Abstract

We determine the absolute frequencies of 56 rotation-vibration transitions of the ν3 band of CH4 from 88.2 to 90.5 THz with a typical uncertainty of 2 kHz corresponding to a relative uncertainty of 2.2 × 10−11 over an average time of a few hundred seconds. Saturated absorption lines are observed using a difference-frequency-generation source and a cavity-enhanced absorption cell, and the transition frequencies are measured with a fiber-laser-based optical frequency comb referenced to a rubidium atomic clock linked to the international atomic time. The determined value of the P(7) F2(2) line is consistent with the International Committee for Weights and Measures recommendation within the uncertainty.

©2011 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Precise frequency measurements of molecular vibrational transitions have provided fundamental knowledge of molecular physics and physical chemistry. They have contributed to verifying fundamental physics [14], determining fundamental constants [5, 6], testing theoretical ideas for calculating of molecular energy levels [7], and establishing frequency standards [8, 9]. They are also necessary for qualitative and quantitative analysis in extensive applications such as the chemical industry, atmospheric science, medical diagnostics, and astronomy [10, 11]. Databases of molecular transitions such as HITRAN [12] and GEISA [13] are based mostly on near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of vibrational transitions and microwave spectroscopy of rotational transitions. The spectral linewidth of the former is usually limited by Doppler broadening of the order of one hundred megahertz, whereas that of the latter is determined by pressure broadening of the order of a few hundred kilohertz. Therefore, microwave spectroscopy provides more accurate data for the rotational structure of the ground vibrational state than infrared spectroscopy. However, detailed investigations are especially difficult for non-polar molecules that have no rotational transitions.

Sub-Doppler resolution infrared spectroscopy was carried out using predominantly gas lasers such as a He-Ne laser at 3.4 μm (88 THz) [14], CO2 and N2O lasers in the 10 μm (30 THz) region, and a CO laser in the 5 μm (60 THz) region because they have the strong output with a narrow linewidth and the absolute frequencies of the oscillation lines were precisely measured [9, 1517]. However, the narrow tunable range has prevented from comprehensive analysis of a vibrational band extending more than 3 THz. Microwave sideband CO2- and CO-laser systems [18, 19] contributed to extending the tunable range in the 10 and 5 μm regions, but no complete analysis of a vibrational band has been reported thus far. Recent progress of mid-infrared sources such as quantum cascade laser diodes [20], optical parametric oscillators [21], and difference-frequency-generation (DFG) in waveguide devices of nonlinear optical elements [22] has extended the frequency range to which sub-Doppler resolution spectroscopy can be applied. It reduces the observed spectral linewidth to a level similar to that of microwave spectroscopy. It is, however, difficult to determine the transition frequency as accurately as the spectral linewidth because the required relative accuracy of frequency measurements is three orders of magnitude higher than that in microwave spectroscopy.

Optical frequency combs (OFCs) have reduced the technical difficulties of optical frequency measurements [23], which had been carried out in only a few laboratories of standards. The measurable frequency range has extended over the spectral range of the OFCs towards longer and shorter wavelength regions through nonlinear optical processes [24, 25]. In particular, the frequency of the DFG source is easily measured using the OFC because the carrier-envelope offset frequency of the OFC does not have to be controlled. In practice, the combination of the mid-infrared DFG source and the OFC has determined the transition frequencies for Doppler-limited [2628] and sub-Doppler resolution spectroscopy [2931].

We developed a 3.4-μm DFG spectrometer for sub-Doppler resolution saturated absorption spectroscopy [32]. It consisted of an efficient waveguide-type periodically-polled lithium-niobate (PPLN) [22], which was irradiated by pump and signal waves from a 60-kHz wide 1.55-μm distributed-feedback (DFB) laser and a 5-kHz wide 1.064-μm Nd:YAG laser. While the DFG source was frequency-stabilized at the saturated absorption line of the ν3 band transition of 12CH4, the absolute frequencies of the pump and signal waves were measured using the OFC based on a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (fiber comb) made by ourselves for frequency measurements [33, 34]. We determined 12 transition frequencies of the P(7) and P(6) lines with a typical relative uncertainty of 9.4×10−11 [30]. The tunable range of the DFG spectrometer was about 350 GHz limited by the DFB laser. Subsequently, the 1.55-μm source was replaced by an external-cavity laser diode (ECLD), which is tunable over 28 THz but more unstable in frequency than the DFB laser. Therefore, we have introduced a cavity-enhanced absorption cell (CEAC) as a reference for both frequency stabilization and linewidth reduction of the ECLD. At the same time, the CEAC enhances the optical field amplitude at the antinodes and the effective absorption length, and thus enables us to carry out highly sensitive saturated absorption spectroscopy [35]. Indeed, we have resolved the hyperfine structure of more than 20 rotation-vibration transitions of the ν1 band of CH3I [36].

In this study, we employ the DFG spectrometer with the ECLD to improve and extend the frequency list of the ν3 band transition of methane [30]. The tunable range of 0.35 THz in the previous work [30] has been extended to 3.6 THz, which increases the number of measured lines. In addition, the high sensitivity realizes tight locking of the DFG frequency to the saturated absorption line and thereby reduces the uncertainty of the frequency measurement. We measured the frequency difference between the pump and signal waves using a home-built fiber comb. The time base of the frequency measurements are referred to a rubidium atomic clock linked to the atomic international time (TAI) using Global Positioning System (GPS) signal. The carrier-envelope offset frequency of the fiber comb is free from servo control because it does not affect on the determination of the difference frequency [2631]. We focus on the strong transitions of 12CH4 associated with the lower levels whose rotational quantum number is less than 7. However, to demonstrate the sensitivity of the spectrometer, four weak lines containing two less-abundant 13CH4 lines have been included.

2. Experimental apparatus

The experimental setup of the spectrometer is depicted in Fig. 1 . Figure 2 illustrates a schematic of frequency control and measurements.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Experimental setup of spectrometer. ECLD: external-cavity laser diode, EOM: electro-optic modulator, FA: fiber amplifier, XO: crystal oscillator, PPLN: periodically poled lithium niobate, BW: Brewster’s window, λ/4: quarter-wave plate, CEAC: cavity-enhanced absorption cell, OBPF: optical bandpass filter, PID controller: proportional-integral-derivative controller, CS: current source.

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 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Schematic of frequency control and measurements. OFC: optical frequency comb, λ/2: half-wave plate, LPF: electric lowpass filter, GPS: global position system, ECLD: external-cavity laser diode, BPF: electric bandpass filter, PI controller: proportional-integral controller.

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2.1 Spectrometer

The spectrometer was described in detail in the previous paper [36]. Briefly, a DFG source consists of a 1.55-μm ECLD and a C-band (1.530 to 1.570 μm) fiber amplifier as a signal source, a 1.064-μm Nd:YAG laser as a pump source, and a waveguide-type PPLN. In the present work, we used two PPLNs. The one for measurements from 88.2 to 89.0 THz is identical to that used in the previous paper [36]: the other for measurements from 89.0 to 90.5 THz has a lower conversion efficiency of 2.5%/W. A CEAC has two identical concave mirrors with a 99.0% power reflectivity at 3.4 μm. They are separated by 23.6 cm, which corresponds to a free spectral range of 636 MHz and a finesse of 303, and are optical windows at same time. The CEAC is filled with about 0.5-Pa CH4 gas. The idler wave transmitted through the CEAC is received by a liquid-nitrogen-cooled InSb detector.

The idler frequency is stabilized to one of the longitudinal mode of the CEAC by the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) method. The signal wave is phase-modulated by an electro-optic modulator (EOM) at 10 MHz, and the idler frequency is accordingly modulated at the same frequency. The idler wave reflected from the CEAC is detected by another InSb detector. The detected signal is demodulated by a double-balanced mixer to generate an error signal. The slow component of the error signal is fed back to a PZT driving a grating, and the fast component is fed back to injection current of the ECLD.

To stabilize the longitudinal-mode frequency of the CEAC to the saturated absorption line, the cavity length is modulated by applying a 3-kHz sinusoidal voltage to the PZT2 of the CEAC. The idler frequency tightly follows the modulation because of the 250-kHz servo bandwidth of the PDH method. The detected transmission signal is demodulated at 9 kHz (3f detection) by a lock-in amplifier, and the error signal is fed back to the PZT1 of the CEAC through a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Part of the detected transmission signal is demodulated at 3 kHz (1f detection) by another lock-in amplifier, and the output is added to the error signal to compensate the offset level of the servo electric circuit.

2.2 Fiber comb

The home-built fiber comb is similar to that in References [34 and 37]. It oscillates at 1.558 μm with a repetition rate (frep) of about 65 MHz, a spectral width of 36 nm, and an average power of a few milliwatts. It has several output ports, and three of them are used in the DFG frequency measurement. The first and second ports individually deliver 1% and 25% of the oscillator’s output power. The output of the first port is used for monitoring the oscillation conditions and that of the second port is used for generating the beat note with the signal wave. The third port is connected with a fiber amplifier and a highly nonlinear fiber to broaden the spectrum. The output is used to provide the beat note with the 1.06-μm pump wave.

The output of the first port is received by an InGaAs PIN photodiode, and the detected repetition rate is phase-locked to a frequency synthesizer referenced to a rubidium atomic clock linked to the TAI using GPS signals. The nominal Allan variance of the atomic clock is better than 3 × 10−11 over 1 s, 3 × 10−12 over 1 hour, and 1 × 10−13 over 1 day at worst. The repetition rate is always monitored by a frequency counter referenced to the atomic clock. The offset and the standard deviation of the readout are less than 0.6 mHz for the gate time of 1 s, which is limited by the counter’s resolution and corresponds to 9 × 10−12 relative to the repetition rate.

2.3 Frequency control and measurements

Frequencies of methane transitions are measured as follows. While the frequency of the pump wave is offset-locked to a certain mode of the fiber comb, that of the signal wave is controlled so that the idler wave coincides with the center of the saturated absorption line. Then the frequency of the signal wave is measured with a fiber comb. To this end, one hundredth of the Nd:YAG laser output is, as shown in Fig. 2, extracted by a fiber coupler and overlapped by a beam splitter with the comb output from the fourth port whose spectrum is broadened. The overlapped beam passes through an optical bandpass filter and a grating, and is received by another InGaAs PIN photodiode. The resultant beat note of the signed frequency fbeat1.06μm has a signal-to-noise ratio of about 30 dB and passes through some electronic filters and an electronic amplifier, and is sent to a spectrum analyzer, a frequency counter, and a frequency stabilizing circuit, in which the beat frequency is divided by 512 and mixed by a double balanced mixer with the output of another frequency synthesizer of 41.8 kHz referenced to the atomic clock to generate an error signal. It is fed back to a PZT exerting stress on an optical cavity of the Nd:YAG laser through a proportional-integration (PI) circuit. When this servo-loop is closed, the Allan deviation of the beat frequency fbeat1.06μm reduces less than 1 Hz for a gate time of 1 s.

One tenth of the ECLD output is overlapped with the comb output from the second port by two fiber couplers. The overlapped beam passes through a grating and is received by another InGaAs PIN photodiode. The resultant beat note of the signed frequency fbeat1.55μm has a signal-to-noise ratio of about 40 dB and is monitored by another spectrum analyzer and another frequency counter through some electric filters and amplifiers.

Frequencies measurements are carried out using the following procedures. First, we determine the sign of fbeat1.06μm by varying the repetition rate slightly. Second, we coarsely tune the signal frequencies so that the idler frequency is close to the transition frequency to be measured and observe a saturated absorption line while the longitudinal-mode frequency of the CEAC is swept by applying a triangle voltage to the PZT1 and the idler frequency follows it through the servo-loop. We then stabilize the longitudinal-mode frequency of the CEAC to the center of the saturated absorption line. The absolute value and the sign of fbeat1.55μm is set within the range of 5 to 25 MHz and determined by varying the repetition rate. The absolute values of frep, fbeat1.55μm, and fbeat1.06μm are simultaneously recorded with three frequency counters at a gate time of 1 s. The recorded data are acquired and averaged for 200 times per measurement. We carried out at least two measurements for each transition on different days to verify the reproducibility. Finally, a difference in the mode number of the fiber comb is calculated from data of HITRAN 2008 [12], which is based mainly on Doppler-limited FT-IR spectroscopy and includes theoretical extrapolations. Therefore, the determined frequency may deviate from the correct value by integral multiple of frep. However, the transitions we report here were indeed observed in FT-IR spectroscopy, and the uncertainties in the measured wavenumbers are expected less than 20 MHz at worst. The value is smaller than a half of the repetition rate of 65 MHz, and thereby any miscount of the mode difference does not likely occur.

Even though Fig. 2 does not include any parts associated with the carrier-envelope offset frequency, a part of the output of the fiber comb enters an f-2f interferometer, and resultant beat notes are always monitored with a spectrum analyzer and a frequency counter. The beat notes have a rather large linewidth of 100 kHz because the carrier-envelope offset frequency is not servo-controlled in the present measurement. However, it does not increase the uncertainty in the difference frequency averaged over long time.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 3 plots the recorded sub-Doppler resolution spectrum of the Q(6) F2(1) and Q(7) A2 lines. They overlap each other in a Doppler-broadened absorption profile, whereas the saturated absorption lines are clearly resolved. The Doppler broadened line typically reduces the transmitted power by 25 to 70% at the line center, while the saturated absorption line is 1 to 20% deep relative to the Doppler broadened line. The horizontal axis of Fig. 3 indicates the voltage applied to the PZT1 of the CEAC, and it is converted to the idler frequency with a conversion factor determined by observing the interval between the 10-MHz sidebands transmitting the empty CEAC. According to the frequency scale, the saturated absorption line is typically 300 kHz (HWHM) wide. The sharp dispersion near the saturated absorption line may cause deviation from the linear relation between the variation of the cavity length and the resonant frequency of the CEAC [38]. To evaluate the dispersion effect, we have recorded a saturated absorption spectrum of the P(7) F2(2) line by sweeping the idler wave frequency referred to the fiber comb. Figure 4 indicates the recorded spectrum. The measured linewidth is about 300 kHz again, and hence the dispersion effect is not significant in the present spectrum. The spectral resolution is not high enough to resolve the hyperfine structure [1]. The linewidth is limited by the following factors. The transit-time broadening is estimated 72 kHz for the beam width of 0.71 mm at the beam waist [39], and pressure broadening is about 13 kHz at 0.5 Pa [40]. The Rabi frequency at the antinodes of the standing wave is expected to be 640 kHz for typical experimental conditions [41] with an incident idler power of 100 μW, an absorbance of 70% at the center of the Doppler broadened line, and the mirror loss of 0.003, corresponding to a mirror efficiency of 70%. Considering that the power broadening is some average over the nodes and the antinodes, the measured linewidth is reasonable.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Observed spectrum of the Q(6) F2(1) and Q(7) A2.

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 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Observed saturated absorption spectrum of the P(7) F2(2) . The idler wave frequency is referred to the fiber comb.

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Table 1 lists the results of the frequency measurements for 56 transitions as well as discrepancies from the previous measurements [9, 12, 30, 42]. The rotation-vibration levels of the vibrational ground and v3 = 1 states are labeled by the total angular momentum J, the rotational angular momentum R, and the vibrational angular momentum l, where J = R + l. In the v3 = 1 state, the rotation-vibration levels are split into three Coriolis sublevels designated by JR = JJ+1, JJ, and JJ–1 whereas those in the vibrational ground state, l = 0, have one sublevel JR = JJ. They are further split into tetrahedral components by the high-order rotation-vibration interactions. The number in the transition column and the component column of Table 1 indicate the magnitude of J and the tetrahedral component for the vibrational ground state. Intense ν3 band transitions occur according to the selection rules of ΔJ = 0, ±1 and ΔR = 0 between the A1A2, F1(i)F2(i), and EE components, where i is 1 or 2. In Table 1, the strongest among the intense ν3 band transitions is the Q(4) A1 transition, which has an intensity of 1.630 × 10−19 cm molecule–1 [12]. The weakest is the P(1) F1 transition, which has an intensity of 1.699 × 10−20 cm molecule–1. In addition, Table 1 contains four weak transitions. Two are from the 77 F2(2) level of the ground vibrational state to the 66 F1(1) level of the v3 = 1 state and from the 77 A2 level of the ground vibrational state to the 66 A1 level of the v3 = 1 state of 12CH4 denoted by single asterisks. The others are intense transitions of less abundant 13CH4 (natural abundance of 1.1%) denoted by double asterisks. The weakest transition in Table 1 is the P(7) * F2(2) line, which has an absorption intensity of 6.946 × 10−22 cm molecule–1 [12].

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured and Reference Frequencies of the ν3 Band of Methane

The typical standard deviation for the intense transitions 12CH4 is approximately 2.0 kHz, which is a quarter of that of the previous measurement [30]. This is because the high sensitivity of the spectrometer improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the error signal, which realizes tight frequency lock to the saturated absorption line. The measured frequency of the P(7) F2(2) line agrees with the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) recommendation for the hyperfine-unresolved line with a discrepancy of (–0.2 ± 2.1) kHz. The frequency difference among several 200-s measurements for the identical transition representing the reproducibility of the present measurement is 1.4 kHz on average for all the transitions, which is similar to the standard deviation of each measurement. The largest difference is 5.7 kHz for the Q(6) F2(1) line, which is within twice the standard deviation, 2σ = 2 × 3.2 kHz.

The pressure shift of the transition frequency was measured for the P(7) E line, and the result is plotted in Fig. 5 . The frequency scale is referred to the more accurate value [42]. The measured frequency at 0.13 Pa significantly deviates from it because of the poor signal-to-noise ratio of the saturated absorption signal. All the measured shifts are fit to a linear model by a weighted least squares method, and the pressure-shift coefficient is determined to be (2.2 ± 3.3) kHz/Pa. Therefore, the pressure shift is not important within the uncertainty. This result agrees with the previous result [42].

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Pressure dependence of the transition frequency of the P(7) E line. The dashed line indicates the frequency given in Reference [42].

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The power shift has also been investigated for the P(7) F2(2) line, and the result is plotted in Fig. 6 . The frequency is compared with the CIPM recommended value [9]. The idler power level is varied by changing the signal power level with the pump power level fixed and calibrated with the assumption of constant conversion efficiency of the PPLN. The loss in the path between the PPLN and CEAC is less than 10%. An analysis similar to that of the pressure shift yields a power-shift coefficient of (–0.0039 ± 0.0049) kHz/μW. This result indicates that the pressure shift statistically makes no sense for the present measurements. Intensity imbalance of the counter-propagating beams, beam crossing, and misalignment that cause systematic frequency shifts [43] are negligible in the optical cavity.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Power dependence of the transition frequency of the P(7) F2(2) line. The dashed line indicates the CIPM recommended value [9].

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The selection rule for the intense ν3 band transitions does not allow us to determine any energy difference between the rotational levels in the vibrational ground state. The present spectrometer is, however, so sensitive that the two weak transitions are, as listed in Table 1, frequency-measured with an uncertainty of a few kilohertz. As a result, the energy differences between the 77 F2(2) and 66 F2(1) components and between the 77 A2 and 66 A2 components are accurately determined. Even though methane is a non-polar molecule, rotation- and vibration-induced permanent dipole moments cause rotational transitions, and microwave spectroscopy was carried out for the vibrational ground and v3 = 1 states [4447]. However, only a few transitions were observed, and the accuracy was 10 kHz at best.

Table 1 does not represent the entire performance of the spectrometer. The low frequency limit of Table 1 can be extended up to the P(10) transition within the tunable range of the PPLN used. The sensitivity of the spectrometer also enables us to measure frequencies of the Q branch transitions with a rotational quantum number exceeding 7. Furthermore, the introduction of another PPLN covering the shorter frequency range and an L-band (1.565 to 1.625 μm) fiber amplifier will extend the tunable range of the spectrometer over the R-branch transitions. A more complete list of the transition frequencies will be published in a separate paper.

4. Summary

This article is the first report of precise transition frequency measurement using a highly sensitive and widely tunable 3.4-μm spectrometer. We have determined absolute frequencies of 56 rotation-vibration transitions of the ν3 band of CH4 from 88.2 to 90.5 THz with a typical uncertainty of 2 kHz. The combination of a spectrometer and a fiber comb will open a new era of highly accurate molecular spectroscopy.

Acknowledgments

The authors express their gratitude to SENTAN, Japan Science and Technology Agency and the Photon Frontier Network Program of a Grant-in Aid from the Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan for financial support.

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26. D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, “A comb-referenced difference-frequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5 μm region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S490–S493 (2006). [CrossRef]  

27. P. Malara, P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Absolute measurement of molecular transitions by a direct link to a comb generated around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8242–8249 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

28. P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, E. De Tommasi, M. De Rosa, I. Ricciardi, G. Gagliardi, F. Tamassia, G. Di Lonardo, and P. De Natale, “Absolute measurement of the S(0) and S(1) lines in the electric quadrupole fundamental band of D2 around 3μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 133(15), 154317 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, and M. Prevedelli, “Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-infrared with a difference-frequency spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 997–999 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F. L. Hong, “The absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4-μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 032518 (2009). [CrossRef]  

31. G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

32. M. Abe, K. Takahata, and H. Sasada, “Sub-Doppler resolution 3.4 microm spectrometer with an efficient difference-frequency-generation source,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1744–1746 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

33. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2467–2469 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F. L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223–5231 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. J. Ye and J. L. Hall, “Absorption detection at the quantum limit: Probing high-finesse cavities with modulation techniques,” in Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, Experimental methods in the physical sciences vol. 40, R. D. van Zee and J. P. Looney ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2002).

36. S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, and H. Sasada, “Hyperfine-resolved 3.4-μm spectroscopy of CH3I with a widely tunable frequency generation source and a cavity-enhanced cell: A case study of a local Coriolis interaction between the v1 = 1 and (v2, v6l) = (1, 22) states,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 012505 (2011). [CrossRef]  

37. Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, F. L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. Kobayashi, M. Nakazawa, and H. Matsumoto, “Optimized amplification of femtosecond optical pulses by dispersion management for octave-spanning optical frequency comb generation,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4484–4487 (2008). [CrossRef]  

38. R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, “Pressure shift and broadening of methane line at 3.39 μ studied by laser-saturated molecular absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(1), 4–8 (1969). [CrossRef]  

39. E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya. Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, “Transit width of a nonlinear power resonance in low-pressure gases,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5(11), 1374–1375 (1975). [CrossRef]  

40. A. Pine, “Self-, N2, O2, H2, Ar, and He broadening in the ν3 band Q branch of CH4,” J. Chem. Phys. 97(2), 773–785 (1992). [CrossRef]  

41. L. Féjard, J. P. Champion, J. M. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The Intensities of Methane in the 3-5 μm Region Revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).

42. P. S. Ering, D. A. Tyurikov, G. Kramer, and B. Lipphardt, “Measurement of the absolute frequency of the methane E-line at 88 THz,” Opt. Commun. 151(4-6), 229–234 (1998). [CrossRef]  

43. J. L. Hall and C. J. Bordé, “Shift and broadening of saturated absorption resonances due to curvature of the laser wave front,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29(12), 788 (1976). [CrossRef]  

44. M. Takami, K. Uehara, and K. Shimoda, “Rotational transitions of CH4 in the v3 = 1 excited state observed by an infrared-microwave double resonance method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12(6), 924–925 (1973). [CrossRef]  

45. R. F. Curl Jr., “Infrared-radio frequency double resonance observations of pure rotational Q-branch transitions of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 48(1), 165–173 (1973). [CrossRef]  

46. R. F. Curl, T. Oka, and D. S. Smith, “The observation of a pure rotational Q-branch transition of methane by infrared-radio frequency double resonance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 46(3), 518–520 (1973). [CrossRef]  

47. C. J. Pursell and D. P. Weliky, “Pure rotational transitions in the v3 state of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 153(1-2), 303–306 (1992). [CrossRef]  

References

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  25. T. J. Pinkert, D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, I. Barmes, J. Morgenweg, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Widely tunable extreme UV frequency comb generation,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2026–2028 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
  27. P. Malara, P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Absolute measurement of molecular transitions by a direct link to a comb generated around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8242–8249 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, E. De Tommasi, M. De Rosa, I. Ricciardi, G. Gagliardi, F. Tamassia, G. Di Lonardo, and P. De Natale, “Absolute measurement of the S(0) and S(1) lines in the electric quadrupole fundamental band of D2 around 3μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 133(15), 154317 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, and M. Prevedelli, “Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-infrared with a difference-frequency spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 997–999 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F. L. Hong, “The absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4-μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 032518 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  31. G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. M. Abe, K. Takahata, and H. Sasada, “Sub-Doppler resolution 3.4 microm spectrometer with an efficient difference-frequency-generation source,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1744–1746 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2467–2469 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F. L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223–5231 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. J. Ye and J. L. Hall, “Absorption detection at the quantum limit: Probing high-finesse cavities with modulation techniques,” in Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, Experimental methods in the physical sciences vol. 40, R. D. van Zee and J. P. Looney ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2002).
  36. S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, and H. Sasada, “Hyperfine-resolved 3.4-μm spectroscopy of CH3I with a widely tunable frequency generation source and a cavity-enhanced cell: A case study of a local Coriolis interaction between the v1 = 1 and (v2, v6l) = (1, 22) states,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 012505 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  37. Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, F. L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. Kobayashi, M. Nakazawa, and H. Matsumoto, “Optimized amplification of femtosecond optical pulses by dispersion management for octave-spanning optical frequency comb generation,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4484–4487 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  38. R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, “Pressure shift and broadening of methane line at 3.39 μ studied by laser-saturated molecular absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(1), 4–8 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  39. E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya. Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, “Transit width of a nonlinear power resonance in low-pressure gases,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5(11), 1374–1375 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  40. A. Pine, “Self-, N2, O2, H2, Ar, and He broadening in the ν3 band Q branch of CH4,” J. Chem. Phys. 97(2), 773–785 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  41. L. Féjard, J. P. Champion, J. M. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The Intensities of Methane in the 3-5 μm Region Revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).
  42. P. S. Ering, D. A. Tyurikov, G. Kramer, and B. Lipphardt, “Measurement of the absolute frequency of the methane E-line at 88 THz,” Opt. Commun. 151(4-6), 229–234 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  43. J. L. Hall and C. J. Bordé, “Shift and broadening of saturated absorption resonances due to curvature of the laser wave front,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29(12), 788 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  44. M. Takami, K. Uehara, and K. Shimoda, “Rotational transitions of CH4 in the v3 = 1 excited state observed by an infrared-microwave double resonance method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12(6), 924–925 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  45. R. F. Curl., “Infrared-radio frequency double resonance observations of pure rotational Q-branch transitions of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 48(1), 165–173 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  46. R. F. Curl, T. Oka, and D. S. Smith, “The observation of a pure rotational Q-branch transition of methane by infrared-radio frequency double resonance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 46(3), 518–520 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  47. C. J. Pursell and D. P. Weliky, “Pure rotational transitions in the v3 state of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 153(1-2), 303–306 (1992).
    [Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. J. Pinkert, D. Z. Kandula, C. Gohle, I. Barmes, J. Morgenweg, and K. S. E. Eikema, “Widely tunable extreme UV frequency comb generation,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2026–2028 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Okubo, H. Nakayama, and H. Sasada, “Hyperfine-resolved 3.4-μm spectroscopy of CH3I with a widely tunable frequency generation source and a cavity-enhanced cell: A case study of a local Coriolis interaction between the v1 = 1 and (v2, v6l) = (1, 22) states,” Phys. Rev. A 83(1), 012505 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, E. De Tommasi, M. De Rosa, I. Ricciardi, G. Gagliardi, F. Tamassia, G. Di Lonardo, and P. De Natale, “Absolute measurement of the S(0) and S(1) lines in the electric quadrupole fundamental band of D2 around 3μm,” J. Chem. Phys. 133(15), 154317 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F. L. Hong, “The absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4-μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 032518 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Abe, K. Takahata, and H. Sasada, “Sub-Doppler resolution 3.4 microm spectrometer with an efficient difference-frequency-generation source,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1744–1746 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. Quack, J. Stohner, and M. Willeke, “High-resolution spectroscopic studies and theory of parity violation in chiral molecules,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 741–769 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Malara, P. Maddaloni, G. Gagliardi, and P. De Natale, “Absolute measurement of molecular transitions by a direct link to a comb generated around 3 μm,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8242–8249 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Casa, A. Castrillo, G. Galzerano, R. Wehr, A. Merlone, D. Di Serafino, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, “Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: determination of the Boltzmann constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 200801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, F. L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. Kobayashi, M. Nakazawa, and H. Matsumoto, “Optimized amplification of femtosecond optical pulses by dispersion management for octave-spanning optical frequency comb generation,” Opt. Commun. 281(17), 4484–4487 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

H. Inaba, Y. Daimon, F. L. Hong, A. Onae, K. Minoshima, T. R. Schibli, H. Matsumoto, M. Hirano, T. Okuno, M. Onishi, and M. Nakazawa, “Long-term measurement of optical frequencies using a simple, robust and low-noise fiber based frequency comb,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5223–5231 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, “A comb-referenced difference-frequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5 μm region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S490–S493 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3-μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, H. Matsumoto, I. Hartl, and M. E. Fermann, “Frequency metrology with a turnkey all-fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2467–2469 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amy-Klein, H. Vigué, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of 12CO2 laser lines with a femtosecond laser comb and new determination of the 12CO2 molecular constants and frequency grid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 206–212 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre, including recommended radiations of other optical frequency standards (2001),” Metrologia 40(2), 103–133 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (3)

L. Féjard, J. P. Champion, J. M. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The Intensities of Methane in the 3-5 μm Region Revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Remillard, D. Uy, W. H. Weber, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. Sivco, J. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, “Sub-Doppler resolution limited Lamb-dip spectroscopy of NO with a quantum cascade distributed feedback laser,” Opt. Express 7(7), 243–248 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1557 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. S. Ering, D. A. Tyurikov, G. Kramer, and B. Lipphardt, “Measurement of the absolute frequency of the methane E-line at 88 THz,” Opt. Commun. 151(4-6), 229–234 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, W. Urban, and J. Legrand, “CO laser side-band spectrometer: Sub-Doppler heterodyne frequency measurements around 5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 169–173 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

T. George, W. Urban, and A. Le Floch, “Improved mass-independent Dunham parameters for the ground state of CO and calibration frequencies for the fundamental band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 165(2), 500–505 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

C. J. Pursell and D. P. Weliky, “Pure rotational transitions in the v3 state of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 153(1-2), 303–306 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. G. Maki and J. S. Wells, “New wavenumber calibration tables from heterodyne frequency measurements,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 97, 409–470 (1992).

A. Pine, “Self-, N2, O2, H2, Ar, and He broadening in the ν3 band Q branch of CH4,” J. Chem. Phys. 97(2), 773–785 (1992).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

G. Magerl, J. M. Frey, W. A. Kreiner, and T. Oka, “Inverse Lamb dip spectroscopy using microwave modulation sidebands of CO2 laser lines,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42(8), 656–658 (1983).
[Crossref]

1976 (2)

J. L. Hall and C. J. Bordé, “Shift and broadening of saturated absorption resonances due to curvature of the laser wave front,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29(12), 788 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, “Direct optical resolution of the recoil effect using saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37(20), 1339–1342 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya. Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, “Transit width of a nonlinear power resonance in low-pressure gases,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5(11), 1374–1375 (1975).
[Crossref]

1973 (3)

R. F. Curl., “Infrared-radio frequency double resonance observations of pure rotational Q-branch transitions of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 48(1), 165–173 (1973).
[Crossref]

R. F. Curl, T. Oka, and D. S. Smith, “The observation of a pure rotational Q-branch transition of methane by infrared-radio frequency double resonance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 46(3), 518–520 (1973).
[Crossref]

M. Takami, K. Uehara, and K. Shimoda, “Rotational transitions of CH4 in the v3 = 1 excited state observed by an infrared-microwave double resonance method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12(6), 924–925 (1973).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, “Pressure shift and broadening of methane line at 3.39 μ studied by laser-saturated molecular absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(1), 4–8 (1969).
[Crossref]

Abe, M.

Amy-Klein, A.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Amy-Klein, H. Vigué, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of 12CO2 laser lines with a femtosecond laser comb and new determination of the 12CO2 molecular constants and frequency grid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 206–212 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1557 (1999).
[Crossref]

Araki, T.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Armante, R.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[Crossref]

Asobe, M.

O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3-μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Asselin, P.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baillargeon, J.

Baklanov, E. V.

E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya. Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, “Transit width of a nonlinear power resonance in low-pressure gases,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5(11), 1374–1375 (1975).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barger, R. L.

R. L. Barger and J. L. Hall, “Pressure shift and broadening of methane line at 3.39 μ studied by laser-saturated molecular absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 22(1), 4–8 (1969).
[Crossref]

Barmes, I.

Bartalini, S.

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bast, R.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernath, P. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boonne, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bordé, C. J.

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1557 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, “Direct optical resolution of the recoil effect using saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37(20), 1339–1342 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall and C. J. Bordé, “Shift and broadening of saturated absorption resonances due to curvature of the laser wave front,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29(12), 788 (1976).
[Crossref]

Bordé, ChJ.

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borri, S.

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Braxmaier, C.

Briaudeau, S.

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Féjard, J. P. Champion, J. M. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The Intensities of Methane in the 3-5 μm Region Revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

Camy-Peyret, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cancio, P.

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, “A comb-referenced difference-frequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5 μm region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S490–S493 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, G. Giusfredi, P. De Natale, and M. Prevedelli, “Frequency-comb-based absolute frequency measurements in the mid-infrared with a difference-frequency spectrometer,” Opt. Lett. 30(9), 997–999 (2005).
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Capasso, F.

Capelle, V.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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Casa, G.

G. Casa, A. Castrillo, G. Galzerano, R. Wehr, A. Merlone, D. Di Serafino, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, “Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: determination of the Boltzmann constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 200801 (2008).
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Castrillo, A.

G. Casa, A. Castrillo, G. Galzerano, R. Wehr, A. Merlone, D. Di Serafino, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, “Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: determination of the Boltzmann constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 200801 (2008).
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D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, “A comb-referenced difference-frequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5 μm region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S490–S493 (2006).
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Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. Féjard, J. P. Champion, J. M. Jouvard, L. R. Brown, and A. S. Pine, “The Intensities of Methane in the 3-5 μm Region Revisited,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 201, 83–94 (2000).

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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Chardonnet, C.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
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C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
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A. Amy-Klein, H. Vigué, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of 12CO2 laser lines with a femtosecond laser comb and new determination of the 12CO2 molecular constants and frequency grid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 206–212 (2004).
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C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1557 (1999).
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Chédin, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Christidis, N.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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Claveau, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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Clerbaux, C.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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Coheur, P. F.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Coustenis, A.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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Crassous, J.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crépeau, L.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
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Curl, R. F.

R. F. Curl., “Infrared-radio frequency double resonance observations of pure rotational Q-branch transitions of methane,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 48(1), 165–173 (1973).
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R. F. Curl, T. Oka, and D. S. Smith, “The observation of a pure rotational Q-branch transition of methane by infrared-radio frequency double resonance,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 46(3), 518–520 (1973).
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Daimon, Y.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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Darquié, B.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Daumont, L.

N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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Daussy, C.

B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1557 (1999).
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De Backer-Barilly, M. R.

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G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
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D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, “A comb-referenced difference-frequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5 μm region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S490–S493 (2006).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. E. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckova, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashukun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, W. Urban, and J. Legrand, “CO laser side-band spectrometer: Sub-Doppler heterodyne frequency measurements around 5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 169–173 (1995).
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A. Amy-Klein, H. Vigué, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of 12CO2 laser lines with a femtosecond laser comb and new determination of the 12CO2 molecular constants and frequency grid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 206–212 (2004).
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N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, W. Urban, and J. Legrand, “CO laser side-band spectrometer: Sub-Doppler heterodyne frequency measurements around 5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 169–173 (1995).
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Wehr, R.

G. Casa, A. Castrillo, G. Galzerano, R. Wehr, A. Merlone, D. Di Serafino, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, “Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: determination of the Boltzmann constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 200801 (2008).
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A. G. Maki and J. S. Wells, “New wavenumber calibration tables from heterodyne frequency measurements,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 97, 409–470 (1992).

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M. Quack, J. Stohner, and M. Willeke, “High-resolution spectroscopic studies and theory of parity violation in chiral molecules,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 59(1), 741–769 (2008).
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D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
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O. Tadanaga, T. Yanagawa, Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, K. Magari, M. Asobe, and H. Suzuki, “Efficient 3-μm difference frequency generation using direct-bonded quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 ridge waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061101 (2006).
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T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
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T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
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Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. Meyer, S. Saupe, M. H. Wappelhorst, T. George, F. Kühnemann, M. Schneider, M. Havenith, W. Urban, and J. Legrand, “CO laser side-band spectrometer: Sub-Doppler heterodyne frequency measurements around 5 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 169–173 (1995).
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T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
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B. Darquié, C. Stoeffler, A. Shelkovnikov, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, S. Zrig, L. Guy, J. Crassous, P. Soulard, P. Asselin, T. R. Huet, P. Schwerdtfeger, R. Bast, and T. Saue, “Progress toward the first observation of parity violation in chiral molecules by high-resolution laser spectroscopy,” Chirality 22(10), 870–884 (2010).
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T. George, W. Urban, and A. Le Floch, “Improved mass-independent Dunham parameters for the ground state of CO and calibration frequencies for the fundamental band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 165(2), 500–505 (1994).
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A. Amy-Klein, H. Vigué, and C. Chardonnet, “Absolute frequency measurement of 12CO2 laser lines with a femtosecond laser comb and new determination of the 12CO2 molecular constants and frequency grid,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 228(1), 206–212 (2004).
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D. Mazzotti, P. Cancio, A. Castrillo, I. Galli, G. Giusfredi, and P. De Natale, “A comb-referenced difference-frequency spectrometer for cavity ring-down spectroscopy in the 4.5 μm region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(7), S490–S493 (2006).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

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N. Jacquinet-Husson, N. A. Scott, A. Chédin, L. Crépeau, R. Armante, V. Capelle, J. Orphal, A. Coustenis, C. Boonne, N. Poulet-Crovisier, A. Barbe, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, C. Claveau, K. Chance, N. Christidis, C. Clerbaux, P. F. Coheur, V. Dana, L. Daumont, M. R. De Backer-Barilly, G. Di Lonardo, J. M. Flaud, A. Goldman, A. Hamdouni, M. Hess, M. D. Hurley, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, P. Köpke, J. Y. Mandin, S. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, V. Nemtchinov, A. Nikitin, D. Newnham, A. Perrin, V. I. Perevalov, S. Pinnock, L. Régalia-Jarlot, C. P. Rinsland, A. Rublev, F. Schreier, L. Schult, K. M. Smith, S. A. Tashkun, J. L. Teffo, R. A. Toth, V. G. Tyuterev, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The GEISA spectroscopic database: Current and future archive for Earth and planetary atmosphere studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(6), 1043–1059 (2008).
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J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

A. G. Maki and J. S. Wells, “New wavenumber calibration tables from heterodyne frequency measurements,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 97, 409–470 (1992).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Takami, K. Uehara, and K. Shimoda, “Rotational transitions of CH4 in the v3 = 1 excited state observed by an infrared-microwave double resonance method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 12(6), 924–925 (1973).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

K. Takahata, T. Kobayashi, H. Sasada, Y. Nakajima, H. Inaba, and F. L. Hong, “The absolute frequency measurement of sub-Doppler molecular lines using a 3.4-μm difference-frequency-generation spectrometer and a fiber-based frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 032518 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

G. Giusfredi, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, and P. De Natale, “Saturated-absorption cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(11), 110801 (2010).
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J. L. Hall, C. J. Bordé, and K. Uehara, “Direct optical resolution of the recoil effect using saturated absorption spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 37(20), 1339–1342 (1976).
[Crossref]

C. Daussy, T. Marrel, A. Amy-Klein, C. T. Nguyen, C. J. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Limit on the parity nonconserving energy difference between the enantiomers of a chiral molecule by laser spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(8), 1554–1557 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Daussy, M. Guinet, A. Amy-Klein, K. Djerroud, Y. Hermier, S. Briaudeau, ChJ. Bordé, and C. Chardonnet, “Direct determination of the Boltzmann constant by an optical method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(25), 250801 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Casa, A. Castrillo, G. Galzerano, R. Wehr, A. Merlone, D. Di Serafino, P. Laporta, and L. Gianfrani, “Primary gas thermometry by means of laser-absorption spectroscopy: determination of the Boltzmann constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 200801 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. V. Baklanov, B. Ya. Dubetskii, V. M. Semibalamut, and E. A. Titov, “Transit width of a nonlinear power resonance in low-pressure gases,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 5(11), 1374–1375 (1975).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

J. Ye and J. L. Hall, “Absorption detection at the quantum limit: Probing high-finesse cavities with modulation techniques,” in Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, Experimental methods in the physical sciences vol. 40, R. D. van Zee and J. P. Looney ed. (Academic Press, San Diego, 2002).

P. Jensen and P. R. Bunker, eds., Computational molecular spectroscopy, (John-Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 2000).

G. Guelachvili and K. Narahari Rao, Handbook of Infrared Standards (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1986). G. Guelachvili and K. Narahari Rao, Handbook of Infrared Standards II (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1993).

S. Svanberg, Atomic and molecular spectroscopy: Basic aspects and practical applications, 4th edition (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2004).

J. Tennyson, Astronomical spectroscopy: An introduction to the atomic and molecular physics of astronomical spectra, (World Scientific Publishing Co. Inc., Singapore, 2010).

J. L. Hall and J. A. Magyar, “High resolution saturated absorption studies of methane and some methyl-halides,” in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K. Shimoda ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of spectrometer. ECLD: external-cavity laser diode, EOM: electro-optic modulator, FA: fiber amplifier, XO: crystal oscillator, PPLN: periodically poled lithium niobate, BW: Brewster’s window, λ/4: quarter-wave plate, CEAC: cavity-enhanced absorption cell, OBPF: optical bandpass filter, PID controller: proportional-integral-derivative controller, CS: current source.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of frequency control and measurements. OFC: optical frequency comb, λ/2: half-wave plate, LPF: electric lowpass filter, GPS: global position system, ECLD: external-cavity laser diode, BPF: electric bandpass filter, PI controller: proportional-integral controller.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Observed spectrum of the Q(6) F2(1) and Q(7) A2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Observed saturated absorption spectrum of the P(7) F2(2) . The idler wave frequency is referred to the fiber comb.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Pressure dependence of the transition frequency of the P(7) E line. The dashed line indicates the frequency given in Reference [42].
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Power dependence of the transition frequency of the P(7) F2(2) line. The dashed line indicates the CIPM recommended value [9].

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured and Reference Frequencies of the ν3 Band of Methane

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