Abstract

The radiation force of highly focused Lorentz-Gauss beams (LG beam) on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime is theoretically studied. The numerical results show that the Lorentz-Gauss beam can be used to trap particles with the refractive index larger than that of the ambient. The radiation force distribution has been studied under different beam widths of the Lorentz part. The trapping stability under different conditions is also analyzed.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Recently, a new type of optical beam called Lorentz-Gauss beam has attracted a great deal of interest. The existence of Lorentz-Gauss beam is demonstrated both in theory and in experiment. In theory, the Lorentz-Gauss beam is proved a closed-form solution of the paraxial wave equation [1,2]; in experiment, the Lorentz-Gauss beam can be realized by certain double heterojunction lasers [3,4]. The characteristics and applications of Lorentz-Gauss beams have been investigated [59].

In 1986, Ashkin reported that optical trapping of dielectric particles by a single-beam gradient force trap was demonstrated for the first time [10]. Since then, this new technology has found wide applications in manipulating various particles such as micro-sized dielectric particles, neutral atoms, cells, DNA molecules, and living biological cells [1116]. The conventional optical traps or tweezers are constructed mainly by fundamental Gaussian beams. However, many researches have demonstrated that other beams are also useful in trapping particles. The trapping characteristics of different beams, such as Laguerre Gaussian beams [17], hollow Gaussian beams [18], Bessel Gaussian beams [19], cylindrical vector beams [20], Gaussian Schell model beams [21] and flat- topped Gaussian beams [22] have been studied. It has been found that the radiation forces produced by a laser beam are mainly related to its beam characteristics such as beam profile and polarization. In this paper, we investigate the radiation force produced by highly focused Lorentz Gauss beam on a dielectric spherical particle in the Rayleigh scattering regime. By comparing the optical trap of the Lorentz-Gauss beam with that of the conventional Gaussian beam, We find some interesting and useful results.

2. Radiation force produced by the Lorentz-Gauss beam

Using the Cartesian coordinate system, whose origin is the center of the beam, we can represent the electric field of the Lorentz-Gauss beam at the input plane as [1]:

E0=A0wxwy1[1+(x0/wx)2][1+(y0/wy)2]exp[ik(x02+y02)2q0],
where x0 and y0 is the coordinates in the input plane; wx and wy are beam widths of the Lorentz part;k=2π/λis the wave number,q0=iπw02/λis the radius of curvature, λ is the wavelength, w0 is the waist of the Gaussian part; A0 is a constant.

Under paraxial approximation, the electric field of Lorentz-Gauss beam that passes through an ABCD optical system can be expressed as [1,6]:

E(x,y,z)=iA0π24λBexp(ikz)exp[ik(x2+y2)2q](Vx++Vx)(Vy++Vy),
where z is the axial distance, q=(Aq0+B)/(Cq0+D)is the radius of curvature at the output plane, and
Vj±=exp[ikG2B(wj±ijG)]{1erf[ikG2B(wj±ijG)]},
where j stands for x or y, G=A+B/q0, erf(x) is the error function.We consider the Lorentz-Gauss beam propagating through a lens as shown in Fig. 1 , so the transfer matrix for this system is:
[ABCD]=[z1fsz1f+f+z11fsf+1],
where z 1 is the axial distance between the focus plane and the output plane, s is the axial distance between the input plane and the lens, f is the focal length. Substituting Eq. (4) into Eq. (2), we can get the distribution of the electric field at the output plane. In our paper, we choose s = 100mm, f = 10 mm,λ = 1064nm, w0 = 10mm, wx = wy, and the input power P = 1W.

 

Fig. 1 The sketch of the optical system, in which the Lorentz-Gauss beam is highly focused by the lens.

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In Fig. 2 , the intensity distribution of the Lorentz-Gauss beam is compared with the fundamental Gaussian beam in the x direction. We can see that when the two types of beams possess the same power and w0, the maximum intensity of the Lorentz-Gauss beam is greater than that of the Gaussian beam at the input plane; but this relationship reverses at the focus plane.

 

Fig. 2 The intensity distribution in the x direction of the Lorentz-Gauss beam (LGB) and the fundamental Gaussian beam (GB) at (a) the input plane; (b) the focus plane. w0 is also the beam waist of GB and wx = 10mm for LGB.

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As is well known, the Rayleigh particle, whose radius is much smaller than the wavelength, can be treated as a point dipole in the light fields. And the polarisabilityαfor the point dipole in SI units is [23]:

α=4πa3εpεmεp+2εm,
where a is the radius of the particle,εpandεmare dielectric functions of the particle and the medium surrounding the particle, respectively. So the gradient force Fgrad and the scattering force Fsca can be calculated by [24,25]:
Fgrad=14ε0εmRe(α)|E2|,
Fsca=ε0εm3k412π|α2||E2|,
where ε0 is the dielectric constant in vacuum. In our following investigation, we assume the a = 30nm, the refractive index of the particle np = 1.59 (i.e., glass) and the refractive index of the surrounding medium nm = 1.33 (i.e., water), soεp=np2, εm=nm2.

We plot distributions of the transverse gradient force Fgrad,x, the longitudinal gradient force Fgrad,z, the scattering force Fsca exerted on the dielectric particles in Fig. 3 . For simplicity, we only investigate the radiation force distribution in the x direction; the force distribution in other transverse directions can be obtained by analogy. From Figs. 3(a), 3(d) and 3(g), we can see that a Rayleigh particle whose refractive index is larger than that of the ambient can be trapped at the focus point by the highly focused Lorentz-Gauss beam, because there are stable equilibrium points in Figs. 3(a) and 3(d). From Fig. 3, we can also see that the force distribution of Lorentz-Gauss beam gradually approaches to that of the fundamental Gaussian beam as wx increases: Fgrad,x in the focus plane and Fgrad,z increase with wx, but Fgrad,x near the focus plane (z1 = 2um) decreases as wx increase. From Figs. 3(e) and 3(f), we can find that the Lorentz-Gauss beam could stably trap the particle at x = 0.25um, but the fundamental Gaussian beam could not. When x = 0.5um, neither the two beams could trap the particle. So we can conclude that using Lorentz-Gauss beam instead of Gaussian beam, the trapping stability for the Rayleigh dielectric particle will be better in the trapping region except at the focal point. From Figs. 3(g) and 3(h), it is also found that the Lorentz-Gauss beam with small wx results in small scattering force, which is of benefit to trapping.

 

Fig. 3 The transverse gradient force ((a)-(c)) produced by highly focused Lorentz-Gauss beam with different wx at different positions z1, and the Longitudinal gradient force ((d)-(f)) and the scattering force ((g) and (h)) at different transverse positions x. The calculation parameters are w0 = 10mm, f = 10mm. GB is the fundamental Gaussian beam with beam waist w0.

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3. Analysis of trapping stability

For stably trapping, the gradient force must be large enough to overcome the scattering force, the Brownian force and the gravity of the particle [10]. The Brownian force, which describes the influence of the Brownian motion, can be calculated by the expression [26]:

|Fb|=12πηakBT,
where η is the viscosity of the ambient, which is 8.0 × 10−4 Pa·s at T = 300K; a is the radius and kB is the Boltzmann constant.

We plot the change of the magnitude of all the forces in Fig. 4 , where Fgrad,xm is maximum transverse gradient force, Fgrad,zm is maximum longitudinal gradient force, Fscam is maximum scattering force, Fb is the Brownian force, Fg is the gravity. We can see that the gravity of the particle could be neglected comparing with the gradient force. In Fig. 4(a), it is found that the particle can be stably trapped when 1mm<wx<20mm under the conditions that f=10 mm, a=30nm, w0=10mm; if wx is too small, the Brownian force will be too strong. In Fig. 4(b), it is found that the particle can be stably trapped when 10nm<a<50nm under the conditions that wx=10mm, f=10mm, w0=10mm. When a is too small, the disturbance is mainly from the Brownian motion; but when a is greater than 27nm, the disturbance is mainly from the scattering force. However, trapping for even larger particles with Lorentz-Gauss beam could not be analyzed by the theory of Rayleigh approximation, so alternative theories must be applied, which deserves our further investigations.

 

Fig. 4 Comparison of Fgrad,xm, Fgrad,zm, Fb and Fg (a) with different wx, while the other parameters are f = 10 mm, a = 30 nm, w0 = 10 mm, and (b) with different particle radius a, while the other parameters are wx = 10 mm, f = 10 mm,w0 = 10 mm.

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4. Conclusion

In summary, we have studied the radiation force on a dielectric spherical particle produced by the highly focused Lorentz-Gauss beam in the Rayleigh scattering regime. We have also investigated the effect of the beam width of the Lorentz part wx on the radiation force. It is found that the gradient force at the focus plane increases as wx increases, but decreases at the planes near the focus plane. So the Lorentz Gauss beam with a small wx offers advantage over the beam with a great wx and the Gaussian beam while trapping particles at the planes near the focus plane. Finally, the analysis of trapping stability shows that it is necessary to choose suitable wx and radius a for effective trapping with the Lorentz-Gauss beam. Our results are interesting and useful for particle trapping.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 10974177, 10874012) and the program of International S&T Cooperation of China (Grant No. 2010DFA04690).

References and links

1. O. E. Gawhary and S. Severini, “Lorentz beams and symmetry properties in paraxial optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(5), 409–414 (2006). [CrossRef]  

2. M. A. Bandres and J. C. Gutiérrez-Vega, “Cartesian beams,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3459–3461 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. W. P. Dumke, “Angular beam divergence in double-heterojunction lasers with very thin active regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(7), 400–402 (1975). [CrossRef]  

4. A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Focusing of diode laser beams: a simple mathematical model,” Appl. Opt. 29(12), 1780–1785 (1990). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. A. Torre, W A B. Evans, O. E. Gawhary, and S. Severini, “Relativistic Hermite polynomials and Lorentz beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(11), 115007 (2008). [CrossRef]  

6. G. Q. Zhou, “Focal shift of focused truncated Lorentz-Gauss beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(10), 2594–2599 (2008). [CrossRef]  

7. G. Q. Zhou, “Nonparaxial propagation of a Lorentz-Gauss beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(1), 141–147 (2009). [CrossRef]  

8. G. Q. Zhou, “Propagation of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4637–4643 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. G. Q. Zhou and X. X. Chu, “Average intensity and spreading of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 18(2), 726–731 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. A. A. Ambardekar and Y. Q. Li, “Optical levitation and manipulation of stuck particles with pulsed optical tweezers,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1797–1799 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. P. Zemánek and C. J. Foot, “Atomic dipole trap formed by blue detuned strong Gaussian standing wave,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 119–123 (1998). [CrossRef]  

13. S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead movement by single kinesin molecules studied with optical tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, “The bacteriophage straight phi29 portal motor can package DNA against a large internal force,” Nature 413(6857), 748–752 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. L. Oroszi, P. Galajda, H. Kirei, S. Bottka, and P. Ormos, “Direct measurement of torque in an optical trap and its application to double-strand DNA,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 058301 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. C. Day, “Optical trap resolves the stepwise transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA,” Phys. Today 59(1), 26–27 (2006). [CrossRef]  

17. M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, P. J. Reece, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Optical vortex trap for resonant confinement of metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4991–4999 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused hollow Gaussian beams,” Phys. Lett. A 363(5-6), 502–506 (2007). [CrossRef]  

19. C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces of highly focused Bessel-Gaussian beams on a dielectric sphere,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(10), 477–480 (2008). [CrossRef]  

20. Q. W. Zhan, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(3), 229–232 (2003). [CrossRef]  

21. L. G. Wang, C. L. Zhao, L. Q. Wang, X. H. Lu, and S. Y. Zhu, “Effect of spatial coherence on radiation forces acting on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1393–1395 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. C. L. Zhao, Y. J. Cai, X. H. Lu, and H. T. Eyyuboğlu, “Radiation force of coherent and partially coherent flat-topped beams on a Rayleigh particle,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1753–1765 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988). [CrossRef]  

24. Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996). [CrossRef]  

25. M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles: a review,” J. Nanophotonics 2(1), 021875 (2008). [CrossRef]  

26. K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, “Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(22), 4534–4537 (1999). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. O. E. Gawhary and S. Severini, “Lorentz beams and symmetry properties in paraxial optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(5), 409–414 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Bandres and J. C. Gutiérrez-Vega, “Cartesian beams,” Opt. Lett. 32(23), 3459–3461 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. P. Dumke, “Angular beam divergence in double-heterojunction lasers with very thin active regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(7), 400–402 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Focusing of diode laser beams: a simple mathematical model,” Appl. Opt. 29(12), 1780–1785 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Torre, W A B. Evans, O. E. Gawhary, and S. Severini, “Relativistic Hermite polynomials and Lorentz beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(11), 115007 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Q. Zhou, “Focal shift of focused truncated Lorentz-Gauss beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(10), 2594–2599 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Q. Zhou, “Nonparaxial propagation of a Lorentz-Gauss beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(1), 141–147 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Q. Zhou, “Propagation of a partially coherent Lorentz-Gauss beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4637–4643 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Q. Zhou and X. X. Chu, “Average intensity and spreading of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere,” Opt. Express 18(2), 726–731 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, J. E. Bjorkholm, and S. Chu, “Observation of a single-beam gradient force optical trap for dielectric particles,” Opt. Lett. 11(5), 288–290 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. A. Ambardekar and Y. Q. Li, “Optical levitation and manipulation of stuck particles with pulsed optical tweezers,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1797–1799 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Zemánek and C. J. Foot, “Atomic dipole trap formed by blue detuned strong Gaussian standing wave,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 119–123 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead movement by single kinesin molecules studied with optical tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, “The bacteriophage straight phi29 portal motor can package DNA against a large internal force,” Nature 413(6857), 748–752 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Oroszi, P. Galajda, H. Kirei, S. Bottka, and P. Ormos, “Direct measurement of torque in an optical trap and its application to double-strand DNA,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 058301 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Day, “Optical trap resolves the stepwise transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA,” Phys. Today 59(1), 26–27 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, P. J. Reece, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Optical vortex trap for resonant confinement of metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4991–4999 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused hollow Gaussian beams,” Phys. Lett. A 363(5-6), 502–506 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces of highly focused Bessel-Gaussian beams on a dielectric sphere,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(10), 477–480 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Q. W. Zhan, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(3), 229–232 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. G. Wang, C. L. Zhao, L. Q. Wang, X. H. Lu, and S. Y. Zhu, “Effect of spatial coherence on radiation forces acting on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1393–1395 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. L. Zhao, Y. J. Cai, X. H. Lu, and H. T. Eyyuboğlu, “Radiation force of coherent and partially coherent flat-topped beams on a Rayleigh particle,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1753–1765 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles: a review,” J. Nanophotonics 2(1), 021875 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, “Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(22), 4534–4537 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (5)

M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, P. J. Reece, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, “Optical vortex trap for resonant confinement of metal nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4991–4999 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Zhou, “Focal shift of focused truncated Lorentz-Gauss beam,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(10), 2594–2599 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Torre, W A B. Evans, O. E. Gawhary, and S. Severini, “Relativistic Hermite polynomials and Lorentz beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(11), 115007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces of highly focused Bessel-Gaussian beams on a dielectric sphere,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(10), 477–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Dienerowitz, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “Optical manipulation of nanoparticles: a review,” J. Nanophotonics 2(1), 021875 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

L. Oroszi, P. Galajda, H. Kirei, S. Bottka, and P. Ormos, “Direct measurement of torque in an optical trap and its application to double-strand DNA,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 058301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Day, “Optical trap resolves the stepwise transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA,” Phys. Today 59(1), 26–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. E. Gawhary and S. Severini, “Lorentz beams and symmetry properties in paraxial optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(5), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

Q. W. Zhan, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(3), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, “The bacteriophage straight phi29 portal motor can package DNA against a large internal force,” Nature 413(6857), 748–752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, “Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(22), 4534–4537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Zemánek and C. J. Foot, “Atomic dipole trap formed by blue detuned strong Gaussian standing wave,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 119–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

A. Naqwi and F. Durst, “Focusing of diode laser beams: a simple mathematical model,” Appl. Opt. 29(12), 1780–1785 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead movement by single kinesin molecules studied with optical tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1975 (1)

W. P. Dumke, “Angular beam divergence in double-heterojunction lasers with very thin active regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(7), 400–402 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ambardekar, A. A.

Anderson, D. L.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, “The bacteriophage straight phi29 portal motor can package DNA against a large internal force,” Nature 413(6857), 748–752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asakura, T.

Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Bandres, M. A.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Block, S. M.

S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead movement by single kinesin molecules studied with optical tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bottka, S.

L. Oroszi, P. Galajda, H. Kirei, S. Bottka, and P. Ormos, “Direct measurement of torque in an optical trap and its application to double-strand DNA,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 058301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bustamante, C.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, “The bacteriophage straight phi29 portal motor can package DNA against a large internal force,” Nature 413(6857), 748–752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, Y. J.

Chu, S.

Chu, X. X.

Day, C.

C. Day, “Optical trap resolves the stepwise transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA,” Phys. Today 59(1), 26–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

Dienerowitz, M.

Draine, B. T.

B. T. Draine, “The discrete-dipole approximation and its application to interstellar graphite grains,” Astrophys. J. 333, 848–872 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dumke, W. P.

W. P. Dumke, “Angular beam divergence in double-heterojunction lasers with very thin active regions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(7), 400–402 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Durst, F.

Dziedzic, J. M.

Evans, W A B.

A. Torre, W A B. Evans, O. E. Gawhary, and S. Severini, “Relativistic Hermite polynomials and Lorentz beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(11), 115007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eyyuboglu, H. T.

Foot, C. J.

P. Zemánek and C. J. Foot, “Atomic dipole trap formed by blue detuned strong Gaussian standing wave,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 119–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galajda, P.

L. Oroszi, P. Galajda, H. Kirei, S. Bottka, and P. Ormos, “Direct measurement of torque in an optical trap and its application to double-strand DNA,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 058301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gawhary, O. E.

A. Torre, W A B. Evans, O. E. Gawhary, and S. Severini, “Relativistic Hermite polynomials and Lorentz beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(11), 115007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. E. Gawhary and S. Severini, “Lorentz beams and symmetry properties in paraxial optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(5), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, L. S. B.

S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead movement by single kinesin molecules studied with optical tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimes, S.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, “The bacteriophage straight phi29 portal motor can package DNA against a large internal force,” Nature 413(6857), 748–752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gutiérrez-Vega, J. C.

Harada, Y.

Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, “Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(22), 4534–4537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kirei, H.

L. Oroszi, P. Galajda, H. Kirei, S. Bottka, and P. Ormos, “Direct measurement of torque in an optical trap and its application to double-strand DNA,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 058301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

Li, Y. Q.

Lu, X. H.

C. L. Zhao, Y. J. Cai, X. H. Lu, and H. T. Eyyuboğlu, “Radiation force of coherent and partially coherent flat-topped beams on a Rayleigh particle,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1753–1765 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces of highly focused Bessel-Gaussian beams on a dielectric sphere,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(10), 477–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Wang, C. L. Zhao, L. Q. Wang, X. H. Lu, and S. Y. Zhu, “Effect of spatial coherence on radiation forces acting on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1393–1395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused hollow Gaussian beams,” Phys. Lett. A 363(5-6), 502–506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mazilu, M.

Naqwi, A.

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, “Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(22), 4534–4537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ormos, P.

L. Oroszi, P. Galajda, H. Kirei, S. Bottka, and P. Ormos, “Direct measurement of torque in an optical trap and its application to double-strand DNA,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 058301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oroszi, L.

L. Oroszi, P. Galajda, H. Kirei, S. Bottka, and P. Ormos, “Direct measurement of torque in an optical trap and its application to double-strand DNA,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 058301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reece, P. J.

Schnapp, B. J.

S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead movement by single kinesin molecules studied with optical tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Severini, S.

A. Torre, W A B. Evans, O. E. Gawhary, and S. Severini, “Relativistic Hermite polynomials and Lorentz beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(11), 115007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. E. Gawhary and S. Severini, “Lorentz beams and symmetry properties in paraxial optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(5), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. E.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, “The bacteriophage straight phi29 portal motor can package DNA against a large internal force,” Nature 413(6857), 748–752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. B.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, “The bacteriophage straight phi29 portal motor can package DNA against a large internal force,” Nature 413(6857), 748–752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tans, S. J.

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, “The bacteriophage straight phi29 portal motor can package DNA against a large internal force,” Nature 413(6857), 748–752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torre, A.

A. Torre, W A B. Evans, O. E. Gawhary, and S. Severini, “Relativistic Hermite polynomials and Lorentz beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(11), 115007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. G.

C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces of highly focused Bessel-Gaussian beams on a dielectric sphere,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(10), 477–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused hollow Gaussian beams,” Phys. Lett. A 363(5-6), 502–506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Wang, C. L. Zhao, L. Q. Wang, X. H. Lu, and S. Y. Zhu, “Effect of spatial coherence on radiation forces acting on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1393–1395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. Q.

Zemánek, P.

P. Zemánek and C. J. Foot, “Atomic dipole trap formed by blue detuned strong Gaussian standing wave,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 119–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q. W.

Q. W. Zhan, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(3), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, C. L.

C. L. Zhao, Y. J. Cai, X. H. Lu, and H. T. Eyyuboğlu, “Radiation force of coherent and partially coherent flat-topped beams on a Rayleigh particle,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1753–1765 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces of highly focused Bessel-Gaussian beams on a dielectric sphere,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(10), 477–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Wang, C. L. Zhao, L. Q. Wang, X. H. Lu, and S. Y. Zhu, “Effect of spatial coherence on radiation forces acting on a Rayleigh dielectric sphere,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1393–1395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused hollow Gaussian beams,” Phys. Lett. A 363(5-6), 502–506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G. Q.

Zhu, S. Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

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J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (3)

A. Torre, W A B. Evans, O. E. Gawhary, and S. Severini, “Relativistic Hermite polynomials and Lorentz beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 10(11), 115007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. E. Gawhary and S. Severini, “Lorentz beams and symmetry properties in paraxial optics,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(5), 409–414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. W. Zhan, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused cylindrical vector beams,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5(3), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (2)

S. M. Block, L. S. B. Goldstein, and B. J. Schnapp, “Bead movement by single kinesin molecules studied with optical tweezers,” Nature 348(6299), 348–352 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Smith, S. J. Tans, S. B. Smith, S. Grimes, D. L. Anderson, and C. Bustamante, “The bacteriophage straight phi29 portal motor can package DNA against a large internal force,” Nature 413(6857), 748–752 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Zemánek and C. J. Foot, “Atomic dipole trap formed by blue detuned strong Gaussian standing wave,” Opt. Commun. 146(1-6), 119–123 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Harada and T. Asakura, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh scattering regime,” Opt. Commun. 124(5-6), 529–541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optik (Stuttg.) (1)

C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces of highly focused Bessel-Gaussian beams on a dielectric sphere,” Optik (Stuttg.) 119(10), 477–480 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

C. L. Zhao, L. G. Wang, and X. H. Lu, “Radiation forces on a dielectric sphere produced by highly focused hollow Gaussian beams,” Phys. Lett. A 363(5-6), 502–506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. Oroszi, P. Galajda, H. Kirei, S. Bottka, and P. Ormos, “Direct measurement of torque in an optical trap and its application to double-strand DNA,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(5), 058301 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto and S. Kawata, “Radiation force exerted on subwavelength particles near a nanoaperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(22), 4534–4537 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today (1)

C. Day, “Optical trap resolves the stepwise transfer of genetic information from DNA to RNA,” Phys. Today 59(1), 26–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The sketch of the optical system, in which the Lorentz-Gauss beam is highly focused by the lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The intensity distribution in the x direction of the Lorentz-Gauss beam (LGB) and the fundamental Gaussian beam (GB) at (a) the input plane; (b) the focus plane. w0 is also the beam waist of GB and wx = 10mm for LGB.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The transverse gradient force ((a)-(c)) produced by highly focused Lorentz-Gauss beam with different wx at different positions z1 , and the Longitudinal gradient force ((d)-(f)) and the scattering force ((g) and (h)) at different transverse positions x. The calculation parameters are w0 = 10mm, f = 10mm. GB is the fundamental Gaussian beam with beam waist w0 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of F g r a d , x m , F g r a d , z m , F b and F g (a) with different wx , while the other parameters are f = 10 mm, a = 30 nm, w0 = 10 mm, and (b) with different particle radius a, while the other parameters are wx = 10 mm, f = 10 mm,w0 = 10 mm.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 0 = A 0 w x w y 1 [ 1 + ( x 0 / w x ) 2 ] [ 1 + ( y 0 / w y ) 2 ] exp [ i k ( x 0 2 + y 0 2 ) 2 q 0 ] ,
E ( x , y , z ) = i A 0 π 2 4 λ B exp ( i k z ) exp [ i k ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 q ] ( V x + + V x ) ( V y + + V y ) ,
V j ± = exp [ i k G 2 B ( w j ± i j G ) ] { 1 e r f [ i k G 2 B ( w j ± i j G ) ] } ,
[ A B C D ] = [ z 1 f s z 1 f + f + z 1 1 f s f + 1 ] ,
α = 4 π a 3 ε p ε m ε p + 2 ε m ,
F g r a d = 1 4 ε 0 ε m Re ( α ) | E 2 | ,
F s c a = ε 0 ε m 3 k 4 12 π | α 2 | | E 2 | ,
| F b | = 12 π η a k B T ,

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