Abstract

Metal nanoparticles (NPs) are well known to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic devices by reducing reflection and increasing light trapping within device. However, metal NPs on top flat surface suffer from high reflectivity losses due to the backscattering of the NPs itself. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate a novel structure that exhibits localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) along with broadband ultralow reflectivity over a wide range of wavelength. Experimental results show that by depositing Ag NPs and Au NPs onto glass subwavelength structures (SWS) the backscattering effect of NPs can be suppressed, and the reflections can be considerably reduced by up to 87.5% and 66.7% respectively, compared to NPs fabricated on a flat glass substrate. Broadband ultralow reflection (< 2%) is also observed in the case of Ag NPs and Au NPs fabricated on cone shaped SWS silicon substrate over a wavelength range from 200 nm to 800 nm. This broadband ultralow reflectivity of Ag NPs and Au NPs on silicon SWS structure leads to a substantial enhancement of average absorption by 66.53% and 66.94%, respectively, over a broad wavelength range (200-2000 nm). This allows light absorption by NPs on SWS silicon structure close to 100% over a wavelength range from 300 nm to 1000 nm. The mechanism responsible for the increased light absorption is also explained.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

Plasmonic structures has emerged as a promising route to improve light absorption in various optoelectronic devices due to their ability to confine light in spaces of significantly shorter than one fourth of the wavelength of the incident light, thereby providing strong light absorption or scattering. The peak of the extinction spectra of the NPs occur at the resonant wavelength which highly depends on NPs size, shape, type of metal as well as the local dielectric environment [1,2]. The tunable optical properties along with their strong resonant characteristics make metal NPs attractive for a wide range of applications ranging from bio-sensing to photovoltaics (PV) [27].

In photovoltaic devices, metal NPs have been reported to reduce reflectivity and increase light trapping within device, thereby increasing the device efficiency [1,3,4,8]. However, there are also reports where the metal NPs decrease the device efficiency due to absorption and backscattering caused by the metal NPs itself [3, 9]. Light absorption due to NPs itself is relatively small and the amount of absorbed light reduces when the size of the metal NPs becomes larger [9]. Back scattering of incident light by metal NPs itself, can cause high reflection loss for photovoltaic devices decorated with metal NPs on the top. Silver NPs (Ag NPs) and gold NPs (Au NPs) on glass have an absorption peak at a wavelength of around 400 nm and 600 nm (termed as resonant wavelengths), respectively. However, it is also observed that about 30-40% of the incident light is lost due to back reflections caused by Ag NPs itself, while 20-30% of the incident light is lost in the case of Au NPs, at the resonant wavelengths. This greatly decreases the device efficiency by preventing the incident light from being transmitted into the photovoltaic (PV) device.

In this article, we experimentally demonstrate a novel structure which consists of metal NPs on subwavelength structures (SWS), which have localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties while simultaneously exhibiting ultralow reflectivity by suppressing the backscattering of NPs fabricated on top surface of substrate. Silver and gold NPs are deposited on truncated and cone shaped SWS, having continuous or finely stepped increase of refractive index from external medium to the photovoltaic structures [10]. SWS are well known as moth-eye antireflection layers [11] and are widely used in thin-film PV due to low cost, broadband high antireflection properties and ease of fabrication [1013]. SWS can significantly suppress the surface reflection over a broad wavelength range. However, metal NPs has better performance in increasing the absorption properties of PV through more efficient light trapping properties compared to SWS structure [14]. We particularly choose Au and Ag NPs as they have been widely used to enhance photocurrent of various photovoltaic devices [3, 4]. Experimental results show that metal NPs on SWS structure allow maximum transmission of incident light into the absorbing substrate, while displaying broadband ultralow reflectivity as well, thereby reducing the backscattering properties of metal NPs. The cone or truncated shaped of the SWS structure and randomized size of deposited metal NPs randomize the incident light direction within the structures. This leads to higher light collection and absorption of the incident light by creating multiple interactions of incident photon within the surface of the device, and also increases the path length of the incident light. Metal NPs deposited on SWS glass exhibit low broadband reflection around 5% and maintain the LSPR properties of metal NPs. Broadband ultralow reflection (< 2%) is also observed in both Au and Ag NPs fabricated on SWS silicon substrate. This means that metal NPs on SWS silicon structure allows light absorption close to 100% over a wavelength range of 300 nm to 1000 nm.

2. Experimental process

Figure 1(a) illustrates the detailed fabrication step of metal NPs on SWS structures. First, glass and silicon substrates were cleaned using acetone, methanol and iso-propanol solutions sequentially for 5 minutes each, followed by cleaning with a diluted Buffer Oxide Etchant (BOE) in order to remove the native oxide on the surface of the samples. Then, silver film thickness of 15 nm was deposited on glass or silicon substrate using electron-beam evaporation and was annealed at 500°C to form metal NPs (Step 1). The size and distribution of the metal NPs can be controlled by varying the thickness of silver film and annealing time. The estimated average diameter and average distance between adjacent Ag NPs which was formed by depositing a film of thickness of 15 nm were 89.74 nm and 116.8 nm, respectively. After the formation the metal NPs, the silicon and glass structure was etched by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) to form SWS structures (Step 2). The metal NPs formed during step 1 act as a mask during dry etching. Glass substrate is etched by a gas mixture of SF6 and O2 in the ratio 4:1 with rf power of 100 W, ICP power of 200 W at a pressure set to 20 mtorr for 4 minutes (optimized condition for forming cone shaped SWS glass structure). Silicon substrate is etched by a gas mixture of SiCl4 and Ar in the ratio 1:8 with rf power 100 W, at a pressure set to 20 mtorr for 15 minutes (optimized condition for forming truncated shaped SWS silicon structure) and 20 minutes (optimized condition for cone shaped SWS silicon structure). Excess metal NPs on SWS structure (glass or silicon) are removed using HNO3 (Step 3). Then, a thin metal film of Au (10 nm) or Ag (8 nm) is deposited by e-beam evaporation on SWS structure (glass or silicon) formed in previous step and is annealed at 600°C and 400°C respectively (Step 4 and 5), thereby forming metal NPs on the cone or truncated shaped surface of the SWS structures.

 

Fig. 1 (a) Detailed fabrication process step of metal NPs on SWS structure. (b) SEM image of Ag metal NPs on substrate which used as dry etching mask (step 1). (c) SEM image of cone shaped SWS structure fabricated after ICP-RIE etching and excess Ag metal NPs are removed. (d) SEM image of metal NPs fabricated on SWS structure.

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3. Results and discussion

3.1 Metal NPs on SWS glass structure

The Ag and Au metal NPs on flat and SWS substrate samples were characterized using a field emission SEM (S-4700, Hitachi, Japan) operating at 10 kV, which enabled the study of the metal NPs island formation. Figure 2(a) , 2(b) show the Au metal NPs deposited on a flat and SWS glass substrate, respectively. The average diameter and height of SWS glass were 89.74 and 316 nm, respectively. The estimated average diameter of Au NPs on glass and SWS glass structure were approximately 98.37 nm and 34 nm, respectively (an accurate measurement of the average diameter of NPs lying on slope of SWS structure is difficult). It is also noted that the average diameter of Au metal NPs on SWS glass substrate is much smaller compared to that on a flat glass substrate due to the difference in thermal dissipation and surface tension across a surface area [15]. Figure 2(c), 2(d) shows the Ag metal NPs deposited on a flat and SWS glass substrate, respectively. A similar phenomenon as seen in the case of Au NPs on SWS structure is observed where Ag NPs of smaller size is formed on the SWS structure compared to that on a flat glass substrate. The estimated average diameter of Ag NPs on glass and SWS glass structure were approximately 48.22 nm and 16 nm, respectively (as in the case of Au NPs, an accurate measurement of the average diameter of NPs lying on slope of SWS structure is difficult).

 

Fig. 2 SEM images of (a) Au metal NPs on a flat glass substrate, (b) Au metal NPs on SWS glass substrate (synthesized by annealing a 10 nm Au film at 600 °C for 1 min). (c) Ag metal NPs on a flat glass substrate, (d) Ag metal NPs on SWS glass substrate (synthesized by annealing a 8 nm Ag film at 400 °C for 1 min).

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To quantitatively characterize the optical properties of the fabricated samples, total reflection and transmission spectroscopy measurements were carried out. Subsequently, the normalized optical absorption is calculated by subtracting the sum of normalized reflection and transmission from unity. The total reflectance from all angles was measured over the wavelength range of 300-1800 nm. The optical reflectance at all angles is obtained using the standard UV/VIS-near-IR spectrophotometer (Cary 5000, Varian, USA) equipped with an integrated sphere. The transmittance was measured only for normal incidence, since measurement at other incident angles was not possible with the measurement setup. Figure 3(a-d) show the transmission, reflection and calculated absorption spectra of the Au NPs and Ag NPs deposited on flat and SWS glass substrates. The spectra for Au NPs and Ag NPs on flat glass substrate are in excellent agreement with those reported by Temple et al. [3] and Schaadt et al. [4].

 

Fig. 3 Measured optical properties of metal NPs fabricated on flat glass substrate, metal NPs fabricated on SWS glass substrate, bare SWS glass substrate and bare glass (reference). (a) Transmittance and reflectance spectra for Ag NPs. (b) Absorption spectra for Ag NPs. (c) Transmittance and reflectance spectra for Au NPs. (d) Absorption spectra for Au NPs.

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Figure 3(a) and 3(c) show the transmission spectra of Ag NPs and Au NPs fabricated on a flat glass substrate, respectively. For the transmission measurement, photons that are absorbed or scattered by the particles are not detected, leading to well-defined minima peak (LSPR peak) in the spectra at the resonant wavelength. It can be seen from the transmission spectra that Ag NPs and Au NPs on flat glass substrate exhibit a narrow surface plasmon resonance peak at 430 nm and 560 nm respectively. However, it can also be seen that metal NPs on a flat glass substrate exhibits high reflection losses due to the backscattering of the NPs as shown in Fig. 3(a) and 3(c). Ag NPs and Au NPs fabricated on flat glass substrate have high reflectivity (35% and 15%) at the resonant wavelength of 430 nm and 560 nm, respectively. On the other hand, Au NPs and Ag NPs on SWS glass substrate greatly reduce the reflectivity and achieve broadband ultralow reflectivity. The reflectivity of Ag NPs and Au NPs on SWS glass substrate is reduced by 87.5% and 66.7%, respectively, when compared to NPs on flat glass substrate. Ag NPs on SWS glass substrate also have 2% lower reflectivity when compared to SWS glass substrate at resonant wavelength of 430 nm. However, Au NPs on SWS glass substrate have a similar reflectivity to that of SWS glass substrate at resonant wavelength of 560 nm [5, 14]. The physical phenomena behind this significant reduction of reflection due to NPs on SWS structure will be discussed in detail in the next section.

The reduction of reflectivity results in a significant increase in the light absorption and forward scattering in structures where Ag NPs and Au NPs are deposited on SWS glass substrate by 61.84% and 66.53% respectively, compared to structures where NPs are deposited on flat glass. However, this absorption also includes the low parasitic absorption of the Au NPs and Ag NPs, which unfortunately, cannot be measured separately with the available measurement setup. The parasitic absorption of light by the metal NPs is reported to be relatively small compared to the amount of light that is scattered [2]. It is worthwhile to note that Ag NPs and Au NPs on SWS glass substrate still exhibit LSPR; however, these peaks are blue shifted to 368 nm and 560 nm, respectively. The blue shift is due to the decrease of the average size of metal NPs formed on the SWS structure [2].

3.2 Metal NPs on SWS silicon structure

Metal NPs are fabricated on SWS silicon structure to show that such structures demonstrate broadband ultralow reflectivity along with LSPR, so that such structures can be applied for silicon photovoltaic devices. Figure 4(a) and (d) , 4(b) and (e), 4(c) and 4(f) show the SEM image of Au and Ag metal NPs deposited on a flat silicon substrate, truncated shaped, and cone shaped SWS silicon substrate, respectively. The average height of truncated and cone shaped SWS silicon structures was 256 nm and 316 nm, respectively. Truncated and cone shaped SWS silicon structures are fabricated to study the effect of number of NPs that lie perpendicular to the normally incident light, as well as their reflectivity. It is noted that flat silicon substrate has the largest area for the normally incident light followed by truncated shaped SWS silicon structure, while cone shaped SWS silicon structure has the least area that is perpendicular to the normally incident light. Figure 4(a-c) show that the average size of Au NPs decreases as the area perpendicular to the incident light reduces as similar to the NPs fabricated on glass substrate. The average diameter of Au NPs on flat silicon, truncated shaped SWS silicon structure and cone shaped SWS silicon structure were 108.5 nm, 76.3 nm and 32.5 nm, respectively. (as stated before, an accurate measurement of the average diameter of NPs lying on slope of SWS structure is difficult). Similarly, the average size of Ag NPs decreases as the area perpendicular to incident light reduces as shown in Fig. 4(d-f). The average diameter of Ag NPs on flat silicon, truncated shaped SWS silicon structure and cone shaped SWS silicon structure were 62.2 nm, 48.3 nm and 22.3 nm, respectively. The decreases of the average size of NPs also lead to lower reflectivity of the NPs on SWS structures.

 

Fig. 4 SEM images of (a,b,c) Au metal NPs on a flat silicon substrate, truncated shaped SWS silicon substrate and cone shaped SWS silicon substrate, respectively (synthesized by annealing a 10 nm Au film at 600°C for 1 min). (d,e,f) Ag metal NPs on a flat silicon substrate, truncated shaped SWS silicon substrate and cone shaped SWS silicon substrate, respectively (synthesized by annealing a 8 nm Ag film at 400°C for 1 min).

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Figure 5(a) , 5(b) and Figs. 5(c), 5(d) show the reflection and calculated absorption spectra of Ag NPs and Au NPs respectively, fabricated on a flat silicon substrate, truncated shaped SWS silicon structure, and cone shaped SWS silicon structure. The reflection and calculated absorption spectra of SWS and flat silicon substrate are also shown (as reference). From Fig. 5(a) and 5(c), it can be seen that the Ag NPs and Au NPs on flat silicon slightly reduce the reflection of silicon substrate for incident light over a wavelength from 200 nm to 600 nm, respectively. This is because a large fraction of the light that is scattered into the silicon substrate is reflected from the bottom of the silicon substrate, and also because the metal NPs prevent the light from escaping outside the substrate (black arrow in substrate of Fig. 5(e)). However, the average reflection of Ag NPs and Au NPs on flat silicon for incident light is considerably high (41.38% and 43.58%) due to backscattering (red color arrow) caused by the NPs itself as illustrated in Fig. 5(e).

 

Fig. 5 Measured optical properties of metal NPs fabricated on flat silicon substrate, truncated shaped SWS silicon substrate, cone shaped SWS silicon substrate and silicon substrate (reference). (a) Reflectance spectra for Ag NPs. (b) Absorption spectra for Ag NPs. (c) Reflectance spectra for Au NPs. (d) Absorption spectra for Au NPs. (e) The schematic of propagating path of the incident light on metal NPs fabricated on flat silicon substrate, truncated SWS silicon substrate and cone shaped SWS silicon substrate.

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On the other hand, Ag NPs and Au NPs on truncated shaped SWS silicon structure further reduces the average reflection significantly by 78% and 80.59% compared to NPs on flat silicon substrate for the incident light. As for Ag NPs and Au NPs on cone shaped SWS silicon structure, the average reflection is greatly reduced by 85.50% and 89.49% respectively, compared to that of NPs on a flat silicon substrate. This reflectivity reduction is mainly due to three mechanisms: (1) the direction of the reflected light is randomized by NPs and SWS structure which reduces the backscattering of the metal NPs as shown in Fig. 5(e); (2) the reduction of the average size of metal NPs on SWS structures also reduces the backscattering effect; (3) NPs prevent the light reflected from the bottom side of the substrate from being escaped. This decrease of reflection of Ag NPs and Au NPs on cone shaped SWS silicon structure leads to a substantial enhancement in the average absorption of 66.53% and 66.94%, respectively, over a broad wavelength range (200-2000 nm) as displayed in Figs. 5(b), 5(d). The reflectivity of Ag NPs and Au NPs on cone shaped SWS silicon structure was also slightly reduced by 0.15% and 0.18% respectively, compared to bare cone shaped SWS silicon structure in the visible wavelength range (200 – 800 nm) as displayed in Fig. 5(a), 5(c). However, for Ag NPs and Au NPs on truncated shaped SWS silicon structure, the reflectivity slightly increased by 2.88% and 3.32% respectively, compared to bare truncated shaped SWS silicon structure in the visible wavelength range. This slight increase of reflectivity was due to the backscattering of light by Ag NPs and Au NPs itself.

4. Conclusions

We have presented a novel structure that exhibits localized surface plasmon resonance along with broadband ultralow reflectivity properties. We have shown that backscattering of light by NPs can be suppressed by depositing Ag NPs or Au NPs on SWS structure. Ag NPs and Au NPs fabricated on SWS glass structure have 87.5% and 66.7% lower reflection compared to NPs fabricated on flat glass substrate while they exhibited surface plasmon resonance drop at 368 nm and 560 nm respectively, on the transmission spectra. Ag NPs and Au NPs fabricated on cone shaped SWS silicon structure also exhibited broadband ultralow reflection properties and the average reflection was greatly reduced by 85.50% and 89.49% respectively, compared to NPs on flat silicon substrate. This significant decrease in reflection of Ag NPs and Au NPs on cone shaped SWS silicon structure leads to a substantial enhancement of 66.53% and 66.94% in average absorption over a broad wavelength range (200-2000 nm). We anticipate that the incorporation of the proposed structure in devices such as photodiodes and solar cells will lead to higher device efficiency due to enhanced light absorption.

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 2011-0017606), by the Core Technology Development Program for Next-generation Solar Cells of Research Institute for Solar and Sustainable Energies (RISE) and by the (Photonics2020) research project through a grant provided by the Gwangju Institute of Science & Technology in 2010.

References and links

1. K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

3. T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, “Influence of localized surface plasmon excitation in silver nanoparticles on the performance of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(11), 1978–1985 (2009). [CrossRef]  

4. S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 093105 (2007). [CrossRef]  

5. D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(6), 063106 (2005). [CrossRef]  

6. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, E.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 36(06), 461–467 (2011). [CrossRef]  

9. E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. X. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008). [CrossRef]  

10. Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci. 273(1587), 661–667 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology 8(2), 53–56 (1997). [CrossRef]  

13. Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett 120702151353008 (2012), doi:. [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. C. M. Müller, F. C. F. Mornaghini, and R. Spolenak, “Ordered arrays of faceted gold nanoparticles obtained by dewetting and nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology 19(48), 485306 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).
  3. T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, “Influence of localized surface plasmon excitation in silver nanoparticles on the performance of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(11), 1978–1985 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, E.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull.36(06), 461–467 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. X. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small6(9), 984–987 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci.273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology8(2), 53–56 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett120702151353008 (2012), doi:.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. M. Müller, F. C. F. Mornaghini, and R. Spolenak, “Ordered arrays of faceted gold nanoparticles obtained by dewetting and nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(48), 485306 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett120702151353008 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, E.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull.36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, “Influence of localized surface plasmon excitation in silver nanoparticles on the performance of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(11), 1978–1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. X. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Müller, F. C. F. Mornaghini, and R. Spolenak, “Ordered arrays of faceted gold nanoparticles obtained by dewetting and nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(48), 485306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci.273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arikawa, K.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci.273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagnall, D. M.

T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, “Influence of localized surface plasmon excitation in silver nanoparticles on the performance of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(11), 1978–1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basch, A.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, E.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull.36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beck, F.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, E.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull.36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. X. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, E.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull.36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, B.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foletti, S.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci.273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C.-H.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, Y.-K.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, S. J.

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, Y.-J.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-S.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, E.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull.36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T.-A.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, H.-C.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, P.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. X. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahanama, G. D. K.

T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, “Influence of localized surface plasmon excitation in silver nanoparticles on the performance of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(11), 1978–1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McKinley, A.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, E.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull.36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mokkapati, S.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, E.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull.36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mornaghini, F. C. F.

C. M. Müller, F. C. F. Mornaghini, and R. Spolenak, “Ordered arrays of faceted gold nanoparticles obtained by dewetting and nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(48), 485306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morris, G. M.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, E.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. X. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, C. M.

C. M. Müller, F. C. F. Mornaghini, and R. Spolenak, “Ordered arrays of faceted gold nanoparticles obtained by dewetting and nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(48), 485306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palasantzas, G.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci.273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C.-L.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, C.-Y.

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

Reehal, H. S.

T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, “Influence of localized surface plasmon excitation in silver nanoparticles on the performance of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(11), 1978–1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Royer, F. X.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. X. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Santbergen, R.

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett120702151353008 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaadt, D. M.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smets, A. H. M.

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett120702151353008 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Y. M.

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spolenak, R.

C. M. Müller, F. C. F. Mornaghini, and R. Spolenak, “Ordered arrays of faceted gold nanoparticles obtained by dewetting and nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(48), 485306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stavenga, D. G.

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci.273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiebig, H.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. X. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sukmanowski, J.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. X. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H.

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett120702151353008 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temple, T. L.

T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, “Influence of localized surface plasmon excitation in silver nanoparticles on the performance of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(11), 1978–1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, E.-C.

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, E.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull.36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E. T.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeman, M.

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett120702151353008 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(6), 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, T. Trupke, and M. A. Green, “Surface plasmon enhanced silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys.101(9), 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. X. Royer, and H. Stiebig, “Improved light absorption in thin-film silicon solar cells by integration of silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids354(19-25), 2488–2491 (2008).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

K. R. Catchpole, S. Mokkapati, F. Beck, E.-C. Wang, A. McKinley, A. Basch, and J. Lee, “Plasmonics and nanophotonics for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull.36(06), 461–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett (1)

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett120702151353008 (2012), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

C. M. Müller, F. C. F. Mornaghini, and R. Spolenak, “Ordered arrays of faceted gold nanoparticles obtained by dewetting and nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology19(48), 485306 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, “Antireflection behavior of silicon subwavelength periodic structures for visible light,” Nanotechnology8(2), 53–56 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater.7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

Y.-F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y.-J. Jen, C.-Y. Peng, T.-A. Liu, Y.-K. Hsu, C.-L. Pan, H.-C. Lo, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-H. Chang, C.-S. Lee, K.-H. Chen, and L.-C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. Biol. Sci. (1)

D. G. Stavenga, S. Foletti, G. Palasantzas, and K. Arikawa, “Light on the moth-eye corneal nipple array of butterflies,” Proc. Biol. Sci.273(1587), 661–667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, “Influence of localized surface plasmon excitation in silver nanoparticles on the performance of silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells93(11), 1978–1985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Detailed fabrication process step of metal NPs on SWS structure. (b) SEM image of Ag metal NPs on substrate which used as dry etching mask (step 1). (c) SEM image of cone shaped SWS structure fabricated after ICP-RIE etching and excess Ag metal NPs are removed. (d) SEM image of metal NPs fabricated on SWS structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of (a) Au metal NPs on a flat glass substrate, (b) Au metal NPs on SWS glass substrate (synthesized by annealing a 10 nm Au film at 600 °C for 1 min). (c) Ag metal NPs on a flat glass substrate, (d) Ag metal NPs on SWS glass substrate (synthesized by annealing a 8 nm Ag film at 400 °C for 1 min).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured optical properties of metal NPs fabricated on flat glass substrate, metal NPs fabricated on SWS glass substrate, bare SWS glass substrate and bare glass (reference). (a) Transmittance and reflectance spectra for Ag NPs. (b) Absorption spectra for Ag NPs. (c) Transmittance and reflectance spectra for Au NPs. (d) Absorption spectra for Au NPs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SEM images of (a,b,c) Au metal NPs on a flat silicon substrate, truncated shaped SWS silicon substrate and cone shaped SWS silicon substrate, respectively (synthesized by annealing a 10 nm Au film at 600°C for 1 min). (d,e,f) Ag metal NPs on a flat silicon substrate, truncated shaped SWS silicon substrate and cone shaped SWS silicon substrate, respectively (synthesized by annealing a 8 nm Ag film at 400°C for 1 min).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured optical properties of metal NPs fabricated on flat silicon substrate, truncated shaped SWS silicon substrate, cone shaped SWS silicon substrate and silicon substrate (reference). (a) Reflectance spectra for Ag NPs. (b) Absorption spectra for Ag NPs. (c) Reflectance spectra for Au NPs. (d) Absorption spectra for Au NPs. (e) The schematic of propagating path of the incident light on metal NPs fabricated on flat silicon substrate, truncated SWS silicon substrate and cone shaped SWS silicon substrate.

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