Abstract

In this paper we discuss the effects of multiple scattering to the optical forces on a particle by an evanescent field. We show that the iterative method to process the effects of the interaction between the particle and a plane surface is invalid when the radius of particle is large or when the structural resonance of the particle occurs. By using the generalized minimum residual method to solve the set of equations directly, the divergence appears in the iterative method can be removed completely. As an illustrative example, we discussed the effects of multiple scattering to optical forces on a particle in an evanescent field from an incident plane wave. The interpretations of numerical results are presented in detail.

© 2013 OSA

1. Introduction

Since Ashkin et al. proved that a three-dimensional trapping of a dielectric particle is possible by use of a single, highly focused laser beam [1], optical tweezers have become an indispensable tool for manipulating small particles without any mechanical contact. Optical tweezers have been used to manipulate and trap micro-scale objects [1], liquid droplets [2], and even some submicron objects such as viruses [3] and nanoparticles [4]. Kawata and Sugiura demonstrated the movement and trapping of micrometer-sized particles in the evanescent field formed at the sapphire-air interface by total internal reflection of a laser beam [5]. Almaas and Brevik theoretically discussed the force upon a micrometer-sized dielectric sphere in a plane evanescent field [6]. Meanwhile, Chang et al. theoretically investigated the optical force exerted on a dielectric sphere by a Gaussian evanescent field [7]. Recently, the optical force exerted on a dielectric sphere by the Airy evanescent field has been investigated in detail [8]. Jack Ng et al. have proposed a size-selective optical force achieved by utilizing the evanescent wave to excite a microsphere's high-Q whispering gallery mode (WGM) [9, 10].

The optical properties of a particle in the vicinity of a plane surface are known to be rather different from these in free space. The actual calculation of these properties requires a consideration of the boundary conditions both across the surface of the particle and across the plane surface, so that one has to resort to some more complicated approaches than those for isolated particles [1]. Bobbert and Vlieger formulated a theory that succeeds in exactly calculating the scattered field from a sphere near a perfectly reflecting plane surface, and introduced a suitable approximation to get the observed field in the far zone [11]. Videen et al. developed an approximate solution by representing the reflected fields as that produced by an 'image' source within the normal incidence approximation (NIA) [12]. Using this approximate method, they discussed the characterization of metallic nano-particle via surface wave scattering [13, 14]. Based on the expansion of the electromagnetic field in terms of vector multipole fields and with the imposition of the boundary conditions, Fucile et al. accurately calculated the full scattering pattern from a sphere in the vicinity of a plane surface [15]. Meanwhile, Wriedt and Doicu [16] considered the exact solution for a sphere adjacent to a surface and developed equivalent formulations that are more compact and suitable to numerical evaluation than the formulas presented in [11]. This exact method has been applied to predict the scattering properties of the sphere or sphere clusters on a plane surface [17, 18]. Meanwhile, this problem can be processed by using the boundary element method (BEM), which needs extremely fine meshes for three dimensional calculations [10]. Chang et al. theoretically examined the optical force exerted on a dielectric sphere by the evanescent field from a Gaussian beam, and considered the effects of interaction between the sphere and the plane surface [19]. By representing the scattered electromagnetic fields as an integral of plane electromagnetic waves [20], they proposed an iterative procedure to calculate the effects of multiple scattering to the optical force. Inami et al. [21] also developed an analytical method, which combined the iterative calculations of the extended Mie theory developed by Barton et al. [22, 23] and the plane wave decomposition. This theoretical approach is similar to the iterative procedure proposed by Barton et al. [24]. Although the iterative method is easy to grasp, it may diverge when the particle is in structural resonant or when the particle is in touch with the surface. The divergence is attributed to the strong feedback between the particle and the surface. Moreover, Chaumet et al. used coupled dipole method to discuss the electromagnetic force on a particle over a flat dielectric substrate [25]. Arias-Gonzalez et.al studied the range of validity of the dipole approximation and interpreted the nature of the electromagnetic force for dielectric and metallic nanocylinders and particles on surface [26, 27]. Coupled dipole method also applied to study optical forces on a magnetodielectric small particle [28]. However, this method can be used only when the radius of the particle less than the wavelength.

In this paper, we followed the method presented by Vidden [12] and Wriedt et al. [16], and extended the method to study the radiation force on a particle in an evanescent field excited by an arbitrary shape beam. The interaction between particle and surface is included correctly. As an illustrative example, we discussed the radiation force on a particle in an evanescent field and compare our results with those of Almaas' [6]. In addition, the differences between the iterative method and the directly solving matrix method are pointed out.

2. Theory and description

2.1. Derivation of scattering fields

Figure 1 shows the geometry of the coordinate system and the symbols appropriate to our problem. A sphere of radius a is located on the z axis, with a distance d above a plane surface that bounds two media of different refractive indices. The origin of the coordinate system coincides with the center of the sphere. The indices of refraction for the media below and above the plane surface at z = d are n1 and n2, respectively. An arbitrary beam with wave vector k1 and frequencyωis incident from medium n1 at an angle of incidence β>βcrit, whereβcrit is the critical angle.

 

Fig. 1 Particle of radius a situated in the evanescent field region z>d. A plane wave traveling in the x-z plane is incident from below at an angle of incidence β>βcritin the substrate.

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First, let us find the formal solutions of the problem for interaction between the particle and dielectric interface. We denote the initial input electric field vector and, the transmitted evanescent field by Einc (r) and Eeva (r), respectively. They can be related by the transmission matrix τof the plane surface, which determines the surface transmission characteristics, as

Eeva(r)=τ·Einc(r).
In order to determine the radiation force on the particle, we need to calculate the total field striking the particle. A particle exposed to an evanescent field Eeva (r) will produce an additional scattered electric field vector Esca(r). In addition to the evanescent fields Eeva (r) and scattering field Esca(r), a third field, Eint(r), is incident upon the sphere. This field is a result of the scattered field reflecting off the surface and striking the sphere. This interacting fieldEint(r)and field Esca (r) can be related by the reflective matrix of the plane surface A, as
Eint(r)=A·Esca(r).
The total field striking the particle can be expressed as follows:
Etot(r)=Eeva(r)+Eint(r)=Eeva(r)+AEsca(r).
Meanwhile, the scattered field Esca(r) and the total input field Etot(r)can be related by using the transition matrix (T-matrix):
Esca(r)=TEtot(r).
where T is the T-matrix of particle that only depends on the shape and physical properties of the particle. Its elements can be determined by the extended boundary condition method [22].

Substituting Eqs. (2) and (3) into Eq. (4), the scattered field can be expressed in terms of the evanescent field Eeva(r),

(IT·A)·Esca(r)=T·Eeva(r).
where I, T, and A represent the identity matrix, the T-matrix of particle and the reflecting matrix of the plane surface, respectively. Next, we will give the expressions of the T-matrix of particle and the reflection matrix A of the plane surface.

For an arbitrary incidence beam such as a plane wave [6], a focused Gaussian beam [7] and an Airy beam [8], the evanescent field can be obtained by using Eq. (1) and written in terms of vector spherical wave functions (VSWF)

Eeva(r)=n1=1m=n1n1[amn10Mmn1(1)(k2r)+bmn10Nmn1(1)(k2r)],Heva(r)=kiωμn1=1m=n1n1[bmn10Mmn1(1)(k2r)+amn10Nmn1(1)(k2r)].
The coefficients amn10and bmn10 are determined by the shape and polarization of the special evanescent beam. The radial functions used in the expansion of the vector functions for the incident field are the spherical Bessel functions jn(k2r).The scattered field is also expanded:
Esca(r)=n=1m=nn[emnMmn(3)(k2r)+fmnNmn(3)(k2r)],Hsca(r)=kiωμn=1m=nn[fmnMmn(3)(k2r)+emnNmn(3)(k2r)].
Here the radial functions are the spherical Hankel functions of the first kind, hn(1)(k2r).The interacting field Eint(r) can be expanded [12, 16]:
Eint(r)=n1=1m=n1n1[emn1RMmn1(1)+fmn1RNmn1(1)],Hint(r)=kiωμn1=1m=n1n1[fmn1RMmn1(1)+emn1RNmn1(1)],
where
[emn1Rfmn1R]=[Amnn1][emnfmn],
Here [Amnn1] is the reflection matrix A appearing in Eq. (2), and can be expressed as
[Amnn1]=[αmnn1γmnn1βmnn1δmnn1].
The explicit form of the reflection matrix A can be founded in [16].

In the null-field method, the scattered coefficients are related to the expansion coefficients of the fields striking the particle by the T-matrix. For an axis-symmetric particle, the equations are uncoupled, and we can pursure a separate solution for each azimuthal mode m. For a fixed azimuthal mode m, we can truncate the expansions given by Eqs. (7) and (8), and derive the following matrix equations:

[emnfmn]=[Tmnn1]([amn10bmn10]+[emn1Rfmn1R]),
Herem=M,M¯ andn,n1=1,N¯,whereMis the number of azimuthal modes andNis the truncation index. The explicit form of the transition matrix[Tmnn1]can be found in [30, 31]. The system of equations that determines the scattering field coefficient can be expressed as follows:
(I[Tmnn1][Amnn1])[emnfmn]=[Tmnn1][amn10bmn10].
This is the explicit form of Eq. (5). Where, Iis identity matrix. The total field striking the particle can be expressed as
Etot(r)=n1=1m=n1n1amn1Mmn1(1)(k2r)+bmn1Nmn1(1)(k2r),Htot(r)=kiωμn1=1m=n1n1bmn1Mmn1(1)(k2r)+amn1Nmn1(1)(k2r).
Where the expansion coefficients of the total incident field is
[amnbmn]=[amn10bmn10]+[Amnn1][emnfmn].
To find the scattering coefficients emnandfmn, an asymptotic iteration method by using Eq. (10) and (11) repeatedly can be implemented. The iteration method is as follows:

1. Starting withe0mn1R=f0mn1R=0, i.e., neglecting the interaction between the particle and the interface. From Eq. (10) it follows that

[e0mnf0mn]=[Tmnn1]([amn10bmn10]+[e0mn1Rf0mn1R]),
and from Eq. (11)
[e1mn1Rf1mn1R]=[Amnn1][e0mnf0mn],
Here the integer of the superscript to left of character indicates the sequential number of the iteration. Because the reflection matrix [Amnn1]and T-matrix [Tmnn1]only need computing once, this iteration method has a higher computation efficiency than others [19, 21]. Once we have finished the iteration, we can obtain amn and bmnby Eq. (14). However, an actual computation indicates that for some cases, the iteration procedure does not converge, especially when the particle size is large or when a structural resonance of the particle occurs. In this situation, we need to solve Eq. (12) directly. Due to the ill-conditioned characteristics of the matrices involved, there are large differences among the various terms in the matrix, a good solution to the equations cannot be generated by using standard techniques such as the LU decomposition. The generalized minimum residual method (GMRES) [32] was found to give reliable solutions.

2.2. Incident field

For the sake of simplicity, we choose a plane wave as the initial incident field. After a great deal of algebra and by applying numerous recursion, product, and orthogonality relationships among the spherical harmonic functions, the expanding coefficients of the evanescent field in Eq. (6), amn10and bmn10 can be expressed as follows:

amn10=inτs2n+12n(n+1)(nm)!(n+m)![Pnm+1(ξ)(n+m)(nm+1)Pnm1(ξ)],
bmn10=inτs2n+12n(n+1)(nm)!(n+m)![Pnm+1(ξ)+(n+m)(nm+1)Pnm1(ξ)+2mn11ξ2Pnm(ξ)]ξ,
when the incident plane wave is polarized orthogonal to the x-z plane, and
amn10=in+1τp2n+12n(n+1)(nm)!(n+m)![Pnm+1(ξ)+(n+m)(nm+1)Pnm1(ξ)+2mn11ξ2Pnm(ξ)]ξ,
bmn10=in+1τp2n+12n(n+1)(nm)!(n+m)![Pnm+1(ξ)(n+m)(nm+1)Pnm1(ξ)],
when the incident plane wave is polarized parallel to the x-z plane. Hereξ, τsandτpare given by

ξ=(1(n1n2)2sin2β)1/2,
τs=2n1cosβn2cosβ+n1ξ,
τp=2n1cosβn1ξ+n2cosβ.

2.3. Force calculation

Assuming a steady-state condition, the net radiation force F on the particle can be determined by integrating the dot product of the outwardly directed normal unit vector n^ and the Maxwell’s stress tensorT over a surface enclosing the particle [23]:

F=Sn^TdS,
where represents a time average. After a great deal of algebra and by applying numerous recursion, product, and orthogonality relationships among the spherical harmonic functions, Eq. (24) can be integrated directly. The net forces on the particle in nondimensional form can be expressed as [19]:
Qxc+iQyc=πα2n,m12n+1(nm)!(n+m)!×{(nm)(n+m+1)Γ1(n,m)+Γ2(n,m)in(n+2)2n+3×[(n+m+1)(n+m+2)Γ3(n,m)+Γ4(n,m)]},
Qzc=2πα2Ren,m12n+1(nm)!(n+m)!×{mΓ5(n,m)+in(n+1)2n+3(n+m+1)Γ6(n,m)}.
whereα=k2ais the size parameter of the sphere, and the non-dimensional radiation forces Qxc,Qycand Qzc are defined as follows:
Qxc+iQyc=Fx+iFyε0E02a2,Qzc=Fzε0E02a2.
The parameters Γj(j = 1-6) in Eqs. (25) to (26) are defined as
Γ1(n,m)=emnbm+1,n*+(amn+2emn)fm+1,n*,Γ2(n,m)=emn*bm1,n+(amn*+2emn*)fm1,n,Γ3(n,m)=emnam+1,n+1*+fmnbm+1,n+1*+(amn+2fmn)em+1,n+1*+(bmn+2fmn)fm+1,n+1*,Γ4(n,m)=emn*am1,n+1+fmn*bm1,n+1+(amn*+2emn*)em1,n+1+(bmn*+2fmn*)fm1,n+1,Γ5(n,m)=emnbmn*+(amn+2emn)fmn*,Γ6(n,m)=emnam,n+1*+fmnbm,n+1*+(amn+2emn)em,n+1*+(bmn+2fmn)fm,n+1*.
Note that the force formula (Eqs. (25)-(28)) can be used to calculate the force for any shape of the particle and the incident beam with arbitrary shape.

3. Results and discussion

The theory that we developed in Section 2 will now be applied to the same system studied by Almaas et al. [6]. The parameters of the beam, the particle and the interface used here are same with those in [6].

Due to the differences of the directions of axis between [6] and this paper, the radiation force components between [6] and current paper are related by

Qxc=Qz,Qzc=Qx.
where QzandQxrepresent the horizontal and vertical force components appeared in [6], respectively.

First, we consider the effect of the interaction between sphere and surface on the Qxccomponents. The particle situates on the surface and the angle of incidence isβ=510 . The refractive indices of the media below and above the plane surface are n1 = 1.75 and n2 = 1.0, respectively. The refractive index of the sphere is n3 = 1.5. Figure 2 shows the variation of the optical force componentQxc versus the size parameter α from 0.1 to 8.6, when the incident plane wave is polarized (a) orthogonal (s), and (b) parallel (p) to the x-z plane, respectively. The distance d from the center of the sphere to the interface equals to the radius of sphere, i.e. d=a. It is the case of contact between the sphere and the interface. The black line represents the zero-order multiple scattering of the evanescent wave by the sphere, i.e. neglecting the interaction between sphere and the plane surface. The result is identical to that shown in Fig. 9 of [6]. The blue lines represent the fourth order correction by using the iteration method and the red dashed lines represent the exact results by solving Eq. (12) by using GMRES method directly.

 

Fig. 2 Plots of the optical force components Qxc as a function of size parameterα,when the incident plane wave is polarized (a) orthogonal (s) and (b) parallel (p) to the x-z plane, respectively.

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We can see that the interaction between sphere and interface always reduces Qxc for s polarization. For p polarized incidence, the multiple scattering enhances Qxc for small radius of sphere (α<2), conversely reduces Qxc for large radius of sphere (α>2).

Figure 3 shows the variation of the optical componentQzc versus the size parameterα from 0.1 to 8.6, when the incident plane wave is polarized (a) orthogonal (s) and parallel (p) to the x-z plane, respectively.

 

Fig. 3 Plots of the optical force components Qzc as a function of size parameterα,when the incident plane wave is polarized (a) orthogonal (s) and (b) parallel (p) to the x-z plane, respectively.

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We can find that the interaction between the sphere and the interface significantly affects the radiation force. When the radius of a sphere is small, such as the radius of spherea<λ/2, the sphere is immersed inside the evanescent field, and the multiple scattering affects notably the optical force sensed by the sphere. When the sphere is in structural resonance, the multiple scattering effect is particularly strong, and some of the photons can tunnel into the propagation mode of the interface and the radiation force is reduced distinctly. But for p polarization, the multiple scattering effect always enhances the optical force Qzc. Meanwhile, Figs. 2 and 3 also show the results from the iteration method, which are identical to the results by solving Eq. (13) directly for spheres with moderate sizes.

Next, we discuss the convergence of the iteration method. The simulation results are shown in Fig. 4. The black lines represent the radiation force without multiple scattering effect. The three weaker peaks in the black line in Fig. 4(b) are the first-order magnetic resonant peaks, at α=11.0933, 11.8351 and 12.5744, respectively. The corresponding peaks are stronger for s polarization, as shown in Fig. 4(a). On the other hand, the three strong peaks in Fig. 4(b) are the first-order electric resonant peaks, at α=11.4526, 12.2043 and 12.9532, respectively. We can find that the iteration method does not converge and in fact diverge with an increasing number of iteration nearby the positions of TE or TM resonance [note the log scale in Fig. 4]. In this case we must solve Eq. (12) directly. In this paper, we always use GMRES method to solve Eq. (12), and the reliability of results has been validated by other numerical method. In addition, we can see that the iteration method converges for non-resonance cases.

 

Fig. 4 Plots of the optical force components Qxc as a function of larger size parameterα,when the incident plane wave is polarized (a) orthogonal (s) and (b) parallel (p) to the x-z plane, respectively.

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Figure 5 provides the effect of multiple scattering to the horizontal radiation forceQxcas a function of the normalized distance between the sphere and the interface. The normalized distances equal to (d-a)/a.

 

Fig. 5 Plots of the optical force components Qxcas a function of normalized distance between sphere and interface when the incident plane waves are polarized (a) orthogonal (s) and (b) parallel (p) to the x-z plane, respectively.

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In Fig. 5(a), the size parameter is α=12.5744, and a peak of the first-order magnetic resonance for TM151.The incident beam is s polarized. When the sphere touches with the interface, the horizontal radiation force Qxc is 0.595, while the result by neglecting the effect of multiple scattering is 2.592. In other words, when the effect of multiple scattering is neglected, the horizontal radiation force Qxc is over-estimated by four times. In Fig. 5(b), the size parameter is α=12.9532, and a peak of the first-order electric resonance for TE151 and the incident beam is p polarization. When the sphere touches with the interface, the horizontal radiation force Qxcis 0.3275, while the result by neglecting the effect of multiple scattering is 0.8393. So when the effect of multiple scattering is neglected, the horizontal radiation force Qxc is overstated 2.5 times.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, we have discussed the effect of multiple scattering to the optical force on a sphere by an evanescent field. The simulation results show that the effects of multiple scattering are significant when the sphere touches with the interface. When the radius of sphere is not very large or when the structural resonance does not occur, the iteration method can be used to deal with the effect of multiple scattering; if the structural resonance occurs, the iteration method is invalid, while the GMRES method can be used to solve this problem directly. We believe that the theoretical results presented in this paper would be useful for investigations in optical micro-manipulation and near-field optics.

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge financial supports from the Natural Science Foundation of China (grant 11074130, 61275148), Chinese National Key Basic Research Special Fund (2011CB922003), and 111 Project (B07013).

References and links

1. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. P. H. Jones, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081113 (2006). [CrossRef]  

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4. L. Bosanac, T. Aabo, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Efficient Optical Trapping and Visualization of Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1486–1491 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. S. Kawata and T. Sugiura, “Movement of micrometer-sized particles in the evanescent field of a laser beam,” Opt. Lett. 17(11), 772–774 (1992). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. E. Almaas and I. Brevik, “Radiation forces on a micrometer-sized sphere in an evanescent field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(12), 2429–2438 (1995). [CrossRef]  

7. S. Chang, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Theoretical calculations of optical force exerted on a dielectric sphere in the evanescent field generated with a totally-reflected focused gaussian beam,” Opt. Commun. 108(1-3), 133–143 (1994). [CrossRef]  

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27. J. R. Arias-González and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Optical forces on small particles: attractive and repulsive nature and plasmon-resonance conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(7), 1201–1209 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. M. Nieto-Vesperinas and J. J. Saenz, “Optical forces from an evanescent wave on a magnetodielectric small particle,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 4078–4080 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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References

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  1. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett.11(5), 288–290 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. H. Jones, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science235(4795), 1517–1520 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Bosanac, T. Aabo, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Efficient Optical Trapping and Visualization of Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1486–1491 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Kawata and T. Sugiura, “Movement of micrometer-sized particles in the evanescent field of a laser beam,” Opt. Lett.17(11), 772–774 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Almaas and I. Brevik, “Radiation forces on a micrometer-sized sphere in an evanescent field,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B12(12), 2429–2438 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Chang, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Theoretical calculations of optical force exerted on a dielectric sphere in the evanescent field generated with a totally-reflected focused gaussian beam,” Opt. Commun.108(1-3), 133–143 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Yang, W. P. Zang, Z. Y. Zhao, and J. G. Tian, “Optical forces on Mie particles in an Airy evanescent field,” Opt. Express20(23), 25681–25692 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Ng and C. T. Chan, “Size-selective optical forces for microspheres using evanescent wave excitation of whispering gallery modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, “Whispering gallery mode enhanced optical force with resonant tunneling excitation in the Kretschmann geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011102 (2009).
  11. P. A. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, “Light scattering by a sphere on a substrate,” Physica (Utrecht)137A, 209–242 (1986).
  12. G. Videen, “Light scattering from a sphere on or near a surface: errata,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A9, 844–845 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Videen, M. Aslan, and M. P. Mengüç, “Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: A. Theoretical framework and formulation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.93(1-3), 195–206 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Aslan, M. P. Mengüç, and G. Videen, “Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: B. Physical concept and numerical experiments,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.93(1-3), 207–217 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Fucile, P. Denti, F. Borghese, R. Saija, and O. I. Sindoni, “Optical properties of a sphere in the vicinity of a plane surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(7), 1505–1514 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Wriedt and A. Doicu, “Light scattering from a particle on or near a surface,” Opt. Commun.152(4-6), 376–384 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. W. Mackowski, “A generalization of image theory to predict the interaction of multipole fields with plane surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.111(5), 802–809 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. W. Mackowski, “Exact solution for the scattering and absorption properties of sphere clusters on a plane surface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.109(5), 770–788 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Chang, J. T. Kim, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Optical force on a sphere caused by the evanescent field of a Gaussian beam; effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun.139(4-6), 252–261 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. V. Varadan, A. Lakhtakia, and V. K. Varadan, “Field Representation and Introduction to Scattering,” North-Holland, 1991.
  21. W. Inami and Y. Kawata, “Photon force analysis for a spherical particle near a substrate illuminated by a tightly focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.94(4), 2183–2187 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.64(4), 1632–1639 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.66(10), 4594–4602 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. P. Barton, W. Ma, S. A. Schaub, and D. R. Alexander, “Electromagnetic field for a beam incident on two adjacent spherical particles,” Appl. Opt.30(33), 4706–4715 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. P. C. Chaumet and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Coupled dipole method determination of the electromagnetic force on a particle over a flat dielectric substrate,” Phys. Rev. B61(20), 14119–14127 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. R. Arias-Gonzàlez and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Radiation pressure over dielectric and metallic nanocylinders on surfaces: polarization dependence and plasmon resonance conditions,” Opt. Lett.27(24), 2149–2151 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. J. R. Arias-González and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Optical forces on small particles: attractive and repulsive nature and plasmon-resonance conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A20(7), 1201–1209 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M. Nieto-Vesperinas and J. J. Saenz, “Optical forces from an evanescent wave on a magnetodielectric small particle,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 4078–4080 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, and R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (Wiley, 1985).
  30. P. W. Barber and S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particle: Computational Methods (World Scientific, 1990).
  31. A. Doicu, T. Wriedt, and Y. A. Eremin, Light Scattering by Systems of Particles: Null-Field Method with Discrete Sources: Theory and Programs (Springer, 2006).
  32. Y. Saad and M. H. Schultz, “GMRES: A generalized minimal residual algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems,” SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput.7(3), 856–869 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2010 (2)

M. Nieto-Vesperinas and J. J. Saenz, “Optical forces from an evanescent wave on a magnetodielectric small particle,” Opt. Lett.35(23), 4078–4080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Mackowski, “A generalization of image theory to predict the interaction of multipole fields with plane surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.111(5), 802–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, “Whispering gallery mode enhanced optical force with resonant tunneling excitation in the Kretschmann geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011102 (2009).

2008 (3)

D. W. Mackowski, “Exact solution for the scattering and absorption properties of sphere clusters on a plane surface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.109(5), 770–788 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Bosanac, T. Aabo, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Efficient Optical Trapping and Visualization of Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ng and C. T. Chan, “Size-selective optical forces for microspheres using evanescent wave excitation of whispering gallery modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. H. Jones, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

G. Videen, M. Aslan, and M. P. Mengüç, “Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: A. Theoretical framework and formulation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.93(1-3), 195–206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Aslan, M. P. Mengüç, and G. Videen, “Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: B. Physical concept and numerical experiments,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.93(1-3), 207–217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. Inami and Y. Kawata, “Photon force analysis for a spherical particle near a substrate illuminated by a tightly focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.94(4), 2183–2187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Arias-González and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Optical forces on small particles: attractive and repulsive nature and plasmon-resonance conditions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A20(7), 1201–1209 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

P. C. Chaumet and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Coupled dipole method determination of the electromagnetic force on a particle over a flat dielectric substrate,” Phys. Rev. B61(20), 14119–14127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Wriedt and A. Doicu, “Light scattering from a particle on or near a surface,” Opt. Commun.152(4-6), 376–384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Chang, J. T. Kim, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Optical force on a sphere caused by the evanescent field of a Gaussian beam; effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun.139(4-6), 252–261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Fucile, P. Denti, F. Borghese, R. Saija, and O. I. Sindoni, “Optical properties of a sphere in the vicinity of a plane surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A14(7), 1505–1514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

S. Chang, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Theoretical calculations of optical force exerted on a dielectric sphere in the evanescent field generated with a totally-reflected focused gaussian beam,” Opt. Commun.108(1-3), 133–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.66(10), 4594–4602 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.64(4), 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science235(4795), 1517–1520 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (3)

P. A. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, “Light scattering by a sphere on a substrate,” Physica (Utrecht)137A, 209–242 (1986).

Y. Saad and M. H. Schultz, “GMRES: A generalized minimal residual algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems,” SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput.7(3), 856–869 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett.11(5), 288–290 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aabo, T.

L. Bosanac, T. Aabo, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Efficient Optical Trapping and Visualization of Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexander, D. R.

J. P. Barton, W. Ma, S. A. Schaub, and D. R. Alexander, “Electromagnetic field for a beam incident on two adjacent spherical particles,” Appl. Opt.30(33), 4706–4715 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.66(10), 4594–4602 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.64(4), 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Almaas, E.

Arias-González, J. R.

Arias-Gonzàlez, J. R.

Ashkin, A.

Aslan, M.

M. Aslan, M. P. Mengüç, and G. Videen, “Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: B. Physical concept and numerical experiments,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.93(1-3), 207–217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Videen, M. Aslan, and M. P. Mengüç, “Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: A. Theoretical framework and formulation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.93(1-3), 195–206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. P.

J. P. Barton, W. Ma, S. A. Schaub, and D. R. Alexander, “Electromagnetic field for a beam incident on two adjacent spherical particles,” Appl. Opt.30(33), 4706–4715 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.66(10), 4594–4602 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.64(4), 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bendix, P. M.

L. Bosanac, T. Aabo, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Efficient Optical Trapping and Visualization of Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Bobbert, P. A.

P. A. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, “Light scattering by a sphere on a substrate,” Physica (Utrecht)137A, 209–242 (1986).

Borghese, F.

Bosanac, L.

L. Bosanac, T. Aabo, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Efficient Optical Trapping and Visualization of Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brevik, I.

Chan, C. T.

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, “Whispering gallery mode enhanced optical force with resonant tunneling excitation in the Kretschmann geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011102 (2009).

J. Ng and C. T. Chan, “Size-selective optical forces for microspheres using evanescent wave excitation of whispering gallery modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.

S. Chang, J. T. Kim, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Optical force on a sphere caused by the evanescent field of a Gaussian beam; effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun.139(4-6), 252–261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chang, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Theoretical calculations of optical force exerted on a dielectric sphere in the evanescent field generated with a totally-reflected focused gaussian beam,” Opt. Commun.108(1-3), 133–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chaumet, P. C.

P. C. Chaumet and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Coupled dipole method determination of the electromagnetic force on a particle over a flat dielectric substrate,” Phys. Rev. B61(20), 14119–14127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Denti, P.

Doicu, A.

T. Wriedt and A. Doicu, “Light scattering from a particle on or near a surface,” Opt. Commun.152(4-6), 376–384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dziedzic, J. M.

Fucile, E.

Inami, W.

W. Inami and Y. Kawata, “Photon force analysis for a spherical particle near a substrate illuminated by a tightly focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.94(4), 2183–2187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jo, J. H.

S. Chang, J. T. Kim, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Optical force on a sphere caused by the evanescent field of a Gaussian beam; effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun.139(4-6), 252–261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chang, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Theoretical calculations of optical force exerted on a dielectric sphere in the evanescent field generated with a totally-reflected focused gaussian beam,” Opt. Commun.108(1-3), 133–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jones, P. H.

P. H. Jones, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Kawata, Y.

W. Inami and Y. Kawata, “Photon force analysis for a spherical particle near a substrate illuminated by a tightly focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.94(4), 2183–2187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. T.

S. Chang, J. T. Kim, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Optical force on a sphere caused by the evanescent field of a Gaussian beam; effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun.139(4-6), 252–261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

S. Chang, J. T. Kim, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Optical force on a sphere caused by the evanescent field of a Gaussian beam; effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun.139(4-6), 252–261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chang, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Theoretical calculations of optical force exerted on a dielectric sphere in the evanescent field generated with a totally-reflected focused gaussian beam,” Opt. Commun.108(1-3), 133–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z. F.

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, “Whispering gallery mode enhanced optical force with resonant tunneling excitation in the Kretschmann geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011102 (2009).

Ma, W.

Mackowski, D. W.

D. W. Mackowski, “A generalization of image theory to predict the interaction of multipole fields with plane surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.111(5), 802–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Mackowski, “Exact solution for the scattering and absorption properties of sphere clusters on a plane surface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.109(5), 770–788 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mengüç, M. P.

M. Aslan, M. P. Mengüç, and G. Videen, “Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: B. Physical concept and numerical experiments,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.93(1-3), 207–217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Videen, M. Aslan, and M. P. Mengüç, “Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: A. Theoretical framework and formulation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.93(1-3), 195–206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J.

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, “Whispering gallery mode enhanced optical force with resonant tunneling excitation in the Kretschmann geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011102 (2009).

J. Ng and C. T. Chan, “Size-selective optical forces for microspheres using evanescent wave excitation of whispering gallery modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Oddershede, L. B.

L. Bosanac, T. Aabo, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Efficient Optical Trapping and Visualization of Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saad, Y.

Y. Saad and M. H. Schultz, “GMRES: A generalized minimal residual algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems,” SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput.7(3), 856–869 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Saenz, J. J.

Saffari, N.

P. H. Jones, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saija, R.

Schaub, S. A.

J. P. Barton, W. Ma, S. A. Schaub, and D. R. Alexander, “Electromagnetic field for a beam incident on two adjacent spherical particles,” Appl. Opt.30(33), 4706–4715 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.66(10), 4594–4602 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.64(4), 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, M. H.

Y. Saad and M. H. Schultz, “GMRES: A generalized minimal residual algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems,” SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput.7(3), 856–869 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sindoni, O. I.

Stride, E.

P. H. Jones, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, T.

Tian, J. G.

Videen, G.

G. Videen, M. Aslan, and M. P. Mengüç, “Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: A. Theoretical framework and formulation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.93(1-3), 195–206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Aslan, M. P. Mengüç, and G. Videen, “Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: B. Physical concept and numerical experiments,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.93(1-3), 207–217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Videen, “Light scattering from a sphere on or near a surface: errata,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A9, 844–845 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vlieger, J.

P. A. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, “Light scattering by a sphere on a substrate,” Physica (Utrecht)137A, 209–242 (1986).

Wriedt, T.

T. Wriedt and A. Doicu, “Light scattering from a particle on or near a surface,” Opt. Commun.152(4-6), 376–384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J. J.

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, “Whispering gallery mode enhanced optical force with resonant tunneling excitation in the Kretschmann geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011102 (2009).

Yang, Y.

Zang, W. P.

Zhao, Z. Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. H. Jones, E. Stride, and N. Saffari, “Trapping and manipulation of microscopic bubbles with a scanning optical tweezer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(8), 081113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Ng and C. T. Chan, “Size-selective optical forces for microspheres using evanescent wave excitation of whispering gallery modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(25), 251109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Xiao, J. Ng, Z. F. Lin, and C. T. Chan, “Whispering gallery mode enhanced optical force with resonant tunneling excitation in the Kretschmann geometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(1), 011102 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

W. Inami and Y. Kawata, “Photon force analysis for a spherical particle near a substrate illuminated by a tightly focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.94(4), 2183–2187 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Internal and near-surface electromagnetic fields for a spherical particle irradiated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.64(4), 1632–1639 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Barton, D. R. Alexander, and S. A. Schaub, “Theoretical determination of net radiation force and torque for a spherical particle illuminated by a focused laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys.66(10), 4594–4602 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (4)

G. Videen, M. Aslan, and M. P. Mengüç, “Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: A. Theoretical framework and formulation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.93(1-3), 195–206 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Aslan, M. P. Mengüç, and G. Videen, “Characterization of metallic nano-particles via surface wave scattering: B. Physical concept and numerical experiments,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.93(1-3), 207–217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Mackowski, “A generalization of image theory to predict the interaction of multipole fields with plane surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.111(5), 802–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Mackowski, “Exact solution for the scattering and absorption properties of sphere clusters on a plane surface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.109(5), 770–788 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

L. Bosanac, T. Aabo, P. M. Bendix, and L. B. Oddershede, “Efficient Optical Trapping and Visualization of Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.8(5), 1486–1491 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (3)

T. Wriedt and A. Doicu, “Light scattering from a particle on or near a surface,” Opt. Commun.152(4-6), 376–384 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Chang, J. T. Kim, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Optical force on a sphere caused by the evanescent field of a Gaussian beam; effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun.139(4-6), 252–261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chang, J. H. Jo, and S. S. Lee, “Theoretical calculations of optical force exerted on a dielectric sphere in the evanescent field generated with a totally-reflected focused gaussian beam,” Opt. Commun.108(1-3), 133–143 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. C. Chaumet and M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “Coupled dipole method determination of the electromagnetic force on a particle over a flat dielectric substrate,” Phys. Rev. B61(20), 14119–14127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Physica (Utrecht) (1)

P. A. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, “Light scattering by a sphere on a substrate,” Physica (Utrecht)137A, 209–242 (1986).

Science (1)

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, “Optical trapping and manipulation of viruses and bacteria,” Science235(4795), 1517–1520 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput. (1)

Y. Saad and M. H. Schultz, “GMRES: A generalized minimal residual algorithm for solving nonsymmetric linear systems,” SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput.7(3), 856–869 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

V. V. Varadan, A. Lakhtakia, and V. K. Varadan, “Field Representation and Introduction to Scattering,” North-Holland, 1991.

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, and R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (Wiley, 1985).

P. W. Barber and S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particle: Computational Methods (World Scientific, 1990).

A. Doicu, T. Wriedt, and Y. A. Eremin, Light Scattering by Systems of Particles: Null-Field Method with Discrete Sources: Theory and Programs (Springer, 2006).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Particle of radius a situated in the evanescent field region z>d. A plane wave traveling in the x-z plane is incident from below at an angle of incidence β> β crit in the substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plots of the optical force components Q x c as a function of size parameter α, when the incident plane wave is polarized (a) orthogonal (s) and (b) parallel (p) to the x-z plane, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plots of the optical force components Q z c as a function of size parameter α, when the incident plane wave is polarized (a) orthogonal (s) and (b) parallel (p) to the x-z plane, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plots of the optical force components Q x c as a function of larger size parameter α, when the incident plane wave is polarized (a) orthogonal (s) and (b) parallel (p) to the x-z plane, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plots of the optical force components Q x c as a function of normalized distance between sphere and interface when the incident plane waves are polarized (a) orthogonal (s) and (b) parallel (p) to the x-z plane, respectively.

Equations (29)

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E eva ( r )=τ· E inc ( r ).
E int ( r )=A· E sca ( r ).
E tot ( r )= E eva ( r )+ E int ( r )= E eva ( r )+A E sca ( r ).
E sca ( r )=T E tot ( r ).
( IT·A )· E sca ( r )=T· E eva ( r ).
E eva ( r )= n 1 =1 m= n 1 n 1 [ a m n 1 0 M m n 1 ( 1 ) ( k 2 r )+ b m n 1 0 N m n 1 ( 1 ) ( k 2 r ) ] , H eva ( r )= k iωμ n 1 =1 m= n 1 n 1 [ b m n 1 0 M m n 1 ( 1 ) ( k 2 r )+ a m n 1 0 N m n 1 ( 1 ) ( k 2 r ) ] .
E sca ( r )= n=1 m=n n [ e mn M mn ( 3 ) ( k 2 r )+ f mn N mn ( 3 ) ( k 2 r ) ] , H sca ( r )= k iωμ n=1 m=n n [ f mn M mn ( 3 ) ( k 2 r )+ e mn N mn ( 3 ) ( k 2 r ) ] .
E int ( r )= n 1 =1 m= n 1 n 1 [ e m n 1 R M m n 1 ( 1 ) + f m n 1 R N m n 1 ( 1 ) ] , H int ( r )= k iωμ n 1 =1 m= n 1 n 1 [ f m n 1 R M m n 1 ( 1 ) + e m n 1 R N m n 1 ( 1 ) ] ,
[ e m n 1 R f m n 1 R ]=[ A mn n 1 ][ e mn f mn ],
[ A mn n 1 ]=[ α mn n 1 γ mn n 1 β mn n 1 δ mn n 1 ].
[ e mn f mn ]=[ T mn n 1 ]( [ a m n 1 0 b m n 1 0 ]+[ e m n 1 R f m n 1 R ] ),
( I[ T mn n 1 ][ A mn n 1 ] )[ e mn f mn ]=[ T mn n 1 ][ a m n 1 0 b m n 1 0 ].
E tot ( r )= n 1 =1 m= n 1 n 1 a m n 1 M m n 1 ( 1 ) ( k 2 r )+ b m n 1 N m n 1 ( 1 ) ( k 2 r ), H tot ( r )= k iωμ n 1 =1 m= n 1 n 1 b m n 1 M m n 1 ( 1 ) ( k 2 r ) + a m n 1 N m n 1 ( 1 ) ( k 2 r ).
[ a mn b mn ]=[ a m n 1 0 b m n 1 0 ]+[ A mn n 1 ][ e mn f mn ].
[ e 0 mn f 0 mn ]=[ T mn n 1 ]( [ a m n 1 0 b m n 1 0 ]+[ e 0 m n 1 R f 0 m n 1 R ] ),
[ e 1 m n 1 R f 1 m n 1 R ]=[ A mn n 1 ][ e 0 mn f 0 mn ],
a m n 1 0 = i n τ s 2n+1 2n( n+1 ) ( nm )! ( n+m )! [ P n m+1 ( ξ )( n+m )( nm+1 ) P n m1 ( ξ ) ],
b m n 1 0 = i n τ s 2n+1 2n( n+1 ) ( nm )! ( n+m )! [ P n m+1 ( ξ )+( n+m )( nm+1 ) P n m1 ( ξ )+2m n 1 1 ξ 2 P n m ( ξ ) ]ξ,
a m n 1 0 = i n+1 τ p 2n+1 2n( n+1 ) ( nm )! ( n+m )! [ P n m+1 ( ξ )+( n+m )( nm+1 ) P n m1 ( ξ )+2m n 1 1 ξ 2 P n m ( ξ ) ]ξ,
b m n 1 0 = i n+1 τ p 2n+1 2n( n+1 ) ( nm )! ( n+m )! [ P n m+1 ( ξ )( n+m )( nm+1 ) P n m1 ( ξ ) ],
ξ= ( 1 ( n 1 n 2 ) 2 sin 2 β ) 1/2 ,
τ s = 2 n 1 cosβ n 2 cosβ+ n 1 ξ ,
τ p = 2 n 1 cosβ n 1 ξ+ n 2 cosβ .
F = S n ^ T dS ,
Q x c +i Q y c = π α 2 n,m 1 2n+1 ( nm )! ( n+m )! ×{ ( nm )( n+m+1 ) Γ 1 ( n,m )+ Γ 2 ( n,m )i n( n+2 ) 2n+3 ×[ ( n+m+1 )( n+m+2 ) Γ 3 ( n,m )+ Γ 4 ( n,m ) ] },
Q z c = 2π α 2 Re n,m 1 2n+1 ( nm )! ( n+m )! ×{ m Γ 5 ( n,m )+i n( n+1 ) 2n+3 ( n+m+1 ) Γ 6 ( n,m ) }.
Q x c +i Q y c = F x +i F y ε 0 E 0 2 a 2 , Q z c = F z ε 0 E 0 2 a 2 .
Γ 1 ( n,m )= e mn b m+1,n * +( a mn +2 e mn ) f m+1,n * , Γ 2 ( n,m )= e mn * b m1,n +( a mn * +2 e mn * ) f m1,n , Γ 3 ( n,m )= e mn a m+1,n+1 * + f mn b m+1,n+1 * +( a mn +2 f mn ) e m+1,n+1 * +( b mn +2 f mn ) f m+1,n+1 * , Γ 4 ( n,m )= e mn * a m1,n+1 + f mn * b m1,n+1 +( a mn * +2 e mn * ) e m1,n+1 +( b mn * +2 f mn * ) f m1,n+1 , Γ 5 ( n,m )= e mn b mn * +( a mn +2 e mn ) f mn * , Γ 6 ( n,m )= e mn a m,n+1 * + f mn b m,n+1 * +( a mn +2 e mn ) e m,n+1 * +( b mn +2 f mn ) f m,n+1 * .
Q x c = Q z , Q z c = Q x .

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