Abstract

Germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) in the core was fabricated by using the atomization process in modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. The absorption bands attributed to PbTe semiconductor quantum dots in the fiber core were found to appear at around 687 nm and 1055 nm. The nonlinear refractive index measured by the long-period fiber grating (LPG) pair method upon pumping with laser diode at 976.4 nm was estimated to be ~1.5 × 10−16 m2/W.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Glasses doped with IV-VI semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) of lead chalcogenides such as PbS [112], PbSe [1325], and PbTe [2635] are candidates for optical communication devices applications because of their narrow band-gap, large optical nonlinearity and fast response time [34,3640]. They are of great interest for all-optical devices applications such as all-optical switches [15,27,4144], wavelength converter [4547], ultra-short pulse generators [4851], and optical parametric amplifiers [47,5153]. Absorption peaks in the PbTe SQDs doped optical fiber arise due to excitonic resonance from the SQDs and the position of the absorption peaks depends on the particle size of PbTe SQDs. To obtain enhanced nonlinear optical effect of the PbTe SQDs doped optical fiber, the fiber should be pumped at the peak absorption wavelength and therefore, nonlinear optical device using the optical fiber doped with PbTe SQDs is dependent on the availability of cost-effective commercial pumping sources at the peak absorption wavelength. Our group has already demonstrated the manufacture of the optical fibers incorporated with PbTe SQDs having large nonlinear refractive index and their applications [2830]. Since the PbTe SQDs doped optical fibers were made by using the conventional solution doping process (“soaking” process) where porous layers of a vertically positioned silica glass tube preform were soaked by the doping solution, the fiber preform tube must be replaced back to the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) lathe, before and after the doping process.

To overcome such an inconvenience during the fiber preform preparation, in this paper, we proposed a new doping process (“atomization” process) to simplify the doping process and to increase the extent of dopants incorporation and concentration uniformity along with direction of the preform length. In the “atomization” process proposed, the doping was carried out by spraying very fine liquid droplets of the doping solution into the preform tube during the MCVD process without break in the process. Thus, no draining of doping solution after soaking was needed and the total preform preparation processes became simple and easy. Effect of the fabrication process, particularly the doping process, of the germano-silicate glass optical fibers incorporated with PbTe SQDs on optical absorption characteristics and nonlinear optical property was investigated.

2. Experimental

A preform of a germano-silicate glass optical fiber was manufactured by using the MCVD process. To increase the refractive index of the preform core for guiding a light, 0.03 mole GeO2 was added to main constituent of SiO2. After deposition of the core layers in the silica glass tube, a doping solution containing PbTe SQDs was sprayed into the tube at 1000°C by using the atomizer (Model 9302, TSI Incorporated). The doping solution containing PbTe SQDs was prepared by dissolving reagent grade PbO and Te powders in nitric acid solution (0.03 mole of PbTe). Then the tube was dried, sintered and sealed to obtain a fiber preform. The fiber preform was drawn into a fiber using the draw tower at 2150°C. The core diameter and the cutoff wavelength of the PbTe doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber were 9.6 μm and 1.2 μm, respectively. Another PbTe doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber by using the soaking process was also fabricated having the core diameter of 6.3 μm and the cutoff wavelength of 1.0 μm. Also, for a comparison, the germane-silicate optical fiber without PbTe was also fabricated. The core diameter and the cutoff wavelength of the germano-silicate optical fiber were 9.0 μm and 1.1 μm, respectively.

To confirm formation of PbTe SQDs in the core of fiber preforms, core portions of the preforms were examined by the X-ray Diffractometer (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, FEI Tecnai G2 F30 S-TWIN) measurements. Optical absorption spectra of germano-silicate glass optical fibers incorporated with PbTe SQDs were measured by the cut-back method where the white light source (Ando AQ 4303B) was used for launching the broadband light into the fiber and the OSA (Ando AQ 6315B) for the output spectrum.

Using the data of the optical absorption spectrum, we chose the wavelength of pump LD to measure resonant optical nonlinearity of the PbTe doped optical fibers. To compare the resonant nonlinearity of the PbTe doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber, the resonant nonlinearity of germane-silicate optical fiber (without PbTe SQDs) was also measured. The nonlinear refractive index of fibers was estimated by measuring the peak shift of the interference fringes formed due to the long period grating (LPG) pair upon pumping with the laser diode (LD). The LPG pair was fabricated on a conventional single mode fiber (SMF) by using an amplitude mask of 450 μm period to form interference fringes near 1530 nm. Prior to inscribe the grating, the SMF was hydrogen loaded at 50°C under the pressure of 10MPa for a week. The gratings were inscribed on the bare fiber with the KrF excimer laser (248 nm) and then the fiber was annealed at 150°C for 24 h. The PbTe doped fiber was spliced between a pair of the LPG as shown in Fig. 1 . The details for the measurement are described elsewhere [30,54,55]. Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the optical nonlinearity measurement setup. The total length, L, between the LPG pair including the PbTe doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber was 37.65 cm, whereas the length, L 1, of the PbTe doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber was 29.25 cm. Two wavelength division multiplexers (WDM) (980 nm/1550 nm) were used to multiplex and demultiplex the pump beam at 976.4 nm and the signal light near 1550 nm, respectively. The interference fringes in the region of 1500~1550 nm were monitored to determine the nonlinear index.

 

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the setup for nonlinearity measurement of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber by use of the LPG pair.

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3. Results and discussion

Comparison of the X-ray diffraction patterns of the PbTe SQDs doped preforms prepared by the atomization process and the conventional soaking process and the preform having no PbTe quantum dots is shown in Fig. 2 . The fiber preforms doped with PbTe clearly showed a diffraction peak at 2θ = 21.6°, regardless of the doping process. Note that for the preform without dopants, no diffraction peak but diffused background was found. These XRD results clearly indicate that PbTe particles were formed in the core of the PbTe-doped preforms. A rather broad feature of the diffraction peak of the preforms doped with PbTe was due to the size effect of PbTe SQDs. It can be seen in Fig. 2 that the peak intensity in the XRD pattern for the preform doped with PbTe using the atomization process was slightly larger than that by the soaking process, indicating the higher concentration of the PbTe in the preform by the atomization process. The atomization process seems to bring about higher dopant concentration and easer operation than the soaking process. The existence and size distribution of the PbTe SQDs were verified again by TEM morphology of the fiber preforms as shown in Fig. 3 . The average diameter of PbTe SQDs was 4.61 nm (3.54 nm ~6.03 nm) and 5.49 nm (4.02 nm ~6.03 nm) in the fiber preforms made by atomization process and soaking process, respectively. The TEM photograph clearly shows the morphology of the SQDs, which is crystalline, to be roughly spherical and homogeneous without agglomeration. From the TEM morphology of the PbTe doped fiber preforms, the formation of PbTe SQDs in the core was also confirmed and both the concentration and the size distribution of PbTe SQDs were found to increase and widen by atomization process compared to those by the soaking process, because the atomization process was done by spraying very fine droplets of the doping solution into the fiber preform.

 

Fig. 2 Effect of the doping process on the XRD patterns of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber preforms.

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Fig. 3 TEM image and size distribution of the PbTe SQDs in the core of the fiber prefroms prepared by (a) atomization process and (b) soaking process. (0.03 mole).

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The wide size distribution and the high concentration of PbTe SQDs in the germano-silicate glass optical fibers were also verified by the optical absorption spectra of the fibers as shown in Fig. 4 . The absorption bands at 687 nm and 1055 nm of the fiber made by adopting the atomization process and the absorption bands at 712 nm, 775 nm, and 1120 nm of the fiber by the soaking process (Fig. 4) are attributed to quantum confinement of PbTe SQDs in the fiber core [2833]. The absorption bands around 700 nm and 1100 nm of the fiber samples showed two distinguishable excitonic peaks and these peaks of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fibers were well matched with the two groups of different sized PbTe SQDs as shown in Fig. 3. The difference in the peak wavelengths of the absorption bands of the two fibers was attributed to the size effect of PbTe SQDs embedded in glass matrix, smaller the average size, shorter the peak wavelength [28,3234]. The observed bimodal distribution of PbTe SQDs in the core region of the fabricated fiber preforms and fibers may be due to the non-uniform distribution of the GeO2 in the core. The fiber preforms processing parameters such as the soot deposition temperature, which is related the porosity of the glass, and the solution drying temperature may influence the bimodal size distribution of PbTe SQDs. The formation kinetics of PbTe SQDs in germane-silicate glass system may be different resulting in different size of PbTe SQDs due to different GeO2 concentration [56]. Since the atomization process allowed the porous deposition layers to contact with the fine droplets of the doping solution, an effective area of the adsorption was expected to increase and therefore the incorporation of the PbTe SQDs becomes extended as compared to the soaking process where wetting of the porous layers by doping solution occurred due to adhesion.

 

Fig. 4 Absorption spectra of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fibers prepared by atomization doping process and soaking process.

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It can also be seen that the absorption band shape in both the fibers was different. The absorption band of the fiber by the atomization process was broader, indicating wider size distribution of PbTe SQDs, than that by the soaking process. Because the atomization process was done by spraying very fine droplets of the doping solution into the preform tube during the MCVD process, it may have resulted in the variation in the size of PbTe SQDs, depending on the size of the droplet, which gives rise to the broad absorption band. The absorption peak at 1380 nm was because of the OH impurities. It is interesting to note that the PbTe SQDs, which were embedded in the core of preform, were still preserved in the core of the fiber even after drawing the fiber from preform at a high temperature of about 2150°C.

As stated earlier, to find the nonlinear refractive index, n2, of the fibers, the peak wavelength shift of the interference fringes formed due to the LPG pair and 976.4 nm pump were measured and the results are shown in Fig. 5 for the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fibers. While the fringes were found to shift toward the longer-wavelength side with the increase of pump power in the case of the fiber that used the atomization process, no appreciable fringe shift was found in the fiber that used the soaking process apparently because of the absence of absorption peak of PbTe SQDs in that fiber at 976.4 nm. Therefore, it is evident that because of a resonant type of the high nonlinear optical fiber, the wavelength shift in the fiber that used atomization process can be attributed to the nonlinear optical property of the PbTe SQD doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber at 976.4 nm.

 

Fig. 5 Wavelength shift of the interference fringes near 1523nm of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fibers by using the atomization process and the soaking process upon pumping with the LD at 976.4 nm.

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The nonlinear refractive index, n2, of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fibers was estimated from the results shown in Fig. 5 [35,54]. Figure 6 shows the estimation of nonlinear refractive index, n2, of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber by using the atomization process upon pumping with the LD at 976.4 nm. The n2 of the fiber that utilized the atomization process was found to be from 3.9 × 10−16 to 0.8 × 10−16 m2/W at the pump power from 4.3 mW to 45.6 mW. The nonlinearity of the PbTe doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber by the atomization process may be due to a population inversion of PbTe ions by the optical pump at 976.4 nm. On the other hand, the n2 of the fiber made by the soaking process and the reference fiber was about 5.1 × 10−18 m2/W and 8.7 × 10−19 m2/W at the pump power 45.6 mW, respectively. The major parameters related to the optical nonlinearity of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fibers and the reference fiber are listed in Table 1 .

 

Fig. 6 Estimation of nonlinear refractive index, n2, of the PbTe SQDs doped fiber by using the atomization process upon pumping with the LD at 976.4 nm.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical parameters of the fibers incorporated with PbTe SQDs

4. Conclusion

We proposed a new doping process, so-called atomization process, to incorporate PbTe SQDs in the core of the fiber for nonlinear optical application. The atomization doping process was found to be simple in operation and more effective to increase of the dopant concentration than the soaking process.

The X-ray diffraction peaks of the PbTe SQDs in the core region of the PbTe SQDs doped optical fiber preforms appeared at 2θ = 21.6°, regardless of the doping process. The average diameter of PbTe SQDs was around 4.61 nm (size distribution: 3.54 nm to 6.03 nm) and 5.49 nm (size distribution: 4.02 nm to 6.03 nm) in the PbTe SQDs doped fiber preforms made by atomization process and soaking process, respectively. The size distribution of PbTe SQDs in the PbTe SQDs doped fiber preforms was found to be bimodal and the concentration of PbTe SQDs in the fibers was also verified by the optical absorption spectra of the fibers. The absorption bands at 687 nm and 1055 nm of the fiber made by the atomization process and those at 712 nm, 775 nm and 1120 nm of the fiber by the soaking process were attributed to quantum confinement of PbTe SQDs in the fiber core. The absorption bands were shifted according to the size effect of the compound PbTe SQDs in glass matrix by the doping process in MCVD process.

The nonlinear refractive index, n2, was estimated by measuring the wavelength shift of the interference fringes obtained from the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber spliced with a LPG pair upon pumping with laser diode at 976.4 nm. The nonlinear refractive index of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber made by use of the atomization process was found to decrease with the increase of the launched pump power and it was ~1.5 × 10−16 m2/W near 1523 nm at the pump powers of 14.6 ~25.1 mW.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported partially by the Ministry of Science and Technology, the KOSEF through the research program (No. 2008-0061843), the Brain Korea-21 Information Technology Project, and by the (Photonics2020) research project through a grant provided by the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology in 2010, South Korea.

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References

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  1. S. Chowdhury, A. M. P. Hussain, G. A. Ahmed, D. Mohanta, and A. Choudhury, “Third order nonlinear optical response of PbS quantum dots,” Semicond. Phys. Quantum Electron. Optoelectron. 9, 45–48 (2006).
  2. A. M. Malyarevich, M. S. Gaponenko, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and G. B. Zakharevich, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbS quantum dots in boro-silicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(11-12), 1195–1200 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
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  4. K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. J. Peterson and T. D. Krauss, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of single lead sulfide quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 510–514 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 138–142 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “PbS quantum dot electroabsorption modulation across the extended communications band 1200 - 1700 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(5), 053101 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2895–2897 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: Observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(21), 1844–1849 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Lifshitz, M. Sirota, and H. Porteanu, “Continuous and time-resolved photoluminescence study of lead sulfide nanocrystals, ebmedded in polymer film,” J. Cryst. Growth 196(1), 126–134 (1999).
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  11. S.-M. Lee, Y.-W. Jun, S.-N. Cho, and J. Cheon, “Single-crystalline star-shaped nanocrystals and their evolution: programming the geometry of nano-building blocks,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(38), 11244–11245 (2002).
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  12. I. Kang and F. W. Wise, “Electronic structure and optical properties of PbS and PbSe quantum dots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(7), 1632–1646 (1997).
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  13. P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, and W.-T. Han, “Resonant optical nonlinearity of PbSe quantum dots doped optical fiber,” in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE/LEOS Winter Topical Meetings, (Academic, Sorrento, Italy, 2008), WB1.3, 88–89 (2008).
  14. P. R. Watekar, A. Lin, S. Ju, and W.-T. Han, “1537 nm emission upon 980 nm pumping in PbSe quantum dots doped optical fiber,” in Proceedings of OFC/NFOEC 2008, (Academic, San Diego, California, USA, 2008), OWO1, 1–3 (2008).
  15. P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, A. Lin, M. J. Kim, B. H. Lee, and W.-T. Han, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the PbSe quantum dots doped germane-silica glass optical fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2384–2388 (2010), doi:.
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  16. A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3406–3408 (1997).
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  17. M. Haurylau, J. Zhang, S. M. Weiss, P. M. Fauchet, D. V. Martyshkin, V. I. Rupasov, and S. G. Krivoshlykov, “Nonlinear optical response of photonic bandgap structures containing PbSe quantum dots,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 183(3), 329–333 (2006).
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  18. D. V. Talapin and C. B. Murray, “PbSe nanocrystal solids for n- and p-channel thin film field-effect transistors,” Science 310(5745), 86–89 (2005).
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  19. M. Brumer, M. Sirota, A. Kigel, A. Sashchiuk, E. Galun, Z. Burshtein, and E. Lifshitz, “Nanocrystals of PbSe core, PbSe/PbS, and PbSe/PbSxS(1-x) core/shell as saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched near-infrared lasers,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7488–7497 (2006).
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  20. C. B. Murray, S. Sun, W. Gaschler, H. Doyle, T. A. Betley, and C. R. Kagan, “Colloidal synthesis of nanocrystals and nanocrystal superlattices,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 45(1), 47–56 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  21. H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, “Optical properties of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1321–1324 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Pushing the band gap envelope: mid-infrared emitting colloidal PbSe quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(38), 11752–11753 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. B. L. Wehrenberg, C. J. Wang, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Interband and intraband optical studies of PbSe colloidal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(41), 10634–10640 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  24. E. Lifshitz, M. Bashouti, V. Kloper, A. Kigel, M. S. Eisen, and S. Berger, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum wires, multipods, quantum rods, and cubes,” Nano Lett. 3(6), 857–862 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, M. Bashouti, M. Krueger, U. Sivan, and E. Lifshitz, “PbSe nanocrystal assemblies: synthesis and structural, optical, and electrical characterization,” Nano Lett. 4(1), 159–165 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  26. G. J. Jacob, L. C. Barbosa, and C. L. Cesar, “Tellurite glass optical fiber doped with PbTe quantum dots,” in Proceedings of SPIE (Academic, San José, CA, USA, 2005), 5734, 124–129 (2005).
  27. E. Rodriguez, G. Kellermann, A. F. Craievich, E. Jimenez, C. L. César, and L. C. Barbosa, “All-optical switching device for infrared based on PbTe quantum dots,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 626–634 (2008).
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  28. S. Ju, P. R. Watekar, C. J. Kim, and W.-T. Han, “Effect of heat treatment on optical characteristics of highly nonlinear optical fiber doped with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots,” in Proceedings of NPIS 2005 (Academic, San Diego, California, USA, 2005), NFB4, 1–3 (2005).
  29. J. Jo, U.-C. Paek, W.-T. Han, and J. Heo, “Fabrication and heat treatment effects on absorption characteristics of glass fibers doped with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exhibit (Academic, Anaheim, CA, USA, 2001), ThC4, 1–3 (2001).
  30. W.-T. Han, and Y. H. Kim, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of optical fibers containing PbTe quantum dots for all optical switching application,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Korea-China Symposium on Glass-Ceramics (Academic, Shanghai, China, 2002), 34–40 (2002).
  31. W. Lu, J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, and J. Lin, “Shape evolution and self assembly of monodisperse PbTe nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(38), 11798–11799 (2004).
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  32. J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. P. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
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  33. A. L. Rogach, A. Eychmüller, S. G. Hickey, and S. V. Kershaw, “Infrared-emitting colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, assembly, spectroscopy, and applications,” Small 3(4), 536–557 (2007).
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  34. L. L. Beecroft and C. K. Ober, “Nanocomposite materials for optical applications,” Chem. Mater. 9(6), 1302–1317 (1997).
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  35. V. C. S. Reynoso, A. M. de Paula, R. F. Cuevas, J. A. Medeiros Neto, O. L. Alves, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, “PbTe quantum dot doped glasses with absorption edge in the 1.5 μm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 31(12), 1013–1014 (1995).
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  36. U. Woggen, Optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots, (Springer-Verlag Berlin, 1997).
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  39. V. I. Klimov, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6112–6123 (2000).
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  40. E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber, and D. M. Krol, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231–254 (1991).
  41. Y. H. Kim, U.-C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “All-optical 2×2 switching with two independent Yb3+-doped nonlinear optical fibers with a long-period fiber grating pair,” Appl. Opt. 44(15), 3051–3057 (2005).
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  42. M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(2), 142–148 (1997).
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  43. R. H. Pantell and M. J. F. Digonnet, “A model of nonlinear all-optical switching in doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(1), 149–156 (1994).
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  44. M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  45. G. M. Tosi-Beleffi, F. Curti, D. M. Forin, and F. Matera, “Polarization independent wavelength converter based on Kerr non-linearity in DS fiber,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 187–190 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  46. B.-E. Olsson, P. Öhlén, L. Rau, and D. J. Blumenthal, “A simple and robust 40-Gb/s wavelength converter using fiber cross-phase modulation and optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 846–848 (2000).
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  47. M. E. Marhic, Y. Park, F. S. Yang, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Broadband fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters with low-ripple Chebyshev gain spectra,” Opt. Lett. 21(17), 1354–1356 (1996).
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  49. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  50. G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  51. M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
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  52. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics, 4th ed., (Academic Press, 2007).
  53. D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, “Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: a route to all optical buffering,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6234–6249 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  54. Y. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “Resonant optical nonlinearity measurement of Yb(3+) / Al(3+) codoped optical fibers by use of a long-period fiber grating pair,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 580–582 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  55. P. R. Watekar, S. Moon, A. Lin, S. Ju, and W.-T. Han, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Si nanoparticles/ Er-ions doped optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(5), 568–575 (2009).
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  56. S. D. Jackson and Y. Li, “Multiwavelength diode-cladding-pumped Nd3+-doped germao-aluminosilicate fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(9), 1118–1122 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2010 (1)

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, A. Lin, M. J. Kim, B. H. Lee, and W.-T. Han, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the PbSe quantum dots doped germane-silica glass optical fiber,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2384–2388 (2010), doi:.
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

E. Rodriguez, G. Kellermann, A. F. Craievich, E. Jimenez, C. L. César, and L. C. Barbosa, “All-optical switching device for infrared based on PbTe quantum dots,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 626–634 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. L. Rogach, A. Eychmüller, S. G. Hickey, and S. V. Kershaw, “Infrared-emitting colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, assembly, spectroscopy, and applications,” Small 3(4), 536–557 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Malyarevich, M. S. Gaponenko, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and G. B. Zakharevich, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbS quantum dots in boro-silicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(11-12), 1195–1200 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

J. J. Peterson and T. D. Krauss, “Fluorescence spectroscopy of single lead sulfide quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 6(3), 510–514 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Haurylau, J. Zhang, S. M. Weiss, P. M. Fauchet, D. V. Martyshkin, V. I. Rupasov, and S. G. Krivoshlykov, “Nonlinear optical response of photonic bandgap structures containing PbSe quantum dots,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. Chem. 183(3), 329–333 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. P. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chowdhury, A. M. P. Hussain, G. A. Ahmed, D. Mohanta, and A. Choudhury, “Third order nonlinear optical response of PbS quantum dots,” Semicond. Phys. Quantum Electron. Optoelectron. 9, 45–48 (2006).

M. Brumer, M. Sirota, A. Kigel, A. Sashchiuk, E. Galun, Z. Burshtein, and E. Lifshitz, “Nanocrystals of PbSe core, PbSe/PbS, and PbSe/PbSxS(1-x) core/shell as saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched near-infrared lasers,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7488–7497 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

Y. H. Kim, U.-C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “All-optical 2×2 switching with two independent Yb3+-doped nonlinear optical fibers with a long-period fiber grating pair,” Appl. Opt. 44(15), 3051–3057 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dahan and G. Eisenstein, “Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: a route to all optical buffering,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6234–6249 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. V. Talapin and C. B. Murray, “PbSe nanocrystal solids for n- and p-channel thin film field-effect transistors,” Science 310(5745), 86–89 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 138–142 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “PbS quantum dot electroabsorption modulation across the extended communications band 1200 - 1700 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(5), 053101 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (4)

G. M. Tosi-Beleffi, F. Curti, D. M. Forin, and F. Matera, “Polarization independent wavelength converter based on Kerr non-linearity in DS fiber,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 187–190 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Lu, J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, and J. Lin, “Shape evolution and self assembly of monodisperse PbTe nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(38), 11798–11799 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, M. Bashouti, M. Krueger, U. Sivan, and E. Lifshitz, “PbSe nanocrystal assemblies: synthesis and structural, optical, and electrical characterization,” Nano Lett. 4(1), 159–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Pushing the band gap envelope: mid-infrared emitting colloidal PbSe quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(38), 11752–11753 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

E. Lifshitz, M. Bashouti, V. Kloper, A. Kigel, M. S. Eisen, and S. Berger, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum wires, multipods, quantum rods, and cubes,” Nano Lett. 3(6), 857–862 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2895–2897 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. A. Hines and G. D. Scholes, “Colloidal PbS nanocrystals with size-tunable near-infrared emission: Observation of post-synthesis self-narrowing of the particle size distribution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(21), 1844–1849 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jackson and Y. Li, “Multiwavelength diode-cladding-pumped Nd3+-doped germao-aluminosilicate fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(9), 1118–1122 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (4)

Y. H. Kim, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W.-T. Han, “Resonant optical nonlinearity measurement of Yb(3+) / Al(3+) codoped optical fibers by use of a long-period fiber grating pair,” Opt. Lett. 27(8), 580–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

S.-M. Lee, Y.-W. Jun, S.-N. Cho, and J. Cheon, “Single-crystalline star-shaped nanocrystals and their evolution: programming the geometry of nano-building blocks,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(38), 11244–11245 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. L. Wehrenberg, C. J. Wang, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Interband and intraband optical studies of PbSe colloidal quantum dots,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(41), 10634–10640 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, “Optical properties of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1321–1324 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. B. Murray, S. Sun, W. Gaschler, H. Doyle, T. A. Betley, and C. R. Kagan, “Colloidal synthesis of nanocrystals and nanocrystal superlattices,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 45(1), 47–56 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (6)

F. W. Wise, “Lead salt quantum dots: the limit of strong quantum confinement,” Acc. Chem. Res. 33(11), 773–780 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. I. Klimov, “Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(26), 6112–6123 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
[Crossref]

B.-E. Olsson, P. Öhlén, L. Rau, and D. J. Blumenthal, “A simple and robust 40-Gb/s wavelength converter using fiber cross-phase modulation and optical filtering,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(7), 846–848 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. E. Fermann, V. I. Kruglov, B. C. Thomsen, J. M. Dudley, and J. D. Harvey, “Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(26), 6010–6013 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in ultrashort pulse generation: pushing the limits in linear and nonlinear optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Lifshitz, M. Sirota, and H. Porteanu, “Continuous and time-resolved photoluminescence study of lead sulfide nanocrystals, ebmedded in polymer film,” J. Cryst. Growth 196(1), 126–134 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (5)

A. Lipovskii, E. Kolobkova, V. Petrikov, I. Kang, A. Olkhovets, T. Krauss, M. Thomas, J. Silcox, F. Wise, Q. Shen, and S. Kycia, “Synthesis and characterization of PbSe quantum dots in phosphate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(23), 3406–3408 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(2), 142–148 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. L. Beecroft and C. K. Ober, “Nanocomposite materials for optical applications,” Chem. Mater. 9(6), 1302–1317 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997).
[Crossref]

I. Kang and F. W. Wise, “Electronic structure and optical properties of PbS and PbSe quantum dots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(7), 1632–1646 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

V. C. S. Reynoso, A. M. de Paula, R. F. Cuevas, J. A. Medeiros Neto, O. L. Alves, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, “PbTe quantum dot doped glasses with absorption edge in the 1.5 μm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 31(12), 1013–1014 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

R. H. Pantell and M. J. F. Digonnet, “A model of nonlinear all-optical switching in doped fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12(1), 149–156 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. F. Borrelli and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement of PbS microcrystals in glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 180(1), 25–31 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

E. M. Vogel, M. J. Weber, and D. M. Krol, “Nonlinear optical phenomena in glass,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 32, 231–254 (1991).

1969 (1)

R. Dalven, “A review of the semiconductor properties of PbTe, PbSe, PbS and PbO,” Infrared Phys. 9(4), 141–184 (1969).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, G. A.

S. Chowdhury, A. M. P. Hussain, G. A. Ahmed, D. Mohanta, and A. Choudhury, “Third order nonlinear optical response of PbS quantum dots,” Semicond. Phys. Quantum Electron. Optoelectron. 9, 45–48 (2006).

Ahrenkiel, S. P.

J. E. Murphy, M. C. Beard, A. G. Norman, S. P. Ahrenkiel, J. C. Johnson, P. Yu, O. I. Mićić, R. J. Ellingson, and A. J. Nozik, “PbTe colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and multiple exciton generation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(10), 3241–3247 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alves, O. L.

V. C. S. Reynoso, A. M. de Paula, R. F. Cuevas, J. A. Medeiros Neto, O. L. Alves, C. L. Cesar, and L. C. Barbosa, “PbTe quantum dot doped glasses with absorption edge in the 1.5 μm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 31(12), 1013–1014 (1995).
[Crossref]

Amirav, L.

A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, M. Bashouti, M. Krueger, U. Sivan, and E. Lifshitz, “PbSe nanocrystal assemblies: synthesis and structural, optical, and electrical characterization,” Nano Lett. 4(1), 159–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glass fibers and their application to all-optical switching,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(2), 142–148 (1997).
[Crossref]

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M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997).
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S. A. McDonald, G. Konstantatos, S. Zhang, P. W. Cyr, E. J. D. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, “Solution-processed PbS quantum dot infrared photodetectors and photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 138–142 (2005).
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M. Brumer, M. Sirota, A. Kigel, A. Sashchiuk, E. Galun, Z. Burshtein, and E. Lifshitz, “Nanocrystals of PbSe core, PbSe/PbS, and PbSe/PbSxS(1-x) core/shell as saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched near-infrared lasers,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7488–7497 (2006).
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A. M. Malyarevich, M. S. Gaponenko, V. G. Savitski, K. V. Yumashev, G. E. Rachkovskaya, and G. B. Zakharevich, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbS quantum dots in boro-silicate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(11-12), 1195–1200 (2007).
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J. M. Pietryga, R. D. Schaller, D. Werder, M. H. Stewart, V. I. Klimov, and J. A. Hollingsworth, “Pushing the band gap envelope: mid-infrared emitting colloidal PbSe quantum dots,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(38), 11752–11753 (2004).
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K. Wundke, S. Pötting, J. Auxier, A. Schülzgen, N. Peyghambarian, and N. F. Borrelli, “PbS quantum-dot-doped glasses for ultrashort-pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(1), 10–12 (2000).
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M. J. F. Digonnet, R. W. Sadowski, H. J. Shaw, and R. H. Pantell, “Resonantly enhanced nonlinearity in doped fibers for low-power all-optical switching: a review,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 3(1), 44–64 (1997).
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M. Brumer, M. Sirota, A. Kigel, A. Sashchiuk, E. Galun, Z. Burshtein, and E. Lifshitz, “Nanocrystals of PbSe core, PbSe/PbS, and PbSe/PbSxS(1-x) core/shell as saturable absorbers in passively Q-switched near-infrared lasers,” Appl. Opt. 45(28), 7488–7497 (2006).
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A. Sashchiuk, L. Amirav, M. Bashouti, M. Krueger, U. Sivan, and E. Lifshitz, “PbSe nanocrystal assemblies: synthesis and structural, optical, and electrical characterization,” Nano Lett. 4(1), 159–165 (2004).
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W. Lu, J. Fang, K. L. Stokes, and J. Lin, “Shape evolution and self assembly of monodisperse PbTe nanocrystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(38), 11798–11799 (2004).
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C. B. Murray, S. Sun, W. Gaschler, H. Doyle, T. A. Betley, and C. R. Kagan, “Colloidal synthesis of nanocrystals and nanocrystal superlattices,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 45(1), 47–56 (2001).
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H. Du, C. Chen, R. Krishnan, T. D. Krauss, J. M. Harbold, F. W. Wise, M. G. Thomas, and J. Silcox, “Optical properties of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 2(11), 1321–1324 (2002).
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L. Bakueva, S. Musikhin, M. A. Hines, T.-W. F. Chang, M. Tzolov, G. D. Scholes, and E. H. Sargent, “Size-tunable infrared (1000–1600 nm) electroluminescence from PbS quantum-dot nanocrystals in a semiconducting polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(17), 2895–2897 (2003).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the setup for nonlinearity measurement of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber by use of the LPG pair.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of the doping process on the XRD patterns of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fiber preforms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TEM image and size distribution of the PbTe SQDs in the core of the fiber prefroms prepared by (a) atomization process and (b) soaking process. (0.03 mole).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectra of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fibers prepared by atomization doping process and soaking process.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Wavelength shift of the interference fringes near 1523nm of the PbTe SQDs doped germano-silicate glass optical fibers by using the atomization process and the soaking process upon pumping with the LD at 976.4 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Estimation of nonlinear refractive index, n2, of the PbTe SQDs doped fiber by using the atomization process upon pumping with the LD at 976.4 nm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical parameters of the fibers incorporated with PbTe SQDs

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