Abstract

We demonstrated the first 30Tb/s (350 × 85.74Gb/s) optical transmission over 10,181km using bidirectional C/L-bands, 121.2km hybrid fiber spans, DP-QPSK modulation and EDFAs. Achieved 306Petabit/s•km capacity × distance product is the highest reported to date for WDM transmission.

©2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Fiber communications research is truly driven by two fundamental challenges, namely: capacity and reach. As a consequence, multiple terabit transmission experiments over ultra-long distance were initially reported using 10G RZ [1,2], 10G RZ-DPSK [3,4] and 40G DPSK [5]. Recently, as the development of digital coherent receiver, transmission of 15.5Tb/s over 7,200km was reported using 100G DP-QPSK, both C- and L-bands and hybrid Raman/EDFA amplification [6]. For 10,610km distance, transmission of 9.6Tb/s was also demonstrated using 100G DP-RZ-QPSK, maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) algorithm, C-band and EDFA amplification [7]. Such record has been rapidly updated to 20-Tb/s over 6,860km using below Nyquist rate 100G DP-QPSK, maximum likelihood sequence estimation algorithm, C-band and EDFA amplification [8]. In order to further increase the capacity, higher order modulation formats have been introduced to ultra-long haul transmission. DP-8QAM-OFDM [9] and DP-16QAM-OFDM [10] wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) signals have been transmitted over 10,181km using advanced soft-decision FEC, ultra-low-loss/ultra-large-core fiber, fiber nonlinearity compensation and digital transmitter. Recently, transmission of 30Tb/s over 6,630km has been reported using DP-16QAM, joint MAP and LDPC decoder and 5THz bandwidth C-band EDFA [11].

Bidirectional transmission has been reported to reduce system cost and the complexity of operation, administration and maintenance [1218]. The bidirectional WDM transmission systems are classified as being “interleaved” [14] or “band-separated” [1518] wavelength arrangements. Interleaved schemes are combining two counter-propagating interleaved channel grids which show four-wave mixing (FWM) and cross talk suppression due to the increase of adjacent co-propagating channels spacing. Band-separated schemes are transmitting two groups of wavelengths separated from each other in counter-directions. It is useful for suppression of inter-channel crosstalk [15] and mitigation of Raman gain depletion [17] using simple optical components. Bidirectional C/L-band WDM transmission [17,18] has also been demonstrated as an effective method to achieve high aggregate capacity transmission.

In this paper, an overall capacity of 30Tb/s is transmitted in a single fiber over 10,181km using the longest span length reported so far in a ultra-large capacity (>20Tb/s)/ultra-long distance transmission (>9,000km) demonstration. Total 350 Nyquist shape DP-QPSK channels at channel net data rate of 85.74Gb/s together with a bidirectional C/L-bands EDFA configuration are employed to obtain what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of a capacity × distance product (C × D) in excess of 300Pb/s·km. In order to take advantage of the latest developments low loss/large effective area of newly developed fibers, this C × D record is obtained using a 121.2km span length. This is the largest capacity × span-length product of 3636 Tb/s·km for transpacific-range transmission (>9,000km). A summary of C × D reported of recent progress in WDM transmission experiments is illustrated in Fig. 1.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 C × D product over time.

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2. Experimental Setup

The experiment setup is shown in Fig. 2. At the transmitter, 350 CW DFB lasers at a channel spacing of 25 GHz spanning the C- and L-bands (1529.94-1565.5nm and 1569.4-1604.67nm) are used. The lasers are distributed into odd and even channels both in C- and L-bands with four independent modulation paths at the transmitter. Four DACs with differential output are used to drive four single-drive I/Q modulators with pre-loaded Nyquist shape QPSK signal. Positive (p) outputs are used for C-band signals and negative (n) outputs are used for L-band signals. In order to generate the Nyquist shape QPSK signal, 239400 random information bits are encoded by FEC encoder with rate 0.875 to generate 10 codewords. The FEC code employed is quasi-cyclic (QC) non-binary LDPC (13680, 11970) code of girth 8 [19]. The encoded non-binary symbols are mapped with QPSK modulation at 24.5GHz symbol rate. For the baseband QPSK signal, two times up-sampling and a digital low pass filter are used to reduce the signal bandwidth within 24.7GHz. At the end, the two times sampling signal is re-sampled to 64GS/s to match the DAC output sampling rate. Within C- or L-bands, the odd and even channels are amplified with polarization maintaining (PM) EDFA and combined with a PM coupler. The inset in Fig. 2 shows the optical spectrum. Polarization multiplexing is performed for both C- and L-bands separately by splitting the signal, delaying one copy by 100ns and rotating it to the orthogonal polarization, followed by polarization beam combining. At the end, the WDM signal of C- and L-bands is amplified with EDFAs, combined using a C/L-bands coupler and sent to the transmission line.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Experimental setup and optical spectrum (at 0.01nm RBW).

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The 484.8km circulating loop testbed consists of four 121.2km spans using hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber. Each span consists of 60.6km of ultra low loss (0.16dB/km) very large effective area (146µm2) fiber (Type I) spliced to another 60.6km ultra low loss (0.16dB/km) large effective area (112µm2) fiber (Type II). The mid-band chromatic dispersion is around 21ps/nm/km. Each span is equipped with a C/L-bands EDFA set. In each set, one C-band EDFA and one L-band EDFA are connected in bidirectional mode using two C/L-bands splitters. The output power of both C- and L-band EDFAs are 20dBm. The loop contained two specific spans. The loop control span contains a loop synchronous polarization controller (LSPC). And the gain equalization span has one C- and one L-band waveshaper and the automatic feedback control loop to compensate residual loop gain un-flatness error where the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA) keeps monitoring the spectral flatness in the gated mode.

At the receiver, the 25GHz channel of interest is selected by a C/L-bands splitter followed by a 0.4nm optical tunable filter (OTF). The local oscillator (LO) is a separated tunable external cavity lasers (ECL) with a linewidth of 100-kHz. For each measurement at the wavelength of interest, the corresponding DFB laser and seven neighboring DFB lasers are replaced by eight tunable ECLs. The signal and LO are combined using a polarization-diversity 90° hybrid followed by four balanced photo-detectors. The electrical signals are sampled and digitized using a 4-channel real-time sampling scope with a sampling rate of 50GSa/s and 20GHz analog bandwidth. The captured data is then processed offline.

The DSP algorithm used to recover the transmitted signal consists of four steps: first, chromatic dispersion compensation is performed using overlapping frequency domain equalization (FDE) method. Next, CMA is used to perform the polarization de-multiplexing and channel estimation/equalization before carrier phase recovery. Then, a 16-state/128-depth-sliding-window reduced-complexity Bahl–Cocke–Jelinek–Raviv (BCJR) equalizer [20,21] is used for each polarization to boost the Q factor performance before QC-LDPC decoder. Finally, the demodulated QPSK symbols are demapped into QC-LDPC symbols that are fed into the QC-LDPC decoder to compute the coded bit error rate (BER). All BER were calculated from 10 million bits sequence obtained from two polarizations. The raw data rate before FEC is thus 2 × 2 × 24.5GHz = 98-Gb/s per 25-GHz channel. After accounting for the 14.3% FEC overhead, the achieved net data rate per 25-GHz channel is 85.74-Gb/s. Therefore, the capacity × distance product can be calculated as 98-Gb/s × 0.875 × 350 × 10181km = 306Pb/s·km in this experiment. Figure 3 shows the simulation performance of the QC-LDPC decoder as a function of line Q-factor. FEC threshold is found at Q = 6.2dB which is the required input BER to BCJR equalizer so that the decoder output BER is equal or less than 10−15.

3. Experiment results

The back-to-back Q-factor versus OSNR performance is shown in Fig. 4, where OSNR is defined as the power of a 25GHz channel divided by the noise measured at 0.1-nm bandwidth. The Q-factors are calculated from the measured BER for the 98-Gb/s DP-QPSK channel at 1549.3nm. The OSNR required to achieve the soft-decision FEC threshold of 6.2dB is 10.6dB, which is about 1.6dB away from the theoretical limit. The penalty between single channel and WDM case is negligible. The 350 × 98-Gb/s WDM signals are launched into the test-bed with a very flat spectrum. After 10,181km transmission (21 loops), the optical spectrum is shown in Fig. 5, and the average received OSNR (in 0.1nm RBW) of the WDM channels is 11.5dB.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Back-to-back measurement of received signal Q-factor vs. OSNR.

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 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Optical spectrum (in 0.1nm RBW) after 10,181-km transmission.

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The Q-factors calculated from the BER measured before and after BCJR equalizer for all 25GHz channels are shown in Fig. 6. The average Q-factor improvement from the sliding-window BCJR equalizer is about 0.5dB. After BCJR equalizer, Q-factor of the worst channel was 6.28dB at 1569.8nm. The received bit errors after the BCJR equalizer are corrected using QC-LDPC decoder for all 350 channels. No any error was found after QC-LDPC decoder which processed in total 3.5 billion bits received from all channels. Both C- and L-bands have similar overall transmission performance which was jointly decided by inter-band Raman gain, fiber non-linearity penalty, EDFA noise figure and gain profile, fiber loss and effective area, etc. Figure 7 shows the similar achievable transmission distance for channels at 1549.3nm and 1588.3nm.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Measured Q-factor after 10,181-km transmission.

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 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Q-factor vs. transmitted distance.

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4. Conclusion

We report the first time beyond 300Pb/s•km transmission over transpacific distance. 30Tb/s (350 × 85.74Gb/s) transmission over 10,181km has been achieved using DP-QPSK modulation, 121.1km hybrid large-core/ultra low-loss fiber span, bidirectional C/L-bands EDFA amplification, Nyquist shape spectra, reduced-complexity sliding-window BCJR equalizer and QC-LDPC coding.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank H. B. Matthews, S. K. Mishra, S. R. Bickham and R. R. Khrapko from Corning Incorporated for their great work to develop the new fiber.

References and links

1. D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, L. Xu, J.-X. Cai, A. N. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. R. Cordell, T. J. Carvelli, P. C. Corbett, H. D. Kidorf, and N. S. Bergano, “2.56 Tb/s (256×10Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman/EDFA’s with 80nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Proc of OFC 2002, post-deadline paper FC3.

2. B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

3. J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

4. J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

5. G. Charlet, E. Corbel, J. Lazaro, A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, P. Tran, W. Idler, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and S. Bigo, “WDM transmission at 6-Tbit/s capacity over transatlantic distance, using 42.7-Gb/s differential phase-shift keying without pulse carver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 104–107 (2005). [CrossRef]  

6. M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, C. Koebele, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “155×100Gbit/s coherent PDM-QPSK transmission over 7,200km,” in Proc of ECOC2009, PDP2.5.

7. J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. Lucero, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Philipetskii, G. Mohs And, and N. Bergano, “Transmission of 96x100G pre-filtered PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10,608 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4,368 km,” in Proc of OFC 2010, Paper PDPB10.

8. J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

9. D. Qian, M. F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181km,” in Proc of ECOC 2011, PD Th.13.K.3.

10. S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

11. M. Mazurczyk, D. G. Foursa, H. G. Batshon, H. Zhang, C. R. Davidson, J.-X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and S. Neal, Bergano., “30 Tb/s Transmission over 6,630 km Using 16QAM Signals at 6.1 bits/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency,” in Proc of ECOC2012, PD Th.3.C.2.

12. S. Chi and M. Kao, “Bidirectional optical fiber transmission systems using Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(2), 312–317 (1988). [CrossRef]  

13. K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 33(23), 1967–1968 (1997). [CrossRef]  

14. S. Radic, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Srivastava, H. Kim, L. Nelson, S. Liang, K. Tai, and N. Copner, “25 GHz interleaved bi-directional transmission over nonzero dispersion shifted fiber,” in Proc of OFC2001, TuF7.

15. J. Kani, M. Jinno, T. Sakamoto, S. Aisawa, M. Fukui, K. Hattori, and K. Oguchi, “Interwavelength-band nonlinear interactions and their suppression in multiwavelength-band WDM transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2249–2260 (1999). [CrossRef]  

16. T. Mizuochi, K. Kinjo, S. Kajiya, T. Tokura, and K. Motoshima, “Bidirectional Unrepeatered 43 Gb/s WDM Transmission With C/L Band-Separated Raman Amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(12), 2079–2085 (2002). [CrossRef]  

17. L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1757–1759 (2004). [CrossRef]  

18. C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35(20), 1752–1753 (1999). [CrossRef]  

19. M. Arabaci, I. B. Djordjevic, R. Saunders, and R. M. Marcoccia, “Polarization-multiplexed rate-adaptive non-binary-quasi-cyclic-LDPC-coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection for optical transport networks,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1820–1832 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 498–505 (2013). [CrossRef]  

21. I. B. Djordjevic, L. L. Minkov, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Suppression of fiber nonlinearities and PMD in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection by using turbo equalization,” JOCN 1(6), 555–564 (2009).

References

  • View by:

  1. D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, L. Xu, J.-X. Cai, A. N. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. R. Cordell, T. J. Carvelli, P. C. Corbett, H. D. Kidorf, and N. S. Bergano, “2.56 Tb/s (256×10Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman/EDFA’s with 80nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Proc of OFC 2002, post-deadline paper FC3.
  2. B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.
  3. J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.
  4. J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.
  5. G. Charlet, E. Corbel, J. Lazaro, A. Klekamp, R. Dischler, P. Tran, W. Idler, H. Mardoyan, A. Konczykowska, F. Jorge, and S. Bigo, “WDM transmission at 6-Tbit/s capacity over transatlantic distance, using 42.7-Gb/s differential phase-shift keying without pulse carver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(1), 104–107 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, C. Koebele, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “155×100Gbit/s coherent PDM-QPSK transmission over 7,200km,” in Proc of ECOC2009, PDP2.5.
  7. J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. Lucero, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Philipetskii, G. Mohs And, and N. Bergano, “Transmission of 96x100G pre-filtered PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10,608 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4,368 km,” in Proc of OFC 2010, Paper PDPB10.
  8. J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.
  9. D. Qian, M. F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181km,” in Proc of ECOC 2011, PD Th.13.K.3.
  10. S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.
  11. M. Mazurczyk, D. G. Foursa, H. G. Batshon, H. Zhang, C. R. Davidson, J.-X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and S. Neal, Bergano., “30 Tb/s Transmission over 6,630 km Using 16QAM Signals at 6.1 bits/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency,” in Proc of ECOC2012, PD Th.3.C.2.
  12. S. Chi and M. Kao, “Bidirectional optical fiber transmission systems using Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(2), 312–317 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Radic, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Srivastava, H. Kim, L. Nelson, S. Liang, K. Tai, and N. Copner, “25 GHz interleaved bi-directional transmission over nonzero dispersion shifted fiber,” in Proc of OFC2001, TuF7.
  15. J. Kani, M. Jinno, T. Sakamoto, S. Aisawa, M. Fukui, K. Hattori, and K. Oguchi, “Interwavelength-band nonlinear interactions and their suppression in multiwavelength-band WDM transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2249–2260 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Mizuochi, K. Kinjo, S. Kajiya, T. Tokura, and K. Motoshima, “Bidirectional Unrepeatered 43 Gb/s WDM Transmission With C/L Band-Separated Raman Amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(12), 2079–2085 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Arabaci, I. B. Djordjevic, R. Saunders, and R. M. Marcoccia, “Polarization-multiplexed rate-adaptive non-binary-quasi-cyclic-LDPC-coded multilevel modulation with coherent detection for optical transport networks,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1820–1832 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 498–505 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. I. B. Djordjevic, L. L. Minkov, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Suppression of fiber nonlinearities and PMD in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection by using turbo equalization,” JOCN 1(6), 555–564 (2009).

2013 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

I. B. Djordjevic, L. L. Minkov, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Suppression of fiber nonlinearities and PMD in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection by using turbo equalization,” JOCN 1(6), 555–564 (2009).

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Kani, M. Jinno, T. Sakamoto, S. Aisawa, M. Fukui, K. Hattori, and K. Oguchi, “Interwavelength-band nonlinear interactions and their suppression in multiwavelength-band WDM transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17(11), 2249–2260 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

S. Chi and M. Kao, “Bidirectional optical fiber transmission systems using Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(2), 312–317 (1988).
[Crossref]

Abbott, S. M.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Aida, K.

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

Aisawa, S.

Anderson, W.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Aoki, Y.

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Arabaci, M.

Bakhshi, B.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Bergano, N. S.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Berganoproc, N.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Bigo, S.

Cai, J.-X.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Cai, Y.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Charlet, G.

Chi, S.

S. Chi and M. Kao, “Bidirectional optical fiber transmission systems using Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(2), 312–317 (1988).
[Crossref]

Corbel, E.

Corbett, P.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Corbett, P. C.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Davidson, C. R.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Dischler, R.

Djordjevic, I.

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Djordjevic, I. B.

Domagala, G.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Dutisseuil, E.

M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, C. Koebele, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “155×100Gbit/s coherent PDM-QPSK transmission over 7,200km,” in Proc of ECOC2009, PDP2.5.

Eiselt, M. H.

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[Crossref]

Elbers, J.-P.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[Crossref]

Farbert, A.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fischer, G.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[Crossref]

Foursa, D.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Foursa, D. G.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Fukui, M.

Garrett, L. D.

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[Crossref]

Glingener, C.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[Crossref]

Golovchenko, E. A.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Gottwald, E.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gupta, V.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Harvey, G. T.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Hattori, K.

Huang, M.-F.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Idler, W.

Inada, Y.

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Inoue, T.

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Jinno, M.

Jorge, F.

Kajiya, S.

Kani, J.

Kao, M.

S. Chi and M. Kao, “Bidirectional optical fiber transmission systems using Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(2), 312–317 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kawai, S.

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kinjo, K.

Klekamp, A.

Koebele, C.

M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, C. Koebele, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “155×100Gbit/s coherent PDM-QPSK transmission over 7,200km,” in Proc of ECOC2009, PDP2.5.

Konczykowska, A.

Kovsh, D. I.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Lazaro, J.

Li, H.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Liu, L.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Lucero, A.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Lucero, A. J.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Lynch, R. L.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Manna, M.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Marcoccia, R. M.

Mardoyan, H.

Masuda, H.

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mateo, E.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Mazurczyk, M.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Minkov, L. L.

I. B. Djordjevic, L. L. Minkov, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Suppression of fiber nonlinearities and PMD in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection by using turbo equalization,” JOCN 1(6), 555–564 (2009).

Mizuochi, T.

Mohs, G.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Motoshima, K.

Nakagawa, K.

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nissov, M.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Ogata, T.

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Oguchi, K.

Patterson, W.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Patterson, W. W.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Pilipetskii, A.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Qian, D.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Sakamoto, T.

Salsi, M.

M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, C. Koebele, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “155×100Gbit/s coherent PDM-QPSK transmission over 7,200km,” in Proc of ECOC2009, PDP2.5.

Sanders, M. M.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Saunders, R.

Scheerer, C.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schopflin, A.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shao, Y.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Sinkin, O.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tkach, R. W.

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tokura, T.

Tran, P.

Vaa, M.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Wang, T.

I. B. Djordjevic, L. L. Minkov, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Suppression of fiber nonlinearities and PMD in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection by using turbo equalization,” JOCN 1(6), 555–564 (2009).

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. B. Djordjevic, L. L. Minkov, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Suppression of fiber nonlinearities and PMD in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection by using turbo equalization,” JOCN 1(6), 555–564 (2009).

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Yaman, F.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Young, M. R.

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Zhang, Y.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett. 33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

JOCN (1)

I. B. Djordjevic, L. L. Minkov, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Suppression of fiber nonlinearities and PMD in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection by using turbo equalization,” JOCN 1(6), 555–564 (2009).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (11)

S. Radic, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Srivastava, H. Kim, L. Nelson, S. Liang, K. Tai, and N. Copner, “25 GHz interleaved bi-directional transmission over nonzero dispersion shifted fiber,” in Proc of OFC2001, TuF7.

M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, C. Koebele, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “155×100Gbit/s coherent PDM-QPSK transmission over 7,200km,” in Proc of ECOC2009, PDP2.5.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. Lucero, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Philipetskii, G. Mohs And, and N. Bergano, “Transmission of 96x100G pre-filtered PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10,608 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4,368 km,” in Proc of OFC 2010, Paper PDPB10.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

D. Qian, M. F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181km,” in Proc of ECOC 2011, PD Th.13.K.3.

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

M. Mazurczyk, D. G. Foursa, H. G. Batshon, H. Zhang, C. R. Davidson, J.-X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and S. Neal, Bergano., “30 Tb/s Transmission over 6,630 km Using 16QAM Signals at 6.1 bits/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency,” in Proc of ECOC2012, PD Th.3.C.2.

D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, L. Xu, J.-X. Cai, A. N. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. R. Cordell, T. J. Carvelli, P. C. Corbett, H. D. Kidorf, and N. S. Bergano, “2.56 Tb/s (256×10Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman/EDFA’s with 80nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Proc of OFC 2002, post-deadline paper FC3.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 C × D product over time.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup and optical spectrum (at 0.01nm RBW).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 FEC waterfall.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Back-to-back measurement of received signal Q-factor vs. OSNR.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optical spectrum (in 0.1nm RBW) after 10,181-km transmission.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured Q-factor after 10,181-km transmission.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Q-factor vs. transmitted distance.

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