Abstract

We fabricated InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode (LED) arrays using nanosphere lithography for nanorod formation, PECVD (plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition) grown SiO2 layer for sidewall passivation, and chemical mechanical polishing for uniform nanorod contact. The nano-device demonstrates a reverse current 4.77nA at −5V, an ideality factor 7.35, and an optical output intensity 6807mW/cm2 at the injection current density 32A/cm2 (20mA). Moreover, the investigation of the droop effect for such a nanorod LED array reveals that junction heating is responsible for the sharp decrease at the low current.

©2010 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The synthesis of nanowires or nanocolumns has attracted much attention in recent years as it brings huge impact to the research and applications in electronics, biology and optoelectronics. The exploration on nanoscale device properties not only helps the research of the fundamental physics but also improves the device performance. For example, nanostructure LEDs have the advantage of increasing surface area from the sidewalls of nanorods, which may have the chance to improve optical output. Furthermore, the availability of nanostructure provides an excellent tool to study carrier transport and material strain that limit the performance of light sources, especially in the GaN based devices. The synthesis of nanowire or nanocolumn structure is generally divided into bottom-up and top-down approaches. In the bottom-up method, the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth has been widely employed [13], which metal nanoparticles such as Fe, Au and Ni are used as the catalysts during the growth procedure. While in the top-down approach, the process simply uses nano-scale etching masks and followed by dry or wet etching to form nanorod structure. E-beam lithography, for example, is carried out to achieve high resolution and well defined nano-patterns. However, the disadvantages of low-throughput and high-cost make e-beam lithography unsuitable for commercial device applications. Alternatively, self-assembled metal nanomasks or self-organized nanoparticles provide high-throughput yet less organized nanopatterns [46].

Despite numerous research works on nanowire/nanorod synthesis, only a limited number of groups reported fabrication and characterizations on the nanorod LED arrays [510]. The critical issue of nanorod LED fabrication is to prevent shorting the p- and n-type semiconductors when depositing the top metal contact. In addition, for most nanorod arrays, the leakage current is inevitable and the device fails before light emission as the junction temperature becomes too high. There have been several solutions proposed, including the insertion of spin-on glass (SOG) [5] or polymer (such as SU-8) as the space layer [6], the usage of oblique indium tin oxide (ITO) deposition [7], and the photo-enhanced chemical (PEC) wet oxidation process of GaN nanorod sidewalls [8] to achieve nanorod devices. Some reported the reduction of the reverse bias current to μA range [5,8,10]. The optical power of GaN based nanorod arrays is as high as 3700mW/cm2 at the injection current of 20mA (corresponding to the current density of 22.22A/cm2) [7]. Despite the report of light emission from nanorod arrays, a reliable manufacturing process with high production yield and excellent performance isn’t available. The current-voltage curves of such nanodevices suggest that they suffer from large leakage currents, large ideality factors, and low optical output power, as compared with conventional planar GaN based LEDs.

In this work, the technology of nanosphere lithography was applied to fabricate nanorod arrays. By spin-coating a monolayer of nanospheres on top of the GaN based LED epi-structure, and followed by semiconductor etching, the InGaN/GaN nanorod structure was realized. With PECVD grown SiO2 sidewall passivation, the leakage current can be significantly reduced. Furthermore, we performed a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) technique to achieve uniform exposure of p-type GaN nanorod tips on the sample. The electrical and optical properties were characterized. We demonstrated a naorod LED array with high optical output power and a low ideality factor.

2. Fabrication

The nanorod LED fabrication started from preparing a multi quantum well (MQW) InGaN/GaN LED epi-structure. The GaN based LED sample is grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on a c-plane sapphire substrate. The material structure is composed of a 25nm GaN buffer layer, a 2μm Si doped n-type GaN layer, a five period of InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structure in which each period is 17nm, and a 160nm Mg doped p-type GaN layer [see Fig. 1(a) ]. The average composition of indium (In) x is around 0.2 with the quantum well thickness of 3nm, which results in a photoluminescent peak wavelength at 467nm. The nanorod fabrication started from the definition of a 250x250 μm2 mesa pattern and followed by spin-coating a monolayer of silica nanoparticles with the diameter 100 ± 10nm. Using the silica nanoparticles as the etch mask, the nanorods were then exposed on the sample after the subsequent ICP-RIE (inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching) etching [Fig. 1(b)]. The nanorod array is shown from the SEM (scanning electron microscope) image in Fig. 2(a) . The etching depth is around 290nm. In the next step, a 100nm-thick SiO2 insulating layer was blanket coated on the sample using PECVD, which prevents shorting the p-type and n-type semiconductor and meanwhile passivates defects created during the nanorod etching [Fig. 1(c)]. Next, CMP process employing Al2O3 particle slurry with the diameter around 800nm was applied to remove the SiO2 deposited right on the tips of nanorods [Fig. 1(d)]. Since the surface microhardness of GaN is around 1200-1700 kg/mm2 [11], while that of SiO2 is 790kg/mm2 [12], the difference ensures that the SiO2 layer right on top of GaN nanorods can be easily removed without damaging the nanorod semiconductor material. The SEM image in Fig. 2(b) suggests that the tips of nanorods are exposed after the CMP process. In the last step, the via holes were opened by RIE (reactive ion-etching) to enable the deposition of the n-type [Au/Ti (120nm/10nm)] contact electrodes. Finally a thin metal stack (Au/Ni 5nm/5nm) was coated for current spreading (p-thin layer) and the p-type contact electrode (Au/Ti 120nm/10nm) was also deposited [Fig. 1(e)].

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 The process flow of nanorod LED array fabrication. (a) The device employs a typical MQW LED (b) The nanorod array is realized by nanosphere lithography (c) The PECVD grown SiO2 layer was deposited to prevent p-n shorting and to passivate the sidewalls (d) The CMP process to expose the nanorod tips (e) Deposition of contact pads.

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 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 SEM images of (a) the nanorod structure after ICP etching and (b) the surface profile after SiO2 passivation and CMP process.

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3. Results & discussion

The current-voltage curves were extracted from the nanorod device using an Agilent 4155c semiconductor parameter analyzer. As demonstrated in Fig. 3 , the device shows a well-rectified diode behavior with a current ratio 3983 at ± 5V. And the 4.77nA reverse current at −5V is significantly lower than that of previous reported approaches [510]. Furthermore, the ideality factor is calculated to be 7.35. Sah-Noyce-Shockley theory [13] suggests ideality factors between 1 and 2 for typical diodes due to the competition between the drift-diffusion and generation-recombination processes. However, for GaN based diodes, the ideality factors usually fall in the range between 5 and 7 [14,15], which results from the large p-type contact resistance and the polarization-induced triangular band profiles of the quantum barriers [16]. As for nanorod diodes, the formation process using the top-down etching may damage the rod sidewalls and creates a current leakage path; thus larger ideality factors such as 11.2 ± 0.56 in [17] and 18 in [18] were reported. The sidewall passivation and the subsequent CMP process in our work can significantly reduce the sidewall leakage as well as prevent the shorting paths along the nanorods. Furthermore, it was suggested from [1921] that the formation of nanorods can reduce the strain in the InGaN/GaN quantum well structure and thus mitigate the influence of polarization induced band profile adjustment on the ideality factor.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 The I-V curve of a nanorod LED. The dash line indicates an ideality factor of 7.35

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The luminescence-current (L-I) behavior of the nanorod LED array was measured at room temperature. Both the optical power (on the right axis) and injection current are normalized to the p-type mesa area (250x250μm2). As demonstrated in Fig. 4 , at an injection current density of 32A/cm2, the corresponding optical intensity is 6807mW/cm2. The image of blue light emission from the nanorod LED array at 1mA (1.6A/cm2) is shown in the inset of Fig. 4. The output power of our device is the highest among similar devices reported so far. The external quantum efficiency (EQE), defined as the ratio between the photons extracted to free space and carriers injected to the device (assuming the same area size as the p-mesa) [22], is demonstrated in the right axis of Fig. 4. The EQE is above 8% under the injection current range and reaches its maximum of 16.61% at 1.6A/cm2. For such an EQE curve, a so-called efficiency droop is observed. The EQE suffers from a rapid decrease at the current density between 1.6A/cm2 and 8 A/cm2 and then a smaller decreasing slope. Such an interesting phenomenon leads us to study the droop effect in the nanorod LED array. Typically, for planar GaN based LED structure, the root causes of efficiency droop may be attributed to various device phenomena such as the Auger recombination, junction heating, and polarization induced carrier overflow [2225]. For our device, to understand the effect of junction temperature, EQE of nanorod device was extracted at both DC (100% duty cycle) and pulsed (1% duty cycle with the cycle period of 50ms) currents. The normalized EQE vs. injection current for both bias conditions are plotted in Fig. 5 . Basically, the heating effect can be mitigated at the 1% duty cycle. The EQE curve at 1% duty cycle shows a nearly constant decreasing trend (with the slope −6.45x10−3 (A/cm2)−1), which is close to that of the 100% duty cycle case at the high current level (slope = −7.69 x10−3 (A/cm2)−1)). As we compared both cases, the rapid EQE decrease between 1.6 and 8A/cm2 (slope = −8.3 x10−2 (A/cm2)−1)) in Fig. 4 is mainly associated with the thermal effect, while the decrease beyond 8A/cm2 is related to other factors.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Optical output power density (left axis) and the corresponding EQE (right axis) of the nanorod LED array at different injection current densities. (Inset) Light emission image from the nanorod LED array at 1.6 A/cm2.

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 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Normalized EQE at (a) 100% and (b)1% duty cycles

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Moreover, the far field radiation profile of nanorod LED array is demonstrated in Fig. 6 . The angle at half maximum intensity, θ1/2, occurs at 30°, suggesting that the far field pattern is a Lambertian profile. Since the Lambertian emission refers to a source emitting the same quality of light in all directions, it indicates that the nanorod LED array is mainly consisted of point light sources with excellent uniformity.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 The radiation profile of a nanorod LED array. The red line indicates that θ1/2 of the nanorod LED is 30°.

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4. Conclusion

Nanorod LED array devices were fabricated using the technology of nanosphere lithography. By spin-coating a monolayer of silica nanospheres on top of the GaN based LED epi-structure, and followed by semiconductor etching, the nanorod structure was realized. The nanorod sidewalls were passivated by PECVD grown SiO2 and the p-type GaN tips were exposed by chemical mechanical polishing. We achieve a reverse current of 4.77nA at −5V, an ideality factor of 7.35, and an optical output intensity of 6807mW/cm2 at the injection current density of 32A/cm2 with very high nanorod light emitting uniformity. Moreover, the study of droop effect for such a nanorod LED array reveals that junction heating is responsible for the sharp decrease at the low current between 1.6A/cm2 and 8 A/cm2. Finally, the Lambertian radiation profile indicates that the nanorod LED array is mainly consisted of point light sources.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan under the grants NSC 97-2221-E-002-054-MY3.

References and links

1. Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003). [CrossRef]  

2. C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001). [CrossRef]  

3. C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12(10), 738–741 (2000). [CrossRef]  

4. H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

5. C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

6. M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008). [CrossRef]  

7. Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009). [CrossRef]  

8. C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007). [CrossRef]  

9. H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004). [CrossRef]  

10. A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006). [CrossRef]  

11. M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996). [CrossRef]  

12. W. Alexander and J. Shackelford, CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook (CRC press, USA 1997) p.474.

13. C. T. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier generation and recombination in p-n junctions and p-n junction characteristics,” Proc. IRE. 45, 1228 (1957).

14. K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004). [CrossRef]  

15. J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003). [CrossRef]  

16. D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009). [CrossRef]  

17. P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006). [CrossRef]  

19. N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, C.-T. Liang, T. Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9357–9365 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, (2009).

22. M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007). [CrossRef]  

23. Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007). [CrossRef]  

24. A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006). [CrossRef]  

25. H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12(10), 738–741 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).
  5. C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).
  6. M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. Alexander and J. Shackelford, CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook (CRC press, USA 1997) p.474.
  13. C. T. Sah, R. N. Noyce, and W. Shockley, “Carrier generation and recombination in p-n junctions and p-n junction characteristics,” Proc. IRE. 45, 1228 (1957).
  14. K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, C.-T. Liang, T. Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9357–9365 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, (2009).
  22. M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  25. H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2009 (3)

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, (2009).

2008 (2)

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. J. Chang, Y. P. Hsieh, T. T. Chen, Y. F. Chen, C.-T. Liang, T. Y. Lin, S. C. Tseng, and L. C. Chen, “Strong luminescence from strain relaxed InGaN/GaN nanotips for highly efficient light emitters,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9357–9365 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (6)

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12(10), 738–741 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ager, J. W.

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bochkareva, N. I.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Calarco, R.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. Y.

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, (2009).

Chang, H. J.

Chapelle, M. L.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12(10), 738–741 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. D.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. P.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

Chen, C. Y.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. S.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. C.

Chen, L. Y.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. T.

Chen, Y.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. F.

Cheng, Y. W.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

Chhajed, S.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. H.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, (2009).

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y.-H.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chu, J. T.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Chung, K. S.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Darvish, S. R.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[Crossref]

Davydov, A. V.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[Crossref]

Deb, P.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, S.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Drory, M. D.

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[Crossref]

Efremov, A. A.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fan, S. S.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gessmann, Th.

J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gorbunov, R. I.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Grzegory, I.

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gutowski, J.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hardtdegen, H.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsieh, M. Y.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, Y. P.

Hsueh, T. H.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Hu, Z.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. F.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. W.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Huang, J. J.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[Crossref]

Huo, K.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kaluza, N.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, T. W.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kao, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Ke, M. Y.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[Crossref]

Kikuchi, A.

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. Y.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-M.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. I.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kishino, K.

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Koleske, D. D.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kung, P.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, (2009).

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Lahiji, R.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, C. F.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lavrinovich, D. A.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Levin, I.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-L.

J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liang, C.-T.

Lin, C. F.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Lin, S. Y.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, T. Y.

Lu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. C.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lüth, H.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayes, K.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[Crossref]

McClintock, R.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[Crossref]

Meijers, R.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melngailis, J.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[Crossref]

Miwa, K.

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mohammad, S. N.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[Crossref]

Montanari, S.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Motayed, A.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mueller, G. O.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Munkholm, A.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Noemaun, A. N.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oliver, M.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Peng, L. H.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

Piprek, J.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Porowski, S.

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[Crossref]

Qin, Y.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Razeghi, M.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rebane, Yu. T.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Reifenberger, R.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ryu, S. R.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-Brightness Light Emitting Diodes Using Dislocation-Free Indium Gallium Nitride/Gallium Nitride Multiquantum-Well Nanorod Arrays,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sands, T.

P. Deb, H. Kim, Y. Qin, R. Lahiji, M. Oliver, R. Reifenberger, and T. Sands, “GaN nanorod Schottky and p-n junction diodes,” Nano Lett. 6(12), 2893–2898 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 183507 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sebald, K.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, J. M.

J. M. Shah, Y.-L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2.0) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shen, B.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shiell, D.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shreter, Yu. G.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Suski, T.

M. D. Drory, J. W. Ager, T. Suski, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, “Hardness and fracture toughness of bulk single crystal gallium nitride,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(26), 4044–4046 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tada, M.

A. Kikuchi, M. Tada, K. Miwa, and K. Kishino, “Growth and characterization of InGaN/GaN nanocolumn LED,” Proc. SPIE 6129, 612905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. C.

C. C. Tang, S. S. Fan, M. L. Chapelle, and P. Li, “Silica-assisted catalytic growth of oxide and nitride nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(1-2), 12–15 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tang, T. Y.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tarkhin, D. V.

A. A. Efremov, N. I. Bochkareva, R. I. Gorbunov, D. A. Lavrinovich, Yu. T. Rebane, D. V. Tarkhin, and Yu. G. Shreter, “Effect of the joule heating on the quantum efficiency and choice of thermal conditions for high-power blue InGaN/GaN LEDs,” Semiconductors 40(5), 605–610 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thillosen, N.

N. Thillosen, K. Sebald, H. Hardtdegen, R. Meijers, R. Calarco, S. Montanari, N. Kaluza, J. Gutowski, and H. Lüth, “The state of strain in single GaN nanocolumns as derived from micro-photoluminescence measurements,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 704–708 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, S. C.

Vaudin, M. D.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024306 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

M. Y. Hsieh, C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, M. Y. Ke, and J. J. Huang, “InGaN–GaN Nanorod Light Emitting Arrays Fabricated by Silica Nanomasks,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(MAY), (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

Wang, S. C.

Y. J. Lee, S. Y. Lin, C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Wang, X.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, S.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. S.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. M.

C. Y. Wang, L. Y. Chen, C. P. Chen, Y. W. Cheng, M. Y. Ke, M. Y. Hsieh, H. M. Wu, L. H. Peng, and J. J. Huang, “GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays with a nearly constant electroluminescent peak wavelength,” Opt. Express 14, 10556 (2008).

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. R.

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, (2009).

Xu, J.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xu, N.

Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yasan, A.

K. Mayes, A. Yasan, R. McClintock, D. Shiell, S. R. Darvish, P. Kung, and M. Razeghi, “High-power 280 nm AlGaN light-emitting diodes based on an asymmetric single-quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(7), 1046 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. C.

C. C. Chen and C. C. Yeh, “Large-Scale Catalytic Synthesis of Crystalline Gallium Nitride Nanowires,” Adv. Mater. 12(10), 738–741 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yeh, D. M.

H. S. Chen, D. M. Yeh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, C. F. Huang, T. Y. Tang, C. C. Yang, C. S. Wu, and C. D. Chen, “Strain relaxation and quantum confinement in InGaN/GaN nanoposts,” Nanotechnology 17(5), 1454–1458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. C.

C. H. Chiu, T. C. Lu, H. W. Huang, C. F. Lai, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, C. F. Lin, and T. H. Hsueh, “Fabrication of InGaN/GaN nanorod light-emitting diodes with self-assembled Ni metal islands,” Nanotechnology 18(44), 445201 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Huang, C. C. Kao, T. H. Hsueh, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanorod light emitting diodes using self-assemble nickel nano-mask and inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 113, 125–129 (2004).

Yu, P.

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, (2009).

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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. R. Wu, C. H. Chiu, C. Y. Chang, P. Yu, and H. C. Kuo, “Size-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Optical Characteristics of InGaN/GaN Nanorod LEDs Mechanism of strain relaxation by twisted nanocolumns revealed in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15, (2009).

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Q. Wu, Z. Hu, X. Wang, Y. Lu, K. Huo, S. Deng, N. Xu, B. Shen, R. Zhang, and Y. Chen, “Extended vapor–liquid–solid growth and field emission properties of aluminium nitride nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 13(8), 2024–2027 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The process flow of nanorod LED array fabrication. (a) The device employs a typical MQW LED (b) The nanorod array is realized by nanosphere lithography (c) The PECVD grown SiO2 layer was deposited to prevent p-n shorting and to passivate the sidewalls (d) The CMP process to expose the nanorod tips (e) Deposition of contact pads.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of (a) the nanorod structure after ICP etching and (b) the surface profile after SiO2 passivation and CMP process.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The I-V curve of a nanorod LED. The dash line indicates an ideality factor of 7.35
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical output power density (left axis) and the corresponding EQE (right axis) of the nanorod LED array at different injection current densities. (Inset) Light emission image from the nanorod LED array at 1.6 A/cm2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized EQE at (a) 100% and (b)1% duty cycles
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The radiation profile of a nanorod LED array. The red line indicates that θ1/2 of the nanorod LED is 30°.

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