Abstract

CdSe/ZnS colloidal quantum dots generally exist as blinking phenomena during the luminescence process that remarkably influences its applications. In this work, we used the surface plasmonic effect to effectively modulate single quantum dots. Obvious contrasts have been observed by comparing single quantum dots on silica and gold films. The surface plasmon is shown to obviously suppress the blinking of single quantum dots. With further demonstrated second- order correlation measurements, an anti-bunching effect was observed. The anti-bunching dip gives the smallest value of g (2)(0) = 0.15, and the lifetime of the exciton has been reduced. This method presents the application’s potential towards tunable high-emitting-speed single photon sources at room temperature.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Quantum dots (QDs), which have atomic-level structures, are widely studied and have been utilized in areas of quantum information technology [1, 2, 3], bioactive fluorescent sensing [4], cavity quantum electrodynamics [5], and fundamental physics [6] for years. The core/shell structured CdSe/ZnS colloidal QDs with strong electron-hole-binding energy are controllable in fabrications, and hence can conveniently work at room temperature (RT) [7]. Furthermore, colloidal QDs can be easily manipulated to couple with other elements such as microcavities[5] and nanowires [8]. That quality provides advantages in complicated applications. Still, for colloidal QDs it is found that the phenomenon of blinking is a common feature in most of them, and the mechanism for this phenomenon is as yet unclear. In recent years, research has found that the surface plasmonic effect can influence QD dynamic processes through localized electromagnetic interaction, which brings forward a feasible way to suppress the quenching process within luminescence blinking [9, 10]. Simultaneously, the transition of QDs would also be modified, hence a possible method to tune the photon emission rate could be realized when a QD is studied as a single photon source.

In this work we report on the enhanced single photon emission from a surface-plasmon-interacted CdSe/ZnS QD on gold film that has successfully suppressed the blinking of luminescence. The single photon emission is further demonstrated using second-order correlation measurement, and the anti-bunching gives the smallest value of g (2)(0) = 0.15, which is much smaller than the value for normal QDs provided. We also show that coupling QDs to surface plasmons has greatly reduced the lifetime of an exciton compared to QDs on a silicon substrate out of a surface plasmon.

2. Experiment and analysis

 

Fig. 1. (a),(b) TEM images from CdSe/ZnS QDs at different scales. (c) Photoluminescence spectrum of CdSe/ZnS QDs assembling at RT. (d) Confocal scanning image shows a single QD on gold film within the area.

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The colloid CdSe/ZnS QDs in the experiment are chemically synthesized core/shell QDs as the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) pictures demonstrate in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b) at different scales. At RT, QD luminescence has the emitting peak centered at 610 nm [Fig. 1 (c)]. To prepare the sample, QDs were dispersed in toluene, then spin-coated on the substrates. In a homemade confocal scanning system, the samples were placed on a three-dimensional piezoelectric transition (PZT) stage and excited by an Nd:YAG continuous-wave laser (λ = 532 nm) through an objective (NA = 0.85). Photons from QDs were collected by the same objective. After that, the photon was detected by a standard Hanbury-Brown and Twiss (HBT) setup [11] before which the bandpass filters were used. The atomic-force microscope inspected the substrates given the roughness of around 5 nm for both silica and gold films. The average distribution density of QDs on each substrate was controlled at around 0.2/μm2, as can be noted in the confocal scanning image shown in Fig. 1 (d).

In an open environment without isolating material, the luminescent process of a single CdSe/ZnS QD would usually be intensively quenched, leading to a dark state. Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain the phenomenon; for example, the defects in the surrounding variance [12] or the Auger ionization [13]. Generally, the bright period of time (on-time) obeys the self-similar inverse power law [14, 15],

 

Fig. 2. (a) g (2)(τ) for a single QD on silica substrate. (b) The corresponding QD’s fluorescence intensity variation in the 300 s range. The inset is a statistic of on-time length, and real measured data (scatters) follow Eq. (1) (red line) with α = 1.22.

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Pon=P0tα,

where α is a parameter characterizing the event of blinking under a certain condition. In Fig. 2, we present a typical blinking phenomenon of a single QD on silica with a 20 Hz acquisition rate. It can be seen that a large scale of luminescence intensity dropped to the level of background noise, even though the dark state lasted over 25 s. The inset of Fig. 2(b) gives the distribution of on-time length from this period. Using Eq. (1) the optimized fitting takes α = 1.22, consistent with typical conditions [14].

Under the same condition, a dramatic difference can be observed for the CdSe/ZnS QD on the gold film owing to surface plasmonic influence. In this situation, the gold film has generated a strong surface plasmonic field during the photoluminescence excitation process. Non-blinking fluorescence was sustained for a long time scale, as shown in Fig. 3(b). The background noise (N) is marked with the QD signal (S) simultaneously, which is explicitly lower than the QD luminescence in almost 300 s of detecting time. This clearly indicates that there is no obvious quenching of luminescence appearing through the long excitation time. In detail, as is demonstrated in the inset of Fig. 3(b), the emission is stable during most of the selected 25 s. However, it does not mean the blinking is completely eliminated. We can observe the dark state of the QD emission happening in a short time range at the magnified image. The luminescence quenching mechanism still exists, but the surface plasmon has greatly reduced the possibility of the effect. The mean fluorescence intensity (S̄ + N̄) for the 300 s period shows a striking difference from the sample on silica. The QD on gold is 460 counts/50 ms, and the QD on silica is 122 counts/50 ms. Removing the noise signal, a luminescence enhancement factor of 3.8 can be extracted.

 

Fig. 3. (a) g (2)(τ) for a single QD on gold substrate. (b) The same QD’s fluorescence intensity variation detecting time is 300 s, and background noise is shown as red scatter for clarity. The inset is a magnified time trace.

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The enhancement of fluorescence is mainly due to the localized plasmonic excitation from the gold film [16]. Within the raised emission intensity the plasmon-enhanced excitation field is believed to be dominant [17, 18], since there is a large internal quantum yield of the CdSe/ZnS QD and the weak excitation light (4 Kw/cm2) that is well below saturation intensity in our experiment [19]. Based on the electromagnetic model [20], a QD can be treated as a dipole adjacent to the gold film surface. The surface plasmon is excited by the incident light, which generates a localized electromagnetic field in the region and draws the radiating process into an increased frequency [21]. A direct consequence would be a dramatic reduction of the exciton lifetime. The radiation rate of the QD is γ = ∣f(ω)∣2 γ 0; here, γ 0 is the radiative rate of bare QDs, while f(ω) depicts electromagnetic enhancement [22, 23]. In addition, the coupling of QDs and plasmons changes the electric environments of QDs, and the energy transfer in the quenching period will be modified [9]. Therefore, when the luminescence of QDs is blocked, the strong electric field generating from the gold film propels the QD to escape the quenched state, thus the blinking of a QD is naturally suppressed.

Within this picture, a QD under surface plasmonic interaction is expected to provide a variable photon emitting distribution. Accordingly, the second-order correlation functions g (2)(τ) are presented. The anti-bunching state has been found for both QDs on silica (Fig. 2) and gold (Fig. 3) substrates. Under a steady excitation power, they were used for comparison. Based on our exciting conditions, all the data can be fitted using a single exponential function [24],

C(t)=C0+Aexp(t/τ0),

where the lifetime τ 0 is determined by the upper level lifetime of the CdSe/ZnS QD, and C 0 is the contribution from background light. Depending on the above results from Figs. 2(b) and 3(b), the mean signal-to-noise ratios ρ̄ = S̄/(S̄ + N̄) are at the levels of 0.71 and 0.84, respectively. Therefore the background noise would add g (2)(0) up to 1 − ρ 2 from zero [25], which are 0.496 and 0.294, and the resulting values are close to the fitted data in Figs. 2(a) and 3(a). In a practical system, since background noise is inevitable, a higher signal-to-noise ratio is preferred to reach lower g (2)(0) so as to maintain a better quantum character at RT.

To analyze the modification of the emission rate, a QD with suppressed blinking generated a different transition process. Figures 2(a) and 3(a) have already demonstrated changing of lifetime τ by using Eq. (2). The reduction of lifetime is estimated to be 20.1/5.1 = 3.94±0.3. We exhibit a serial of a single QD’s lifetime getting from the second-order function in Fig. 4(a). The interesting aspect is that the surface plasmonic effect can greatly reduce the lifetime of the exciton. QDs on silica take average τ 0 ~ 19.8 ns which is inconsistent with the theoretical calculation from the first-principle empirical pseudopotential method [26]. The fluctuation of τ 0 on silica is very small, which excludes the influence from excitation power drifting. Meanwhile, for QDs on gold film, the localized electric field can greatly change the exciton transition of a QD. For all of our samples we obtained the shortest lifetime to 4.9 ns, about 1/4 of the original time. Due to the surface feature’s fluctuation, even the surface roughness is fabricated to be similar; it is impossible to reach an identical environment for each QD. This adds up to changing the electromagnetic field for coupling with QDs, and a constant effect cannot be kept. As a result, the fluctuation of the surface plasmons determined an unequal lifetime of QDs on gold, as we observe in Fig. 4(a).

Figure 4(b) is the corresponding g (2) (0) of the QDs in Fig. 4(a), where the left part represents the value of QDs on silica, and the right region is the QD’s lifetime with gold substrate. The g (2) (0) from silica are close; besides, the average value is 0.52. However, the value is much lower from gold film. The smallest g (2)(0) we have obtained is 0.15. The lower g (2) (0) is promising for the practical application of a single photon source, especially in quantum cryptography [27]. In our experiment, all the data were detected under the same conditions, so the variation of g (2) (0) for QDs on gold still indicates that multi-photon emission from a single CdSe/ZnS QD could be influenced under plasmonic interaction at RT. Related mechanics in this process should be further studied.

Notice an important fact that although the plasmon-assisted luminescence could weaken the blinking, the phenomenon has not been thoroughly inhibited. That may be related to the sample preparation method [28]. Nevertheless, for practical applications such as using CdSe/ZnS QDs to be a single photon source [29], usually a faster single-photon emission rate is needed because multiple advantages can be achieved such as higher repetition frequency of the system. Owing to that, plasmon tuning may satisfy the requirement, not only for QDs but also in other luminescence materials like diamond crystals.

 

Fig. 4. (a) Lifetime of exciton for QDs on silicon and golden substrates. (b) Corresponding g(2)(0) for the anti-bunching effect.

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3. Conclusion

In summary, we have studied the effect of surface plasmonic modification on the optical properties with CdSe/ZnS colloidal QDs at room temperature. Through the comparison of a single QD on different substrates, it has been found that the surface plasmon can effectively suppress the blinking of single quantum dots. The second-order correlation showed that the anti-bunching effect achieved a smaller value on gold, which is prominent for keeping the quantum property of a photon source. At the same time, the surface plasmon has greatly reduced the lifetime of the exciton. This result paves the way for potential applications towards single photon sources with tunable emission rates at room temperature.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Professor Xi-Feng Ren at the University of Science and Technology of China for providing the gold film, and they appreciate the helpful discussion with Chang-Ling Zou and Liu Lv. This work is supported by the Chinese National Fundamental Research Program under grant 2006CB921900, the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under grants 60537020 and 60621064, and the Knowledge Innovation Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

References and links

1. B. Lounis and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1129–1179 (2005). [CrossRef]  

2. D. Loss and D. P. DiVincenzo, “Quantum computation with quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 120–126 (1998). [CrossRef]  

3. T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Nature 432, 200–203 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, “Self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 12142–12150 (2000). [CrossRef]  

5. J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. Löffler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, “Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system,” Nature 432, 197–200 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Schöps, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, “Exciton-plasmon-photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 136802 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. P. Michler, A. Imamoğlu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, “Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature,” Nature 406, 968–970 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. C. Yang, Z. Zhong, and C. M. Lieber, “Encoding electronic properties by synthesis of axial modulation-doped silicon nanowires,” Science 310, 1304–1307 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. Y. Ito, K. Matsuda, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Mechanism of photoluminescence enhancement in single semiconductor nanocrystals on metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 033309 (2007). [CrossRef]  

10. C. T. Yuan, P. Yu, and J. Tang, “Blinking suppression of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots by coupling to silver nanoprisms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 243108 (2009). [CrossRef]  

11. H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, “Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 691–695 (1977). [CrossRef]  

12. F. Koberling, A. Mews, and T. Basché, “Oxygen-induced blinking of single CdSe nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 13, 672–676 (2000). [CrossRef]  

13. V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, “Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots,” Science 287, 1011–1013 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, “Nonexponential ‘blinking’ kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: a universal power law behavior,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 3117–3120 (2000). [CrossRef]  

15. K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles, W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, “Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 205316 (2001). [CrossRef]  

16. S. Schietinger, M. Barth, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, “Plasmon-enhanced single photon emission from a nanoassembled metal-diamond hybrid structure at room temperature,” Nano Lett. 9, 1694–1698 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. S. Kühn, U. 00E5;kanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 017402 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, “Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement,” Opt. Express 15, 14266–14274 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, A. P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, “Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 329, 399–404 (2000). [CrossRef]  

20. M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783–826 (1985). [CrossRef]  

21. K. T. Shimizu, W. K. Woo, B. R. Fisher, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, “Surface-enhanced emission from single semiconductor nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 117404 (2002). [CrossRef]  

22. A. O. Govorov, G. W. Bryant, W. Zhang, T. Skeini, J. Lee, N. A. Kotov, J. M. Slocik, and R. R. Naik, “Exciton-plasmon interaction and hybrid excitons in semiconductor-metal nanoparticle assemblies,” Nano Lett. 6, 984–994 (2006). [CrossRef]  

23. M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, “Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 162107 (2008). [CrossRef]  

24. C. Becker, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. D. Zhang, and E. Hu, “Non-classical radiation from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 121312 (2001). [CrossRef]  

25. K. Sebald, P. Michler, T. Passow, D. Hommel, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, “Single-photon emission of CdSe quantum dots at temperatures up to 200 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 29202922 (2002). [CrossRef]  

26. M. Califano, A. Franceschetti, and A Zunger, “Lifetime and polarization of the radiative decay of excitons, biexcitons, and trions in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 115401 (2007). [CrossRef]  

27. E. Waks, C. Santori, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security aspects of quantum key distribution with sub-Poisson light,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 042315 (2002). [CrossRef]  

28. X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, “Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals,” Nature 459, 686–689 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

29. C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, “Stable solid-state source of single photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 290–293 (2000). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. B. Lounis and M. Orrit, "Single-photon sources," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68,1129-1179 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Loss and D. P. DiVincenzo, "Quantum computation with quantum dots," Phys. Rev. A 57,120-126 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432,200-203 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, "Self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122,12142-12150 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Sch¨ops, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Exciton-plasmon-photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,136802 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Michler, A. Imamo˘glu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature," Nature 406,968-970 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Yang, Z. Zhong, and C. M. Lieber, "Encoding electronic properties by synthesis of axial modulation-doped silicon nanowires," Science 310,1304-1307 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Ito, K. Matsuda, and Y. Kanemitsu, "Mechanism of photoluminescence enhancement in single semiconductor nanocrystals on metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 75,033309 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. T. Yuan, P. Yu, and J. Tang, "Blinking suppression of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots by coupling to silver nanoprisms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94,243108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, "Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39,691-695 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Q1. F. Koberling, A. Mews, and T. Basch’e, "Oxygen-induced blinking of single CdSe nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 13,672-676 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287,1011-1013 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential ’blinking’ kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: a universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112,3117-3120 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles,W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, "Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 63,205316 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Schietinger, M. Barth, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, "Plasmon-enhanced single photon emission from a nanoassembled metal-diamond hybrid structure at room temperature," Nano Lett. 9,1694-1698 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. K¨uhn, U. H°akanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, "Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,017402 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, "Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement," Opt. Express 15,14266-14274 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, A. P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, "Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 329,399-404 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57,783-826 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. T. Shimizu, W. K. Woo, B. R. Fisher, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Surface-enhanced emission from single semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,117404 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. O. Govorov, G. W. Bryant, W. Zhang, T. Skeini, J. Lee, N. A. Kotov, J. M. Slocik, and R. R. Naik, "Excitonplasmon interaction and hybrid excitons in semiconductor-metal nanoparticle assemblies," Nano Lett. 6,984-994 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, "Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,162107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Becker, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. D. Zhang, and E. Hu, "Nonclassical radiation from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot," Phys. Rev. B 63,121312 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Sebald, P. Michler, T. Passow, D. Hommel, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, "Single-photon emission of CdSe quantum dots at temperatures up to 200 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,2920-2922 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Califano, A. Franceschetti, and A. Zunger, "Lifetime and polarization of the radiative decay of excitons, biexcitons, and trions in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 75,115401 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. Waks, C. Santori, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security aspects of quantum key distribution with sub-Poisson light," Phys. Rev. A 66,042315 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, "Stable solid-state source of single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,290-293 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C. T. Yuan, P. Yu, and J. Tang, "Blinking suppression of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots by coupling to silver nanoprisms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94,243108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Schietinger, M. Barth, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, "Plasmon-enhanced single photon emission from a nanoassembled metal-diamond hybrid structure at room temperature," Nano Lett. 9,1694-1698 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, "Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Califano, A. Franceschetti, and A. Zunger, "Lifetime and polarization of the radiative decay of excitons, biexcitons, and trions in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 75,115401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, "Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement," Opt. Express 15,14266-14274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ito, K. Matsuda, and Y. Kanemitsu, "Mechanism of photoluminescence enhancement in single semiconductor nanocrystals on metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 75,033309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Sch¨ops, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Exciton-plasmon-photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,136802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. K¨uhn, U. H°akanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, "Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Govorov, G. W. Bryant, W. Zhang, T. Skeini, J. Lee, N. A. Kotov, J. M. Slocik, and R. R. Naik, "Excitonplasmon interaction and hybrid excitons in semiconductor-metal nanoparticle assemblies," Nano Lett. 6,984-994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. Yang, Z. Zhong, and C. M. Lieber, "Encoding electronic properties by synthesis of axial modulation-doped silicon nanowires," Science 310,1304-1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lounis and M. Orrit, "Single-photon sources," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68,1129-1179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432,200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

K. T. Shimizu, W. K. Woo, B. R. Fisher, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Surface-enhanced emission from single semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,117404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, C. Santori, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security aspects of quantum key distribution with sub-Poisson light," Phys. Rev. A 66,042315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Sebald, P. Michler, T. Passow, D. Hommel, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, "Single-photon emission of CdSe quantum dots at temperatures up to 200 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,2920-2922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Becker, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. D. Zhang, and E. Hu, "Nonclassical radiation from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot," Phys. Rev. B 63,121312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles,W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, "Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 63,205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Q1. F. Koberling, A. Mews, and T. Basch’e, "Oxygen-induced blinking of single CdSe nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 13,672-676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287,1011-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential ’blinking’ kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: a universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112,3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Michler, A. Imamo˘glu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature," Nature 406,968-970 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, "Self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122,12142-12150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, A. P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, "Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 329,399-404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, "Stable solid-state source of single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,290-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

D. Loss and D. P. DiVincenzo, "Quantum computation with quantum dots," Phys. Rev. A 57,120-126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1985

M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57,783-826 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1977

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, "Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39,691-695 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aichele, T.

S. Schietinger, M. Barth, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, "Plasmon-enhanced single photon emission from a nanoassembled metal-diamond hybrid structure at room temperature," Nano Lett. 9,1694-1698 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, A. P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, "Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 329,399-404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, "Self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122,12142-12150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Artemyev, M. V.

Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Sch¨ops, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Exciton-plasmon-photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,136802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacher, G.

K. Sebald, P. Michler, T. Passow, D. Hommel, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, "Single-photon emission of CdSe quantum dots at temperatures up to 200 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,2920-2922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barth, M.

S. Schietinger, M. Barth, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, "Plasmon-enhanced single photon emission from a nanoassembled metal-diamond hybrid structure at room temperature," Nano Lett. 9,1694-1698 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

K. T. Shimizu, W. K. Woo, B. R. Fisher, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Surface-enhanced emission from single semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,117404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles,W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, "Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 63,205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, "Self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122,12142-12150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287,1011-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, A. P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, "Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 329,399-404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Becker, C.

C. Becker, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. D. Zhang, and E. Hu, "Nonclassical radiation from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot," Phys. Rev. B 63,121312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

S. Schietinger, M. Barth, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, "Plasmon-enhanced single photon emission from a nanoassembled metal-diamond hybrid structure at room temperature," Nano Lett. 9,1694-1698 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bharadwaj, P.

Bryant, G. W.

A. O. Govorov, G. W. Bryant, W. Zhang, T. Skeini, J. Lee, N. A. Kotov, J. M. Slocik, and R. R. Naik, "Excitonplasmon interaction and hybrid excitons in semiconductor-metal nanoparticle assemblies," Nano Lett. 6,984-994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buratto, S. K.

P. Michler, A. Imamo˘glu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature," Nature 406,968-970 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Califano, M.

M. Califano, A. Franceschetti, and A. Zunger, "Lifetime and polarization of the radiative decay of excitons, biexcitons, and trions in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 75,115401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carson, P. J.

P. Michler, A. Imamo˘glu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature," Nature 406,968-970 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, M. T.

M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, "Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cragg, G. E.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dagenais, M.

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, "Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39,691-695 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432,200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiVincenzo, D. P.

D. Loss and D. P. DiVincenzo, "Quantum computation with quantum dots," Phys. Rev. A 57,120-126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Efros, A. L.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H. J.

K. T. Shimizu, W. K. Woo, B. R. Fisher, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Surface-enhanced emission from single semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,117404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ell, C.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432,200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Empedocles, S. A.

K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles,W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, "Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 63,205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fedutik, Y.

Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Sch¨ops, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Exciton-plasmon-photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,136802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, B. R.

K. T. Shimizu, W. K. Woo, B. R. Fisher, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Surface-enhanced emission from single semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,117404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sebald, P. Michler, T. Passow, D. Hommel, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, "Single-photon emission of CdSe quantum dots at temperatures up to 200 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,2920-2922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franceschetti, A.

M. Califano, A. Franceschetti, and A. Zunger, "Lifetime and polarization of the radiative decay of excitons, biexcitons, and trions in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 75,115401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential ’blinking’ kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: a universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112,3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, A.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential ’blinking’ kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: a universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112,3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gerion, D.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, A. P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, "Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 329,399-404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432,200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, E. R.

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, "Self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122,12142-12150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Govorov, A. O.

A. O. Govorov, G. W. Bryant, W. Zhang, T. Skeini, J. Lee, N. A. Kotov, J. M. Slocik, and R. R. Naik, "Excitonplasmon interaction and hybrid excitons in semiconductor-metal nanoparticle assemblies," Nano Lett. 6,984-994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, M. A.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamann, H. F.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential ’blinking’ kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: a universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112,3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, J.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432,200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, C.

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hommel, D.

K. Sebald, P. Michler, T. Passow, D. Hommel, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, "Single-photon emission of CdSe quantum dots at temperatures up to 200 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,2920-2922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

C. Becker, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. D. Zhang, and E. Hu, "Nonclassical radiation from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot," Phys. Rev. B 63,121312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Imamo?glu, A.

P. Michler, A. Imamo˘glu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature," Nature 406,968-970 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

C. Becker, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. D. Zhang, and E. Hu, "Nonclassical radiation from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot," Phys. Rev. B 63,121312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ito, Y.

Y. Ito, K. Matsuda, and Y. Kanemitsu, "Mechanism of photoluminescence enhancement in single semiconductor nanocrystals on metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 75,033309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K¨uhn, S.

S. K¨uhn, U. H°akanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, "Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kahen, K.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanemitsu, Y.

Y. Ito, K. Matsuda, and Y. Kanemitsu, "Mechanism of photoluminescence enhancement in single semiconductor nanocrystals on metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 75,033309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keldysh, L. V.

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khitrova, G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432,200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, "Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39,691-695 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kiraz, A.

C. Becker, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. D. Zhang, and E. Hu, "Nonclassical radiation from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot," Phys. Rev. B 63,121312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287,1011-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koberling, F.

Q1. F. Koberling, A. Mews, and T. Basch’e, "Oxygen-induced blinking of single CdSe nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 13,672-676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kotov, N. A.

A. O. Govorov, G. W. Bryant, W. Zhang, T. Skeini, J. Lee, N. A. Kotov, J. M. Slocik, and R. R. Naik, "Excitonplasmon interaction and hybrid excitons in semiconductor-metal nanoparticle assemblies," Nano Lett. 6,984-994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. D.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhn, S.

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulakovskii, V. D.

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuno, M.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential ’blinking’ kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: a universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112,3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kurtsiefer, C.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, "Stable solid-state source of single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,290-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L¨offler, A.

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leatherdale, C. A.

K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles,W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, "Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 63,205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287,1011-1013 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

A. O. Govorov, G. W. Bryant, W. Zhang, T. Skeini, J. Lee, N. A. Kotov, J. M. Slocik, and R. R. Naik, "Excitonplasmon interaction and hybrid excitons in semiconductor-metal nanoparticle assemblies," Nano Lett. 6,984-994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

C. Yang, Z. Zhong, and C. M. Lieber, "Encoding electronic properties by synthesis of axial modulation-doped silicon nanowires," Science 310,1304-1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. D.

M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, "Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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B. Lounis and M. Orrit, "Single-photon sources," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68,1129-1179 (2005).
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B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, A. P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, "Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 329,399-404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maccagnano-Zacher, S.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandel, L.

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, "Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39,691-695 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Mason, M. D.

P. Michler, A. Imamo˘glu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature," Nature 406,968-970 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuda, K.

Y. Ito, K. Matsuda, and Y. Kanemitsu, "Mechanism of photoluminescence enhancement in single semiconductor nanocrystals on metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 75,033309 (2007).
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Mattoussi, H.

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, "Self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122,12142-12150 (2000).
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H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, "Self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122,12142-12150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, "Stable solid-state source of single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,290-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287,1011-1013 (2000).
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Q1. F. Koberling, A. Mews, and T. Basch’e, "Oxygen-induced blinking of single CdSe nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 13,672-676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Michler, P.

K. Sebald, P. Michler, T. Passow, D. Hommel, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, "Single-photon emission of CdSe quantum dots at temperatures up to 200 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,2920-2922 (2002).
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C. Becker, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. D. Zhang, and E. Hu, "Nonclassical radiation from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot," Phys. Rev. B 63,121312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Michler, A. Imamo˘glu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature," Nature 406,968-970 (2000).
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Mikhailovsky, A. A.

V. I. Klimov, A. A. Mikhailovsky, D. W. McBranch, C. A. Leatherdale, and M. G. Bawendi, "Quantization of multiparticle Auger rates in semiconductor quantum dots," Science 287,1011-1013 (2000).
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Mikulec, F. V.

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, "Self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122,12142-12150 (2000).
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Moerner, W. E.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, A. P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, "Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 329,399-404 (2000).
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M. Moskovits, "Surface-enhanced spectroscopy," Rev. Mod. Phys. 57,783-826 (1985).
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Naik, R. R.

A. O. Govorov, G. W. Bryant, W. Zhang, T. Skeini, J. Lee, N. A. Kotov, J. M. Slocik, and R. R. Naik, "Excitonplasmon interaction and hybrid excitons in semiconductor-metal nanoparticle assemblies," Nano Lett. 6,984-994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nesbitt, D. J.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential ’blinking’ kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: a universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112,3117-3120 (2000).
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Neuhauser, R. G.

K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles,W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, "Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 63,205316 (2001).
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Novotny, L.

Orrit, M.

B. Lounis and M. Orrit, "Single-photon sources," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68,1129-1179 (2005).
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Passow, T.

K. Sebald, P. Michler, T. Passow, D. Hommel, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, "Single-photon emission of CdSe quantum dots at temperatures up to 200 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,2920-2922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

C. Becker, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. D. Zhang, and E. Hu, "Nonclassical radiation from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot," Phys. Rev. B 63,121312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rajeswaran, M.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinecke, T. L.

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reithmaier, J. P.

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
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J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
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Ren, X.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rupper, G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432,200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Waks, C. Santori, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security aspects of quantum key distribution with sub-Poisson light," Phys. Rev. A 66,042315 (2002).
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Sch¨ops, O.

Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Sch¨ops, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Exciton-plasmon-photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,136802 (2007).
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Scherer, A.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432,200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Schietinger, M. Barth, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, "Plasmon-enhanced single photon emission from a nanoassembled metal-diamond hybrid structure at room temperature," Nano Lett. 9,1694-1698 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

C. Becker, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. D. Zhang, and E. Hu, "Nonclassical radiation from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot," Phys. Rev. B 63,121312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sebald, K.

K. Sebald, P. Michler, T. Passow, D. Hommel, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, "Single-photon emission of CdSe quantum dots at temperatures up to 200 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,2920-2922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sek, G.

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shchekin, O. B.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432,200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, K. T.

K. T. Shimizu, W. K. Woo, B. R. Fisher, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Surface-enhanced emission from single semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,117404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles,W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, "Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 63,205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Silcox, J.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skeini, T.

A. O. Govorov, G. W. Bryant, W. Zhang, T. Skeini, J. Lee, N. A. Kotov, J. M. Slocik, and R. R. Naik, "Excitonplasmon interaction and hybrid excitons in semiconductor-metal nanoparticle assemblies," Nano Lett. 6,984-994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slocik, J. M.

A. O. Govorov, G. W. Bryant, W. Zhang, T. Skeini, J. Lee, N. A. Kotov, J. M. Slocik, and R. R. Naik, "Excitonplasmon interaction and hybrid excitons in semiconductor-metal nanoparticle assemblies," Nano Lett. 6,984-994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strouse, G. F.

P. Michler, A. Imamo˘glu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature," Nature 406,968-970 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundar, V. C.

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, "Self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122,12142-12150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J.

C. T. Yuan, P. Yu, and J. Tang, "Blinking suppression of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots by coupling to silver nanoprisms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94,243108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Temnov, V. V.

Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Sch¨ops, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Exciton-plasmon-photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,136802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waks, E.

E. Waks, C. Santori, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security aspects of quantum key distribution with sub-Poisson light," Phys. Rev. A 66,042315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. Q.

M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, "Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinfurter, H.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, "Stable solid-state source of single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,290-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woggon, U.

Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Sch¨ops, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Exciton-plasmon-photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,136802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, W. K.

K. T. Shimizu, W. K. Woo, B. R. Fisher, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Surface-enhanced emission from single semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,117404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles,W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, "Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 63,205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

E. Waks, C. Santori, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security aspects of quantum key distribution with sub-Poisson light," Phys. Rev. A 66,042315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

C. Yang, Z. Zhong, and C. M. Lieber, "Encoding electronic properties by synthesis of axial modulation-doped silicon nanowires," Science 310,1304-1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshie, T.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432,200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

C. T. Yuan, P. Yu, and J. Tang, "Blinking suppression of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots by coupling to silver nanoprisms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94,243108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, C. T.

C. T. Yuan, P. Yu, and J. Tang, "Blinking suppression of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots by coupling to silver nanoprisms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94,243108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zarda, P.

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, "Stable solid-state source of single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,290-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. D.

C. Becker, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. D. Zhang, and E. Hu, "Nonclassical radiation from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot," Phys. Rev. B 63,121312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

A. O. Govorov, G. W. Bryant, W. Zhang, T. Skeini, J. Lee, N. A. Kotov, J. M. Slocik, and R. R. Naik, "Excitonplasmon interaction and hybrid excitons in semiconductor-metal nanoparticle assemblies," Nano Lett. 6,984-994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, Z.

C. Yang, Z. Zhong, and C. M. Lieber, "Encoding electronic properties by synthesis of axial modulation-doped silicon nanowires," Science 310,1304-1307 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zunger, A.

M. Califano, A. Franceschetti, and A. Zunger, "Lifetime and polarization of the radiative decay of excitons, biexcitons, and trions in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 75,115401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

Q1. F. Koberling, A. Mews, and T. Basch’e, "Oxygen-induced blinking of single CdSe nanocrystals," Adv. Mater. 13,672-676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. T. Yuan, P. Yu, and J. Tang, "Blinking suppression of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots by coupling to silver nanoprisms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94,243108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Cheng, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, "Modulating emission polarization of semiconductor quantum dots through surface plasmon of metal nanorod," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,162107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sebald, P. Michler, T. Passow, D. Hommel, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, "Single-photon emission of CdSe quantum dots at temperatures up to 200 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81,2920-2922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

B. Lounis, H. A. Bechtel, D. Gerion, A. P. Alivisatos, and W. E. Moerner, "Photon antibunching in single CdSe/ZnS quantum dot fluorescence," Chem. Phys. Lett. 329,399-404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

H. Mattoussi, J. M. Mauro, E. R. Goldman, G. P. Anderson, V. C. Sundar, F. V. Mikulec, and M. G. Bawendi, "Self-assembly of CdSe/ZnS quantum dot bioconjugates using an engineered recombinant protein," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122,12142-12150 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

M. Kuno, D. P. Fromm, H. F. Hamann, A. Gallagher, and D. J. Nesbitt, "Nonexponential ’blinking’ kinetics of single CdSe quantum dots: a universal power law behavior," J. Chem. Phys. 112,3117-3120 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

S. Schietinger, M. Barth, T. Aichele, and O. Benson, "Plasmon-enhanced single photon emission from a nanoassembled metal-diamond hybrid structure at room temperature," Nano Lett. 9,1694-1698 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Govorov, G. W. Bryant, W. Zhang, T. Skeini, J. Lee, N. A. Kotov, J. M. Slocik, and R. R. Naik, "Excitonplasmon interaction and hybrid excitons in semiconductor-metal nanoparticle assemblies," Nano Lett. 6,984-994 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

X. Wang, X. Ren, K. Kahen, M. A. Hahn, M. Rajeswaran, S. Maccagnano-Zacher, J. Silcox, G. E. Cragg, A. L. Efros, and T. D. Krauss, "Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals," Nature 459,686-689 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Reithmaier, G. Sek, A. L¨offler, C. Hofmann, S. Kuhn, S. Reitzenstein, L. V. Keldysh, V. D. Kulakovskii, T. L. Reinecke, and A. Forchel, "Strong coupling in a single quantum dot-semiconductor microcavity system," Nature 432,197-200 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Michler, A. Imamo˘glu, M. D. Mason, P. J. Carson, G. F. Strouse, and S. K. Buratto, "Quantum correlation among photons from a single quantum dot at room temperature," Nature 406,968-970 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432,200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. A

E. Waks, C. Santori, and Y. Yamamoto, "Security aspects of quantum key distribution with sub-Poisson light," Phys. Rev. A 66,042315 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Loss and D. P. DiVincenzo, "Quantum computation with quantum dots," Phys. Rev. A 57,120-126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

Y. Ito, K. Matsuda, and Y. Kanemitsu, "Mechanism of photoluminescence enhancement in single semiconductor nanocrystals on metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 75,033309 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Shimizu, R. G. Neuhauser, C. A. Leatherdale, S. A. Empedocles,W. K. Woo, and M. G. Bawendi, "Blinking statistics in single semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 63,205316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Califano, A. Franceschetti, and A. Zunger, "Lifetime and polarization of the radiative decay of excitons, biexcitons, and trions in CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 75,115401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Becker, A. Kiraz, P. Michler, A. Imamoglu, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. D. Zhang, and E. Hu, "Nonclassical radiation from a single self-assembled InAs quantum dot," Phys. Rev. B 63,121312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. T. Shimizu, W. K. Woo, B. R. Fisher, H. J. Eisler, and M. G. Bawendi, "Surface-enhanced emission from single semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89,117404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Kurtsiefer, S. Mayer, P. Zarda, and H. Weinfurter, "Stable solid-state source of single photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,290-293 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K¨uhn, U. H°akanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, "Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Kimble, M. Dagenais, and L. Mandel, "Photon antibunching in resonance fluorescence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 39,691-695 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fedutik, V. V. Temnov, O. Sch¨ops, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Exciton-plasmon-photon conversion in plasmonic nanostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99,136802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

B. Lounis and M. Orrit, "Single-photon sources," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68,1129-1179 (2005).
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Rev. Mod. Phys.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a),(b) TEM images from CdSe/ZnS QDs at different scales. (c) Photoluminescence spectrum of CdSe/ZnS QDs assembling at RT. (d) Confocal scanning image shows a single QD on gold film within the area.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) g (2)(τ) for a single QD on silica substrate. (b) The corresponding QD’s fluorescence intensity variation in the 300 s range. The inset is a statistic of on-time length, and real measured data (scatters) follow Eq. (1) (red line) with α = 1.22.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) g (2)(τ) for a single QD on gold substrate. (b) The same QD’s fluorescence intensity variation detecting time is 300 s, and background noise is shown as red scatter for clarity. The inset is a magnified time trace.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Lifetime of exciton for QDs on silicon and golden substrates. (b) Corresponding g(2)(0) for the anti-bunching effect.

Equations (2)

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P on = P 0 t α ,
C ( t ) = C 0 + A exp ( t / τ 0 ) ,

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