Abstract

A GaN/Si nanoheterostructure array was prepared by growing GaN nanostructures on silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA). Based on as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA, two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated. It was found that after the annealing treatment, both the turn-on voltage and the leakage current density of the nanoheterostructure varied greatly, together with the electroluminescence (EL) changed from a yellow band to a near infrared band. The EL variation was attributed to the radiative transition being transformed from a defect-related recombination in GaN to an interfacial recombination of GaN/Si-NPA. Ours might have provided an effective approach for fabricating GaN/Si-based LEDs with different emission wavelengths.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

In the past decade, gallium nitride (GaN) has been widely used in fabricating ultraviolet, blue and green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes (LDs) because of the merits of its direct and wide bandgap (3.4 eV), high carrier mobility, and good thermal and chemical stability [13]. Although GaN/Si heterostructures were also deemed to be promising candidates for making integrated high-speed or high-power photoelectronic devices [46], the practical course was badly baffled by the inferior interface quality resulted from the large lattice mismatch between the two semiconductors [7], because an inferior interface quality would bring serious damage to both the inner quantum efficiency (IQE) and the performances of as-constructed devices. To reduce the lattice mismatch and thereby improve the interface quality, two main approaches have been developed in the past years [8, 9]. One was the usage of an intermediate layer to accommodate most of the lattice mismatch and enhance the metallurgical compatibility between GaN and silicon substrates. This was usually realized by introducing a specially designed multilayer with a lattice constant gradient or an N-ion implanted substrate surface with partially distorted crystal lattices [10, 11]. The other was the adoption of nanoheteroepitaxy method, which was often carried out by utilizing various nanopatterned substrates to release the interfacial stress, reduce the dislocation density and improve the IQE [1214]. For example, the GaN-Si interfacial residual stress could be greatly reduced by growing GaN film on a silicon nanopore array [15], and good rectifying properties could be obtained by growing p-GaN nanowires on n-Si crystal wafers [16]. These results greatly promoted the confidence for making GaN/Si-based LEDs or LDs with high efficiency and broad emission band range.

Encouraged by these experiments and utilizing silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) [17] as functional substrates, we have constructed a GaN/Si nanoheterostructure array (GaN/Si-NPA) by growing GaN nanograins onto Si-NPA, in which an effective yellow or infrared (NIR) electroluminescence (EL) tuned by the applied voltages was obtained [18]. This indicates that GaN/Si-NPA might be a promising material system for fabricating practical GaN/Si-based LEDs. According to the basic theory of luminescence, the adjustability of the EL wavelength inferred that there might have different radiative recombination paths in GaN/Si-NPA, such as the band-band transition or the transitions relating with the high-density defects formed in GaN or at the interfaces. Clearly, the co-existence of multi-recombination paths would produce strong effect on the EL qualities, both the EL intensity and monochromaticity. On the other hand, thermal treatments have been proved to be an effect approach to promote the EL properties of a semiconductor heterojunction through improving the interfacial quality and changing the electronic structures. For instance, the carrier concentration of n-ZnO/p-Si could be changed through annealing treatment and the J-V curve as well as the EL properties could be adjusted notably [19]. The EL intensity and peak position of n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN LED could be tuned through controlling the concentration and sorts of the defect states by performing annealing treatments at different temperatures and in different atmospheres [20]. As a result, a systematic study of the annealing effect on the EL properties is necessary for both clarifying the luminescent mechanism and promoting the emission qualities of GaN/Si-NPA.

In this paper, two GaN/Si LEDs were prepared based on as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA. The structural and physical properties, including the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, surface morphologies, current density-voltage (J-V) curves, EL and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, were measured and comparatively studied. Based on the experimental results, the EL mechanisms of the LEDs were put forward through building up the corresponding electronics structures. Our results might indicate a novel approach for designing and fabricating high-performance LEDs based directly on GaN/Si nanoheterostructures.

2. Experimental details

Si-NPA was prepared by hydrothermally etching (111) oriented, boron-doped single crystal Si (sc-Si) wafers in a solution of hydrofluoric acid containing ferric nitrate [17]. A thin layer of platinum (~3 nm), which acted as catalyst in the subsequent GaN growing process, was pre-deposited on freshly prepared Si-NPA samples by a magnetron sputtering technique. Using high-purity metal Ga (99.999%, 0.8 g) and NH3 gas (99.999%, introduced with a flow rate of 20 sccm) as the sources for the two elements, GaN were grown on Si-NPA by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The deposition was carried out in a vacuum tube furnace equipped with multichannel gas inlets and a gas mixing chamber at 1050 °C for 20 min. Here two kinds of GaN/Si-NPA were prepared, one was the as-grown sample and the other was annealed at 800 °C for 3 hours in nitrogen atmosphere afterwards. Layers of indium tin oxide (ITO, ~100 nm) acting as top electrode and Al (~500 nm) acting as back electrode were deposited by magnetron sputtering and vacuum evaporation methods, respectively. As-constructed LEDs have a device structure of ITO/n-GaN/p-Si-NPA/sc-Si/Al. For the convenience of narration, the two LEDs here were named as as-grown LED and annealed LED, respectively. The two LEDs were both annealed at 300 °C for 1 hour in Ar atmosphere to realize ohmic contact between the electrodes and the semiconductors. The active areas of the diodes were specified as 10 mm × 10 mm. The surface morphology and the crystal structure of GaN/Si-NPA were characterized by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, JSM 6700F) and an X-ray diffractometer (Panalytical X' Pert Pro). The electrical and luminescent properties of the devices were measured at room temperature through an electrical group system consisted of Sourcemeter-2400 (Keithley) and a fluorescence spectrometer (Spex Fluorolog-3), respectively.

3. Results and discussion

The XRD patterns of as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA are shown in Part A of Fig. 1(a) , in which all the diffraction peaks were indexed to crystalline hexagonal wurtzite GaN (JCPDS card: No. 50-0792). The obvious difference between the two curves is the reduction of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) for all the corresponding diffraction peaks after annealing treatment, as could be seen more obviously in Part B of Fig. 1(a). The typical cross-sectional FESEM image of as-grown GaN/Si-NPA is given in Fig. 1(b), in which GaN layers characterized by two different morphologies were observed. The upper layer was composed of two kinds of quasi one-dimensional GaN nanostructures, straight nanowires with an average diameter of ~30 nm and pencil-like nanorods with an average diameter of ~300 nm. Both the nanowires and the nanorods were well separated and nearly aligned locally perpendicular to the substrate surface, with an average length of ~1.5 μm. Between the nanowire/nanorod layer and Si-NPA substrate was a granular layer consisted of large quantities of GaN nanocrystallites (nc-GaN). The layer thickness and the average grain size were ~150 nm and ~20 nm, respectively. No apparent morphological variation was found by comparing the FESEM images of the samples before and after annealing treatment. Therefore, it was reasonable to think that the reduction of the FWHM of the diffraction peaks observed in Fig. 1(a) should result from the growing up of nc-GaN, which might have been formed in the GaN granular layer. This indicates that the crystallinity of as-deposited nc-GaN might have been greatly improved after the annealing treatment. As a consequence, the density of crystal defects should have been largely reduced.

 

Fig. 1 (a) Part A: the XRD patterns of as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA; Part B: the comparison of the FWHM variation for all the corresponding XRD peaks before and after annealing treatment. (b) The cross-sectional FESEM image of as-grown GaN/Si-NPA.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The dark J-V curves of as-grown and annealed LEDs measured at room temperature are depicted in Fig. 2 . The inset of Fig. 2 shows the schematic structure of the LEDs. Both of the J-V curves exhibited rectifying characteristic. Because the contact between Si-NPA and sc-Si has been proved to be ohmic [21], the observed rectification behaviors confirmed the formation of heterojunctions for both as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA. But all the junction parameters for annealed LEDs, including the turn-on voltage, breakdown reverse voltage and leakage current density, have changed largely compared with those for as-grown ones. For example, the turn-on voltage (for obtaining a current density of 1 mA/cm2) increased from ~1.6 V to ~3.9 V, and the leakage current density (at an applied voltage of −4 V) reduced from ~3.2 mA/cm2 to ~0.04 mA/cm2. The rectiðcation ratios for the two LEDs were calculated to be ~9 (at ± 3.9 V) and ~36 (at ± 4.8 V), respectively. According to the basic theory of heterojunctions [22], the leakage current density of a heterojunction was generally attributed to the defect-mediated tunneling effect caused by a high defect or trap concentration at the interface. Therefore, the distinct reduction of the leakage current density for the annealed LED might indicate an improvement of interfacial quality and a decrease of the defect state density, just as what occurred in the annealing process of ZnO nanorods/Si heterojunctions [23].

 

Fig. 2 The room-temperature J-V curves of as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA. Inset: the schematic diagram of the LEDs.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

For clarifying the underlying transportation mechanism of the variation, the log-log plot of the J-V data is presented in Fig. 3 . It was found that both the curves for as-grown and annealed LEDs could be fitted by two straight lines. For as-grown LED, the J-V curve exhibits firstly a linear relation at a low forward voltage region (V < 0.9 V, region I). This indicates that the transportation of the carriers obeying the Ohmic law. With the applied voltage increased over 0.9 V (region II), the J-V curve exhibits an exponential relationship (J~V3.3), which infers a typical space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism [24]. The SCLC mechanism was usually observed in wide bandgap p-n diodes, such as ZnO/Si [25, 26] and ZnO/SiC [27]. As for annealed LED, the J-V curve also exhibits a linear relation before the inflection point of ~1.9 V (region I′), but the current density is about three orders of magnitude lower than that of as-grown device. With the applied voltage increased beyond ~1.9 V (region II′), the transportation mechanism also transferred to the SCLC model, but with a relationship of J~V10. Clearly, the exponent varied largely from ~3.3 for as-grown LED to ~10 for annealed LED, and the increment of the exponent in SCLC model indicated a narrowed distribution of the localized states and a lowered defect state density in the annealed LED [28].

 

Fig. 3 The room-temperature log-log plots for the forward J-V of as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The EL spectra of the two LEDs are presented in Fig. 4(a) . Under an applied forward bias of 10 V, the current densities for as-grown and annealed LEDs were ~205 mA/cm2 and ~185 mA/cm2, respectively, and both devices exhibited efficient EL with relatively good monochromaticity, a yellow band peaked at ~567 nm and with a FWHM of ~23.5 nm for as-grown LED, and a NIR band peaked at ~830 nm and with a FWHM of ~18.5 nm for annealed LED. To clarify the origins of the EL for the two LEDs, the PL spectra of as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA were measured, as is given in Fig. 4(b). Under the excitation of an ultraviolet with a wavelength of 320 nm (using a 300 W Xe lamp as the light source and operated with a slit width of 3 nm), both samples showed a strong ultraviolet PL band centered at 366 nm. These bands were due to the near-band-edge (NBE) emission of crystal GaN. A weak but distinct yellow PL band peaked at ~560 nm was observed in as-grown GaN/Si-NPA, but it almost disappeared in the annealed samples. The yellow PL band was usually attributed to the radiative recombination related with the deep-level defects in undoped GaN [2931], such as gallium vacancies (VGa), which has a relatively small formation energy and low migration barrier [29, 30, 32]. Therefore it is rational to deduce that the yellow PL and EL band for as-grown GaN/Si-NPA have the same origin, i. e., both of them originate from a defect-related radiative recombination process. The presentation and disappearance of the yellow PL band before and after annealing treatment reflected a reduction of defect density in GaN.

 

Fig. 4 The room-temperature (a) EL spectra of as-drown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA LEDs operating with a dc voltage of 10 V, and (b) PL spectra of as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The mechanism of the EL could be explained through analyzing the energy diagram of GaN/Si-NPA (Fig. 5 ). As has been reported, the electron affinity ψ of GaN and Si-NPA was ~4.1 eV and ~3.6 eV, and their bandgap Eg were ~3.4 eV and ~2.0 eV, respectively [3335]. The barrier heights at the interfaces for the conduction bands and valence bands, ΔEC and ΔEV, were calculated to be ~0.5 eV and ~1.9 eV, respectively. As a result, the interfacial band off-set ΔE = Eg1(Si-NPA) - ΔEC = Eg2(GaN) - ΔEV = 1.5 eV, which is equal to the difference of their quasi-Fermi levels after applying bias. In terms of the depletion region of a heterojuction, the distribution of the depletion region is proportional to the built-in field but inversely proportional to the doping concentration. The low defect density for annealed GaN/Si-NPA would surely lead to a low doping concentration. Compared with as-grown LED, the built-in field for annealed LED is wider, which will result in a larger turn-on voltage (Fig. 2 and Fig. 5). When a larger forward bias was applied, the yellow EL band peaked at ~567 nm (~2.2 eV) observed in as-grown LED most probably originated from the radiative recombination of the deep-level defect states, such as VGa, in GaN (Fig. 5(a)), just as what occurred in the PL process. The VGa, which would form deep acceptor level in GaN, can accept the electrons transited from conduction band and give yellow emission under the excitation of electric field [32]. Furthermore, the low energy barrier (ΔE’ = 2.2 - 1.5 = 0.7 eV) between the valence bands of Si-NPA and deep acceptor levels will be favorable to the injection of holes for realizing the yellow emission. On the other hand, for annealed LED, the NIR EL peaked at ~830 nm (1.5 eV) is attributed to interfacial transition between electrons in the conduction band of GaN and holes in the valence band of Si-NPA for the higher ΔEV (1.9 eV), as is shown in Fig. 5(b) [18]. As-grown LED exhibits a high leakage current density (high defect density), in which nonradiative recombination would dominate the interfacial recombination. So only the yellow EL originating from the GaN defect states could be observed. After the annealing treatment, both the defect density in GaN and at the interface would be reduced notably, thus the radiative recombination would mainly occur through band-band transition at the interface. In addition, the ΔE (1.5 eV) is much lower than the energy bandgap of Si-NPA (~2.0 eV) and GaN (~3.4 eV), so the transition probability at the interface would be much higher than the NBE transition within either Si-NPA or GaN according to quantum theory [36]. As a result, the annealing process could effectively tune the EL of GaN/Si-NPA from yellow band to NIR band.

 

Fig. 5 The mechanism illustration of the yellow EL from as-grown (a) and NIR EL from annealed GaN/Si-NPA LEDs based on the energy band diagram.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Just as discussed above, the origins of the yellow and NIR luminescence from as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA LEDs were attributed to the defect-related radiative transition in GaN and the rediative recombination at the interface of GaN/Si, respectively. Clearly, for the LEDs based on two semiconductors with large lattice mismatch, the promotion on the relatively low IQE is crucial for its practical device application. In addition to further improvement of the material quality of GaN/Si-NPA through optimizing the preparing conditions, such as controlling the microstructure and surface chemical status of Si-NPA, changing the CVD preparing and post-treating parameters, adopting different LED fabrication arts or procedures, some recently developed approaches could also be used for references. The representative demonstrations include the fabrication of nonpolar InGaN quantum well (QW) LEDs [37] or InGaN QW LEDs with large optical matrix elements [38] and surface plasmon coupling [39, 40], through which the radiative recombination rate was greatly improved. This might indicate a promising path for achieving high IQE in the LEDs and might be utilized in preparing GaN/Si-NPA-based LEDs.

4. Conclusions

In conclusion, a GaN/Si nanoheterostructure array was prepared by depositing n-GaN on p-Si-NPA. Two prototype GaN/Si LEDs with a device structure of ITO/n-GaN/p-Si-NPA/sc-Si/Al were prepared based on as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA, from which sharp yellow and NIR EL bands were obtained correspondingly. The origins for the yellow and NIR EL were attributed to the defect-related radiative recombination in GaN and the interfacial band-band rediative recombination of GaN/Si-NPA, respectively. Our research might have provided a doable approach for fabricating visible and NIR LEDs directly based on GaN/Si heterostructures.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61176044, 11074224), the Sci.-Tech. Project for Innovative Scientist of Henan Province (No. 114200510017) and the Science and Technology Project on Key Problems of Henan Province (No. 082101510007).

References and links

1. H. Morkoç and S. N. Mohammad, “High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes,” Science 267(5194), 51–55 (1995). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. G. Fasol, “Room-temperature blue gallium nitride laser diode,” Science 272(5269), 1751–1752 (1996). [CrossRef]  

3. H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009). [CrossRef]  

4. P. Javorka, A. Alam, M. Wolter, A. Fox, M. Marso, M. Heuken, H. Luth, and P. Kordos, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(1), 4–6 (2002). [CrossRef]  

5. K. Radhakrishnan, N. Dharmarasu, Z. Sun, S. Arulkumaran, and G. I. Ng, “Demonstration of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on 100 mm diameter Si(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 232107 (2010). [CrossRef]  

6. B. Hughes, Y. Y. Yoon, D. M. Zehnder, and K. S. Boutros, “A 95% efficient normally-off GaN-on-Si HEMT hybrid-IC boost-converter with 425-W output power at 1 MHz,” presented at the Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS), 2011 IEEE, USA, 16–19 Oct. 2011.

7. A. Krost and A. Dadgar, “GaN-based devices on Si,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 194(2), 361–375 (2002). [CrossRef]  

8. S. Yoshida, S. Misawa, and S. Gonda, “Improvements on the electrical and luminescent properties of reactive molecular beam epitaxially grown GaN films by using AlN-coated sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(5), 427 (1983). [CrossRef]  

9. S. Luryi and E. Suhir, “New approach to the high quality epitaxial growth of lattice-mismatched materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(3), 140–142 (1986). [CrossRef]  

10. C. I. Park, J. H. Kang, K. C. Kim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, and K. Y. Lim, “Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of GaN thin film on 3C-SiC/Si(111) substrate using various buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 401(1–2), 60–66 (2001). [CrossRef]  

11. M. Jamil, J. R. Grandusky, V. Jindal, N. Tripathi, and F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, “Mechanism of large area dislocation defect reduction in GaN layers on AlN/Si (111) by substrate engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023701 (2007). [CrossRef]  

12. D. Zubia and S. D. Hersee, “Nanoheteroepitaxy: The Application of nanostructuring and substrate compliance to the heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductor materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6492–6496 (1999). [CrossRef]  

13. Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009). [CrossRef]  

14. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011). [CrossRef]  

15. J. Liang, S. K. Hong, N. Kouklin, R. Beresford, and J. M. Xu, “Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on a nanopore array Si surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1752 (2003). [CrossRef]  

16. S. Manna, V. D. Ashok, and S. K. De, “Rectifying properties of p-GaN nanowires and an n-silicon heterojunction vertical diode,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3539–3543 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. H. J. Xu and X. J. Li, “Silicon nanoporous pillar array: a silicon hierarchical structure with high light absorption and triple-band photoluminescence,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2933–2941 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. C. B. Han, C. He, and X. J. Li, “Near-infrared light emission from a GaN/Si nanoheterostructure array,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(41), 4811–4814 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, N. W. Jang, W. J. Lee, and C. R. Cho, “Dependence of the diode characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si (111) on the Si substrate doping,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 56(1), 429–433 (2010). [CrossRef]  

20. N. H. Alvi, M. Willander, and O. Nur, “The effect of the post-growth annealing on the electroluminescence properties of n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 47(6), 754–761 (2010). [CrossRef]  

21. H. J. Xu and X. J. Li, “Rectification effect and electron transport property of CdS/Si nanoheterostructure based on silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 172105 (2008). [CrossRef]  

22. B. L. Sharma and R. K. Purohit, Semiconductor heterojunctions. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1974).

23. S. Liu, T. Chen, Y. Jiang, G. Ru, and X. Qu, “The effect of postannealing on the electrical properties of well-aligned n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114504 (2009). [CrossRef]  

24. A. Rose, “Space-charge-limited currents in solids,” Phys. Rev. 97(6), 1538–1544 (1955). [CrossRef]  

25. R. Ghosh and D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243106 (2007). [CrossRef]  

26. M. Dutta and D. Basak, “p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction: Sol-gel fabrication, photoresponse properties, and transport mechanism,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 212112 (2008). [CrossRef]  

27. N. Bano, I. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, and P. Klason, “Study of radiative defects using current-voltage characteristics in ZnO rods catalytically grown on 4H-p-SiC,” J. Nanomater. 2010, 1–5 (2010). [CrossRef]  

28. T. A. Burr, A. A. Seraphin, E. Werwa, and K. D. Kolenbrander, “Carrier transport in thin films of silicon nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 56(8), 4818–4824 (1997). [CrossRef]  

29. M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005). [CrossRef]  

30. J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van de Walle, “Gallium vacancies and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(4), 503–505 (1996). [CrossRef]  

31. T. Mattila and R. M. Nieminen, “Point-defect complexes and broadband luminescence in GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 55(15), 9571–9576 (1997). [CrossRef]  

32. S. Limpijumnong and C. G. Van de Walle, “Diffusivity of native defects in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(3), 035207 (2004). [CrossRef]  

33. B. Unal and S. C. Bayliss, “Photovoltaic effects from porous Si,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 30(19), 2763–2769 (1997). [CrossRef]  

34. H.-J. Xu, X.-N. Fu, X.-R. Sun, and X.-J. Li, “Investigations on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Acta Chimi. Sin. 54(5), 2352–2357 (2005).

35. J. I. Pankove and H. Schade, “Photoemission from GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(1), 53–55 (1974). [CrossRef]  

36. J. I. Pankove, Electroluminescence (Springer, New York 1977).

37. R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010). [CrossRef]  

38. H. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010). [CrossRef]  

39. H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011). [CrossRef]  

40. C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Morkoç and S. N. Mohammad, “High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes,” Science 267(5194), 51–55 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Fasol, “Room-temperature blue gallium nitride laser diode,” Science 272(5269), 1751–1752 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Javorka, A. Alam, M. Wolter, A. Fox, M. Marso, M. Heuken, H. Luth, and P. Kordos, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(1), 4–6 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Radhakrishnan, N. Dharmarasu, Z. Sun, S. Arulkumaran, and G. I. Ng, “Demonstration of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on 100 mm diameter Si(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 232107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Hughes, Y. Y. Yoon, D. M. Zehnder, and K. S. Boutros, “A 95% efficient normally-off GaN-on-Si HEMT hybrid-IC boost-converter with 425-W output power at 1 MHz,” presented at the Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS), 2011 IEEE, USA, 16–19 Oct. 2011.
  7. A. Krost and A. Dadgar, “GaN-based devices on Si,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 194(2), 361–375 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Yoshida, S. Misawa, and S. Gonda, “Improvements on the electrical and luminescent properties of reactive molecular beam epitaxially grown GaN films by using AlN-coated sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(5), 427 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Luryi and E. Suhir, “New approach to the high quality epitaxial growth of lattice-mismatched materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(3), 140–142 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. I. Park, J. H. Kang, K. C. Kim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, and K. Y. Lim, “Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of GaN thin film on 3C-SiC/Si(111) substrate using various buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 401(1–2), 60–66 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Jamil, J. R. Grandusky, V. Jindal, N. Tripathi, and F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, “Mechanism of large area dislocation defect reduction in GaN layers on AlN/Si (111) by substrate engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023701 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Zubia and S. D. Hersee, “Nanoheteroepitaxy: The Application of nanostructuring and substrate compliance to the heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductor materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6492–6496 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Liang, S. K. Hong, N. Kouklin, R. Beresford, and J. M. Xu, “Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on a nanopore array Si surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1752 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Manna, V. D. Ashok, and S. K. De, “Rectifying properties of p-GaN nanowires and an n-silicon heterojunction vertical diode,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3539–3543 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. J. Xu and X. J. Li, “Silicon nanoporous pillar array: a silicon hierarchical structure with high light absorption and triple-band photoluminescence,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2933–2941 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. B. Han, C. He, and X. J. Li, “Near-infrared light emission from a GaN/Si nanoheterostructure array,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(41), 4811–4814 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, N. W. Jang, W. J. Lee, and C. R. Cho, “Dependence of the diode characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si (111) on the Si substrate doping,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 56(1), 429–433 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. H. Alvi, M. Willander, and O. Nur, “The effect of the post-growth annealing on the electroluminescence properties of n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 47(6), 754–761 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. J. Xu and X. J. Li, “Rectification effect and electron transport property of CdS/Si nanoheterostructure based on silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 172105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. L. Sharma and R. K. Purohit, Semiconductor heterojunctions. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1974).
  23. S. Liu, T. Chen, Y. Jiang, G. Ru, and X. Qu, “The effect of postannealing on the electrical properties of well-aligned n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114504 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Rose, “Space-charge-limited currents in solids,” Phys. Rev. 97(6), 1538–1544 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Ghosh and D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243106 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Dutta and D. Basak, “p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction: Sol-gel fabrication, photoresponse properties, and transport mechanism,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 212112 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. N. Bano, I. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, and P. Klason, “Study of radiative defects using current-voltage characteristics in ZnO rods catalytically grown on 4H-p-SiC,” J. Nanomater. 2010, 1–5 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. A. Burr, A. A. Seraphin, E. Werwa, and K. D. Kolenbrander, “Carrier transport in thin films of silicon nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 56(8), 4818–4824 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van de Walle, “Gallium vacancies and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(4), 503–505 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Mattila and R. M. Nieminen, “Point-defect complexes and broadband luminescence in GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 55(15), 9571–9576 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Limpijumnong and C. G. Van de Walle, “Diffusivity of native defects in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(3), 035207 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. Unal and S. C. Bayliss, “Photovoltaic effects from porous Si,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 30(19), 2763–2769 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  34. H.-J. Xu, X.-N. Fu, X.-R. Sun, and X.-J. Li, “Investigations on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Acta Chimi. Sin. 54(5), 2352–2357 (2005).
  35. J. I. Pankove and H. Schade, “Photoemission from GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(1), 53–55 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. I. Pankove, Electroluminescence (Springer, New York 1977).
  37. R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  38. H. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  39. H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  40. C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Han, C. He, and X. J. Li, “Near-infrared light emission from a GaN/Si nanoheterostructure array,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(41), 4811–4814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, N. W. Jang, W. J. Lee, and C. R. Cho, “Dependence of the diode characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si (111) on the Si substrate doping,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 56(1), 429–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Alvi, M. Willander, and O. Nur, “The effect of the post-growth annealing on the electroluminescence properties of n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 47(6), 754–761 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Radhakrishnan, N. Dharmarasu, Z. Sun, S. Arulkumaran, and G. I. Ng, “Demonstration of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on 100 mm diameter Si(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 232107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Manna, V. D. Ashok, and S. K. De, “Rectifying properties of p-GaN nanowires and an n-silicon heterojunction vertical diode,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3539–3543 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bano, I. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, and P. Klason, “Study of radiative defects using current-voltage characteristics in ZnO rods catalytically grown on 4H-p-SiC,” J. Nanomater. 2010, 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, T. Chen, Y. Jiang, G. Ru, and X. Qu, “The effect of postannealing on the electrical properties of well-aligned n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. J. Xu and X. J. Li, “Rectification effect and electron transport property of CdS/Si nanoheterostructure based on silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 172105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Dutta and D. Basak, “p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction: Sol-gel fabrication, photoresponse properties, and transport mechanism,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 212112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Xu and X. J. Li, “Silicon nanoporous pillar array: a silicon hierarchical structure with high light absorption and triple-band photoluminescence,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2933–2941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

R. Ghosh and D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Jamil, J. R. Grandusky, V. Jindal, N. Tripathi, and F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, “Mechanism of large area dislocation defect reduction in GaN layers on AlN/Si (111) by substrate engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

H.-J. Xu, X.-N. Fu, X.-R. Sun, and X.-J. Li, “Investigations on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Acta Chimi. Sin. 54(5), 2352–2357 (2005).

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Limpijumnong and C. G. Van de Walle, “Diffusivity of native defects in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(3), 035207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Liang, S. K. Hong, N. Kouklin, R. Beresford, and J. M. Xu, “Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on a nanopore array Si surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Javorka, A. Alam, M. Wolter, A. Fox, M. Marso, M. Heuken, H. Luth, and P. Kordos, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(1), 4–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Krost and A. Dadgar, “GaN-based devices on Si,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 194(2), 361–375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. I. Park, J. H. Kang, K. C. Kim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, and K. Y. Lim, “Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of GaN thin film on 3C-SiC/Si(111) substrate using various buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 401(1–2), 60–66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. Zubia and S. D. Hersee, “Nanoheteroepitaxy: The Application of nanostructuring and substrate compliance to the heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductor materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6492–6496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. Unal and S. C. Bayliss, “Photovoltaic effects from porous Si,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 30(19), 2763–2769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Burr, A. A. Seraphin, E. Werwa, and K. D. Kolenbrander, “Carrier transport in thin films of silicon nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 56(8), 4818–4824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Mattila and R. M. Nieminen, “Point-defect complexes and broadband luminescence in GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 55(15), 9571–9576 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van de Walle, “Gallium vacancies and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(4), 503–505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Fasol, “Room-temperature blue gallium nitride laser diode,” Science 272(5269), 1751–1752 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

H. Morkoç and S. N. Mohammad, “High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes,” Science 267(5194), 51–55 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

S. Luryi and E. Suhir, “New approach to the high quality epitaxial growth of lattice-mismatched materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(3), 140–142 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

S. Yoshida, S. Misawa, and S. Gonda, “Improvements on the electrical and luminescent properties of reactive molecular beam epitaxially grown GaN films by using AlN-coated sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(5), 427 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. I. Pankove and H. Schade, “Photoemission from GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(1), 53–55 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1955

A. Rose, “Space-charge-limited currents in solids,” Phys. Rev. 97(6), 1538–1544 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Alam, A.

P. Javorka, A. Alam, M. Wolter, A. Fox, M. Marso, M. Heuken, H. Luth, and P. Kordos, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(1), 4–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alvi, N. H.

N. H. Alvi, M. Willander, and O. Nur, “The effect of the post-growth annealing on the electroluminescence properties of n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 47(6), 754–761 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arulkumaran, S.

K. Radhakrishnan, N. Dharmarasu, Z. Sun, S. Arulkumaran, and G. I. Ng, “Demonstration of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on 100 mm diameter Si(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 232107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ashok, V. D.

S. Manna, V. D. Ashok, and S. K. De, “Rectifying properties of p-GaN nanowires and an n-silicon heterojunction vertical diode,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3539–3543 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bano, N.

N. Bano, I. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, and P. Klason, “Study of radiative defects using current-voltage characteristics in ZnO rods catalytically grown on 4H-p-SiC,” J. Nanomater. 2010, 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Basak, D.

M. Dutta and D. Basak, “p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction: Sol-gel fabrication, photoresponse properties, and transport mechanism,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 212112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ghosh and D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bayliss, S. C.

B. Unal and S. C. Bayliss, “Photovoltaic effects from porous Si,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 30(19), 2763–2769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beresford, R.

J. Liang, S. K. Hong, N. Kouklin, R. Beresford, and J. M. Xu, “Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on a nanopore array Si surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. M.

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burr, T. A.

T. A. Burr, A. A. Seraphin, E. Werwa, and K. D. Kolenbrander, “Carrier transport in thin films of silicon nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 56(8), 4818–4824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. M.

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T.

S. Liu, T. Chen, Y. Jiang, G. Ru, and X. Qu, “The effect of postannealing on the electrical properties of well-aligned n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. R.

J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, N. W. Jang, W. J. Lee, and C. R. Cho, “Dependence of the diode characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si (111) on the Si substrate doping,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 56(1), 429–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dadgar, A.

A. Krost and A. Dadgar, “GaN-based devices on Si,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 194(2), 361–375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

De, S. K.

S. Manna, V. D. Ashok, and S. K. De, “Rectifying properties of p-GaN nanowires and an n-silicon heterojunction vertical diode,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3539–3543 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DenBaars, S. P.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dharmarasu, N.

K. Radhakrishnan, N. Dharmarasu, Z. Sun, S. Arulkumaran, and G. I. Ng, “Demonstration of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on 100 mm diameter Si(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 232107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, M.

M. Dutta and D. Basak, “p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction: Sol-gel fabrication, photoresponse properties, and transport mechanism,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 212112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y.-K.

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fasol, G.

G. Fasol, “Room-temperature blue gallium nitride laser diode,” Science 272(5269), 1751–1752 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A.

P. Javorka, A. Alam, M. Wolter, A. Fox, M. Marso, M. Heuken, H. Luth, and P. Kordos, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(1), 4–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X.-N.

H.-J. Xu, X.-N. Fu, X.-R. Sun, and X.-J. Li, “Investigations on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Acta Chimi. Sin. 54(5), 2352–2357 (2005).

Fujito, K.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, R.

R. Ghosh and D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gonda, S.

S. Yoshida, S. Misawa, and S. Gonda, “Improvements on the electrical and luminescent properties of reactive molecular beam epitaxially grown GaN films by using AlN-coated sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(5), 427 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Grandusky, J. R.

M. Jamil, J. R. Grandusky, V. Jindal, N. Tripathi, and F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, “Mechanism of large area dislocation defect reduction in GaN layers on AlN/Si (111) by substrate engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Haeger, D. A.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, C. B.

C. B. Han, C. He, and X. J. Li, “Near-infrared light emission from a GaN/Si nanoheterostructure array,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(41), 4811–4814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, C.

C. B. Han, C. He, and X. J. Li, “Near-infrared light emission from a GaN/Si nanoheterostructure array,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(41), 4811–4814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hersee, S. D.

D. Zubia and S. D. Hersee, “Nanoheteroepitaxy: The Application of nanostructuring and substrate compliance to the heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductor materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6492–6496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heuken, M.

P. Javorka, A. Alam, M. Wolter, A. Fox, M. Marso, M. Heuken, H. Luth, and P. Kordos, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(1), 4–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. K.

J. Liang, S. K. Hong, N. Kouklin, R. Beresford, and J. M. Xu, “Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on a nanopore array Si surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, P. S.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, I.

N. Bano, I. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, and P. Klason, “Study of radiative defects using current-voltage characteristics in ZnO rods catalytically grown on 4H-p-SiC,” J. Nanomater. 2010, 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jamil, M.

M. Jamil, J. R. Grandusky, V. Jindal, N. Tripathi, and F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, “Mechanism of large area dislocation defect reduction in GaN layers on AlN/Si (111) by substrate engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, N. W.

J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, N. W. Jang, W. J. Lee, and C. R. Cho, “Dependence of the diode characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si (111) on the Si substrate doping,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 56(1), 429–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Javorka, P.

P. Javorka, A. Alam, M. Wolter, A. Fox, M. Marso, M. Heuken, H. Luth, and P. Kordos, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(1), 4–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jia, H.

H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

S. Liu, T. Chen, Y. Jiang, G. Ru, and X. Qu, “The effect of postannealing on the electrical properties of well-aligned n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jindal, V.

M. Jamil, J. R. Grandusky, V. Jindal, N. Tripathi, and F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, “Mechanism of large area dislocation defect reduction in GaN layers on AlN/Si (111) by substrate engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

C. I. Park, J. H. Kang, K. C. Kim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, and K. Y. Lim, “Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of GaN thin film on 3C-SiC/Si(111) substrate using various buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 401(1–2), 60–66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, N. W. Jang, W. J. Lee, and C. R. Cho, “Dependence of the diode characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si (111) on the Si substrate doping,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 56(1), 429–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. J.

J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, N. W. Jang, W. J. Lee, and C. R. Cho, “Dependence of the diode characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si (111) on the Si substrate doping,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 56(1), 429–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. C.

C. I. Park, J. H. Kang, K. C. Kim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, and K. Y. Lim, “Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of GaN thin film on 3C-SiC/Si(111) substrate using various buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 401(1–2), 60–66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klason, P.

N. Bano, I. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, and P. Klason, “Study of radiative defects using current-voltage characteristics in ZnO rods catalytically grown on 4H-p-SiC,” J. Nanomater. 2010, 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kolenbrander, K. D.

T. A. Burr, A. A. Seraphin, E. Werwa, and K. D. Kolenbrander, “Carrier transport in thin films of silicon nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 56(8), 4818–4824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kordos, P.

P. Javorka, A. Alam, M. Wolter, A. Fox, M. Marso, M. Heuken, H. Luth, and P. Kordos, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(1), 4–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kouklin, N.

J. Liang, S. K. Hong, N. Kouklin, R. Beresford, and J. M. Xu, “Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on a nanopore array Si surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krost, A.

A. Krost and A. Dadgar, “GaN-based devices on Si,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 194(2), 361–375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lai, Y.-L.

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lan, C.-C.

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, N. W. Jang, W. J. Lee, and C. R. Cho, “Dependence of the diode characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si (111) on the Si substrate doping,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 56(1), 429–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, N. W. Jang, W. J. Lee, and C. R. Cho, “Dependence of the diode characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si (111) on the Si substrate doping,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 56(1), 429–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. J.

J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, N. W. Jang, W. J. Lee, and C. R. Cho, “Dependence of the diode characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si (111) on the Si substrate doping,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 56(1), 429–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. J.

C. B. Han, C. He, and X. J. Li, “Near-infrared light emission from a GaN/Si nanoheterostructure array,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(41), 4811–4814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Xu and X. J. Li, “Silicon nanoporous pillar array: a silicon hierarchical structure with high light absorption and triple-band photoluminescence,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2933–2941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Xu and X. J. Li, “Rectification effect and electron transport property of CdS/Si nanoheterostructure based on silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 172105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.-J.

H.-J. Xu, X.-N. Fu, X.-R. Sun, and X.-J. Li, “Investigations on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Acta Chimi. Sin. 54(5), 2352–2357 (2005).

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-L.

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

J. Liang, S. K. Hong, N. Kouklin, R. Beresford, and J. M. Xu, “Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on a nanopore array Si surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lim, K. Y.

C. I. Park, J. H. Kang, K. C. Kim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, and K. Y. Lim, “Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of GaN thin film on 3C-SiC/Si(111) substrate using various buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 401(1–2), 60–66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Limpijumnong, S.

S. Limpijumnong and C. G. Van de Walle, “Diffusivity of native defects in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(3), 035207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-P.

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Liu, T. Chen, Y. Jiang, G. Ru, and X. Qu, “The effect of postannealing on the electrical properties of well-aligned n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.-H.

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luryi, S.

S. Luryi and E. Suhir, “New approach to the high quality epitaxial growth of lattice-mismatched materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(3), 140–142 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Luth, H.

P. Javorka, A. Alam, M. Wolter, A. Fox, M. Marso, M. Heuken, H. Luth, and P. Kordos, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(1), 4–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manna, S.

S. Manna, V. D. Ashok, and S. K. De, “Rectifying properties of p-GaN nanowires and an n-silicon heterojunction vertical diode,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3539–3543 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marso, M.

P. Javorka, A. Alam, M. Wolter, A. Fox, M. Marso, M. Heuken, H. Luth, and P. Kordos, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(1), 4–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mattila, T.

T. Mattila and R. M. Nieminen, “Point-defect complexes and broadband luminescence in GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 55(15), 9571–9576 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, S.

S. Yoshida, S. Misawa, and S. Gonda, “Improvements on the electrical and luminescent properties of reactive molecular beam epitaxially grown GaN films by using AlN-coated sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(5), 427 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mohammad, S. N.

H. Morkoç and S. N. Mohammad, “High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes,” Science 267(5194), 51–55 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morkoç, H.

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Morkoç and S. N. Mohammad, “High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes,” Science 267(5194), 51–55 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nahm, K. S.

C. I. Park, J. H. Kang, K. C. Kim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, and K. Y. Lim, “Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of GaN thin film on 3C-SiC/Si(111) substrate using various buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 401(1–2), 60–66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Neugebauer, J.

J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van de Walle, “Gallium vacancies and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(4), 503–505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ng, G. I.

K. Radhakrishnan, N. Dharmarasu, Z. Sun, S. Arulkumaran, and G. I. Ng, “Demonstration of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on 100 mm diameter Si(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 232107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nieminen, R. M.

T. Mattila and R. M. Nieminen, “Point-defect complexes and broadband luminescence in GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 55(15), 9571–9576 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nur, O.

N. Bano, I. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, and P. Klason, “Study of radiative defects using current-voltage characteristics in ZnO rods catalytically grown on 4H-p-SiC,” J. Nanomater. 2010, 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Alvi, M. Willander, and O. Nur, “The effect of the post-growth annealing on the electroluminescence properties of n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 47(6), 754–761 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pankove, J. I.

J. I. Pankove and H. Schade, “Photoemission from GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(1), 53–55 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Park, C. I.

C. I. Park, J. H. Kang, K. C. Kim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, and K. Y. Lim, “Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of GaN thin film on 3C-SiC/Si(111) substrate using various buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 401(1–2), 60–66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qu, X.

S. Liu, T. Chen, Y. Jiang, G. Ru, and X. Qu, “The effect of postannealing on the electrical properties of well-aligned n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, K.

K. Radhakrishnan, N. Dharmarasu, Z. Sun, S. Arulkumaran, and G. I. Ng, “Demonstration of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on 100 mm diameter Si(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 232107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reshchikov, M. A.

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rose, A.

A. Rose, “Space-charge-limited currents in solids,” Phys. Rev. 97(6), 1538–1544 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Ru, G.

S. Liu, T. Chen, Y. Jiang, G. Ru, and X. Qu, “The effect of postannealing on the electrical properties of well-aligned n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schade, H.

J. I. Pankove and H. Schade, “Photoemission from GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(1), 53–55 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Seraphin, A. A.

T. A. Burr, A. A. Seraphin, E. Werwa, and K. D. Kolenbrander, “Carrier transport in thin films of silicon nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 56(8), 4818–4824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.

M. Jamil, J. R. Grandusky, V. Jindal, N. Tripathi, and F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, “Mechanism of large area dislocation defect reduction in GaN layers on AlN/Si (111) by substrate engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E. K.

C. I. Park, J. H. Kang, K. C. Kim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, and K. Y. Lim, “Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of GaN thin film on 3C-SiC/Si(111) substrate using various buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 401(1–2), 60–66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suhir, E.

S. Luryi and E. Suhir, “New approach to the high quality epitaxial growth of lattice-mismatched materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(3), 140–142 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.-R.

H.-J. Xu, X.-N. Fu, X.-R. Sun, and X.-J. Li, “Investigations on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Acta Chimi. Sin. 54(5), 2352–2357 (2005).

Sun, Z.

K. Radhakrishnan, N. Dharmarasu, Z. Sun, S. Arulkumaran, and G. I. Ng, “Demonstration of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on 100 mm diameter Si(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 232107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, N.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tripathi, N.

M. Jamil, J. R. Grandusky, V. Jindal, N. Tripathi, and F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, “Mechanism of large area dislocation defect reduction in GaN layers on AlN/Si (111) by substrate engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unal, B.

B. Unal and S. C. Bayliss, “Photovoltaic effects from porous Si,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 30(19), 2763–2769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

S. Limpijumnong and C. G. Van de Walle, “Diffusivity of native defects in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(3), 035207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van de Walle, “Gallium vacancies and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(4), 503–505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vinci, R. P.

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Werwa, E.

T. A. Burr, A. A. Seraphin, E. Werwa, and K. D. Kolenbrander, “Carrier transport in thin films of silicon nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 56(8), 4818–4824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Willander, M.

N. H. Alvi, M. Willander, and O. Nur, “The effect of the post-growth annealing on the electroluminescence properties of n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 47(6), 754–761 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Bano, I. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, and P. Klason, “Study of radiative defects using current-voltage characteristics in ZnO rods catalytically grown on 4H-p-SiC,” J. Nanomater. 2010, 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wolter, M.

P. Javorka, A. Alam, M. Wolter, A. Fox, M. Marso, M. Heuken, H. Luth, and P. Kordos, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(1), 4–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. J.

H. J. Xu and X. J. Li, “Rectification effect and electron transport property of CdS/Si nanoheterostructure based on silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 172105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Xu and X. J. Li, “Silicon nanoporous pillar array: a silicon hierarchical structure with high light absorption and triple-band photoluminescence,” Opt. Express 16(5), 2933–2941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.-J.

H.-J. Xu, X.-N. Fu, X.-R. Sun, and X.-J. Li, “Investigations on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Acta Chimi. Sin. 54(5), 2352–2357 (2005).

Xu, J. M.

J. Liang, S. K. Hong, N. Kouklin, R. Beresford, and J. M. Xu, “Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on a nanopore array Si surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, S.

S. Yoshida, S. Misawa, and S. Gonda, “Improvements on the electrical and luminescent properties of reactive molecular beam epitaxially grown GaN films by using AlN-coated sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(5), 427 (1983).
[CrossRef]

You, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zubia, D.

D. Zubia and S. D. Hersee, “Nanoheteroepitaxy: The Application of nanostructuring and substrate compliance to the heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductor materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6492–6496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces

S. Manna, V. D. Ashok, and S. K. De, “Rectifying properties of p-GaN nanowires and an n-silicon heterojunction vertical diode,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3539–3543 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Chimi. Sin.

H.-J. Xu, X.-N. Fu, X.-R. Sun, and X.-J. Li, “Investigations on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Acta Chimi. Sin. 54(5), 2352–2357 (2005).

Adv. Funct. Mater.

C.-H. Lu, C.-C. Lan, Y.-L. Lai, Y.-L. Li, and C.-P. Liu, “Enhancement of green emission from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells via coupling to surface plasmons in a two-dimensional silver array,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(24), 4719–4723 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

C. B. Han, C. He, and X. J. Li, “Near-infrared light emission from a GaN/Si nanoheterostructure array,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(41), 4811–4814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jia, L. Guo, W. Wang, and H. Chen, “Recent progress in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(45), 4641–4646 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Radhakrishnan, N. Dharmarasu, Z. Sun, S. Arulkumaran, and G. I. Ng, “Demonstration of AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors on 100 mm diameter Si(111) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(23), 232107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoshida, S. Misawa, and S. Gonda, “Improvements on the electrical and luminescent properties of reactive molecular beam epitaxially grown GaN films by using AlN-coated sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(5), 427 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Luryi and E. Suhir, “New approach to the high quality epitaxial growth of lattice-mismatched materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(3), 140–142 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Pankove and H. Schade, “Photoemission from GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25(1), 53–55 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Neugebauer and C. G. Van de Walle, “Gallium vacancies and the yellow luminescence in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(4), 503–505 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, and C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Liang, S. K. Hong, N. Kouklin, R. Beresford, and J. M. Xu, “Nanoheteroepitaxy of GaN on a nanopore array Si surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1752 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Xu and X. J. Li, “Rectification effect and electron transport property of CdS/Si nanoheterostructure based on silicon nanoporous pillar array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(17), 172105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Ghosh and D. Basak, “Electrical and ultraviolet photoresponse properties of quasialigned ZnO nanowires/p-Si heterojunction,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Dutta and D. Basak, “p-ZnO/n-Si heterojunction: Sol-gel fabrication, photoresponse properties, and transport mechanism,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 212112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, J. Zhang, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Surface plasmon dispersion engineering via double-metallic Au/Ag layers for III-nitride based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

P. Javorka, A. Alam, M. Wolter, A. Fox, M. Marso, M. Heuken, H. Luth, and P. Kordos, “AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on (111) silicon substrates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 23(1), 4–6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y.-K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, and N. Tansu, “Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitride light-emitting diodes on nanopatterned AGOG sapphire substrate by abbreviated growth mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Jamil, J. R. Grandusky, V. Jindal, N. Tripathi, and F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, “Mechanism of large area dislocation defect reduction in GaN layers on AlN/Si (111) by substrate engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 023701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Zubia and S. D. Hersee, “Nanoheteroepitaxy: The Application of nanostructuring and substrate compliance to the heteroepitaxy of mismatched semiconductor materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6492–6496 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, T. Chen, Y. Jiang, G. Ru, and X. Qu, “The effect of postannealing on the electrical properties of well-aligned n-ZnO nanorods/p-Si heterojunction,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Reshchikov and H. Morkoç, “Luminescence properties of defects in GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 061301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kor. Phys. Soc.

J. H. Lee, J. Y. Lee, J. J. Kim, H. S. Kim, N. W. Jang, W. J. Lee, and C. R. Cho, “Dependence of the diode characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si (111) on the Si substrate doping,” J. Kor. Phys. Soc. 56(1), 429–433 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Nanomater.

N. Bano, I. Hussain, O. Nur, M. Willander, and P. Klason, “Study of radiative defects using current-voltage characteristics in ZnO rods catalytically grown on 4H-p-SiC,” J. Nanomater. 2010, 1–5 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

B. Unal and S. C. Bayliss, “Photovoltaic effects from porous Si,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 30(19), 2763–2769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev.

A. Rose, “Space-charge-limited currents in solids,” Phys. Rev. 97(6), 1538–1544 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

T. Mattila and R. M. Nieminen, “Point-defect complexes and broadband luminescence in GaN and AlN,” Phys. Rev. B 55(15), 9571–9576 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Limpijumnong and C. G. Van de Walle, “Diffusivity of native defects in GaN,” Phys. Rev. B 69(3), 035207 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Burr, A. A. Seraphin, E. Werwa, and K. D. Kolenbrander, “Carrier transport in thin films of silicon nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 56(8), 4818–4824 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (a)

A. Krost and A. Dadgar, “GaN-based devices on Si,” Phys. Status Solidi (a) 194(2), 361–375 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science

H. Morkoç and S. N. Mohammad, “High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes,” Science 267(5194), 51–55 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fasol, “Room-temperature blue gallium nitride laser diode,” Science 272(5269), 1751–1752 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct.

N. H. Alvi, M. Willander, and O. Nur, “The effect of the post-growth annealing on the electroluminescence properties of n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 47(6), 754–761 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

C. I. Park, J. H. Kang, K. C. Kim, K. S. Nahm, E. K. Suh, and K. Y. Lim, “Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of GaN thin film on 3C-SiC/Si(111) substrate using various buffer layers,” Thin Solid Films 401(1–2), 60–66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. Hughes, Y. Y. Yoon, D. M. Zehnder, and K. S. Boutros, “A 95% efficient normally-off GaN-on-Si HEMT hybrid-IC boost-converter with 425-W output power at 1 MHz,” presented at the Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS), 2011 IEEE, USA, 16–19 Oct. 2011.

B. L. Sharma and R. K. Purohit, Semiconductor heterojunctions. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1974).

J. I. Pankove, Electroluminescence (Springer, New York 1977).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Part A: the XRD patterns of as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA; Part B: the comparison of the FWHM variation for all the corresponding XRD peaks before and after annealing treatment. (b) The cross-sectional FESEM image of as-grown GaN/Si-NPA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The room-temperature J-V curves of as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA. Inset: the schematic diagram of the LEDs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The room-temperature log-log plots for the forward J-V of as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The room-temperature (a) EL spectra of as-drown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA LEDs operating with a dc voltage of 10 V, and (b) PL spectra of as-grown and annealed GaN/Si-NPA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The mechanism illustration of the yellow EL from as-grown (a) and NIR EL from annealed GaN/Si-NPA LEDs based on the energy band diagram.

Metrics