Abstract

The optical absorption at wavelengths near 1550 nm has been quantified as a function of annealing temperature in ion-implanted silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators. The variation of the output characteristics of the bus waveguide versus the concentration of implantation-induced lattice disorder in the ring is used to develop a novel method for the determination of the coupling and round-trip loss of the resonator, independently. This experimental procedure has general applicability for the determination of these parameters. Significant propagation loss is found to persist following annealing at temperatures previously observed to remove the majority of ion implantation damage. It is suggested that these annealing characteristics are a consequence of an ion implantation range which is greater than the silicon waveguide layer thickness.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Silicon photonics has gained prominence as a means of readily integrating planar optical and electrical circuits. Within this burgeoning field, mid-gap defect states introduced via ion implantation have been used to introduce optical absorption at wavelengths near 1550 nm in order to enhance photodiode performance [1,2] and control carrier lifetime [3] in a manner that is compatible with standard Complementary-Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) processing [4].

The defect concentration (and hence the optical absorption) is determined both by the initial implantation characteristics (i.e. ion species, energy and dose) as well as by subsequent annealing step(s). Optical absorption for wavelengths near 1550 nm has been attributed to the silicon divacancy lattice defect [5, 6] for which the annealing characteristics have been characterized in bulk silicon [7, 8] and in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides [9]. Of particular interest to the future scaling of silicon photonics however, is the defect-induced absorption in sub-micron silicon waveguides since these maintain single-mode waveguide performance together with small bend radii and high device density. For such SOI dimensions the ion implantation range can exceed the silicon device layer thickness (typically a few hundred nanometers) such that the defect density within the waveguide is essentially uniform, unlike that for thicker device layers where typical implantation ranges fall within the waveguide. The most comprehensive work to date on the effect of ion implantation induced lattice disorder on optical propagation, reported by Foster et al. [9], was performed using a device layer of 5 μm. There exists a need therefore for information on the impact of deliberately introduced defects on optical propagation in submicron waveguides.

In this paper we report measurements of the optical absorption at wavelengths near 1550 nm induced in SOI waveguide racetrack resonators by ion implantation as discussed by Doylend et al. [10] as a function of post-implantation annealing temperature for an ion range extending below the silicon device (waveguide) layer. We demonstrate that these structures are ideal for determination of the absorption characteristics of dilute concentrations of defects in small silicon waveguides. Further, the experimental procedure used here provides a method to determine, independently, the fractional coupling between the bus and ring waveguides, and the optical loss in the ring.

2. Fabrication and Characterization

The devices were fabricated via the ePIXFab 2009 LETI shuttle run [11] using 220 nm thick device layer SOI with lithographically defined waveguides of width 500 nm etched to a depth of 170 nm, a structure consistent with single mode propagation. The ion implantation step used to introduce mid-gap defect states consisted of B+ implanted at 350 keV to a dose of 1 × 1013 cm−2.

Simulations using SRIM [12] suggest that the ion range is 0.7 μm below the device layer. A schematic of the cross-section of the implanted rib waveguide is shown in Fig. 1 .

 

Fig. 1 Schematic drawing of the rib waveguide cross-section showing dimensions and optical indices. The cross-hatched area indicates the ion implanted region extending through the silicon device layer and into the buried oxide.

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The optical propagation loss was measured by comparing the spectral transmission of racetrack-resonator devices subjected to ion implantation and subsequent annealing. This method offers the advantage over more traditional approaches of rendering the loss calculation independent of fiber-chip coupling without the need to “cut-back” the waveguide. A schematic of the device structure is shown in Fig. 2 . Implanted samples were annealed for 10 minutes under flowing nitrogen at temperatures ranging from 200 °C to 400 °C at 50 °C increments. As part of the device processing, a back-end 150 °C annealing step was performed after the B+ implantation. This then sets the lower limit for annealing temperature in this study.

 

Fig. 2 Ring resonator device used in this work. GCI = grating coupled input; GCO = grating coupled output. K is the coupling between the bus waveguide and the ring. The defects were implanted through a 60 μm long mask window such that the coupling K was unaffected by the implantation.

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The optical power output of a ring resonator is given [13] according to Eq. (1):

Pout=T+R2RTcos(2πLn/λ)1+RT2RTcos(2πLn/λ)
for which Pout is the fractional output power, R is the fractional round-trip transmitted power, K = 1-T is the fractional coupling between the racetrack resonator and the bus waveguide, λ is the wavelength, n is the effective index of the waveguide, and L is the circumference of the resonator. It is evident from Eq. (1) that a measurement of the fractional output power versus wavelength yields a spectrum for which R is indistinguishable from T, and hence the round-trip fractional power loss {1-R} is indistinguishable from fractional coupling K, without additional information. It is also apparent that the minimum output power occurs at resonance when the cosine is equal to 1, yielding Eq. (2):

Pout(resonance)=T+R2RT1+RT2RT=(RT)2(1RT)2.

From Eq. (2) it is apparent that power output of exactly zero is possible at resonance only when T = R, i.e. at “critical coupling”. At critical coupling, therefore, the above-mentioned indistinguishability of R and T in Eq. (1) is inconsequential since the two are equal.

Accordingly the devices used in this work were designed to achieve critical coupling after the initial ion implantation, prior to any annealing steps, so as to render T (and thus K = 1-T) known without ambiguity. Subsequent annealing steps alter the optical propagation loss only within the 60 μm implanted portion of the racetrack structure which was unmasked during the implantation step, therefore changing R without affecting K. This variation in fractional round-trip loss (1-R) renders the resonator no longer critically coupled, but rather “over-coupled” (i.e. T < R) since the loss in the implanted region, and hence the round-trip loss, decreases with each annealing step. However with K known from the original measurement of the critically coupled device, subsequent values of T = {1-R} for the overcoupled device after each anneal step can be deduced from Eq. (1) since K remains relatively unchanged throughout.

3. Results and Discussion

Resonance peaks near 1550 nm for each anneal temperature are shown in Fig. 3 together with the fit according to Eq. (1) from which solution sets for fractional round-trip loss {1-R} and coupling K were derived. The implanted sample which did not receive a post-process anneal (effectively annealed at 150 °C) was nearly critically coupled, while devices subjected to higher temperature annealing steps became increasingly over-coupled due to the relative reduction of round-trip loss.

 

Fig. 3 Resonances measured near 1550 nm for implanted ring resonators subjected to isochronal 10 minute anneals. Lines indicate fits of Eq. (1) to the measured data.

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The solution sets [K, (1-R)] derived from fitting Eq. (1) to the data in Fig. 3, are shown in Table 1 along with the corresponding round-trip loss in dB. Since at critical coupling (i.e. the 150 °C sample) K = 0.070, the values corresponding to fractional round-trip loss (1-R) for the subsequent annealing temperatures were easily identified by the fact that they decreased from 0.082 to 0.034 when subjected to annealing, while K remained within the range 0.07 ± 0.01 regardless of the annealing temperature.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Solution Sets Derived from Fitting Eq. (1) to the Data Shown in Fig. 3, Along with Corresponding Round-Trip Loss (RTL) in dB*

Two unimplanted samples were also tested for comparison: one with the same coupler geometry as the implanted samples described above (i.e. K ~0.07), and the other with a different coupler geometry designed for lower K. These will be referred to as U1 and U2 respectively in the following discussion.

Recall that for low fractional round-trip loss, R approaches 1, and hence in Eq. (2) Pout(resonance) approaches unity unless T also approaches 1; hence resonance minima become indistinguishable from off-resonance maxima for low-loss resonators that are severely over-coupled. Each of the unimplanted devices U1 and U2 had considerably lower round-trip loss compared to the implanted sample; this was manifested by the fact that for U1 no resonance peaks were observable while shallow resonance peaks were observable for U2, indicating that U1 was severely overcoupled. In this case the ambiguity between K and {1-R} of the solution set obtained by fitting Eq. (1) to the measured fractional output power of U2 (as shown in Fig. 2) was resolved by noting that reversing these two values in Table 1 (i.e. letting K = 0.006 and {1-R} = 0.035) leads to the conclusion that there is nearly identical round-trip loss for the unimplanted sample U2 and the 400 °C annealed implanted sample, for which {1-R} = 0.034 has already been determined. However this conclusion cannot be true since it would imply that unimplanted sample U1, which by design has the same fractional round-trip loss {1-R} as U2 and the same coupling K as the 400 °C annealed implanted device, would have exhibited resonance peaks nearly identical to those of the 400 °C annealed implanted device. Yet, U1 was severely over-coupled such that the resonance peaks were indistinguishable. Therefore by process of elimination we deduce that the fractional coupling and round-trip loss values for U2 were K = 0.035 and {1-R} = 0.006, corresponding to 0.026 dB round-trip loss as listed in Table 1.

The optical absorption loss (calculated as the difference between round-trip losses of the implanted and unimplanted samples scaled according to the length of the implanted section of the waveguide ring) as a function of annealing temperature is shown in Fig. 4 together with values measured by Foster et al. [9] for large-geometry SOI waveguides (waveguide layer thickness of 5μm). The values from Foster et al. have been scaled using the empirical Coleman-Burrows-Knights (CBK) equation [14] which allows for comparison (at least to the first order) of damage production from ion implantations which varied in species, energy and dose.

 

Fig. 4 Calculated attenuation vs. annealing temperature for this work and for Foster’s results scaled using the CBK equation14 to adjust for disparate energy and dose.

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The annealing response shown in Fig. 4 for the 220 nm SOI used in this work exhibits a more abrupt recovery at higher annealing temperature compared to the 5 μm SOI used by Foster et al. [9]. We attribute this difference to the fact that the implanted ion range extended below the buried oxide in this work, while in that of Foster et al., the ion range was located at approximately the mid-depth of the device (waveguide) layer. By locating the end of range beyond the device layer our process reduces the fractions of both implanted ions and interstitials available to interact with vacancy-type defects during annealing, creating an ‘excess’ divacancy population in the device layer. This effect has been reported previously with respect to the engineering of abrupt junctions formed through the implantation and thermal activation of interstitial diffusers [15]. With fewer recombination pathways available for the thermally mobile divacancies during annealing, these defects persist in the thin device layer case before rapid recovery above 250 °C.

4. Conclusion

In summary, we have used racetrack-resonator devices to characterize the optical absorption loss produced by ion implantation and subsequent annealing in shallow SOI waveguide ring resonators. The experimental method provides a means to determine the optical round-trip loss in the resonator and the coupling fraction, independently. It also proves extremely robust when the determination of loss is required for low concentrations of waveguide defects. A comparison to prior measurements of the annealing response in larger SOI waveguides suggests that isolating the interstitials and implanted ions at end-of-range from the region of interest allows the defect population in the device layer to persist to higher temperature.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank J.J Ackert and D. Bruce, for useful discussions and D. Deptuck for help with mask and process design. The financial support of CMC Microsystems, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the Canadian Institute for Photonic Innovations is acknowledged.

References and links

1. A. Knights, A. House, R. MacNaughton, and F. Hopper, “Optical power monitoring function compatible with single chip integration on silicon-on-insulator,”in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Atlanta, GA, 23–38 March 2003 (OFC2003), p. 705.

2. J. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005). [CrossRef]  

3. N. M. Wright, D. J. Thomson, K. L. Litvinenko, W. R. Headley, A. J. Smith, A. P. Knights, J. H. B. Deane, F. Y. Gardes, G. Z. Mashanovich, R. Gwilliam, and G. T. Reed, “Free carrier lifetime modification for silicon waveguide based devices,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19779–19784 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234 (2010). [CrossRef]  

5. H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127 (1959). [CrossRef]  

6. L. J. Cheng, J. C. Corelli, J. W. Corbett, and G. D. Watkins, “1.8-, 3.3-, and 3.9μm bands in irradiated silicon:correlations with the divacancy,” Phys. Rev. 152(2), 761–774 (1966). [CrossRef]  

7. H. J. Stein, F. L. Vook, and J. A. Borders, “Direct evidence of divacancy formation in silicon by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14(10), 328 (1969). [CrossRef]  

8. S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997). [CrossRef]  

9. P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, “Optical attenuation in defect engineered silicon rib waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073101 (2006). [CrossRef]  

10. J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon photonic resonator-enhanced defect-mediated photodiode for sub-bandgap detection,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14671–14678 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. http://www.epixfab.eu

12. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, (1985).

13. A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002). [CrossRef]  

14. P. G. Coleman, C. P. Burrows, and A. P. Knights, “Simple expression for vacancy concentrations at half ion range following MeV ion implantation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 947 (2002). [CrossRef]  

15. A. J. Smith, R. M. Gwilliam, V. Stolojan, A. P. Knights, P. G. Coleman, A. Kallis, and S. H. Yeong, “Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103514 (2009). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. A. Knights, A. House, R. MacNaughton, and F. Hopper, “Optical power monitoring function compatible with single chip integration on silicon-on-insulator,”in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Atlanta, GA, 23–38 March 2003 (OFC2003), p. 705.
  2. J. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. M. Wright, D. J. Thomson, K. L. Litvinenko, W. R. Headley, A. J. Smith, A. P. Knights, J. H. B. Deane, F. Y. Gardes, G. Z. Mashanovich, R. Gwilliam, and G. T. Reed, “Free carrier lifetime modification for silicon waveguide based devices,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19779–19784 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. J. Cheng, J. C. Corelli, J. W. Corbett, and G. D. Watkins, “1.8-, 3.3-, and 3.9μm bands in irradiated silicon:correlations with the divacancy,” Phys. Rev. 152(2), 761–774 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. J. Stein, F. L. Vook, and J. A. Borders, “Direct evidence of divacancy formation in silicon by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14(10), 328 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, “Optical attenuation in defect engineered silicon rib waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon photonic resonator-enhanced defect-mediated photodiode for sub-bandgap detection,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14671–14678 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. http://www.epixfab.eu
  12. J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, (1985).
  13. A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. G. Coleman, C. P. Burrows, and A. P. Knights, “Simple expression for vacancy concentrations at half ion range following MeV ion implantation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 947 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. J. Smith, R. M. Gwilliam, V. Stolojan, A. P. Knights, P. G. Coleman, A. Kallis, and S. H. Yeong, “Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103514 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon photonic resonator-enhanced defect-mediated photodiode for sub-bandgap detection,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14671–14678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. J. Smith, R. M. Gwilliam, V. Stolojan, A. P. Knights, P. G. Coleman, A. Kallis, and S. H. Yeong, “Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, “Optical attenuation in defect engineered silicon rib waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Coleman, C. P. Burrows, and A. P. Knights, “Simple expression for vacancy concentrations at half ion range following MeV ion implantation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 947 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1969

H. J. Stein, F. L. Vook, and J. A. Borders, “Direct evidence of divacancy formation in silicon by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14(10), 328 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Corelli, J. W. Corbett, and G. D. Watkins, “1.8-, 3.3-, and 3.9μm bands in irradiated silicon:correlations with the divacancy,” Phys. Rev. 152(2), 761–774 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1959

H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benton, J. L.

S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Borders, J. A.

H. J. Stein, F. L. Vook, and J. A. Borders, “Direct evidence of divacancy formation in silicon by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14(10), 328 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, J. B.

J. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, C. P.

P. G. Coleman, C. P. Burrows, and A. P. Knights, “Simple expression for vacancy concentrations at half ion range following MeV ion implantation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 947 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. J.

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Corelli, J. W. Corbett, and G. D. Watkins, “1.8-, 3.3-, and 3.9μm bands in irradiated silicon:correlations with the divacancy,” Phys. Rev. 152(2), 761–774 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Coffa, S.

S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, P. G.

A. J. Smith, R. M. Gwilliam, V. Stolojan, A. P. Knights, P. G. Coleman, A. Kallis, and S. H. Yeong, “Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, “Optical attenuation in defect engineered silicon rib waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Coleman, C. P. Burrows, and A. P. Knights, “Simple expression for vacancy concentrations at half ion range following MeV ion implantation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 947 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corbett, J. W.

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Corelli, J. W. Corbett, and G. D. Watkins, “1.8-, 3.3-, and 3.9μm bands in irradiated silicon:correlations with the divacancy,” Phys. Rev. 152(2), 761–774 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Corelli, J. C.

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Corelli, J. W. Corbett, and G. D. Watkins, “1.8-, 3.3-, and 3.9μm bands in irradiated silicon:correlations with the divacancy,” Phys. Rev. 152(2), 761–774 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Deane, J. H. B.

Doylend, J. K.

J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon photonic resonator-enhanced defect-mediated photodiode for sub-bandgap detection,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14671–14678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, “Optical attenuation in defect engineered silicon rib waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eaglesham, D. J.

S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H. Y.

H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Foster, P. J.

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, “Optical attenuation in defect engineered silicon rib waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuochi, P. G.

S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

Gwilliam, R.

Gwilliam, R. M.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Smith, R. M. Gwilliam, V. Stolojan, A. P. Knights, P. G. Coleman, A. Kallis, and S. H. Yeong, “Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Headley, W. R.

Jacobson, D. C.

S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jessop, P. E.

J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon photonic resonator-enhanced defect-mediated photodiode for sub-bandgap detection,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14671–14678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kallis, A.

A. J. Smith, R. M. Gwilliam, V. Stolojan, A. P. Knights, P. G. Coleman, A. Kallis, and S. H. Yeong, “Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Doylend, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon photonic resonator-enhanced defect-mediated photodiode for sub-bandgap detection,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14671–14678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Smith, R. M. Gwilliam, V. Stolojan, A. P. Knights, P. G. Coleman, A. Kallis, and S. H. Yeong, “Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Wright, D. J. Thomson, K. L. Litvinenko, W. R. Headley, A. J. Smith, A. P. Knights, J. H. B. Deane, F. Y. Gardes, G. Z. Mashanovich, R. Gwilliam, and G. T. Reed, “Free carrier lifetime modification for silicon waveguide based devices,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19779–19784 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, “Optical attenuation in defect engineered silicon rib waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Coleman, C. P. Burrows, and A. P. Knights, “Simple expression for vacancy concentrations at half ion range following MeV ion implantation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 947 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kringho?j, P.

S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lavalle, M.

S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Libertino, S.

S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Litvinenko, K. L.

Luff, B. J.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mascher, P.

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, “Optical attenuation in defect engineered silicon rib waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

Poate, J. M.

S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramdas, A. K.

H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Shafiiha, R.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. J.

A. J. Smith, R. M. Gwilliam, V. Stolojan, A. P. Knights, P. G. Coleman, A. Kallis, and S. H. Yeong, “Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Wright, D. J. Thomson, K. L. Litvinenko, W. R. Headley, A. J. Smith, A. P. Knights, J. H. B. Deane, F. Y. Gardes, G. Z. Mashanovich, R. Gwilliam, and G. T. Reed, “Free carrier lifetime modification for silicon waveguide based devices,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19779–19784 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, H. J.

H. J. Stein, F. L. Vook, and J. A. Borders, “Direct evidence of divacancy formation in silicon by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14(10), 328 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Stolojan, V.

A. J. Smith, R. M. Gwilliam, V. Stolojan, A. P. Knights, P. G. Coleman, A. Kallis, and S. H. Yeong, “Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

Vook, F. L.

H. J. Stein, F. L. Vook, and J. A. Borders, “Direct evidence of divacancy formation in silicon by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14(10), 328 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Watkins, G. D.

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Corelli, J. W. Corbett, and G. D. Watkins, “1.8-, 3.3-, and 3.9μm bands in irradiated silicon:correlations with the divacancy,” Phys. Rev. 152(2), 761–774 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Wright, N. M.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yeong, S. H.

A. J. Smith, R. M. Gwilliam, V. Stolojan, A. P. Knights, P. G. Coleman, A. Kallis, and S. H. Yeong, “Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. J. Stein, F. L. Vook, and J. A. Borders, “Direct evidence of divacancy formation in silicon by ion implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14(10), 328 (1969).
[CrossRef]

S. Libertino, J. L. Benton, D. C. Jacobson, D. J. Eaglesham, J. M. Poate, S. Coffa, P. Kringho̸j, P. G. Fuochi, and M. Lavalle, “Evolution of interstitial- and vacancy-type defects upon thermal annealing in ion-implanted Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(3), 389 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Coleman, C. P. Burrows, and A. P. Knights, “Simple expression for vacancy concentrations at half ion range following MeV ion implantation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 947 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Bradley, P. E. Jessop, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon waveguide-integrated optical power monitor with enhanced sensitivity at 1550 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. K. Doylend, A. P. Knights, B. J. Luff, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, and R. M. Gwilliam, “Modifying functionality of variable optical attenuator to signal monitoring through defect engineering,” Electron. Lett. 46(3), 234 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127 (1959).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Smith, R. M. Gwilliam, V. Stolojan, A. P. Knights, P. G. Coleman, A. Kallis, and S. H. Yeong, “Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, “Optical attenuation in defect engineered silicon rib waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev.

L. J. Cheng, J. C. Corelli, J. W. Corbett, and G. D. Watkins, “1.8-, 3.3-, and 3.9μm bands in irradiated silicon:correlations with the divacancy,” Phys. Rev. 152(2), 761–774 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Knights, A. House, R. MacNaughton, and F. Hopper, “Optical power monitoring function compatible with single chip integration on silicon-on-insulator,”in Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conference, Atlanta, GA, 23–38 March 2003 (OFC2003), p. 705.

http://www.epixfab.eu

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, (1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the rib waveguide cross-section showing dimensions and optical indices. The cross-hatched area indicates the ion implanted region extending through the silicon device layer and into the buried oxide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ring resonator device used in this work. GCI = grating coupled input; GCO = grating coupled output. K is the coupling between the bus waveguide and the ring. The defects were implanted through a 60 μm long mask window such that the coupling K was unaffected by the implantation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resonances measured near 1550 nm for implanted ring resonators subjected to isochronal 10 minute anneals. Lines indicate fits of Eq. (1) to the measured data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated attenuation vs. annealing temperature for this work and for Foster’s results scaled using the CBK equation14 to adjust for disparate energy and dose.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Solution Sets Derived from Fitting Eq. (1) to the Data Shown in Fig. 3, Along with Corresponding Round-Trip Loss (RTL) in dB*

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P o u t = T + R 2 R T cos ( 2 π L n / λ ) 1 + R T 2 R T cos ( 2 π L n / λ )
P o u t ( r e s o n a n c e ) = T + R 2 R T 1 + R T 2 R T = ( R T ) 2 ( 1 R T ) 2 .

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