Abstract

Simultaneous measurement of multidimensional displacements using digital holographic interferometry involves multi-directional illumination of the deformed object and requires the reliable estimation of the resulting multiple interference phase distributions. The paper introduces an elegant method to simultaneously estimate the desired multiple phases from a single fringe pattern. The proposed method relies on modeling the reconstructed interference field as a piecewise multicomponent polynomial phase signal. Effectively, in a given region or segment, the reconstructed interference field is represented as the sum of different components i.e. complex signals with polynomial phases. The corresponding polynomial coefficients are estimated using the product high-order ambiguity function. To ensure proper matching of the estimated coefficients with the corresponding components, an amplitude based discrimination criterion is used. The main advantage of the proposed method is direct retrieval of multiple phases without the application of spatial carrier based filtering operations.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

The measurement of in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of a deformed object is required for many applications. For such multidimensional measurements in digital holographic interferometry (DHI), the diffuse object is illuminated along different directions [1] resulting in multiple object beams. For each illumination direction, there is an associated sensitivity vector and interference phase. The in-plane and out-of-plane displacements are related to the multiple phases for different directions through the corresponding sensitivity vectors. Hence, estimation of these multiple interference phases is required for multidimensional deformation measurements. For a multi-beam illumination setup, methods [24] based on phase shifting technique have been proposed in DHI, but they are not suitable for simultaneous measurements because of sequential illumination and further require multiple frames.

For simultaneous multidimensional measurements, various methods [1, 57] have been developed in DHI. In these methods, the desired multiple phases are estimated using filtering operations based on the application of a spatial carrier. However, such approach requires careful control of the carrier in the experimental setup to ensure sufficient spectral separation, which might be difficult in practice. In addition, the phases obtained after filtering are of wrapped form and thus require additional complex unwrapping operations which are time-consuming and susceptible to noise.

In the paper, we propose an approach that is capable of estimation of multiple phases from a single fringe pattern in DHI without the requirement of an additional spatial carrier. The proposed method relies on piecewise multicomponent polynomial phase signal formulation. The theory of the proposed method is discussed in the next section. The analysis of the method is presented in section 3 followed by conclusions.

2. Theory

To explore the proposed method, the illumination of a diffuse object by two beams as shown in Fig. 1 is considered. In DHI, with a reference wave and two object waves resulting from the dual-beam illumination, the reconstructed interference field is obtained as [7]

Γ(x,y)=A1(x,y)exp[jΔϕ1(x,y)]+A2(x,y)exp[jΔϕ2(x,y)]+η(x,y)
where A1(x, y) and A2(x, y) represent the amplitudes assumed to be slowly varying, η(x,y) denotes the noise and Δϕ1(x, y) and Δϕ2(x, y) are the interference phases corresponding to the respective beams. Estimation of the individual phases Δϕ1(x, y) and Δϕ2(x, y) in Eq. (1) is a challenging problem since Γ(x,y) is the sum of two complex signals. The applicability of the popular spatial fringe analysis methods based on Fourier transform [8], windowed Fourier transform [9] and wavelet transform [10] is limited to extracting a single phase distribution from a fringe pattern and their accuracy would be strongly affected for the retrieval of dual phases due to the spectral overlap of the two complex signals in absence of a spatial carrier. Similarly, the recently developed methods based on polynomial phase approximation [1113] are also affected when multiple phases are present.

 

Fig. 1 Dual-beam illumination of a diffuse object

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In the proposed method, the reconstructed interference field Γ(x,y) is modeled as a piecewise multicomponent polynomial phase signal to directly estimate the phases Δϕ1(x, y) and Δϕ2(x, y). Accordingly, a given column/row of Γ(x,y) is divided into say Nw segments and the phase of each component in every segment is approximated as a polynomial. Hence, for a given column x and segment i where i ∈ [1,Nw], we have

Δϕ1i(y)=m=0Maimym
Δϕ2i(y)=m=0Mbimym
Γi(y)=A1i(y)exp[j(m=0Maimym)]+A2i(y)exp[j(m=0Mbimym)]+ηi(y)
Equation (4) represents a multicomponent polynomial phase signal of order M and the phases Δϕ1i(y) and Δϕ2i(y) in the ith segment can be obtained from the polynomial coefficients [ai0, ··· ,aiM] and [bi0, ··· ,biM]. To estimate these coefficients, product high-order ambiguity function (PHAF) [14] is used. The main advantage of using PHAF lies in its ability to suppress the unwanted interference caused due to multiple components which leads to robust estimation of the desired coefficients.

The mth order PHAF is computed through the following steps [14]:

  1. Initially, the high-order instantaneous moment (HIM) of mth order is calculated from Γi(y) using a recursive operation,
    x1(y)=Γi(y),x2(y;τk,1)=x1(y)x1*(yτk,1),xm(y;τk,m1)=xm1(y;τk,m2)xm1*(yτk,m1;τk,m2)
    where ‘*’ denotes complex conjugate and τk,m−1 is the kth lag parameter.
  2. Subsequently, the high-order ambiguity function (HAF) is obtained from the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of the HIM as
    Xm(ω;τk,m1)=DFT[xm(y;τk,m1)]=y=0N1xm(y;τk,m1)exp[jωy]
    where N is the sample size. The obtained mth order HAF i.e. Xm(ω;τk,m−1) corresponds to a particular lag parameter τk,m−1.
  3. The above steps are repeated for K different lag parameters i.e. [τ1,m−1, ··· ,τK,m−1] to obtain different HAFs corresponding to k ∈ [1,K].
  4. Finally, the multiple HAFs are scaled in frequency domain by the scaling factor Pm(τk,m−1,τ1,m−1) and subsequently multiplied to obtain the mth order PHAF of Γi(y) as
    XK,m(ω)=k=1KXm(Pm(τk,m1,τ1,m1)ω,τk,m1)
    where
    Pm(τk,m1,τ1,m1)=[τk,m1τ1,m1]m1
For the multicomponent case, the interesting property of mth order PHAF is that its spectrum exhibits peaks corresponding to the mth order polynomial coefficients. For the dual component case of Γi(y) in Eq. (4), if the maxima of the PHAF spectum |XK,m(ω)| occur at ωmax, then the coefficients aim and bim are given as,
aim,bim=ωmaxm!(τ1,m1)m1

To comprehend the working of PHAF, consider a multicomponent signal with cubic phases i.e. M = 3,

Γ(y)=A1exp[j(a0+a1y+a2y2+a3y3)]+A2exp[j(b0+b1y+b2y2+b3y3)]y[1,N],N=256
where the coefficients are [a3, a2, a1, a0] = [−0.00002, 0.008, 0.5, 0] for the first component and [b3, b2, b1, b0] = [0.00001, −0.006, −0.5, 0] for the second component. For the mth order PHAF, the optimal lag parameter τk,m−1N/m [14] and hence, we used the integer values of [τ1,2,τ2,2,τ3,2] = [N/3, N/3 – 10,N/3+10] for K = 3, m = 3 and [τ1,1,τ2,1] = [N/2 – 10,N/2+ 10] for K = 2, m = 2 in the analysis.

To obtain the highest order coefficients i.e. a3 and b3, the third order (m = 3) PHAF is computed and its spectrum |XK,m(ω)| is shown in Fig. 2(a) for the case of equal amplitudes i.e. A1 = A2. As the mth order polynomial coefficient is related to the frequency through Eq. (9), all PHAF plots in the paper are shown on a frequency scaled axis, i.e. ω/(m!τ1,m1m1) instead of ω so that the coefficients am and bm directly correspond to the peaks in the PHAF spectrum. From Fig. 2(a), it is clear that two distinct peaks are visible corresponding to ω/(6τ1,22)=0.00002 and 0.00001 i.e. the third order coefficients.

 

Fig. 2 (a) Third order (m = 3) PHAF spectrum for (a) A1 = A2, (b) A1 < A2 and (c) A1 > A2. (d) Second order (m = 2) PHAF spectrum. (e) First order (m = 1) PHAF spectrum. (f) Original vs estimated first phase in radians.

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However, for the equal amplitude case, the main difficulty lies in matching the estimated coefficients with their respective components i.e. deciding whether the peak corresponds to a3 or b3. To resolve this, unequal amplitudes could be used so that the PHAF peak corresponding to the stronger component is dominant. This is shown in Fig. 2(b) and Fig. 2(c) for the cases A1 = 1, A2 = 1.5 and vice-versa. Consequently, mth order PHAF peak detection would yield the mth order polynomial coefficient for the stronger component.

For the case A1 = 1.5, A2 = 1 i.e. A1 > A2, tracing the peak of the third order (m = 3) PHAF spectrum as shown in Fig. 2(c) provides the estimate â3 for the stronger component. Subsequently, to obtain the second order coefficient a2, a peeling operation is carried out to decrement the polynomial order of the stronger component,

Γ2(y)=Γ(y)exp[ja^3y3]A1exp[j(a0+a1y+a2y2)]+A2exp[j(b0+b1y+b2y2+(b3a^3)y3)]
The stronger component in Γ2(y) is reduced to a second order polynomial. Consequently, peak detection of the second order (m = 2) PHAF yields the estimate of a2. The corresponding PHAF spectrum for Γ2(y) is shown in Fig. 2(d) where the peak corresponds to â2. Subsequently, to estimate the first order coefficient a1, an additional peeling operation is carried out,
Γ1(y)=Γ2(y)exp[ja^2y2]A1exp[j(a0+a1y)]+A2exp[j(b0+b1,y+(b2a^2)y2+(b3a^3)y3)]
Since the stronger component in Γ1(y) is now a first order polynomial, the peak of the first order (m = 1) PHAF provides estimate of a1. The corresponding PHAF spectrum for Γ1(y) is shown in Fig. 2(e) where the peak corresponds to â1. Finally, the contribution of first order coefficient is removed from Γ1(y) to obtain,
Γ0(y)=Γ1(y)exp[ja^1y]A1exp[ja0]+A2exp[j(b0+(b1a^1)y+(b2a^2)y2+(b3a^3)y3)]
The term A1 exp[ja0] in the above equation is a constant and does not vary with y. It can be separated by taking the mean of Γ0(y) and hence the zeroth order coefficient a0 and the amplitude A1 can be approximately estimated as,
a^0=angle[1Ny=1NΓ0(y)]
A^1=|1Ny=1NΓ0(y)|

The above procedure estimates the first or stronger component’s polynomial coefficients iteratively from the highest order to the lowest. The estimates are [â3, â2, â1, â0, Â1] = [−0.00002,0.008,0.5001,−0.0650,1.4956]. Effectively, all the parameters i.e. the polynomial coefficients and the amplitude of the first component are now known. Subsequently, the contribution of the first component is removed from Γ(y) to obtain the second component,

Γ(y)=Γ(y)A^1exp[j(a^0+a^1y+a^2y2+a^3y3)]A2exp[j(b0+b1y+b2y2+b3y3)]
Γ′(y) behaves as a third order polynomial phase signal. Accordingly, its third order PHAF spectrum, as shown in Fig. 3(a), exhibits a dominant peak at ω/(6τ1,22)=0.00001 which corresponds to the third order coefficient b3. The remaining coefficients for Γ′(y) are obtained in the same way as for the stronger component using successive polynomial order reduction by peeling and corresponding PHAF peak detection. The PHAF spectra for m = 2 and m = 1 are shown in Fig. 3(b) and Fig. 3(c). The estimated coefficients for the second component are [3, 2, 1, 0] = [0.00001, −0.0060,−0.5001,−0.0562].

 

Fig. 3 (a) Third order (m = 3) PHAF spectrum. (b) Second order (m = 2) PHAF spectrum. (c) First order (m = 1) PHAF spectrum. (d) Original vs estimated second phase in radians. (e) Estimation error in radians for first phase. (f) Estimation error in radians for second phase.

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The phases for the first and second components are constructed from the polynomial coefficients as in Eq. (2) and Eq. (3). The original vs estimated first phase in radians is shown in Fig. 2(f). Similarly, the original vs estimated second phase in radians is shown in Fig. 3(d). The corresponding estimation errors in radians for the first and second phases are shown in Fig. 3(e) Fig. 3(f).

The above procedure, though shown for a third order multicomponent signal, can be easily generalized for other polynomial orders. For the Mth order multicomponent signal Γi(y) of Eq. (4), the two sets of polynomial coefficients i.e. [ai0, ··· ,aiM] and [bi0, ··· ,biM] in the ith segment are computed using the PHAF based estimation scheme discussed above. To minimize the errors due to noise and cross-component influence, these coefficient estimates are further refined using a multicomponent optimization routine based on Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm [15]. Using these coefficients, the multiple phases are constructed for the ith segment using Eq. (2) and Eq. (3). Though the estimates obtained along a column are unwrapped, a phase-stitching procedure [11] between adjacent columns is used to obtain continuous phase distributions.

It needs to be emphasized that the amplitude based separability criterion ensures proper matching of the estimated coefficients to the respective components in each segment. From an experimental perspective, the amplitude inequality between the two components could be achieved in DHI by controlling the relative intensities of the individual object beams.

Finally, the proposed method to retrieve multiple phase distributions can be summarized as

  1. Each column of the reconstructed interference field Γ(x,y) is divided into Nw segments to obtain Γi(y).
  2. In each segment, Γi(y) is modeled as a multicomponent polynomial phase signal as in Eq. (4).
  3. The coefficients [ai0, ··· ,aiM] of the stronger component are estimated by successive application of the PHAF peak detection and subsequent peeling operation as shown in Eq. (915).
  4. The second component is obtained by removing the contribution of the first component from Γi(y) using Eq. (16).
  5. The coefficients [bi0, ··· ,biM] of the second component are estimated in a similar manner as step 3.
  6. The phases Δϕ1i(y) and Δϕ2i(y) for the ith segment are obtained using Eq. (2) and Eq. (3) from the refined coefficients.
  7. The above steps are repeated for all segments and subsequently for all columns to obtain the overall multiple phase distributions.

3. Analysis

To analyze the proposed method, a reconstructed interference field with multiple phases was simulated in MATLAB,

Γ(x,y)=A1exp[jΔϕ1(x,y)]+A2exp[jΔϕ2(x,y)]
with A1 = 2 and A2 = 1 i.e. amplitude ratio of 2:1. Noise was added at signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 25 dB using MATLAB’s ‘awgn’ function. The original phases Δϕ1(x, y) and Δϕ2(x, y) in radians are shown in Fig. 4(a) and Fig. 4(b). The real part of Γ(x,y) which constitutes the fringe pattern (256 × 256 pixels) is shown in Fig. 4(c).

 

Fig. 4 (a) Original Δϕ1(x, y) in radians. (b) Original Δϕ2(x, y) in radians. (c) Fringe pattern. (d) Fourier spectrum |γ(ωxy)|

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To highlight the problem of spectral overlap in the absence of a spatial carrier, the Fourier transform of Γ(x,y) was calculated as,

γ(ωx,ωy)=DFT[Γ(x,y)]
The Fourier spectrum i.e. |γ(ωxy)| is shown in Fig. 4(d). From the figure, it is clear that the spectra of the two components are overlapped and not well separated. Due to the spectral overlap, the individual components with the phases Δϕ1(x, y) and Δϕ2(x, y) cannot be efficiently filtered in the frequency domain using the Fourier transform. Hence, in the absence of a spatial carrier, retrieval of multiple phases is difficult using current phase estimation methods.

The proposed method was applied to estimate the phases Δϕ1(x, y) and Δϕ2(x, y) from Γ(x,y). For the analysis, we used Nw = 4 and M = 2. The estimated first phase in radians is shown in Fig. 5(a). The corresponding phase estimation error in radians is shown in Fig. 5(b). Similarly, the estimated second phase in radians is shown in Fig. 5(c). The corresponding phase estimation error in radians is shown in Fig. 5(d). The root mean square errors (RMSE) for the estimation of Δϕ1(x, y) and Δϕ2(x, y) were 0.0256 and 0.0333 radians. From the analysis, it is clear that the proposed method is capable of reliable estimation of multiple phases from a single fringe pattern.

 

Fig. 5 (a) Estimated Δϕ1(x, y) in radians. (b) Estimation error for Δϕ1(x, y) in radians. (c) Estimated Δϕ2(x, y) in radians. (d) Estimation error for Δϕ2(x, y) in radians.

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4. Conclusions

The paper presents a piecewise multicomponent polynomial phase approximation based method for multiple phase retrieval which is desired for the simultaneous in-plane and out-of-plane deformation measurements in DHI. The major advantage of the proposed method lies in its ability to extract information about multiple phases from a single fringe pattern without the need of spatial carrier based spectral filtering, which is hitherto not possible with the current state-of-the-art spatial fringe analysis methods. In addition, the method provides continuous phase distributions and does not require complex unwrapping algorithms. We believe that the proposed method would enhance the applicability of DHI for simultaneous multidimensional measurements.

References and links

1. G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Simultaneous quantitative evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane deformations by use of a multidirectional spatial carrier,” Appl. Opt. 36, 786–792 (1997). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. E. Kolenovic, W. Osten, R. Klattenhoff, S. Lai, C. von Kopylow, and W. Juptner, “Miniaturized digital holography sensor for distal three-dimensional endoscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5167–5172 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. S. Okazawa, M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and T. Matui, “Simultaneous measurement of out-of-plane and in-plane displacements by phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Mech. Materials 3–4, 223–228 (2005). [CrossRef]  

4. Y. Morimoto, T. Matui, M. Fujigaki, and A. Matsui, “Three-dimensional displacement analysis by windowed phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Strain 44, 49–56 (2008). [CrossRef]  

5. G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of two-dimensional dynamic deformations using digital holography,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 249–256 (1997). [CrossRef]  

6. P. Picart, E. Moisson, and D. Mounier, “Twin-sensitivity measurement by spatial multiplexing of digitally recorded holograms,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1947–1957 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. G. Rajshekhar, S. S. Gorthi, and P. Rastogi, “Simultaneous multidimensional deformation measurements using digital holographic moiré,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4189–4197 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156–160 (1982). [CrossRef]  

9. Q. Kemao, “Two-dimensional windowed Fourier transform for fringe pattern analysis: Principles, applications and implementations,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 45, 304–317 (2007). [CrossRef]  

10. L. R. Watkins, S. M. Tan, and T. H. Barnes, “Determination of interferometer phase distributions by use of wavelets,” Opt. Lett. 24, 905–907 (1999). [CrossRef]  

11. S. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Piecewise polynomial phase approximation approach for the analysis of reconstructed interference fields in digital holographic interferometry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11 (2009). [CrossRef]  

12. S. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Windowed high-order ambiguity function method for fringe analysis,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 80, 073109 (2009). [CrossRef]  

13. S. S. Gorthi, G. Rajshekhar, and P. Rastogi, “Strain estimation in digital holographic interferometry using piecewise polynomial phase approximation based method,” Opt. Express 18, 560–565 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. S. Barbarossa, A. Scaglione, and G. B. Giannakis, “Product high-order ambiguity function for multicomponent polynomial-phase signal modeling,” IEEE Trans. Sig. Proc. 46, 691–708 (1998). [CrossRef]  

15. D. S. Pham and A. M. Zoubir, “Analysis of multicomponent polynomial phase signals,” IEEE Tran. Sig. Proc. 55, 56–65 (2007). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Simultaneous quantitative evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane deformations by use of a multidirectional spatial carrier,” Appl. Opt. 36, 786–792 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. E. Kolenovic, W. Osten, R. Klattenhoff, S. Lai, C. von Kopylow, and W. Juptner, “Miniaturized digital holography sensor for distal three-dimensional endoscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5167–5172 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. Okazawa, M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and T. Matui, “Simultaneous measurement of out-of-plane and in-plane displacements by phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Mech. Materials 3–4, 223–228 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Morimoto, T. Matui, M. Fujigaki, and A. Matsui, “Three-dimensional displacement analysis by windowed phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Strain 44, 49–56 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of two-dimensional dynamic deformations using digital holography,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 249–256 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Picart, E. Moisson, and D. Mounier, “Twin-sensitivity measurement by spatial multiplexing of digitally recorded holograms,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1947–1957 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. Rajshekhar, S. S. Gorthi, and P. Rastogi, “Simultaneous multidimensional deformation measurements using digital holographic moiré,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4189–4197 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156–160 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  9. Q. Kemao, “Two-dimensional windowed Fourier transform for fringe pattern analysis: Principles, applications and implementations,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 45, 304–317 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. L. R. Watkins, S. M. Tan, and T. H. Barnes, “Determination of interferometer phase distributions by use of wavelets,” Opt. Lett. 24, 905–907 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Piecewise polynomial phase approximation approach for the analysis of reconstructed interference fields in digital holographic interferometry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Windowed high-order ambiguity function method for fringe analysis,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 80, 073109 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. S. Gorthi, G. Rajshekhar, and P. Rastogi, “Strain estimation in digital holographic interferometry using piecewise polynomial phase approximation based method,” Opt. Express 18, 560–565 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. S. Barbarossa, A. Scaglione, and G. B. Giannakis, “Product high-order ambiguity function for multicomponent polynomial-phase signal modeling,” IEEE Trans. Sig. Proc. 46, 691–708 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. S. Pham and A. M. Zoubir, “Analysis of multicomponent polynomial phase signals,” IEEE Tran. Sig. Proc. 55, 56–65 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

S. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Piecewise polynomial phase approximation approach for the analysis of reconstructed interference fields in digital holographic interferometry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Windowed high-order ambiguity function method for fringe analysis,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 80, 073109 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y. Morimoto, T. Matui, M. Fujigaki, and A. Matsui, “Three-dimensional displacement analysis by windowed phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Strain 44, 49–56 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Q. Kemao, “Two-dimensional windowed Fourier transform for fringe pattern analysis: Principles, applications and implementations,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 45, 304–317 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. S. Pham and A. M. Zoubir, “Analysis of multicomponent polynomial phase signals,” IEEE Tran. Sig. Proc. 55, 56–65 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Okazawa, M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and T. Matui, “Simultaneous measurement of out-of-plane and in-plane displacements by phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Mech. Materials 3–4, 223–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

S. Barbarossa, A. Scaglione, and G. B. Giannakis, “Product high-order ambiguity function for multicomponent polynomial-phase signal modeling,” IEEE Trans. Sig. Proc. 46, 691–708 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Simultaneous quantitative evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane deformations by use of a multidirectional spatial carrier,” Appl. Opt. 36, 786–792 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of two-dimensional dynamic deformations using digital holography,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 249–256 (1997).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

Barbarossa, S.

S. Barbarossa, A. Scaglione, and G. B. Giannakis, “Product high-order ambiguity function for multicomponent polynomial-phase signal modeling,” IEEE Trans. Sig. Proc. 46, 691–708 (1998).
[Crossref]

Barnes, T. H.

Fujigaki, M.

Y. Morimoto, T. Matui, M. Fujigaki, and A. Matsui, “Three-dimensional displacement analysis by windowed phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Strain 44, 49–56 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Okazawa, M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and T. Matui, “Simultaneous measurement of out-of-plane and in-plane displacements by phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Mech. Materials 3–4, 223–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Giannakis, G. B.

S. Barbarossa, A. Scaglione, and G. B. Giannakis, “Product high-order ambiguity function for multicomponent polynomial-phase signal modeling,” IEEE Trans. Sig. Proc. 46, 691–708 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gorthi, S. S.

G. Rajshekhar, S. S. Gorthi, and P. Rastogi, “Simultaneous multidimensional deformation measurements using digital holographic moiré,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4189–4197 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gorthi, G. Rajshekhar, and P. Rastogi, “Strain estimation in digital holographic interferometry using piecewise polynomial phase approximation based method,” Opt. Express 18, 560–565 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Windowed high-order ambiguity function method for fringe analysis,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 80, 073109 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Piecewise polynomial phase approximation approach for the analysis of reconstructed interference fields in digital holographic interferometry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ina, H.

Juptner, W.

Kemao, Q.

Q. Kemao, “Two-dimensional windowed Fourier transform for fringe pattern analysis: Principles, applications and implementations,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 45, 304–317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Klattenhoff, R.

Kobayashi, S.

Kolenovic, E.

Lai, S.

Matsui, A.

Y. Morimoto, T. Matui, M. Fujigaki, and A. Matsui, “Three-dimensional displacement analysis by windowed phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Strain 44, 49–56 (2008).
[Crossref]

Matui, T.

Y. Morimoto, T. Matui, M. Fujigaki, and A. Matsui, “Three-dimensional displacement analysis by windowed phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Strain 44, 49–56 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Okazawa, M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and T. Matui, “Simultaneous measurement of out-of-plane and in-plane displacements by phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Mech. Materials 3–4, 223–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moisson, E.

Morimoto, Y.

Y. Morimoto, T. Matui, M. Fujigaki, and A. Matsui, “Three-dimensional displacement analysis by windowed phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Strain 44, 49–56 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Okazawa, M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and T. Matui, “Simultaneous measurement of out-of-plane and in-plane displacements by phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Mech. Materials 3–4, 223–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mounier, D.

Okazawa, S.

S. Okazawa, M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and T. Matui, “Simultaneous measurement of out-of-plane and in-plane displacements by phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Mech. Materials 3–4, 223–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Osten, W.

Pedrini, G.

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Simultaneous quantitative evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane deformations by use of a multidirectional spatial carrier,” Appl. Opt. 36, 786–792 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of two-dimensional dynamic deformations using digital holography,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 249–256 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pham, D. S.

D. S. Pham and A. M. Zoubir, “Analysis of multicomponent polynomial phase signals,” IEEE Tran. Sig. Proc. 55, 56–65 (2007).
[Crossref]

Picart, P.

Rajshekhar, G.

Rastogi, P.

G. Rajshekhar, S. S. Gorthi, and P. Rastogi, “Simultaneous multidimensional deformation measurements using digital holographic moiré,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4189–4197 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gorthi, G. Rajshekhar, and P. Rastogi, “Strain estimation in digital holographic interferometry using piecewise polynomial phase approximation based method,” Opt. Express 18, 560–565 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Piecewise polynomial phase approximation approach for the analysis of reconstructed interference fields in digital holographic interferometry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Windowed high-order ambiguity function method for fringe analysis,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 80, 073109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scaglione, A.

S. Barbarossa, A. Scaglione, and G. B. Giannakis, “Product high-order ambiguity function for multicomponent polynomial-phase signal modeling,” IEEE Trans. Sig. Proc. 46, 691–708 (1998).
[Crossref]

Takeda, M.

Tan, S. M.

Tiziani, H. J.

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Simultaneous quantitative evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane deformations by use of a multidirectional spatial carrier,” Appl. Opt. 36, 786–792 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of two-dimensional dynamic deformations using digital holography,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 249–256 (1997).
[Crossref]

von Kopylow, C.

Watkins, L. R.

Zou, Y. L.

Zoubir, A. M.

D. S. Pham and A. M. Zoubir, “Analysis of multicomponent polynomial phase signals,” IEEE Tran. Sig. Proc. 55, 56–65 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Mech. Materials (1)

S. Okazawa, M. Fujigaki, Y. Morimoto, and T. Matui, “Simultaneous measurement of out-of-plane and in-plane displacements by phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Mech. Materials 3–4, 223–228 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Tran. Sig. Proc. (1)

D. S. Pham and A. M. Zoubir, “Analysis of multicomponent polynomial phase signals,” IEEE Tran. Sig. Proc. 55, 56–65 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Sig. Proc. (1)

S. Barbarossa, A. Scaglione, and G. B. Giannakis, “Product high-order ambiguity function for multicomponent polynomial-phase signal modeling,” IEEE Trans. Sig. Proc. 46, 691–708 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Piecewise polynomial phase approximation approach for the analysis of reconstructed interference fields in digital holographic interferometry,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Laser Tech. (1)

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of two-dimensional dynamic deformations using digital holography,” Opt. Laser Tech. 29, 249–256 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Laser. Eng. (1)

Q. Kemao, “Two-dimensional windowed Fourier transform for fringe pattern analysis: Principles, applications and implementations,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 45, 304–317 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

S. S. Gorthi and P. Rastogi, “Windowed high-order ambiguity function method for fringe analysis,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 80, 073109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Strain (1)

Y. Morimoto, T. Matui, M. Fujigaki, and A. Matsui, “Three-dimensional displacement analysis by windowed phase-shifting digital holographic interferometry,” Strain 44, 49–56 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dual-beam illumination of a diffuse object

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Third order (m = 3) PHAF spectrum for (a) A1 = A2, (b) A1 < A2 and (c) A1 > A2. (d) Second order (m = 2) PHAF spectrum. (e) First order (m = 1) PHAF spectrum. (f) Original vs estimated first phase in radians.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Third order (m = 3) PHAF spectrum. (b) Second order (m = 2) PHAF spectrum. (c) First order (m = 1) PHAF spectrum. (d) Original vs estimated second phase in radians. (e) Estimation error in radians for first phase. (f) Estimation error in radians for second phase.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Original Δϕ1(x, y) in radians. (b) Original Δϕ2(x, y) in radians. (c) Fringe pattern. (d) Fourier spectrum |γ(ωxy)|

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Estimated Δϕ1(x, y) in radians. (b) Estimation error for Δϕ1(x, y) in radians. (c) Estimated Δϕ2(x, y) in radians. (d) Estimation error for Δϕ2(x, y) in radians.

Equations (18)

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Γ ( x , y ) = A 1 ( x , y ) exp [ j Δ ϕ 1 ( x , y ) ] + A 2 ( x , y ) exp [ j Δ ϕ 2 ( x , y ) ] + η ( x , y )
Δ ϕ 1 i ( y ) = m = 0 M a i m y m
Δ ϕ 2 i ( y ) = m = 0 M b i m y m
Γ i ( y ) = A 1 i ( y ) exp [ j ( m = 0 M a i m y m ) ] + A 2 i ( y ) exp [ j ( m = 0 M b i m y m ) ] + η i ( y )
x 1 ( y ) = Γ i ( y ) , x 2 ( y ; τ k , 1 ) = x 1 ( y ) x 1 * ( y τ k , 1 ) , x m ( y ; τ k , m 1 ) = x m 1 ( y ; τ k , m 2 ) x m 1 * ( y τ k , m 1 ; τ k , m 2 )
X m ( ω ; τ k , m 1 ) = DFT [ x m ( y ; τ k , m 1 ) ] = y = 0 N 1 x m ( y ; τ k , m 1 ) exp [ j ω y ]
X K , m ( ω ) = k = 1 K X m ( P m ( τ k , m 1 , τ 1 , m 1 ) ω , τ k , m 1 )
P m ( τ k , m 1 , τ 1 , m 1 ) = [ τ k , m 1 τ 1 , m 1 ] m 1
a i m , b i m = ω max m ! ( τ 1 , m 1 ) m 1
Γ ( y ) = A 1 exp [ j ( a 0 + a 1 y + a 2 y 2 + a 3 y 3 ) ] + A 2 exp [ j ( b 0 + b 1 y + b 2 y 2 + b 3 y 3 ) ] y [ 1 , N ] , N = 256
Γ 2 ( y ) = Γ ( y ) exp [ j a ^ 3 y 3 ] A 1 exp [ j ( a 0 + a 1 y + a 2 y 2 ) ] + A 2 exp [ j ( b 0 + b 1 y + b 2 y 2 + ( b 3 a ^ 3 ) y 3 ) ]
Γ 1 ( y ) = Γ 2 ( y ) exp [ j a ^ 2 y 2 ] A 1 exp [ j ( a 0 + a 1 y ) ] + A 2 exp [ j ( b 0 + b 1 , y + ( b 2 a ^ 2 ) y 2 + ( b 3 a ^ 3 ) y 3 ) ]
Γ 0 ( y ) = Γ 1 ( y ) exp [ j a ^ 1 y ] A 1 exp [ j a 0 ] + A 2 exp [ j ( b 0 + ( b 1 a ^ 1 ) y + ( b 2 a ^ 2 ) y 2 + ( b 3 a ^ 3 ) y 3 ) ]
a ^ 0 = angle [ 1 N y = 1 N Γ 0 ( y ) ]
A ^ 1 = | 1 N y = 1 N Γ 0 ( y ) |
Γ ( y ) = Γ ( y ) A ^ 1 exp [ j ( a ^ 0 + a ^ 1 y + a ^ 2 y 2 + a ^ 3 y 3 ) ] A 2 exp [ j ( b 0 + b 1 y + b 2 y 2 + b 3 y 3 ) ]
Γ ( x , y ) = A 1 exp [ j Δ ϕ 1 ( x , y ) ] + A 2 exp [ j Δ ϕ 2 ( x , y ) ]
γ ( ω x , ω y ) = DFT [ Γ ( x , y ) ]

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