Abstract

The emissive properties of proton implanted fused silica surfaces have been studied by laser beam annealing. When submitted to a high thermal step from a focused CO2 laser, an intense near infra-red transient incandescence (TI) peak rises from stressed silica. The TI presents the characteristics of a thermoluminescent (TL) emission that occurs above a thermal rate threshold. We show that TI rises at the stress relaxation.

©2011 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Thermoluminescence (TL) from wet synthetic silica has been explored by Guzzi et al. [1]. They have shown that in this silica presenting a low level of impurities, only one small TL peak appears at 2.7 eV after neutron bombardment. The photoluminescence induced under proton bombardment also presents a smaller second peak at 1.9 eV [2]. In both cases the luminescence from wet synthetic fused silica is very low after irradiation. The first peak is assigned to the oxygen deficient center and the second to the nonbridging oxygen hole center. These two peaks correspond to known and listed [3] intrinsic silica defects having luminescent emission in the visible wavelengths range. In this paper we report on the intense, near infra-red Transient Incandescence (TI) emission from laser beam annealed fused silica samples implanted with protons. The TI peak presents the characteristics of a TL peak that occurs at a thermal rate threshold. We show that it rises at the stress relaxation.

2. Experimental set up and implantation conditions

The experimental set-up used to probe silica surface emissivity has already been described [4]. The TEM00 mode from a 10.59 µm wavelength continuous CO2 laser beam is focused on the front surface from a Suprasil 2 grade silica disk. On the silica surface, the measured 300µm at 1/e waist diameter is wider than in previous experiments. Prior to the front surface implantation, the 50mm diameter and 5 mm thick silica disks, polished on both sides, are cleaned in an automatic machine that provides sequences with soap cleansing and de-ionized water rinsing. As silica, like most oxides, absorbs at 10.59 µm we expect the temperature to rise, initially from room temperature, under the rapid laser anneal the duration of which is controlled by a mechanical shutter.

When mapping the incandescence, the silica sample is moved in front of the laser beam at a constant speed of 2mm/s. The near infrared thermography diagnostic is fixed and collects radiatively emitted photons from the front surface plane through the transparent sample. The uncooled InGaAs detector’s spectral response, 0.9 to 1.65 µm is well suited for silica’s transparency window. This configuration enables a total filtering of the 10.59 µm excitation photons and an on-axis imagery. The temporal sampling of incandescence along the Y axis is at 20 Hertz which results in spatial resolution of 100 µm over a 40 mm line. Successive scanning lines are juxtaposed at a 200 µm pitch along the X axis, and finally create a 2D, (XY) plane, 40*40 mm2 TI mapping. The TI images are range-limited and coded over 8 bits, 256 grey levels.

Two fused silica samples, E1 and E2 have been implanted with protons at room temperature, with an Axcelis NV-8200P medium current ion implanter under the Table 1 conditions.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Implantation conditions

The sample E1 has been used to observe the incandescence temporal behavior when sites are submitted to a thermal step and the sample E2 with the incandescence mapping technique. In E2, the three proton doses are implanted, at the maximum acceleration energy available with the ion implanter, in juxtaposed regions which are defined by masking tape. In each sample, the implanted protons induce a stoichiometry perturbation of less than 1% inside a small embedded layer of a few tens of nanometers. What is more important is the silica compaction induced by the lattice atom displacement. In bulk silica, the ion implantation induces a densification and a tensile stress below the surface [5].

3. Results and discussion

The incandescence temporal behavior, from the E1 sample, is recorded at four adjacent sites submitted to a one second duration thermal step at a different laser power. In each temporal spectrum, obtained from a different site, Fig. 1 , the incandescence exhibits a peak, more intense and at shorter time as the laser power increases.

 

Fig. 1 Incandescence signal from juxtaposed sites in stressed silica with increased excitation power. The dotted lines represent the calculated background incandescence at each excitation power.

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After the peak occurrence the incandescence intensity settles, either decreasingly for the lowest laser power or increasingly for the highest laser power, to a quasi-stationary emission. At one second the shutter closes and the incandescence signal decreases to zero in a few milliseconds. The TI peaks are absent from the unimplanted fused silica incandescence spectra [4] or even from post recorded spectra on the same sites. The background incandescence deduced at the different laser powers, with a fitting procedure described in [4], is represented by the dotted line curves in Fig. 1. The TI intensity can be extracted and plotted versus the inverse time at which the peak occurs, in Fig. 2 with the right ordinate scale. The TI intensity is inversely proportional to the time at which it occurs. This is a first characteristic of a TL peak [6]. The higher the heating rate is, the sooner and the more intense the TI is. On the other hand, when the heating rate is lower, the TI should occur after a longer time with a lower intensity. This is not what is determined from the experimental data. The incident laser power is plotted versus the TI intensity in Fig. 2 with the left ordinate scale. The TI intensity is proportional to the laser power but below a laser power of 0.95W, the extrapolated peak intensity is null. In a unimolecular relaxation mechanism like TL, the peak intensity is proportional to the heating rate [6]. So the TI peak linearity with the laser power, above a determined laser power, finds its justification as a TL emission only if a thermal rate threshold exists. No heating to a critical temperature would lead to this result because the TL peak intensity is at least inversely proportional to the temperature [6]. In our experimental conditions, the laser power of 0.95 W corresponds to a heating rate of T2104Ks1. This is two orders of magnitude above the thermal ramps used in previous laser induced TL experiments [7].

 

Fig. 2 Incident laser power and peak inverse time versus transient incandescence intensity

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Below this heating rate threshold there is no TI but an incandescence background.

If, instead of a thermal step on a fixed site, we scan dynamically the E2 sample, the thermal excitation on the spatially sampled sites changes to a thermal pulse [8]. The E2 sample has been line scanned first at a 0.8W laser power, below the thermal rate threshold, and then at a 1.4W laser power, above the thermal rate threshold, with a 0.1mm X spatial offset in order to probe the same sample on intertwined lines.

The two incandescence mappings are shown in Fig. 3(a) . In each implanted zone, a square area of 4*4 mm2, outside “polishing defect areas,” can be defined, in which incandescence is spatially averaged for both laser powers. The incandescence intensity in these different zones versus the implanted dose is presented in the Fig. 3(b). The incandescence is proportional to the implanted doses but only at the 1.4W laser power. The TI proportionality with the dose is a second characteristic of a TL peak. The extrapolation at zero dose shows that there is no significant residual TI. A TL emission occurs above a thermal rate threshold in heated stressed fused silica. But this TL emission has rather unusual characteristics. The TI is detected in the NIR wavelength range where no known silica intrinsic defects are identified. The proton implantation might create new intrinsic defects in silica with a radiative emission in the NIR but these defects, if they exist, are not observed at a lower thermal rate in our experiment. The TI is also more intense than the background incandescence. In the laser induced TL [9], increasing the heating rate increases the signal to noise ratio of existing TL peaks. Somehow a compromise has to be found between the benefit of high heating rates and the shift of the TL peak to higher temperatures in which a noticeable incandescence background appears. The TL emission is usually in competition with the incandescence rise. Pre or post irradiation anneals are needed to optimize the sensitivity of TL materials. In our experiment, the TI is more intense than the background incandescence at temperatures around 1000K [10]. This is in contradiction with the observation of usual TL peaks from wet synthetic silica or other materials. Most of the TI peculiarity arises from the existence of a kinetic thermal threshold. In the next paragraphs we show that the TI rises at the internal stress relaxation.

 

Fig. 3 (a) 2D incandescence mapping of half the E2 silica disk implanted with three protons dose at a laser power of 0.8W, left, and 1.4W, right. The gray scale intensity is reduced by 4 on the 0.8W map in order to better see the polishing defects. (b) Transient incandescence intensity from the red squared areas versus the implanted dose at the two laser powers.

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Three main radiation-induced effects are known to induce changes in the mechanical stress in bulk silica:

  • First, the ion bombardment induces compaction and the tensile stress increases linearly with the ion dose (at/cm2) up to a maximum dose [5].
  • Second, the radiation-induced Newtonian plastic flow [11] takes place, in which the stress relaxes at a rate that is proportional to the magnitude of the stress [12].
  • Third, a nonsaturating anisotropic stress generating effect may occur in which an in-plane stress builds up perpendicular to the direction of the ion beam [13].

The extrapolated proton dose at which the maximum tensile stress is reached [5] in implanted silica is ~5 1015 at/cm2 at 250 keV. With lower implanted doses (≤1.4 1015 at/cm2) and implantation energy (≤240 keV), the initial tensile stress from our samples is below the maximum tensile stress which means that the maximum densification is not achieved. This is the starting state from which a thermal pulse is applied. The effect of a thermal pulse into implanted silica is to induce a further densification as seen from molecular dynamics simulations [14]. As the implanted silica layer remains constrained by the silica substrate, the thermally induced densification leads to the build-up of a dynamic tensile stress which increases but cannot overstep the maximum without structural relaxation occurring. A critical density of ~2.8 g/cm3 is reached at an internal local compressive stress [15] between 5 and 10 GPa where the silica bulk modulus is at a minimum. This is where the plastic flow and stress relaxation occur: “Silica densification is like a self–catalyzing process that invites additional compaction and inevitably leads to a catastrophic condition at the molecular level,” [15]. TI is the signature of the entropy release that occurs at the stress relaxation. It was not observed or mentioned under previous ion radiation exposures [12] because the ion implantation thermal rate is nine orders of magnitude above our laser thermal rate which push the TI into the picosecond regime. That the stress is relaxed after the 1.4W laser scanning can be seen in Fig. 4 for the E2 sample at the implantation step between the 7 1014 and 1.4 1015 at/cm2 implanted zones. In silica, the increasing ion dose induces a higher compaction and a negative height step [16]. When relaxed by the laser scanning, there is a positive height step as observed by a Wyko optical interferometer. This effect is better seen on this interface with the most important stress discontinuity and a TI intensity that saturates the InGaAs detector.

 

Fig. 4 Relief mapping of the interface between the 7 1014 and 1.4 1015 H+/cm2 implanted areas. On the X profile the laser scanning at a 200 µm pitch can be observed. On the Y profile, a positive step height of 10 nm can be measured between the two zones.

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Anomalous vibrational modes are soft modes with large transverse displacements like the bonded proton in silica which has twice the vibrational amplitude of the other lattice vibrations [17] at the “boson peak,”. Theoretically, such anomalous modes should collapse under an internal compressive stress [18]. As the hyperquenched glass annealing is also characterized by a decrease in the vibrational density of state at the boson peak [19], the origin of the stress relaxation might be found in the anomalous soft modes collapse. This hypothesis can be verified by monitoring the atomic exhaust from heated stressed fused silica under vacuum. As the plastic flow moves atoms toward the surface to relieve the in-plane stress [20], it may be possible to observe the simultaneous implanted ions exo-diffusion as well as the TI occurring at the thermal rate threshold. The TI relationship to the plastic flow would also explain its intensity because the plastic flow has very low or null activation energy [20]. The “Bose phonons,” can also be responsible for the lattice deformation which enables the radiative emission from point defect centers. Putting a name on the phonons that initiate the TL enables us to put a terahertz limit on the electron escape frequency in TL models [21].

Transient incandescence (TI) has been discovered through the very fast CO2 laser annealing of protons implanted fused silica surface. TI shows the characteristics of a thermoluminescence (TL) phenomenon that occurs at a thermal rate threshold. From the surface strain inversion occurring at the laser scanning between two differently stressed areas, we are able to conclude that TI rises at the stress relaxation.

Acknowledgments

P. B. acknowledges U. Buchenau for some discussions and a missing reference. The authors want to thank M. Plissonnier and R. Nelson for the manuscript corrections and J.-G. Coutard and M. Reymermier for technical assistance.

References and links

1. M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 75(2), 75–79 (1990). [CrossRef]  

2. S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004). [CrossRef]  

3. L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 16–48 (1998). [CrossRef]  

4. P. Bouchut, D. Decruppe, and L. Delrive, “Fused silica thermal conductivity dispersion at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(6), 3221–3227 (2004). [CrossRef]  

5. E. P. EerNisse, “Compaction of ion-implanted fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), 167–174 (1974). [CrossRef]  

6. J. L. Lawless and D. Lo, “Thermoluminescence for nonlinear heating profiles with application to laser heated emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6145–6152 (2001). [CrossRef]  

7. J. L. Lawless, S. K. Lam, and D. Lo, “Nondestructive in situ thermoluminescence using CO(2) laser heating,” Opt. Express 10(6), 291–296 (2002). [PubMed]  

8. Y. I. Nissim, A. Lietoila, R. B. Gold, and J. F. Gibbons, “Temperature distributions produced in semiconductors by a scanning elliptical or circular cw laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 274–279 (1980). [CrossRef]  

9. J. Gasiot, P. Braunlich, and J. P. Fillard, “Laser heating in thermoluminescence dosimetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(7), 5200–5209 (1982). [CrossRef]  

10. The 1000K temperature bound is obtained by the downscaling of the temperature determined in [4] for a larger beam waist and lower power.

11. W. Primak, “Stress relaxation of vitreous silica on irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7331–7342 (1982). [CrossRef]  

12. C. A. Volkert and A. Polman, “Radiation-enhanced plastic flow of covalent materials during ion irradiation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 235, 3–14 (1992). [CrossRef]  

13. E. Snoeks, A. Polman, and C. A. Volkert, “Densification, anisotropic deformation, and plastic flow of SiO2 during MeV heavy ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2487–2489 (1994). [CrossRef]  

14. A. Wootton, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: A computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(7), 3336–3341 (2001). [CrossRef]  

15. L. Huang and J. Kieffer, “Anomalous thermomechanical properties and laser-induced densification of vitreous silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141915 (2006). [CrossRef]  

16. M. Fujimaki, Y. Nishihara, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, and S. Roorda, “Ion-implantation-induced densification in silica-based glass for fabrication of optical fiber gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5534–5537 (2000). [CrossRef]  

17. A. Fontana, L. Orsingher, F. Rossi, and U. Buchenau, “Dynamics of a hydrogenated silica xerogel: A neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(17), 172304 (2006). [CrossRef]  

18. M. Wyart, L. E. Silbert, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Effects of compression on the vibrational modes of marginally jammed solids,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051306 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003). [CrossRef]  

20. C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3521–3527 (1991). [CrossRef]  

21. S. W. S. McKeever and R. Chen, “Luminescence models,” Radiat. Meas. 27(5–6), 625–661 (1997). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 75(2), 75–79 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 16–48 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. Bouchut, D. Decruppe, and L. Delrive, “Fused silica thermal conductivity dispersion at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(6), 3221–3227 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. P. EerNisse, “Compaction of ion-implanted fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), 167–174 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. L. Lawless and D. Lo, “Thermoluminescence for nonlinear heating profiles with application to laser heated emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6145–6152 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. L. Lawless, S. K. Lam, and D. Lo, “Nondestructive in situ thermoluminescence using CO(2) laser heating,” Opt. Express 10(6), 291–296 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  8. Y. I. Nissim, A. Lietoila, R. B. Gold, and J. F. Gibbons, “Temperature distributions produced in semiconductors by a scanning elliptical or circular cw laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 274–279 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Gasiot, P. Braunlich, and J. P. Fillard, “Laser heating in thermoluminescence dosimetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(7), 5200–5209 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  10. The 1000K temperature bound is obtained by the downscaling of the temperature determined in [4] for a larger beam waist and lower power.
  11. W. Primak, “Stress relaxation of vitreous silica on irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7331–7342 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. A. Volkert and A. Polman, “Radiation-enhanced plastic flow of covalent materials during ion irradiation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 235, 3–14 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. Snoeks, A. Polman, and C. A. Volkert, “Densification, anisotropic deformation, and plastic flow of SiO2 during MeV heavy ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2487–2489 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Wootton, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: A computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(7), 3336–3341 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. Huang and J. Kieffer, “Anomalous thermomechanical properties and laser-induced densification of vitreous silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141915 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Fujimaki, Y. Nishihara, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, and S. Roorda, “Ion-implantation-induced densification in silica-based glass for fabrication of optical fiber gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5534–5537 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Fontana, L. Orsingher, F. Rossi, and U. Buchenau, “Dynamics of a hydrogenated silica xerogel: A neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(17), 172304 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Wyart, L. E. Silbert, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Effects of compression on the vibrational modes of marginally jammed solids,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051306 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3521–3527 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. W. S. McKeever and R. Chen, “Luminescence models,” Radiat. Meas. 27(5–6), 625–661 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. Fontana, L. Orsingher, F. Rossi, and U. Buchenau, “Dynamics of a hydrogenated silica xerogel: A neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(17), 172304 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Huang and J. Kieffer, “Anomalous thermomechanical properties and laser-induced densification of vitreous silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141915 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Wyart, L. E. Silbert, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Effects of compression on the vibrational modes of marginally jammed solids,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051306 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Bouchut, D. Decruppe, and L. Delrive, “Fused silica thermal conductivity dispersion at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(6), 3221–3227 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

J. L. Lawless and D. Lo, “Thermoluminescence for nonlinear heating profiles with application to laser heated emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6145–6152 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Wootton, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: A computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(7), 3336–3341 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Fujimaki, Y. Nishihara, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, and S. Roorda, “Ion-implantation-induced densification in silica-based glass for fabrication of optical fiber gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5534–5537 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 16–48 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. W. S. McKeever and R. Chen, “Luminescence models,” Radiat. Meas. 27(5–6), 625–661 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

E. Snoeks, A. Polman, and C. A. Volkert, “Densification, anisotropic deformation, and plastic flow of SiO2 during MeV heavy ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2487–2489 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. A. Volkert and A. Polman, “Radiation-enhanced plastic flow of covalent materials during ion irradiation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 235, 3–14 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3521–3527 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 75(2), 75–79 (1990).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

J. Gasiot, P. Braunlich, and J. P. Fillard, “Laser heating in thermoluminescence dosimetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(7), 5200–5209 (1982).
[Crossref]

W. Primak, “Stress relaxation of vitreous silica on irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7331–7342 (1982).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

Y. I. Nissim, A. Lietoila, R. B. Gold, and J. F. Gibbons, “Temperature distributions produced in semiconductors by a scanning elliptical or circular cw laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 274–279 (1980).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

E. P. EerNisse, “Compaction of ion-implanted fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), 167–174 (1974).
[Crossref]

Angell, C. A.

C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003).
[Crossref]

Borick, S.

C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bouchut, P.

P. Bouchut, D. Decruppe, and L. Delrive, “Fused silica thermal conductivity dispersion at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(6), 3221–3227 (2004).
[Crossref]

Braunlich, P.

J. Gasiot, P. Braunlich, and J. P. Fillard, “Laser heating in thermoluminescence dosimetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(7), 5200–5209 (1982).
[Crossref]

Brebner, J. L.

M. Fujimaki, Y. Nishihara, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, and S. Roorda, “Ion-implantation-induced densification in silica-based glass for fabrication of optical fiber gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5534–5537 (2000).
[Crossref]

Buchenau, U.

A. Fontana, L. Orsingher, F. Rossi, and U. Buchenau, “Dynamics of a hydrogenated silica xerogel: A neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(17), 172304 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

S. W. S. McKeever and R. Chen, “Luminescence models,” Radiat. Meas. 27(5–6), 625–661 (1997).
[Crossref]

Copley, J. R. D.

C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003).
[Crossref]

Decruppe, D.

P. Bouchut, D. Decruppe, and L. Delrive, “Fused silica thermal conductivity dispersion at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(6), 3221–3227 (2004).
[Crossref]

Delrive, L.

P. Bouchut, D. Decruppe, and L. Delrive, “Fused silica thermal conductivity dispersion at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(6), 3221–3227 (2004).
[Crossref]

EerNisse, E. P.

E. P. EerNisse, “Compaction of ion-implanted fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), 167–174 (1974).
[Crossref]

Fillard, J. P.

J. Gasiot, P. Braunlich, and J. P. Fillard, “Laser heating in thermoluminescence dosimetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(7), 5200–5209 (1982).
[Crossref]

Fontana, A.

A. Fontana, L. Orsingher, F. Rossi, and U. Buchenau, “Dynamics of a hydrogenated silica xerogel: A neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(17), 172304 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fujimaki, M.

M. Fujimaki, Y. Nishihara, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, and S. Roorda, “Ion-implantation-induced densification in silica-based glass for fabrication of optical fiber gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5534–5537 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gasiot, J.

J. Gasiot, P. Braunlich, and J. P. Fillard, “Laser heating in thermoluminescence dosimetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(7), 5200–5209 (1982).
[Crossref]

Gibbons, J. F.

Y. I. Nissim, A. Lietoila, R. B. Gold, and J. F. Gibbons, “Temperature distributions produced in semiconductors by a scanning elliptical or circular cw laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 274–279 (1980).
[Crossref]

Gold, R. B.

Y. I. Nissim, A. Lietoila, R. B. Gold, and J. F. Gibbons, “Temperature distributions produced in semiconductors by a scanning elliptical or circular cw laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 274–279 (1980).
[Crossref]

Grilli, E.

M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 75(2), 75–79 (1990).
[Crossref]

Guzzi, M.

M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 75(2), 75–79 (1990).
[Crossref]

Harrowell, P.

A. Wootton, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: A computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(7), 3336–3341 (2001).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

L. Huang and J. Kieffer, “Anomalous thermomechanical properties and laser-induced densification of vitreous silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141915 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kieffer, J.

L. Huang and J. Kieffer, “Anomalous thermomechanical properties and laser-induced densification of vitreous silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141915 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lam, S. K.

Lawless, J. L.

J. L. Lawless, S. K. Lam, and D. Lo, “Nondestructive in situ thermoluminescence using CO(2) laser heating,” Opt. Express 10(6), 291–296 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. L. Lawless and D. Lo, “Thermoluminescence for nonlinear heating profiles with application to laser heated emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6145–6152 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lietoila, A.

Y. I. Nissim, A. Lietoila, R. B. Gold, and J. F. Gibbons, “Temperature distributions produced in semiconductors by a scanning elliptical or circular cw laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 274–279 (1980).
[Crossref]

Lo, D.

J. L. Lawless, S. K. Lam, and D. Lo, “Nondestructive in situ thermoluminescence using CO(2) laser heating,” Opt. Express 10(6), 291–296 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. L. Lawless and D. Lo, “Thermoluminescence for nonlinear heating profiles with application to laser heated emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6145–6152 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lucchini, G.

M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 75(2), 75–79 (1990).
[Crossref]

Martini, M.

M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 75(2), 75–79 (1990).
[Crossref]

McKeever, S. W. S.

S. W. S. McKeever and R. Chen, “Luminescence models,” Radiat. Meas. 27(5–6), 625–661 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mossa, S.

C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nagata, S.

S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nagel, S. R.

M. Wyart, L. E. Silbert, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Effects of compression on the vibrational modes of marginally jammed solids,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051306 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Naramoto, H.

S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nishihara, Y.

M. Fujimaki, Y. Nishihara, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, and S. Roorda, “Ion-implantation-induced densification in silica-based glass for fabrication of optical fiber gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5534–5537 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nissim, Y. I.

Y. I. Nissim, A. Lietoila, R. B. Gold, and J. F. Gibbons, “Temperature distributions produced in semiconductors by a scanning elliptical or circular cw laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 274–279 (1980).
[Crossref]

Ohki, Y.

M. Fujimaki, Y. Nishihara, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, and S. Roorda, “Ion-implantation-induced densification in silica-based glass for fabrication of optical fiber gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5534–5537 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ohtsu, N.

S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004).
[Crossref]

Orsingher, L.

A. Fontana, L. Orsingher, F. Rossi, and U. Buchenau, “Dynamics of a hydrogenated silica xerogel: A neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(17), 172304 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pio, F.

M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 75(2), 75–79 (1990).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

E. Snoeks, A. Polman, and C. A. Volkert, “Densification, anisotropic deformation, and plastic flow of SiO2 during MeV heavy ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2487–2489 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. A. Volkert and A. Polman, “Radiation-enhanced plastic flow of covalent materials during ion irradiation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 235, 3–14 (1992).
[Crossref]

Primak, W.

W. Primak, “Stress relaxation of vitreous silica on irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7331–7342 (1982).
[Crossref]

Roorda, S.

M. Fujimaki, Y. Nishihara, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, and S. Roorda, “Ion-implantation-induced densification in silica-based glass for fabrication of optical fiber gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5534–5537 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rossi, F.

A. Fontana, L. Orsingher, F. Rossi, and U. Buchenau, “Dynamics of a hydrogenated silica xerogel: A neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(17), 172304 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shikama, T.

S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004).
[Crossref]

Silbert, L. E.

M. Wyart, L. E. Silbert, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Effects of compression on the vibrational modes of marginally jammed solids,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051306 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skuja, L.

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 16–48 (1998).
[Crossref]

Snoeks, E.

E. Snoeks, A. Polman, and C. A. Volkert, “Densification, anisotropic deformation, and plastic flow of SiO2 during MeV heavy ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2487–2489 (1994).
[Crossref]

Thomas, B.

A. Wootton, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: A computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(7), 3336–3341 (2001).
[Crossref]

Toh, K.

S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsuchiya, B.

S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vedda, A.

M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 75(2), 75–79 (1990).
[Crossref]

Volkert, C. A.

E. Snoeks, A. Polman, and C. A. Volkert, “Densification, anisotropic deformation, and plastic flow of SiO2 during MeV heavy ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2487–2489 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. A. Volkert and A. Polman, “Radiation-enhanced plastic flow of covalent materials during ion irradiation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 235, 3–14 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3521–3527 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.-M.

C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003).
[Crossref]

Witten, T. A.

M. Wyart, L. E. Silbert, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Effects of compression on the vibrational modes of marginally jammed solids,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051306 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wootton, A.

A. Wootton, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: A computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(7), 3336–3341 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wyart, M.

M. Wyart, L. E. Silbert, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Effects of compression on the vibrational modes of marginally jammed solids,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051306 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, S.

S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yue, Y.

C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Snoeks, A. Polman, and C. A. Volkert, “Densification, anisotropic deformation, and plastic flow of SiO2 during MeV heavy ion irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(19), 2487–2489 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Huang and J. Kieffer, “Anomalous thermomechanical properties and laser-induced densification of vitreous silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141915 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (8)

M. Fujimaki, Y. Nishihara, Y. Ohki, J. L. Brebner, and S. Roorda, “Ion-implantation-induced densification in silica-based glass for fabrication of optical fiber gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(10), 5534–5537 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. Primak, “Stress relaxation of vitreous silica on irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(11), 7331–7342 (1982).
[Crossref]

P. Bouchut, D. Decruppe, and L. Delrive, “Fused silica thermal conductivity dispersion at high temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(6), 3221–3227 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. P. EerNisse, “Compaction of ion-implanted fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(1), 167–174 (1974).
[Crossref]

J. L. Lawless and D. Lo, “Thermoluminescence for nonlinear heating profiles with application to laser heated emissions,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 6145–6152 (2001).
[Crossref]

Y. I. Nissim, A. Lietoila, R. B. Gold, and J. F. Gibbons, “Temperature distributions produced in semiconductors by a scanning elliptical or circular cw laser beam,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(1), 274–279 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Gasiot, P. Braunlich, and J. P. Fillard, “Laser heating in thermoluminescence dosimetry,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(7), 5200–5209 (1982).
[Crossref]

C. A. Volkert, “Stress and plastic flow in silicon during amorphization by ion bombardment,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(7), 3521–3527 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Wootton, B. Thomas, and P. Harrowell, “Radiation-induced densification in amorphous silica: A computer simulation study,” J. Chem. Phys. 115(7), 3336–3341 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 16–48 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Nucl. Mater. (1)

S. Nagata, S. Yamamoto, K. Toh, B. Tsuchiya, N. Ohtsu, T. Shikama, and H. Naramoto, “Luminescence in SiO2 induced by MeV energy proton irradiation,” J. Nucl. Mater. 329–333, 1507–1510 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

C. A. Angell, Y. Yue, L.-M. Wang, J. R. D. Copley, S. Borick, and S. Mossa, “Potential energy, relaxation, vibrational dynamics and the boson peak, of hyperquenched glasses,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 15(11), S1051–S1068 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

C. A. Volkert and A. Polman, “Radiation-enhanced plastic flow of covalent materials during ion irradiation,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 235, 3–14 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Fontana, L. Orsingher, F. Rossi, and U. Buchenau, “Dynamics of a hydrogenated silica xerogel: A neutron scattering study,” Phys. Rev. B 74(17), 172304 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

M. Wyart, L. E. Silbert, S. R. Nagel, and T. A. Witten, “Effects of compression on the vibrational modes of marginally jammed solids,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 72(5), 051306 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radiat. Meas. (1)

S. W. S. McKeever and R. Chen, “Luminescence models,” Radiat. Meas. 27(5–6), 625–661 (1997).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

M. Guzzi, G. Lucchini, M. Martini, F. Pio, A. Vedda, and E. Grilli, “Thermally stimulated luminescence above room temperature of amorphous SiO2,” Solid State Commun. 75(2), 75–79 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

The 1000K temperature bound is obtained by the downscaling of the temperature determined in [4] for a larger beam waist and lower power.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Incandescence signal from juxtaposed sites in stressed silica with increased excitation power. The dotted lines represent the calculated background incandescence at each excitation power.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Incident laser power and peak inverse time versus transient incandescence intensity
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) 2D incandescence mapping of half the E2 silica disk implanted with three protons dose at a laser power of 0.8W, left, and 1.4W, right. The gray scale intensity is reduced by 4 on the 0.8W map in order to better see the polishing defects. (b) Transient incandescence intensity from the red squared areas versus the implanted dose at the two laser powers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Relief mapping of the interface between the 7 1014 and 1.4 1015 H+/cm2 implanted areas. On the X profile the laser scanning at a 200 µm pitch can be observed. On the Y profile, a positive step height of 10 nm can be measured between the two zones.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Implantation conditions

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