Abstract

We report on orange a-plane light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with InGaN single quantum well (SQW) grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The peak wavelength and the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) at a drive current of 20mA were 612.2 nm and 72 nm, respectively. The device demonstrated a blue shift in emission wavelength from 614.6 nm at 10 mA to 607.5 nm at 100 mA, representing a net shift of 7.1 nm over a 90 mA range, which is the longest wavelength compared with reported values in nonpolar LEDs. The polarization ratio values obtained from the orange LED varied between 0.36 and 0.44 from 10 to 100mA and a weak dependence of the polarization ratio on the injection current was observed.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Commercially available gallium nitride based light emitting diodes (LEDs) are grown along the polar c-axis direction and have strong built-in electric fields, such as spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization fields, which reduce the overlap of the electron and hole wave functions within quantum wells (QWs), resulting in lower device efficiencies [1,2]. In the LEDs, the carrier-induced screening by the polarization-induced electric fields presents a blueshift in peak emission wavelength with increasing injection current [3]. To eliminate these polarization effects in InGaN QWs, several groups have tried to fabricate LEDs grown on nonpolar planes such as the (10-10) m-plane or the (11-20) a-plane [47]. Another approach to reduce the polarization effects is to use the inclined planes with respect to c-direction, i.e., semipolar planes, (10-1-1), (11-22), (10-1-3), and (20-21) [810]. Besides circumventing the polarization effects, the LEDs grown on the nonpolar and the semipolar planes also emit the polarized light due to optical gain anisotropy [1114].

The research on the longer wavelength InGaN LEDs with high indium composition is required to expand the LED applications, for example monolithic white light LEDs, full color displays, and so on. Although the InGaN LEDs with various indium compositions fabricated on polar, semipolar and nonpolar planes have been widely reported [9,1517], there are few reports on the nonpolar a-plane LEDs with long wavelength because high indium InGaN growth is very difficult. In this paper, we demonstrate the orange a-plane InGaN/GaN single quantum well (SQW) LEDs grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD).

2. Experimental details

High crystalline quality a-plane (11-20) GaN film was directly grown on r-plane (1-102) sapphire substrates by MOCVD. Trimethylgallium (TMGa), trimethylindium (TMIn), bis-magnesium (CP2Mg), monosilane (SiH4), and ammonia (NH3) were used as the Ga, In, Mg, Si, and N precursors, respectively. Hydrogen was used as the carrier gas. Figure 1 shows the schematic structure of a-plane SQW LED with high indium composition used in this study. A 150-nm thick GaN buffer layer was grown in mixed atmosphere of N2 and H2 at high temperature to obtain a minimum surface roughness and dislocation density. Subsequently, a 4.5-μm thick a-plane GaN template with a high crystalline quality surface was obtained by the conventional two-step growth method. Next, we grew a 2-μm Si-doped n-type GaN layer, followed by an active region consisting of SQW with 20-nm thick GaN barriers and 18 nm InGaN well, followed by a 120-nm thick p-type GaN:Mg layer. The more detailed growth conditions and the properties of the a-plane GaN films were reported previously [18]. The growth temperature, the reactor pressure, and the V/III ratio of the InGaN layer were 740 °C, 200 mbar, and 230, respectively. To obtain the high indium composition, we maintained the low growth temperature and the low V/III ratio. We could estimate the indium composition to be 42% from the simulation using SiLENSe software. The doping concentration of the n-type GaN layer was ~4.4 × 1018 cm−3, and the hole concentration was estimated to be ~1.4 × 1018 cm−3. For a p-electrode, Ni/Au (3 nm/3 nm) was deposited on the p-GaN layer using an e-beam evaporator, followed by annealing in ambient air to form ohmic contacts. The mesa pattern with a dimension of 200 µm × 500 µm was transferred into the n-GaN layer down to 1 µm by inductively coupled plasma etching. Ti/Al/Ni/Au (20/150/30/100nm) was deposited as the n-electrode.

 

Fig. 1 Schematic view of orange a-plane InGaN/GaN SQW LED structure.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

All measurements of orange a-plane LEDs were carried out on wafer-level under direct current operation at room temperature.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 2(a) shows the change in the electroluminescence (EL) spectra as the driving current is increased from 10 to 100 mA. The LED emitted in the orange spectral range and the EL spectra have a single peak up to 20 mA despite the high indium content in the InGaN layer. Above the 30 mA, there is a shoulder on the shorter wavelength side due to inhomogeneous InGaN layer. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the orange a-plane LED is shown in Fig. 2(b). The forward voltage was 4 V at a forward current of 20 mA. This relatively high operating voltage in comparison to the c-plane LEDs is probably attributed to the unoptimized InGaN SQW, p-GaN layer, and Ni/Au contact.

 

Fig. 2 (a) EL spectra of orange a-plane InGaN/GaN SQW LED. (b) I-V characteristic of orange LED.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Figure 3(a) shows the EL emission spectrum of an as-grown LED structure with the peak wavelength of 612.2 nm and the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of 72 nm at 20 mA. To our knowledge, this wavelength is the longest value obtained for the nonpolar LEDs compared with previous reports [6,19]. The peak wavelength and the FWHM of the EL spectra were also plotted with increasing current, as shown in Fig. 3(b). The orange LED had a blue shift in emission wavelength from 614.6 nm at 10 mA to 607.5 nm at 100 mA, representing a net shift of 7.1 nm over a 90 mA range. The blue shift can be attributed to the band-filling of localized states induced by alloy fluctuation in the InGaN SQW.

 

Fig. 3 (a) EL spectrum of orange a-plane LED at 20mA. (b) The peak wavelength and the FWHM of the orange LED as a function of the injection current.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The FWHMs of the EL spectra exhibited narrowing followed by broadening with increasing current. A narrowing FWHM was observed in the low current range, and this is because the band-filling effects of the localized energy states with lower energy were saturated with increasing current. A broadening of the EL FWHM over 40 mA was shown; this was caused by heat generation due to non-radiative processes. The broadening of the EL FWHM in the higher current range is accompanied by redshift of the peak wavelength in the blue LED [20]. Our results show the absence of the redshift of the peak wavelength and the presence of the broadening of the FWHM. This indicates that the blueshift due to the state-filling effect surpasses the redshift due to the heat generation. Funato et al. demonstrated the amber InGaN/GaN LEDs on semipolar (11-22) bulk GaN substrates [9]. Our orange nonpolar (11-20) LED in comparison to an amber semipolar (11-22) LED has a smaller wavelength shift and broader FWHM. The smaller wavelength shift despite the longer wavelength indicates the absence of polarization-related internal electric fields in the active region of the device. The broader FWHM suggests the stronger state-filling effect in the orange nonpolar (11-20) LED due to compositional fluctuations by phase separation in InGaN alloys.

When an InGaN QW is fabricated on the nonpolar a-plane GaN, the in-plane strain will be anisotropic. Due to the anisotropic strain, original |X ± iY> valence band (VB) states are broken into |X>- and |Y>-like ones [21]. The VBs are reconstituted to |Y>-like, |Z>-like, and |X>-like ones, which are in order of decreasing electron energy in an a-plane InGaN/GaN QW system [22]. The transition from conduction band to |Y>-like state is related to the light polarization E perpendicular to the c-axis and the transition involving the |Z>-like state occurs at the higher energy under E parallel to the c-axis.

The energy separation between |Y>-like and |Z>-like states increases as compressive strain increases and the optical polarization becomes stronger as the splitting energy becomes larger [22]. Figure 4(a) shows the polarized emission spectra for the orange a-plane LED measured at 40mA. The solid line is light polarized along the m-axis and the dotted line is light polarized along the c-axis. The solid line with a longer wavelength has a stronger emission compared to the dotted line, which is a general phenomenon observed in InGaN/GaN QW systems on nonpolar or semi-polar planes [19,23]. This indicates that the optical transition from conduction band and the highest VB is related to the light polarization perpendicular to the c-axis. The solid line has a single peak at 609.2 nm, while the dotted line has a peak at 605.3 nm with 39% of the intensity of the solid line. The peak separation and the relative intensities reflect the splitting of the VB states.

 

Fig. 4 (a) Polarization resolved EL spectra of orange a-plane LED. (b) Optical polarization ratio of the orange LED as a function of the injection current.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The polarization ratio as a function of forward currents for the orange a-plane LED was measured, as shown in Fig. 4(b). The data were obtained by observation from the top a-plane LED using on-wafer measurements. The polarization characteristics of light emission from the top surface of the LEDs were evaluated by placing a rotational polarizer between the LEDs and a spectrometer. The polarization ratio, ρ, is defined as (I– I)/(I + I), where I and I are EL intensities for polarizations perpendicular and parallel to the c-axis, respectively. The polarization ratio values obtained from the orange LED were between 0.36 and 0.44, and the optical polarization ratio is not strongly affected by the current injection from 10 to 100 mA; this tendency is consistent with previous reports [10,24]. In our previous report [25], the polarization ratio of the blue a-plane LED was 0.4 at 20mA. According to the theoretical results [22], the orange a-plane LED should have a higher polarization ratio value than the blue a-plane LED because the in-plane strain increases with more indium composition in an InGaN QW, and further splits the VBs, which results in a higher polarization ratio. The low polarization ratio of the orange LED might be attributed to the zero-dimensional nature of the localizing radiative centers by the dotlike indium-rich region in SQW [26]. Another possible cause is the strain relaxation by stacking faults and misfit dislocations [27] which reduce the separation of the VBs. Regarding the number of QWs on the polarization ratio, the SQW is beneficial for a higher polarization ratio because the a-plane green LED with four periodic quantum wells in our experiments had a 0.24 polarization ratio. We believe that the low polarization ratio is due to strain relaxation by the multiple QWs which increases the generation of stacking faults compared to the SQW. We expect that a higher polarization ratio value can be achieved with improved crystal quality, a homogeneous InGaN single layer, and reduced random polarization.

4. Conclusion

We have demonstrated the orange a-plane LEDs with InGaN SQW grown on r-plane sapphire substrates. The device shows a blue shift in emission wavelength from 614.6 nm at 10 mA to 607.5 nm at 100 mA, representing a net shift of 7.1 nm over a 90 mA range. Our orange nonpolar (11-20) LED in comparison to an amber semipolar (11-22) LED has a smaller wavelength shift. This smaller wavelength shift, despite the longer wavelength, indicates the absence of polarization-related internal electric fields in the active region of the device. The polarization ratio values obtained from the orange LED were between 0.36 and 0.44, and the optical polarization ratio is not strongly affected by the current injection. These results suggest that nonpolar a-plane LEDs on r-plane sapphire substrates could be a possible approach for the longer wavelength.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the IT R&D programs of the Ministry of Knowledge Economy at Korea Electronics Technology Institute (Project No. K1002099, K1002079, and 10032325).

References and links

1. S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996). [CrossRef]  

2. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997). [CrossRef]  

3. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005). [CrossRef]  

5. Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009). [CrossRef]  

6. T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008). [CrossRef]  

7. S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009). [CrossRef]  

8. H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006). [CrossRef]  

9. M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006). [CrossRef]  

10. R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010). [CrossRef]  

11. N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005). [CrossRef]  

12. H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005). [CrossRef]  

13. R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005). [CrossRef]  

14. H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006). [CrossRef]  

15. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995). [CrossRef]  

16. K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997). [CrossRef]  

17. H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008). [CrossRef]  

18. H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010). [CrossRef]  

19. S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010). [CrossRef]  

20. K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007). [CrossRef]  

21. T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006). [CrossRef]  

22. H.-H. Huang and Y.-R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009). [CrossRef]  

23. N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008). [CrossRef]  

24. H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008). [CrossRef]  

25. Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010). [CrossRef]  

26. C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009). [CrossRef]  

27. A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H.-H. Huang and Y.-R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (4)

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Huang and Y.-R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Azuhata, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J. H.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baker, T. J.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyama, S.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breitkopf, T.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S. F.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, I.-S.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chung, R. B.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Demeester, P.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fellows, N.

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. M.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grahn, H. T.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ha, J.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hanser, D.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, M. A.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirasawa, H.

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.-H.

H.-H. Huang and Y.-R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-M.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hyeon Baik, K.

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iida, D.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iso, K.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iwaya, M.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ke, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. G.

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koslow, I.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kosugi, T.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, S. Y.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kyu Kim, E.

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, M. H.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Masui, H.

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Middleton, P. G.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.-I.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakada, N.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nitta, S.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O'Donnell, K. P.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, H.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, K.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Onuma, T.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-H.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paskova, T.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pattison, P. M.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfa?, N.

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ponce, F. A.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Preble, E. A.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ramsteiner, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, M.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Senda, R.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seo, Y. G.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.-M.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suh, J.

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trampert, A.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ueda, M.

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ushida, Y.

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van der Stricht, W.

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Waltereit, P.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. C.

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-R.

H.-H. Huang and Y.-R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H.

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, S.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (4)

Y. Saito, K. Okuno, S. Boyama, N. Nakada, S. Nitta, Y. Ushida, and N. Shibata, “m-plane GaInN light emitting diodes grown on patterned a-plane sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamada, K. Iso, M. Saito, H. Masui, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Compositional dependence of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 1, 041101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. You, T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, W. Hou, E. A. Preble, D. Hanser, T. Paskova, and C. Wetzel, “Highly polarized green light emitting diode in m-axis GaInN/GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Fischer, Z. Wu, K. Sun, Q. Wei, Y. Huang, R. Senda, D. Iida, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, and F. A. Ponce, “Misfit strain relaxation by stacking fault generation in InGaN quantum wells grown on m-plane GaN,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 041002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, M. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, and S. F. Chichibu, “Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar m-plane InxGa1-xN/ GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(9), 091906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. P. O'Donnell, T. Breitkopf, H. Kalt, W. Van der Stricht, I. Moerman, P. Demeester, and P. G. Middleton, “Optical linewidths of InGaN light emitting diodes and epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(14), 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN–GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of a semipolar (10-1-3) InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(23), 231110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Detchprohm, M. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Xia, C. Wetzel, E. A. Preble, L. Liu, T. Paskova, and D. Hanser, “Green light emitting diodes on a-plane GaN bulk substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(24), 241109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-M. Hwang, Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, I.-S. Cho, J. H. Baek, S. Jung, T. G. Kim, and M. Cho, “Demonstration of nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on r-plane sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(7), 071101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. G. Seo, K. H. Baik, K.-M. Song, S. Lee, H. Yoon, J.-H. Park, K. Oh, and S.-M. Hwang, “Milliwatt-class non-polar a-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown directly on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 10(6), 1407–1410 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Optical properties of a-plane InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(6), 063105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-H. Huang and Y.-R. Wu, “Study of polarization properties of light emitted from a-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Light-polarization characteristics of electroluminescence from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared on (11-22) plane GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. Song, J. Suh, E. Kyu Kim, K. Hyeon Baik, and S.-M. Hwang, “Growth of high quality a-plane GaN epi-layer on r-plane sapphire substrates with optimization of multi-buffer layer,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(21), 3122–3126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure,” J. Phys. D 41(22), 225104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (8)

N. Fellows, H. Sato, H. Masui, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increased polarization ratio on semipolar (11–22) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with increasing indium composition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(10), 7854–7856 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Iso, H. Yamada, H. Hirasawa, N. Fellows, M. Saito, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “High brightness blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diode on nonpolar m-plane bulk GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L960–L962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S.-I. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Polarized light emission from nonpolar InGaN light-emitting diodes grown on a bulk m-plane GaN substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(43), L1329–L1332 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Demonstration of nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5), L173–L175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Masui, T. J. Baker, R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, M. Iza, H. Zhong, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “First-moment analysis of polarized light emission from InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes prepared semipolar planes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(34), L904–L906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Funato, M. Ueda, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, T. Kosugi, M. Takahashi, and T. Mukai, “Blue, green, and amber InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar {11-22} GaN bulk substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(26), L659–L662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Chung, Y. Lin, I. Koslow, N. Pfaff, H. Ohta, J. Ha, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Electroluminescence characterization of (20-21) InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with various wavelengths,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 070203 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of orange a-plane InGaN/GaN SQW LED structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) EL spectra of orange a-plane InGaN/GaN SQW LED. (b) I-V characteristic of orange LED.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) EL spectrum of orange a-plane LED at 20mA. (b) The peak wavelength and the FWHM of the orange LED as a function of the injection current.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Polarization resolved EL spectra of orange a-plane LED. (b) Optical polarization ratio of the orange LED as a function of the injection current.

Metrics