for suppressing performance degradation of Bi-doped glass during fiber drawing process.

2. Experimental

The glass samples with the compositions of 75B2O3-20BaO-5Al2O3-1Bi2O3 (0La) and 75B2O3-15BaO-5La2O3-5Al2O3-1Bi2O3 (5La) (in mol%) were prepared by the conventional melting-quenching technique. Analytical grade reagents H3BO3, BaCO3, Al2O3, La2O3 and Bi2O3 were used as raw materials. 30 g batches were mixed homogeneously and then melted in a corundum crucible at 1550 °C for 20 min in air and then cast onto a stainless steel plate. The obtained glasses were cut into pieces. Then the glass samples were heat-treated at different temperatures between 400 and 700 °C for 2 hours and polished into slices of an appropriate size with a thickness of 1.5 mm for optical measurements.

The photoluminescence (PL) spectra were recorded using a ZOLIX SBP300 spectrophotometer with an InGaAs detector excited by 800 nm LD. The differential thermal analysis (DTA) was carried out by a CRY-Z Differential Thermal Analyzer at a heating rate of 10 °C/min. The photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra and luminescence decay curves were recorded by a FLS920 fluorescence spectrophotometer (Edinburgh Instrument Ltd, UK). The structure of the glasses was analyzed with a Raman spectrometer (Jobin Yvon Corp., France) using 514.5 nm radiation from an argon ion laser for excitation. Since the Bi centers have a strong absorption around 514 nm and small amounts of Bi exert little effect on the glass structure, the Raman spectra were performed on corresponding Bi free glasses. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out on a D/MAX-2550pc diffractometer with Cu Kα as the incident radiation source. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on a FEG-TEM (Tecnai G2 F30 S-Twin, Philips-FEI, Netherlands). All the measurements were performed at ambient atmosphere.

3. Results and discussion

Thermal properties of the glass were measured by DTA, and the glass transition temperature (Tg) of samples 0La and 5La were estimated to be around 588 °C and 593 °C, respectively. A slight increment of Tg with the addition of La2O3 indicates the enhancement of the rigidity of glass structure. This results from the relative strong cationic field strength of La3+ ions (CFSLa3+ = 2.67 A−2) which is beneficial for stabilization of glass structure.

PL spectra were measured to study the effect of heat-treatment conditions on the luminescence properties of the two glass samples under excitation with an 800 nm LD, as is depicted in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b). It can be observed that both glass samples show broad emission with the central wavelength at around 1250 nm. Upon heat-treatment at 690 °C for 2 h, NIR luminescence of sample without La2O3 (0La) almost disappears, while the glass sample with La2O3 (5La) shows a different scenario which only decreases about half.

 

Fig. 1 Photoluminescence spectra of the glass samples 0La (a) and 5La (b) before and after heat-treatment when excited by an 800 nm LD, (c) dependence of the NIR luminescence intensity on the heat-treatment temperatures. The insets show the corresponding photographs of the glass samples heat-treated at various temperatures.

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We further systematically investigate the effect of heat-treatment conditions on the NIR emission of the glasses, both samples were heat-treated at different temperatures and their optical properties were investigated. From the insets of Fig. 1(c), it can be observed that the color of these glasses gradually become dark with the increasing heat-treatment temperature and the color change of sample 0La is more obvious. The NIR luminescence intensity as a function of heat-treatment temperature is shown in Fig. 1(c). Both samples experience emission loss at around Tg. The NIR emission intensity of glass 0La decreases nearly 88% when heat-treated at 690 °C for 2 h. In contrast, the luminescence degradation of glass with La2O3 is suppressed and the luminescence decrement of sample 5La is estimated to be around 46%. Thus, the thermal stability of luminescence can be improved by nearly 4.5 times with addition of 5 mol% La2O3. In a further study, we found that with La2O3 up to 10 mol%, the emission intensity after heat-treatment is comparable to that of the as-made sample.

In order to investigate the origin of NIR luminescence degradation during heat-treatment, PLE and PL spectra and the corresponding decay curves of the as-made and heat-treated samples were measured. As can be clearly seen from Fig. 2(a), except the intensity decrement, the excitation and emission spectra remain unchanged after heat-treatment. Besides, the corresponding decay curve of heat-treated sample follows the same decay mode with the as-made sample, indicating a similar behavior of Bi-related active center in the samples before and after heat-treatment, as is shown in Fig. 2(b). The same phenomena have also been observed in glass 5La, see Figs. 2(c) and 2(d). This firmly suggest that the NIR luminescence of the as-made and heat-treated glasses are all derived from the same Bi-related active center, which is most probably ascribed to low valent Bi ions [12, 4, 2225]. These active Bi centers are supposed to easily capture the electrons released from the wrong bond during thermal activation, and then gradually aggregate into nonluminous Bi metallic colloids, resulting in the decrement of luminescence intensity and darking phenomenon of the glass samples [4, 26, 27].

 

Fig. 2 PLE (λem = 1150 nm) and PL (λex = 468 nm) spectra of as-made and heat-treated glass samples 0La (a) and 5La (c). Corresponding decay curves of glass samples 0La (b) and 5La (d) when excited at 468 nm and monitored at 1150 nm.

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To expound the possible transformation mechanism of Bi active center in the glass matrix and reveal the differences in thermal stability of NIR luminescence between glass 0La and 5La, Raman spectra were measured to analyze the structure of these two glasses. As shown in Fig. 3(a), the intense peak at 798 cm−1 is assigned to the symmetric ring-breathing vibration of the boroxol ring [28]. Peak at ~663 cm−1 is attributed to stretching of metaborate [BO2]- [29], and the band near 723 cm−1 belongs to the bending vibrations of three coordinated boron units [28]. The origin of Raman band at ~1215 cm−1 is ascribed to the stretching modes of [BO3] triangular units [30], while the vibrational modes of B-O- terminal bonds of [BO3] metaborate triangles contribute to the high-frequency Raman envelop (1350-1600 cm−1) [31]. Another peak at ~900 cm−1 can be assigned to the symmetric stretching vibration of the planar orthoborate units [32]. According to literature [29], peaks at around 477 cm−1 and 767 cm−1 can be ascribed to the symmetric breathing vibrations of six-membered rings with one BO4 tetrahedron and ring type metaborate groups. From the inset of Fig. 3(a), peak at around 767 cm−1 is more prominent in glass 5La than that in glass 0La, demonstrating a relative higher content of BO4 tetrahedron groups in glass 5La. The successful introduction of rich BO4 tetrahedron groups with the addition of La2O3 may lead to more rigid glass structure. This is highly beneficial for stabilization of Bi active centers and suppression of NIR emission degradation.

 

Fig. 3 (a) Raman spectra of as-made glass 0La and 5La. Inset is the amplified spectrum region from 755 to 790 cm−1, (b) schematic illustration of transformation mechanism of Bi active centers in glass 0La and 5La, and (c) XRD pattern and TEM photograph of glass 0La.

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The transformation mechanism of Bi active centers and the improvement of thermal stability can also be understood based on the topological constraint theory [33]. As shown in the schematic diagram of Fig. 3(b), for glass without La2O3, when heat-treated at temperature above Tg, there is ample thermal energy to overcome the bond constraints, and the network becomes floppy. As a result, the Bi ions distributed inside the glass network can easily migrate to form Bi metallic colloid through the ‘microchannel’ formed during the crack of the floppy network at high temperature. And this formation process of Bi-colloid can be directly evidenced by XRD and TEM analysis of glass 0La before and after heat-treatment [34], see Fig. 3(c). In contrast, the glass with La2O3 has a relative more rigid network and becomes more difficult to get floppy. More specifically, due to the large cationic field strength and high coordination number of La3+ ions (CFSLa3+ = 2.67 A−2) compared with Ba2+ ions (CFSBa2+ = 1.11 A−2), the mobility of the floppy network at high temperature is restricted to a certain degree, and the ‘microchannel’ big enough to transit Bi ions is harder to form, which, in turn, imposes restrictions on the migration of Bi ions, including the Bi NIR luminescence active centers, which is shown in the lower part of Fig. 3(b). Consequently, the glass with La2O3 presents higher thermal stability of NIR luminescence than that of the glass without La2O3.

4. Conclusion

In summary, we systematically studied the heat-treatment temperature dependent NIR luminescence in Bi-doped borate glass. It was found that the NIR luminescence intensity generally decreases with the increase of heat-treatment temperature and experiences a dramatic decrement at around glass transition temperature. The possible mechanism is discussed, and can be attributed to the agglomeration of Bi active centers. We proposed a way of improving the thermal stability of NIR luminescence of borate glasses by regulating the structure rigidity of glass. We demonstrated a great improvement of the thermal stability of NIR luminescence by addition of La2O3. This is benefited from the large cationic field strength and high coordination number of La3+ ion which lead to the enhancement of the rigidity of glass structure. The results not only provide valuable guidance for suppressing performance degradation of Bi-doped glass during fiber drawing process, but also present an effective way to control the luminescence properties of main group elements in glasses from the perspective of glass structure.

Acknowledgment

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants. 51132004, 51072054, and 51102209), National Basic Research Program of China (Grant 2011CB808100), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University, and Guangdong Natural Science Funds for Distinguished Young Scholar (Grant S2013050014549). This work was also supported by the Open Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices (South China University of Technology) and Nippon Sheet Glass Foundation for Materials Science and Engineering.

References and links

1. E. M. Dianov, “Amplification in extended transmission bands using bismuth-doped optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 681–688 (2013). [CrossRef]  

2. B. Zhou, L. Tao, Y. H. Tsang, W. Jin, and E. Y. Pun, “Superbroadband near-IR photoluminescence from Pr3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3803–3813 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009). [CrossRef]  

4. B. Xu, S. Zhou, M. Guan, D. Tan, Y. Teng, J. Zhou, Z. Ma, Z. Hong, and J. Qiu, “Unusual luminescence quenching and reviving behavior of Bi-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23436–23443 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. B. Zhou, H. Lin, B. Chen, and E. Y. Pun, “Superbroadband near-infrared emission in Tm-Bi codoped sodium-germanium-gallate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6514–6523 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. K. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y. Zhuang, R. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Bandwidth broadening of near-infrared emission through nanocrystallization in Bi/Ni co-doped glass,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8675–8680 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. Y. Fujimoto and M. Naskatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from Bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(3), 279–281 (2001). [CrossRef]  

8. S. Zhou, G. Feng, J. Bao, H. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res. 22(6), 1435–1438 (2007). [CrossRef]  

9. S. Zhou, W. Lei, J. Chen, J. Hao, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Laser-induced optical property changes inside Bi-doped glass,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 386–388 (2009). [CrossRef]  

10. B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doped with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(18), 183506 (2013). [CrossRef]  

11. M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, J. Hao, J. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Infrared luminescence and amplification properties of Bi-doped GeO2-Ga2O3-Al2O3 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(10), 103532 (2008). [CrossRef]  

13. A. A. Pynenkov, S. V. Firstov, A. A. Panov, E. G. Firstova, K. N. Nishchev, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres,” Quantum Electron. 43(2), 174–176 (2013). [CrossRef]  

14. X. G. Meng, J. R. Qiu, M. Y. Peng, D. P. Chen, Q. Z. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-doped barium-aluminum-borate glasses,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1635–1642 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, and E. Dianov, “Luminescent properties of Bi-doped boro-alumino-phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B. 87(1), 135–137 (2007). [CrossRef]  

16. M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19345–19355 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007). [CrossRef]  

18. N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(7), 3154–3159 (2012). [CrossRef]  

19. E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron. 35(12), 1083–1084 (2005). [CrossRef]  

20. I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(3), 031103 (2007). [CrossRef]  

21. I. A. Bufetov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers for a spectral region of 1300-1470 nm,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2227–2229 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041908 (2008). [CrossRef]  

23. J. Ren, G. Dong, S. Xu, R. Bao, and J. Qiu, “Inhomogeneous broadening, luminescence origin and optical amplification in bismuth-doped glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A 112(14), 3036–3039 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(9), 1407–1413 (2008). [CrossRef]  

25. H. T. Sun, Y. Matsushita, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Tanaka, Y. Katsuya, H. Gao, and K. Kobayashi, “Synchrotron X-ray, photoluminescence, and quantum chemistry studies of bismuth-embedded dehydrated zeolite Y,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(6), 2918–2921 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

27. S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater. 31(8), 1262–1268 (2009). [CrossRef]  

28. E. I. Kamitsos and G. D. Chryssikos, “Borate glass structure by raman and infrared spectroscopies,” J. Mol. Struct. 247, 1–16 (1991). [CrossRef]  

29. M. Sharada and D. Suresh Babu, “Spectroscopic studies of tantalum doped borate glasses,” Phys. B 407(19), 3945–3955 (2012). [CrossRef]  

30. H. Fan, G. Gao, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Infrared, Raman and XPS spectroscopic studies of Bi2O3-B2O3-GeO2 glasses,” Solid State Sci. 12(4), 541–545 (2010). [CrossRef]  

31. A. A. Osipov and L. M. Osipova, “Raman scattering study of barium borate glasses and melts,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 74(7), 971–978 (2013). [CrossRef]  

32. M. Monika, M. Falconieri, S. Baccaro, G. Sharma, K. S. Thind, and D. P. Singh, “Role of aluminium oxide in the structure of heavy metal oxide borosilicate glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A 209(8), 1438–1444 (2012). [CrossRef]  

33. M. M. Smedskjaer, J. C. Mauro, and Y. Yue, “Prediction of glass hardness using temperature-dependent constraint theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(11), 115503 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(26), 4603–4608 (2009). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. E. M. Dianov, “Amplification in extended transmission bands using bismuth-doped optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 681–688 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Zhou, L. Tao, Y. H. Tsang, W. Jin, and E. Y. Pun, “Superbroadband near-IR photoluminescence from Pr3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses,” Opt. Express20(4), 3803–3813 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Xu, S. Zhou, M. Guan, D. Tan, Y. Teng, J. Zhou, Z. Ma, Z. Hong, and J. Qiu, “Unusual luminescence quenching and reviving behavior of Bi-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express19(23), 23436–23443 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Zhou, H. Lin, B. Chen, and E. Y. Pun, “Superbroadband near-infrared emission in Tm-Bi codoped sodium-germanium-gallate glasses,” Opt. Express19(7), 6514–6523 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y. Zhuang, R. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Bandwidth broadening of near-infrared emission through nanocrystallization in Bi/Ni co-doped glass,” Opt. Express20(8), 8675–8680 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Fujimoto and M. Naskatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from Bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(3), 279–281 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Zhou, G. Feng, J. Bao, H. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(6), 1435–1438 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Zhou, W. Lei, J. Chen, J. Hao, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Laser-induced optical property changes inside Bi-doped glass,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(6), 386–388 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doped with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett.29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, J. Hao, J. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Infrared luminescence and amplification properties of Bi-doped GeO2-Ga2O3-Al2O3 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103532 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. A. Pynenkov, S. V. Firstov, A. A. Panov, E. G. Firstova, K. N. Nishchev, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres,” Quantum Electron.43(2), 174–176 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. X. G. Meng, J. R. Qiu, M. Y. Peng, D. P. Chen, Q. Z. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-doped barium-aluminum-borate glasses,” Opt. Express13(5), 1635–1642 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, and E. Dianov, “Luminescent properties of Bi-doped boro-alumino-phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B.87(1), 135–137 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express17(22), 19345–19355 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061919 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. I. A. Bufetov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers for a spectral region of 1300-1470 nm,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2227–2229 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Ren, G. Dong, S. Xu, R. Bao, and J. Qiu, “Inhomogeneous broadening, luminescence origin and optical amplification in bismuth-doped glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(14), 3036–3039 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. T. Sun, Y. Matsushita, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Tanaka, Y. Katsuya, H. Gao, and K. Kobayashi, “Synchrotron X-ray, photoluminescence, and quantum chemistry studies of bismuth-embedded dehydrated zeolite Y,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(6), 2918–2921 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. I. Kamitsos and G. D. Chryssikos, “Borate glass structure by raman and infrared spectroscopies,” J. Mol. Struct.247, 1–16 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Sharada and D. Suresh Babu, “Spectroscopic studies of tantalum doped borate glasses,” Phys. B407(19), 3945–3955 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Fan, G. Gao, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Infrared, Raman and XPS spectroscopic studies of Bi2O3-B2O3-GeO2 glasses,” Solid State Sci.12(4), 541–545 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. A. Osipov and L. M. Osipova, “Raman scattering study of barium borate glasses and melts,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids74(7), 971–978 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Monika, M. Falconieri, S. Baccaro, G. Sharma, K. S. Thind, and D. P. Singh, “Role of aluminium oxide in the structure of heavy metal oxide borosilicate glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A209(8), 1438–1444 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. M. Smedskjaer, J. C. Mauro, and Y. Yue, “Prediction of glass hardness using temperature-dependent constraint theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(11), 115503 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem.19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doped with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Pynenkov, S. V. Firstov, A. A. Panov, E. G. Firstova, K. N. Nishchev, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres,” Quantum Electron.43(2), 174–176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Osipov and L. M. Osipova, “Raman scattering study of barium borate glasses and melts,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids74(7), 971–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Dianov, “Amplification in extended transmission bands using bismuth-doped optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 681–688 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

B. Zhou, L. Tao, Y. H. Tsang, W. Jin, and E. Y. Pun, “Superbroadband near-IR photoluminescence from Pr3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses,” Opt. Express20(4), 3803–3813 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y. Zhuang, R. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Bandwidth broadening of near-infrared emission through nanocrystallization in Bi/Ni co-doped glass,” Opt. Express20(8), 8675–8680 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Monika, M. Falconieri, S. Baccaro, G. Sharma, K. S. Thind, and D. P. Singh, “Role of aluminium oxide in the structure of heavy metal oxide borosilicate glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A209(8), 1438–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Sharada and D. Suresh Babu, “Spectroscopic studies of tantalum doped borate glasses,” Phys. B407(19), 3945–3955 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, Y. Matsushita, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Tanaka, Y. Katsuya, H. Gao, and K. Kobayashi, “Synchrotron X-ray, photoluminescence, and quantum chemistry studies of bismuth-embedded dehydrated zeolite Y,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(6), 2918–2921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

H. Fan, G. Gao, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Infrared, Raman and XPS spectroscopic studies of Bi2O3-B2O3-GeO2 glasses,” Solid State Sci.12(4), 541–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Smedskjaer, J. C. Mauro, and Y. Yue, “Prediction of glass hardness using temperature-dependent constraint theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(11), 115503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem.19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express17(22), 19345–19355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, W. Lei, J. Chen, J. Hao, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Laser-induced optical property changes inside Bi-doped glass,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(6), 386–388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, J. Hao, J. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Infrared luminescence and amplification properties of Bi-doped GeO2-Ga2O3-Al2O3 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Ren, G. Dong, S. Xu, R. Bao, and J. Qiu, “Inhomogeneous broadening, luminescence origin and optical amplification in bismuth-doped glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(14), 3036–3039 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers for a spectral region of 1300-1470 nm,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2227–2229 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, and E. Dianov, “Luminescent properties of Bi-doped boro-alumino-phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B.87(1), 135–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, G. Feng, J. Bao, H. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(6), 1435–1438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Meng, J. R. Qiu, M. Y. Peng, D. P. Chen, Q. Z. Zhao, X. W. Jiang, and C. S. Zhu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-doped barium-aluminum-borate glasses,” Opt. Express13(5), 1635–1642 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2001

Y. Fujimoto and M. Naskatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from Bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(3), 279–281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1991

E. I. Kamitsos and G. D. Chryssikos, “Borate glass structure by raman and infrared spectroscopies,” J. Mol. Struct.247, 1–16 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akada, T.

Arai, Y.

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baccaro, S.

M. Monika, M. Falconieri, S. Baccaro, G. Sharma, K. S. Thind, and D. P. Singh, “Role of aluminium oxide in the structure of heavy metal oxide borosilicate glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A209(8), 1438–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bao, J.

S. Zhou, G. Feng, J. Bao, H. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(6), 1435–1438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bao, R.

J. Ren, G. Dong, S. Xu, R. Bao, and J. Qiu, “Inhomogeneous broadening, luminescence origin and optical amplification in bismuth-doped glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(14), 3036–3039 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigot, L.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmans, G.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I. A.

A. A. Pynenkov, S. V. Firstov, A. A. Panov, E. G. Firstova, K. N. Nishchev, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres,” Quantum Electron.43(2), 174–176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers for a spectral region of 1300-1470 nm,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2227–2229 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

Chen, D.

Chen, D. P.

Chen, J.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, J. Chen, J. Hao, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Laser-induced optical property changes inside Bi-doped glass,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(6), 386–388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, J. Hao, J. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Infrared luminescence and amplification properties of Bi-doped GeO2-Ga2O3-Al2O3 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doped with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chryssikos, G. D.

E. I. Kamitsos and G. D. Chryssikos, “Borate glass structure by raman and infrared spectroscopies,” J. Mol. Struct.247, 1–16 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Denker, B.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, and E. Dianov, “Luminescent properties of Bi-doped boro-alumino-phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B.87(1), 135–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, and E. Dianov, “Luminescent properties of Bi-doped boro-alumino-phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B.87(1), 135–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, “Amplification in extended transmission bands using bismuth-doped optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 681–688 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Pynenkov, S. V. Firstov, A. A. Panov, E. G. Firstova, K. N. Nishchev, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres,” Quantum Electron.43(2), 174–176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers for a spectral region of 1300-1470 nm,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2227–2229 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dong, G.

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ren, G. Dong, S. Xu, R. Bao, and J. Qiu, “Inhomogeneous broadening, luminescence origin and optical amplification in bismuth-doped glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(14), 3036–3039 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, H.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, J. Hao, J. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Infrared luminescence and amplification properties of Bi-doped GeO2-Ga2O3-Al2O3 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dvoyrin, V. V.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Falconieri, M.

M. Monika, M. Falconieri, S. Baccaro, G. Sharma, K. S. Thind, and D. P. Singh, “Role of aluminium oxide in the structure of heavy metal oxide borosilicate glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A209(8), 1438–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H.

H. Fan, G. Gao, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Infrared, Raman and XPS spectroscopic studies of Bi2O3-B2O3-GeO2 glasses,” Solid State Sci.12(4), 541–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Favre, A.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, G.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, G. Feng, J. Bao, H. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(6), 1435–1438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Firstov, S. V.

A. A. Pynenkov, S. V. Firstov, A. A. Panov, E. G. Firstova, K. N. Nishchev, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres,” Quantum Electron.43(2), 174–176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Bufetov, S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, O. I. Medvedkov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers and amplifiers for a spectral region of 1300-1470 nm,” Opt. Lett.33(19), 2227–2229 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firstova, E. G.

A. A. Pynenkov, S. V. Firstov, A. A. Panov, E. G. Firstova, K. N. Nishchev, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres,” Quantum Electron.43(2), 174–176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, Y.

Y. Fujimoto and M. Naskatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from Bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(3), 279–281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Galagan, B.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, and E. Dianov, “Luminescent properties of Bi-doped boro-alumino-phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B.87(1), 135–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, G.

H. Fan, G. Gao, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Infrared, Raman and XPS spectroscopic studies of Bi2O3-B2O3-GeO2 glasses,” Solid State Sci.12(4), 541–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. T. Sun, Y. Matsushita, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Tanaka, Y. Katsuya, H. Gao, and K. Kobayashi, “Synchrotron X-ray, photoluminescence, and quantum chemistry studies of bismuth-embedded dehydrated zeolite Y,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(6), 2918–2921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guan, M.

Gur’yanov, A. N.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guryanov, A. N.

Hao, J.

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doped with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, W. Lei, J. Chen, J. Hao, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Laser-induced optical property changes inside Bi-doped glass,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(6), 386–388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem.19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, J. Hao, J. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Infrared luminescence and amplification properties of Bi-doped GeO2-Ga2O3-Al2O3 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

Hong, Z.

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doped with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, M. Guan, D. Tan, Y. Teng, J. Zhou, Z. Ma, Z. Hong, and J. Qiu, “Unusual luminescence quenching and reviving behavior of Bi-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express19(23), 23436–23443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

H. Fan, G. Gao, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Infrared, Raman and XPS spectroscopic studies of Bi2O3-B2O3-GeO2 glasses,” Solid State Sci.12(4), 541–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, M. A.

Jiang, N.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem.19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Jiang, X. W.

Jin, W.

Kamitsos, E. I.

E. I. Kamitsos and G. D. Chryssikos, “Borate glass structure by raman and infrared spectroscopies,” J. Mol. Struct.247, 1–16 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Katsuya, Y.

H. T. Sun, Y. Matsushita, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Tanaka, Y. Katsuya, H. Gao, and K. Kobayashi, “Synchrotron X-ray, photoluminescence, and quantum chemistry studies of bismuth-embedded dehydrated zeolite Y,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(6), 2918–2921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khonthon, S.

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khopin, V. F.

Kobayashi, K.

H. T. Sun, Y. Matsushita, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Tanaka, Y. Katsuya, H. Gao, and K. Kobayashi, “Synchrotron X-ray, photoluminescence, and quantum chemistry studies of bismuth-embedded dehydrated zeolite Y,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(6), 2918–2921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakshminarayana, G.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lei, W.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem.19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, W. Lei, J. Chen, J. Hao, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Laser-induced optical property changes inside Bi-doped glass,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(6), 386–388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lerouge, A.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

Ma, Z.

Mashinsky, V. M.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, Y.

H. T. Sun, Y. Matsushita, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Tanaka, Y. Katsuya, H. Gao, and K. Kobayashi, “Synchrotron X-ray, photoluminescence, and quantum chemistry studies of bismuth-embedded dehydrated zeolite Y,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(6), 2918–2921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauro, J. C.

M. M. Smedskjaer, J. C. Mauro, and Y. Yue, “Prediction of glass hardness using temperature-dependent constraint theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(11), 115503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medvedkov, O. I.

Meng, X.

Meng, X. G.

Monika, M.

M. Monika, M. Falconieri, S. Baccaro, G. Sharma, K. S. Thind, and D. P. Singh, “Role of aluminium oxide in the structure of heavy metal oxide borosilicate glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A209(8), 1438–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, S.

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naskatsuka, M.

Y. Fujimoto and M. Naskatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from Bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(3), 279–281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishchev, K. N.

A. A. Pynenkov, S. V. Firstov, A. A. Panov, E. G. Firstova, K. N. Nishchev, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres,” Quantum Electron.43(2), 174–176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express17(22), 19345–19355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osiko, V.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, and E. Dianov, “Luminescent properties of Bi-doped boro-alumino-phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B.87(1), 135–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osipov, A. A.

A. A. Osipov and L. M. Osipova, “Raman scattering study of barium borate glasses and melts,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids74(7), 971–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Osipova, L. M.

A. A. Osipov and L. M. Osipova, “Raman scattering study of barium borate glasses and melts,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids74(7), 971–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Panov, A. A.

A. A. Pynenkov, S. V. Firstov, A. A. Panov, E. G. Firstova, K. N. Nishchev, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres,” Quantum Electron.43(2), 174–176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Peng, M.

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett.29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, M. Y.

Pun, E. Y.

Pureur, V.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pynenkov, A. A.

A. A. Pynenkov, S. V. Firstov, A. A. Panov, E. G. Firstova, K. N. Nishchev, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres,” Quantum Electron.43(2), 174–176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doped with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y. Zhuang, R. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Bandwidth broadening of near-infrared emission through nanocrystallization in Bi/Ni co-doped glass,” Opt. Express20(8), 8675–8680 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, M. Guan, D. Tan, Y. Teng, J. Zhou, Z. Ma, Z. Hong, and J. Qiu, “Unusual luminescence quenching and reviving behavior of Bi-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express19(23), 23436–23443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhou, W. Lei, J. Chen, J. Hao, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Laser-induced optical property changes inside Bi-doped glass,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(6), 386–388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem.19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ren, G. Dong, S. Xu, R. Bao, and J. Qiu, “Inhomogeneous broadening, luminescence origin and optical amplification in bismuth-doped glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(14), 3036–3039 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, J. Hao, J. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Infrared luminescence and amplification properties of Bi-doped GeO2-Ga2O3-Al2O3 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, G. Feng, J. Bao, H. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(6), 1435–1438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett.29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J. R.

Razdobreev, I.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J.

J. Ren, G. Dong, S. Xu, R. Bao, and J. Qiu, “Inhomogeneous broadening, luminescence origin and optical amplification in bismuth-doped glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(14), 3036–3039 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakka, Y.

H. T. Sun, Y. Matsushita, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Tanaka, Y. Katsuya, H. Gao, and K. Kobayashi, “Synchrotron X-ray, photoluminescence, and quantum chemistry studies of bismuth-embedded dehydrated zeolite Y,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(6), 2918–2921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharada, M.

M. Sharada and D. Suresh Babu, “Spectroscopic studies of tantalum doped borate glasses,” Phys. B407(19), 3945–3955 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G.

M. Monika, M. Falconieri, S. Baccaro, G. Sharma, K. S. Thind, and D. P. Singh, “Role of aluminium oxide in the structure of heavy metal oxide borosilicate glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A209(8), 1438–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shirahata, N.

H. T. Sun, Y. Matsushita, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Tanaka, Y. Katsuya, H. Gao, and K. Kobayashi, “Synchrotron X-ray, photoluminescence, and quantum chemistry studies of bismuth-embedded dehydrated zeolite Y,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(6), 2918–2921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, D. P.

M. Monika, M. Falconieri, S. Baccaro, G. Sharma, K. S. Thind, and D. P. Singh, “Role of aluminium oxide in the structure of heavy metal oxide borosilicate glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A209(8), 1438–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Smedskjaer, M. M.

M. M. Smedskjaer, J. C. Mauro, and Y. Yue, “Prediction of glass hardness using temperature-dependent constraint theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(11), 115503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H. T.

H. T. Sun, Y. Matsushita, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Tanaka, Y. Katsuya, H. Gao, and K. Kobayashi, “Synchrotron X-ray, photoluminescence, and quantum chemistry studies of bismuth-embedded dehydrated zeolite Y,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(6), 2918–2921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suresh Babu, D.

M. Sharada and D. Suresh Babu, “Spectroscopic studies of tantalum doped borate glasses,” Phys. B407(19), 3945–3955 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

Sverchkov, S.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, and E. Dianov, “Luminescent properties of Bi-doped boro-alumino-phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B.87(1), 135–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D.

Tanaka, M.

H. T. Sun, Y. Matsushita, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Tanaka, Y. Katsuya, H. Gao, and K. Kobayashi, “Synchrotron X-ray, photoluminescence, and quantum chemistry studies of bismuth-embedded dehydrated zeolite Y,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(6), 2918–2921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, L.

Teng, Y.

Thind, K. S.

M. Monika, M. Falconieri, S. Baccaro, G. Sharma, K. S. Thind, and D. P. Singh, “Role of aluminium oxide in the structure of heavy metal oxide borosilicate glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A209(8), 1438–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Truong, V. G.

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, Y. H.

Umnikov, A. A.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

H. Fan, G. Gao, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Infrared, Raman and XPS spectroscopic studies of Bi2O3-B2O3-GeO2 glasses,” Solid State Sci.12(4), 541–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wondraczek, L.

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, E.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem.19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doped with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, M. Guan, D. Tan, Y. Teng, J. Zhou, Z. Ma, Z. Hong, and J. Qiu, “Unusual luminescence quenching and reviving behavior of Bi-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express19(23), 23436–23443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

J. Ren, G. Dong, S. Xu, R. Bao, and J. Qiu, “Inhomogeneous broadening, luminescence origin and optical amplification in bismuth-doped glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(14), 3036–3039 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, G. Feng, J. Bao, H. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(6), 1435–1438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, I.

Yang, R.

Yang, Z.

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yashkov, M. V.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, S.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yue, Y.

M. M. Smedskjaer, J. C. Mauro, and Y. Yue, “Prediction of glass hardness using temperature-dependent constraint theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(11), 115503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem.19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, W. Lei, J. Chen, J. Hao, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Laser-induced optical property changes inside Bi-doped glass,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(6), 386–388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, J. Hao, J. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Infrared luminescence and amplification properties of Bi-doped GeO2-Ga2O3-Al2O3 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K.

Zhang, N.

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q. Z.

Zhou, B.

Zhou, J.

Zhou, S.

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doped with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhang, S. Zhou, Y. Zhuang, R. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Bandwidth broadening of near-infrared emission through nanocrystallization in Bi/Ni co-doped glass,” Opt. Express20(8), 8675–8680 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Xu, S. Zhou, M. Guan, D. Tan, Y. Teng, J. Zhou, Z. Ma, Z. Hong, and J. Qiu, “Unusual luminescence quenching and reviving behavior of Bi-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express19(23), 23436–23443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhou, W. Lei, J. Chen, J. Hao, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Laser-induced optical property changes inside Bi-doped glass,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(6), 386–388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem.19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, J. Hao, J. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Infrared luminescence and amplification properties of Bi-doped GeO2-Ga2O3-Al2O3 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, G. Feng, J. Bao, H. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(6), 1435–1438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

Zhu, C. S.

Zhuang, Y.

Zollfrank, C.

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

S. Zhou, N. Jiang, B. Zhu, H. Yang, S. Ye, G. Lakshminarayana, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Multifunctional bismuth-doped nanoporous silica glass: from blue-green, orange, red, and white light sources to ultra-broadband infrared amplifiers,” Adv. Funct. Mater.18(9), 1407–1413 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, and E. Dianov, “Luminescent properties of Bi-doped boro-alumino-phosphate glasses,” Appl. Phys. B.87(1), 135–137 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. Razdobreev, L. Bigot, V. Pureur, A. Favre, G. Bouwmans, and M. Douay, “Efficient all-fiber bismuth-doped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(3), 031103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Truong, L. Bigot, A. Lerouge, M. Douay, and I. Razdobreev, “Study of thermal stability and luminescence quenching properties of bismuth-doped silicate glasses for fiber laser application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 041908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, J. Chen, J. Hao, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Laser-induced optical property changes inside Bi-doped glass,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(6), 386–388 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

H. T. Sun, Y. Matsushita, Y. Sakka, N. Shirahata, M. Tanaka, Y. Katsuya, H. Gao, and K. Kobayashi, “Synchrotron X-ray, photoluminescence, and quantum chemistry studies of bismuth-embedded dehydrated zeolite Y,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.134(6), 2918–2921 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. Xu, P. Chen, S. Zhou, Z. Hong, J. Hao, and J. Qiu, “Enhanced broadband near-infrared luminescence in Bi-doped glasses by co-doped with Ag,” J. Appl. Phys.113(18), 183506 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, J. Hao, J. Chen, and J. Qiu, “Infrared luminescence and amplification properties of Bi-doped GeO2-Ga2O3-Al2O3 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Mater. Chem.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem.19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhang, J. Qiu, G. Dong, Z. Yang, Q. Zhang, and M. Peng, “Broadband tunable near-infrared emission of Bi-doped composite germanosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Chem.22(7), 3154–3159 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Res.

S. Zhou, G. Feng, J. Bao, H. Yang, and J. Qiu, “Broadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Mater. Res.22(6), 1435–1438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Struct.

E. I. Kamitsos and G. D. Chryssikos, “Borate glass structure by raman and infrared spectroscopies,” J. Mol. Struct.247, 1–16 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

J. Ren, G. Dong, S. Xu, R. Bao, and J. Qiu, “Inhomogeneous broadening, luminescence origin and optical amplification in bismuth-doped glass,” J. Phys. Chem. A112(14), 3036–3039 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids

A. A. Osipov and L. M. Osipova, “Raman scattering study of barium borate glasses and melts,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids74(7), 971–978 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Fujimoto and M. Naskatsuka, “Infrared luminescence from Bismuth-doped silica glass,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(3), 279–281 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett.

I. A. Bufetov and E. M. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett.6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Redox equilibrium and NIR luminescence of Bi2O3-containing glasses,” Opt. Mater.31(8), 1262–1268 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. B

M. Sharada and D. Suresh Babu, “Spectroscopic studies of tantalum doped borate glasses,” Phys. B407(19), 3945–3955 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. M. Smedskjaer, J. C. Mauro, and Y. Yue, “Prediction of glass hardness using temperature-dependent constraint theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(11), 115503 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A

M. Monika, M. Falconieri, S. Baccaro, G. Sharma, K. S. Thind, and D. P. Singh, “Role of aluminium oxide in the structure of heavy metal oxide borosilicate glasses,” Phys. Status Solidi A209(8), 1438–1444 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Quantum Electron.

E. M. Dianov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, A. A. Umnikov, M. V. Yashkov, and A. N. Gur’yanov, “CW bismuth fibre laser,” Quantum Electron.35(12), 1083–1084 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Pynenkov, S. V. Firstov, A. A. Panov, E. G. Firstova, K. N. Nishchev, I. A. Bufetov, and E. M. Dianov, “IR luminescence in bismuth-doped germanate glasses and fibres,” Quantum Electron.43(2), 174–176 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Sci.

H. Fan, G. Gao, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Infrared, Raman and XPS spectroscopic studies of Bi2O3-B2O3-GeO2 glasses,” Solid State Sci.12(4), 541–545 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photoluminescence spectra of the glass samples 0La (a) and 5La (b) before and after heat-treatment when excited by an 800 nm LD, (c) dependence of the NIR luminescence intensity on the heat-treatment temperatures. The insets show the corresponding photographs of the glass samples heat-treated at various temperatures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PLE (λem = 1150 nm) and PL (λex = 468 nm) spectra of as-made and heat-treated glass samples 0La (a) and 5La (c). Corresponding decay curves of glass samples 0La (b) and 5La (d) when excited at 468 nm and monitored at 1150 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Raman spectra of as-made glass 0La and 5La. Inset is the amplified spectrum region from 755 to 790 cm−1, (b) schematic illustration of transformation mechanism of Bi active centers in glass 0La and 5La, and (c) XRD pattern and TEM photograph of glass 0La.

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