Abstract

We demonstrate electrooptic modulation at a wavelength of 2165nm, using a free-carrier injection-based silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator. The modulator has a Vπ∙L figure of merit of 0.12V∙mm, and an extinction ratio of −23dB. Optical modulation experiments are performed at bitrates up to 3Gbps. Our results illustrate that optical modulator design methodologies previously developed for telecom-band devices can be successfully applied to produce high-performance devices for a silicon nanophotonic mid-infrared integrated circuit platform.

©2012 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanophotonic platform has been proposed as an excellent system for integrated mid-infrared (mid-IR) optical devices on account of the long-wavelength transparency of silicon and many associated CMOS-compatible materials [13]. Various methods have been explored for fabricating passive mid-IR waveguides and microcavities, with group-IV materials, including the use of “traditional” SOI rib and channel waveguides [4, 5], silicon-on-sapphire substrates [68], silicon on a porous silicon cladding [4], free-standing Si wires [9], air-clad photonic crystal membranes [10], germanium-on-silicon substrates [13], and hollow-core Bragg waveguides [2, 9]. Furthermore, numerous Si mid-IR components have been demonstrated, including supercontinuum sources [11], wavelength convertors [12, 13], parametric amplifiers [14, 15], and hybrid integrated GaInAsSb photodetectors [16]. While these or similar components may eventually contribute to the development of complex Si mid-IR integrated optical circuits, such systems will still likely require ultra-compact mid-IR modulators integrated on the SOI platform. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first demonstration of mid-IR optical modulation in a silicon nanophotonic device.

Although fiber-optic transmitters using four-wave mixing to wavelength-convert a high-speed telecom-band data signal to the mid-IR [17, 18] have been demonstrated, these fiber-based systems require a number of pump lasers and high-power optical amplifiers for operation, resulting in a large and costly system. On the other hand, high index-contrast silicon nanophotonic waveguide-based electrooptic modulators using free-carrier dispersion effects [19] for external modulation have been studied extensively in telecom-band applications. Such modulators can be extremely compact, lightweight, and can provide operation at very high data rates [2029]. Similar free-carrier electrooptic modulation approaches can certainly be applied elsewhere within the broad long-wavelength transparency window of silicon [30]. Moreover, such silicon nanophotonic modulators offer the possibility of monolithic integration with various passive optical components for mid-IR wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), as well as monolithic/hybrid integration with detectors and CMOS drive electronics [3133], leading to single-chip mid-IR electrooptic systems. These distinct advantages make the silicon nanophotonic platform highly suitable for low-cost, deployable mid-IR integrated circuits, with applications including modulation spectroscopy [34], rapid medical diagnostics [35], and free-space communication [36].

2. Methods

The silicon nanophotonic device demonstrated here for external electrooptic modulation of a continuous-wave (CW) mid-IR optical carrier is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), having 1 mm-long p-i-n diode phase shifters.

2.1 Device design

The MZI device shown in Fig. 1(a) is designed for use in forward bias operation using p-i-n diode phase-shifters. The phase-shifters are 1mm long, and connect at each end with passive optical 50/50 y-junction splitters. As shown in the magnified inset, a differential optical path imbalance of 85μm is included between the two arms to produce spectral interference fringes for accurate Vπ∙L measurements. The MZI has independent high-speed radio frequency (RF) signal inputs for the upper and lower arms (Signal N1/P1 and Signal N2/P2, wired to the p-i-n diode phase-shifters), and independent thermo-optic heaters (Heater 1/2) for bias point control of the electrooptic transfer function.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 a) Optical microscope image of the MZI modulator, with labels of the electrical terminal functions. Inset: Magnified detail of the 50/50 y-junction, differential optical path imbalance, thermo-optic heaters, and RF signal inputs. b) Simulated intensity profile of the fundamental quasi-TE mode at λ = 2165nm. c) Cross-section schematic of the p-i-n diode phase-shifter waveguide active region.

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The MZI is assembled from a Si rib waveguide design having a central rib with nominal cross-sectional dimensions of 500x170 nm, sitting on top of a 50 nm-thick Si slab. Optical mode profile simulations are performed using the Photon Design Fimmwave mode solver, using Sellmeier models to account for the mid-IR material dispersion of the constituent silicon, silicon dioxide, and silicon nitride layers. The waveguide cross-section will be described in greater detail in Section 2.2 below. The intensity profile of the fundamental quasi-TE guided mode, simulated at a wavelength of 2165nm, is shown in Fig. 1(b). While the waveguide dimensions are similar to those of telecom-band silicon nanophotonic devices, the mode profile and the associated modal effective index of neff = 2.016 illustrate that this design results in a single-mode waveguide with high confinement, even at longer wavelengths near 2200nm.

2.2 Device fabrication

The MZI modulator is fabricated using the IBM CMOS Silicon Nanophotonics process [31, 32], using 10 Ω∙cm p-type (p ~1015 cm−3), 200 mm-diameter SOI wafers with a 2 μm-thick buried-oxide layer and a 220 nm-thick top silicon layer. The fabrication is performed as described below, by utilizing a subset of processing modules from a standard IBM front-end CMOS process flow. An annotated schematic diagram, taken through the cross-section of the p-i-n diode phase-shifter waveguide, is shown in Fig. 1(c).

To begin, the fully-etched silicon access waveguides and partially-etched p-i-n diode rib waveguides are defined utilizing the shallow trench isolation (STI) module, using 193 nm deep-UV lithography and dry etching. Following this etch, a thick oxide layer is deposited and chemically-mechanically polished, leaving a planarized top surface.

Next, typical CMOS source/drain ion implantation and rapid thermal anneal conditions are applied to the rib waveguide to form a lateral p-i-n diode. Shallow highly doped ohmic contact regions (labeled p++ (boron) and n++ (phosphorous); impurity concentration ~1020 cm−3) are formed at the top of the 1 μm-wide raised Si pedestals at the phase-shifter periphery. Deep p+ (boron) and n+ (phosphorous) regions (impurity concentration ~1019 cm−3) extend from the pedestals to 500 nm away from the outer edges of the rib waveguide core. After implant activation by a rapid thermal anneal (several seconds at a wafer temperature of approximately 1000 °C), silicide ohmic contacts are formed over the Si pedestals. Silicide formation on the waveguide core is prevented by patterning a silicon nitride (SiN) silicide-blocking layer, deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The silicide layer on the raised pedestals is also used to form the thermal heaters for MZI bias point control [37].

Subsequently, metal contacts are formed to the active p-i-n diode waveguides and thermal heaters. A dielectric stack is deposited and planarized, and vias to the p-type and n-type contact pedestals are etched and filled with tungsten (W) plugs. Next, similar deposition, etch, and metal fill process steps are performed to form a single layer of copper (Cu) metal interconnects. Optical coupling to the Si nanophotonic chip from lensed fibers is accomplished by cleaving facets near the ends of 250 μm-long Si inverse taper mode converters.

2.3 Experimental setup

The light source used in this experiment is an IPG Photonics single-frequency external-cavity tunable Cr2+:ZnSe mid-IR laser. Output from the laser is coupled into a single-mode fiber, which in turn is connected to a tapered lensed fiber for coupling light into the chip. Optical transmission through the MZI is collected through a similar lensed fiber arrangement at the chip output. Optical transmission spectra are recorded with a Yokogawa AQ6375 optical spectrum analyzer (OSA).

The p-i-n diode in one arm of the MZI is driven via a 40GHz GGB Industries Picoprobe RF probe with an externally clocked Centellax TG1B1A pattern generator. A PRBS pattern of length 27-1 is used. The drive signal is pre-emphasized using a one-tap equalizing RF filter as described in references [20, 21], and subsequently amplified with a Picosecond Pulse Labs 5865 12.5Gbps driver amplifier. The peak-to-peak electrical drive voltage is 1.08 Vpp, with 7 Vpp pre-emphasis at the transitions between 0 and 1 bits. An electrical DC bias of 0.3 V is applied to the p-i-n diode through a Picosecond Pulse Labs 5545 bias tee. The modulated mid-IR optical signal produced by the MZI is detected with a Discovery Semiconductor DSC-R202 long-wavelength receiver, and analyzed by an Agilent 86100A oscilloscope plug-in with 20GHz electrical bandwidth. S21 bandwidth measurements are taken with an Agilent E8364C PNA network analyzer.

3. Results

Various mid-IR measurements are performed to analyze the optical and electrooptic characteristics of the MZI modulator. These include recording the MZI fringe spectra at several p-i-n diode bias voltages, eyeline diagrams at modulation rates from 0.5 to 3Gbps, and S21 measurements of the MZI and the pre-emphasis driver.

3.1 Fringe spectra

The wavelength and bias dependence of the MZI fringes shown in Fig. 2 summarize the behavior of the device in the mid-IR. These measurements are performed with the mid-IR laser operating below threshold, where it emits broadband amplified spontaneous emission. Figure 2(a) plots the MZI transmission over a 100 nm-wide range centered at 2150nm, after normalization against the transmission through a straight, undoped on-chip reference waveguide. Three forward bias voltages are applied to the p-i-n diode phase-shifter in one arm the MZI, producing relative phase-shifts (by free-carrier dispersion) of 0 (black), π/2 (red), and π (blue).

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Plots of normalized MZI transmission versus wavelength (a) and forward bias voltage at λ = 2160nm (b).

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The spectrum at 0V bias illustrates that the MZI has an insertion loss of 9.0 dB, measured at the peak of the fringe at λ = 2160nm. Ancillary measurements show that for wavelengths near 2160nm, the undoped waveguide propagation loss is 5.7 ± 0.8 dB/cm. Therefore, the majority of the MZI insertion loss originates from free-carrier absorption in the doped p-i-n diode phase-shifters, due to interaction of the guided mode’s tails with the highly doped p+ and n+ regions. The free-carrier loss can be substantially reduced by moving the edges of the p+ and n+ regions further away from the Si waveguide core, and/or increasing the Si rib width for increased optical confinement at the operating wavelength of 2165nm. Altering the above structural parameters will not substantially impact the speed of a forward-biased p-i-n diode phase-shifter, in which the dominant speed limitation is imposed by the recombination lifetime of the injected free-carriers within the p-i-n junction [20, 21]. The total insertion loss through the silicon nanophotonic chip is 18.6 dB, which includes the MZI insertion loss, in addition to a net lensed-fiber-to-chip coupling loss of 9.6 ± 1 dB. On-chip silicon mode convertors specially designed to match the mid-IR mode field profile of the lensed fibers can be designed to reduce the facet coupling losses.

The decrease in peak transmission observed for increasing bias voltage is due to an imbalanced optical interference condition at the output y-junction, produced by excess free-carrier absorption within the driven p-i-n diode waveguide. This effect is general for SOI MZIs with 50-50 y-junctions and is not unique to this implementation. Furthermore, the y-junctions do not contribute significantly to the device insertion loss at 0V. The wavelength-dependent transmission loss is primarily due to increased expansion of the guided mode into the highly doped regions at longer wavelengths, with a small additional contribution from increasing long-wavelength bend losses. The MZI interference fringe contrast, however, remains large across the entire plotted spectral range, for relative phase shifts up to π.

Figure 2(b) illustrates the dependence of the normalized transmission on forward bias voltage at 2160nm, and demonstrates over 2π of phase shift for applied single-ended voltages less than 1V. The Vπ∙L and fringe contrast ratio extracted from Fig. 2(b) are 0.12 V∙mm and −23 dB, respectively. This is on par with previously reported performance of Vπ∙L = 0.06 V∙mm for nanophotonic p-i-n diode MZI switches operating in the telecom band [38].

3.2 Eye diagrams

The eyeline diagrams in Fig. 3 illustrate the modulation performance of the MZI at 500Mbps, 1Gbps, 2Gbps, and 3Gbps, while modulating a CW input signal at a wavelength of 2165nm. This wavelength is chosen as a compromise between the AC-coupled optical receiver’s sensitivity region (appreciable only up to 2200nm), and the above-threshold output power of the mid-IR tunable laser, which lases only at wavelengths longer than 2150nm (note that the data in Figs. 2(a)-2(b) were taken utilizing the broadband amplified spontaneous emission available at the output of the mid-IR laser when operating below threshold). Figure 2(a) shows that operation at 2165nm results in an additional 4.0dB excess modulation loss at the “1” level, relative to the insertion loss at the 2160nm fringe peak.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Optical eyeline diagrams of a PRBS 27-1 bit pattern taken at 0.5Gbps, 1Gbps, 2Gbps, and 3Gbps, with pre-emphasized electrical drive. The input laser is tuned to 2165nm.

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Directly capturing “live” eye diagrams in the mid-IR is made difficult due to a low signal-to-noise ratio, which results from the large total chip insertion losses in addition to the absence of an appropriate mid-IR optical amplifier. As a result, the detected mid-IR signal is near the combined noise floor of the receiver and oscilloscope. Therefore, the eyeline diagrams in Fig. 3 are formed by folding a 1024x averaged waveform (consisting of the entire bit pattern) at the bit interval. Direct measurement of the eye diagram can be facilitated by reducing the facet coupling loss through the modifications suggested in Section 3.1.

The open eyes in indicate that the MZI device may be used for external optical modulation and mid-IR data transmission at bitrates up to 3Gbps. All the measurements in Fig. 3 are performed with the pre-emphasis driver optimized for bitrates near 3Gbps, resulting in the eyeline at 3Gbps in fact having the lowest level of inter-symbol interference in the center of the eye. Due to the unavailability of a DC-coupled receiver, the modulation extinction ratio is estimated from static MZI transmission spectra (similar to those in Fig. 2(a)), by comparing the 2165nm transmission at voltages corresponding to the “1” and “0” levels. This method results in an extinction ratio of 8.9dB.

3.3 Optical S21

The optical S21 measurements shown in Fig. 4 illustrate that the MZI device has an intrinsic 3dB rolloff at 0.4GHz, limited by the free-carrier lifetime in the p-i-n diode. The voltage S21 of the pre-emphasis driver described in references [20, 21] is shown in the inset. When inserted between the pattern generator and the modulator, the high-pass response of the pre-emphasis driver equalizes the MZI’s low-pass characteristics, shifting the 3dB rolloff to 1.8GHz. This is consistent with operation at the 3Gbps data rate shown in Fig. 3. Improved and optimized construction of the pre-emphasis driver, or use of high-speed feed-forward equalization CMOS circuitry [39], can further increase the maximum bitrate.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Optical S21 of the MZI, with and without pre-emphasis. The voltage S21 response of the pre-emphasis electrical driver is shown in the inset.

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4. Conclusion

In this report we demonstrate the first electrooptic modulation of a mid-IR signal using a silicon nanophotonic device. We achieve modulation with a bitrate of 3Gbps, an extinction ratio of −23dB, and a Vπ∙L figure of merit of 0.12V∙mm. Nedeljkovic et al. [30] have predicted that interferometric free-carrier dispersion modulators can operate efficiently at wavelengths below 3000nm. The MZI electrooptic modulator demonstrated here is consistent with these predictions (up to approximately λ = 2200nm), as illustrated by the preservation of an extinction ratio greater than −20dB for large phase-shifts exceeding 2π. However, within the 3-14μm spectral range, Nedeljkovic et al. predict that free-carrier absorption will dominate the electrooptic phase-shift, making silicon electro-absorption modulators the preferred design configuration. Additional device research will be required to confirm these predictions.

Our results show that similar methodologies can be applied to the design and fabrication of silicon active devices operating at mid-IR wavelengths as well as in the telecom band. The performance of our MZI at 2165nm - even though it is designed with dimensions typical for telecom-band SOI devices - supports the adoption of the SOI nanophotonic platform for use in the mid-IR. Judicious optimization of the device dimensions and pre-emphasis electrical driver will further improve the optical transmission efficiency and modulation bandwidth, making this device a candidate for applications in modulation spectroscopy [34], biomedical sensing [35], and free-space communication [36].

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References

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  1. R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Soref, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A – Pure Appl. Op. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
  3. R. Soref, “Towards silicon-based longwave integrated optoelectronics (LIO),” SPIE Proc. 6898, 689809, 689809-13 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. M. Milošević, P. S. Matavulj, P. Y. Yang, A. Bagolini, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Rib waveguides for mid-infrared silicon photonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), 1760–1766 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
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  29. L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
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2012 (6)

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of a 10-Gb/s RZ end-to-end four-wave-mixing based link at 1884 nm using silicon nanowaveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 276–278 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (11)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20876–20885 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electro-refraction and electro-absorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Weidmann, T. Tsai, N. A. Macleod, and G. Wysocki, “Atmospheric observations of multiple molecular species using ultra-high-resolution external cavity quantum cascade laser heterodyne radiometry,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 1951–1953 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, R. M. Osgood, and W. M. J. Green, “50 dB parametric on-chip gain in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Lett. 36(22), 4401–4403 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, and G. Roelkens, “Heterogeneous integration of GaInAsSb p-i-n photodiodes on a silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1760–1762 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Shankar, R. Leijssen, I. Bulu, and M. Lončar, “Mid-infrared photonic crystal cavities in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5579–5586 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kuyken, X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared to telecom-band supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20172–20181 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. W. Lau, M. Ménard, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared frequency conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1263–1265 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Li, S. D. Jackson, C. Grillet, E. Magi, D. Hudson, S. J. Madden, Y. Moghe, C. O’Brien, A. Read, S. G. Duvall, P. Atanackovic, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15212–15220 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

T. Baehr-Jones, A. Spott, R. Ilic, A. Spott, B. Penkov, W. Asher, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-on-sapphire integrated waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12127–12135 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Spott, Y. Liu, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ilic, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon waveguides and ring resonators at 5.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 213501 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Integrated NiSi waveguide heaters for CMOS-compatible silicon thermo-optic devices,” Opt. Lett. 35(7), 1013–1015 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

R. Soref, “Towards silicon-based longwave integrated optoelectronics (LIO),” SPIE Proc. 6898, 689809, 689809-13 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2002 (1)

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

Asher, W.

Assefa, S.

Atanackovic, P.

Ayazi, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Bagolini, A.

Barwicz, T.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of a 10-Gb/s RZ end-to-end four-wave-mixing based link at 1884 nm using silicon nanowaveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 276–278 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bethea, C. G.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bettiol, A. A.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. 20, S159–S163 (2009).

Bogaerts, W.

Boggio, J. M. C.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Breese, M. B. H.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. 20, S159–S163 (2009).

Brimont, A.

Bulu, I.

Capasso, F.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cerutti, L.

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, and G. Roelkens, “Heterogeneous integration of GaInAsSb p-i-n photodiodes on a silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1760–1762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chu, T.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Colombelli, R.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

Crnjanski, J.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. 20, S159–S163 (2009).

Ding, R.

Divliansky, I. B.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

Duvall, S. G.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

Fournier, M.

Gaeta, A. L.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of a 10-Gb/s RZ end-to-end four-wave-mixing based link at 1884 nm using silicon nanowaveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 276–278 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. K. W. Lau, M. Ménard, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared frequency conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1263–1265 (2011).
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F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
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Herrera, J.

Hillerkuss, D.

Hochberg, M.

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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Lau, R. K. W.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of a 10-Gb/s RZ end-to-end four-wave-mixing based link at 1884 nm using silicon nanowaveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 276–278 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. K. W. Lau, M. Ménard, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared frequency conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1263–1265 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Leijssen, R.

Leuthold, J.

Li, F.

Li, X.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
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L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
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F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
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Martini, R.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
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Mashanovich, G.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

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[Crossref]

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electro-refraction and electro-absorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
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Matavulj, P. S.

Menard, M.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of a 10-Gb/s RZ end-to-end four-wave-mixing based link at 1884 nm using silicon nanowaveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 276–278 (2012).
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Miloševic, M. M.

Moghe, Y.

Mookherjea, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
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Moro, S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
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Myers, T. L.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electro-refraction and electro-absorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
[Crossref]

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L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
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O’Brien, C.

Okawachi, Y.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of a 10-Gb/s RZ end-to-end four-wave-mixing based link at 1884 nm using silicon nanowaveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 276–278 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. K. W. Lau, M. Ménard, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared frequency conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1263–1265 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of a 10-Gb/s RZ end-to-end four-wave-mixing based link at 1884 nm using silicon nanowaveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 276–278 (2012).
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Owens, N.

Padmaraju, K.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of a 10-Gb/s RZ end-to-end four-wave-mixing based link at 1884 nm using silicon nanowaveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 276–278 (2012).
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F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
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Pantouvaki, M.

Park, J. S.

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
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Penkov, B.

Pinguet, T.

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zlatanovic, J. S. Park, S. Moro, J. M. C. Boggio, I. B. Divliansky, N. Alic, S. Mookherjea, and S. Radic, “Mid-infrared wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using ultracompact telecom-band-derived pump source,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 561–564 (2010).
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Read, A.

Reed, G. T.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20876–20885 (2011).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. 20, S159–S163 (2009).

Rodriguez, J.-B.

N. Hattasan, A. Gassenq, L. Cerutti, J.-B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, and G. Roelkens, “Heterogeneous integration of GaInAsSb p-i-n photodiodes on a silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(23), 1760–1762 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roelkens, G.

Rooks, M. J.

Rosenberg, J. C.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Salem, R.

N. Ophir, R. K. W. Lau, M. Menard, R. Salem, K. Padmaraju, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of a 10-Gb/s RZ end-to-end four-wave-mixing based link at 1884 nm using silicon nanowaveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 276–278 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. K. W. Lau, M. Ménard, Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Continuous-wave mid-infrared frequency conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1263–1265 (2011).
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Sanchis, P.

Schmidt, B.

Sekaric, L.

Sergent, A. M.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
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Soref, R.

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Free-carrier electro-refraction and electro-absorption modulation predictions for silicon over the 1-14μm infrared wavelength range,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(6), 1171–1180 (2011).
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Stankovic, S.

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. 20, S159–S163 (2009).

Streshinsky, M.

Taubman, M. S.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, “Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(6), 511–532 (2002).
[Crossref]

Teo, E. J.

G. Z. Mashanovich, M. M. Milošević, M. Nedeljkovic, N. Owens, B. Xiong, E. J. Teo, and Y. Hu, “Low loss silicon waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7112–7119 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Yang, S. Stankovic, J. Crnjanski, E. J. Teo, D. Thomson, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. H. Breese, W. Headley, C. Giusca, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic waveguides for mid- and long-wave infrared region,” J. Mater. Sci. 20, S159–S163 (2009).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Optical microscope image of the MZI modulator, with labels of the electrical terminal functions. Inset: Magnified detail of the 50/50 y-junction, differential optical path imbalance, thermo-optic heaters, and RF signal inputs. b) Simulated intensity profile of the fundamental quasi-TE mode at λ = 2165nm. c) Cross-section schematic of the p-i-n diode phase-shifter waveguide active region.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Plots of normalized MZI transmission versus wavelength (a) and forward bias voltage at λ = 2160nm (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical eyeline diagrams of a PRBS 27-1 bit pattern taken at 0.5Gbps, 1Gbps, 2Gbps, and 3Gbps, with pre-emphasized electrical drive. The input laser is tuned to 2165nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical S21 of the MZI, with and without pre-emphasis. The voltage S21 response of the pre-emphasis electrical driver is shown in the inset.

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