Abstract

The array of pointed-shape apertures microfabricated in thin-film aluminum on a thick silicon substrate was designed to maximize the transmission efficiency at desired frequency. The resulted characteristics were over 100% optical transmission (relative to substrate) at narrow band-pass resonance and polarization-independent transmission strength and band-pass shape on filter rotation angle.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

For the last decade, the extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength aperture metal arrays in the terahertz (THz) spectral region has attracted considerable interest from theoretical, experimental, and practical viewpoints [13]. The possible applications of this phenomenon are in THz light filtering, electro-optic and plasmonic devices [4], optical near-field [5,6], chemical sensors [711], biomedical research, astronomy, etc. For self-supporting metal foil arrays or meshes, the reported transmissions are typically high, but broad, and filters are fragile [1214]. Thick transparent substrates improve durability, but at the cost of the path loss. Therefore, it is important to develop practical filters with high band-pass and transmission characteristics. In this regard, the appropriate designs of the aperture, array, and substrate geometries are essential considerations. In this work, we attempted to maximize the array THz transmission at desired frequency by matching the fundamental resonant array transmission with one of the intense interference fringes formed in plane parallel substrate. The aperture shape was also designed to achieve effective, narrow, and polarization-independent resonant transmission. The experimental reflection and transmission spectra of microfabricated thin-metal aperture array on a thick dielectric substrate at different illumination conditions are described and analyzed below.

2. Experimental

The hexagonal aperture array (116 μm lattice constant, 11% aperture fill fraction) was processed by photolithography and 400 nm substrate metallization by vacuum electron beam Al deposition (see Figs. 1(a) , 1(b), and 1(c)). The double-side polished substrate was made from high-resistivity single-crystal Si wafer. The microfabricated array was characterized by a broadband THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) system: Pulse IRS-2000 (AISPEC). For transmission (T) and reflection (R) measurements of spectra and images, the THz beam numerical apertures were ~0.18 and ~0.13, respectively, unless specified otherwise. Beams were linearly polarized at sample surface.

 

Fig. 1 Scheme (a) and actual photos (b) and (c) of the Al aperture array on Si substrate.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

Waveforms were collected for spectral/image analysis with 16384 or 131072 data points at ~4.2 fs time intervals in air or in vacuum, respectively. This corresponds to ~14.5 GHz (0.482 cm−1) or ~1.81 GHz (0.060 cm−1) spectral resolution.

3. Results and discussion

The microfabricated array showed narrow band-pass filter characteristics in THz spectral region and extraordinary optical transmission at ~0.81 THz: 34 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and T ~145% or ~43% relative to Si substrate or air, respectively (see Figs. 2(a) and 2(b)) [15]. Consequently, the brightness of the transmission image at ~0.81 THz was higher for the array than for its substrate (see insert in Fig. 2(b)). Figures 3 and 4 show the corresponding wave forms and spectra measured in vacuum.

 

Fig. 2 (a) The THz transmission spectrum of the array band-pass filter, Si substrate, and THz source in air; (b) Transmission across the array (see the red line on insert) at resonance (0.81 THz) and nonresonance (1.85 THz) frequencies. The insert is the THz transmission image of the array at 0.81 THz in air.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 

Fig. 3 Terahertz wave forms measured in vacuum at different illumination conditions (see schemes on insert) and normalized to unit intensity and time origin for the first transmission peak.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 

Fig. 4 Transmission and reflection THz spectra of the array and substrate in vacuum at different illumination sides and incidence angles (see schemes on inserts): (a), (e), (f), and (g) are transmission spectra of the Si substrate and array; (b), (c), and (d) are reflection spectra from Al mirror and array. The reference spectra in corresponding optical alignments were THz source transmission or reflection from Au mirror for (a), (e), and (g) or (b), (c), and (d), respectively. The intensity, I, (f) and transmission (g) spectra were obtained from FFT of the same waveform, but for different time domains: (f) for 40-553 ps and (g) for 0-553 ps time intervals. Spectra are vertically shifted on indicated % for clarity.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The array transmission spectrum was a result of coherent interference between THz waves diffracted by individual apertures and waves formed by diffractive coupling of the incident radiation to the metal surface modes supported by array periodicity, i.e. by “Fano-type” mechanism [16,17]. The nonresonant direct transmission through uncoupled holes was drastically reduced by using optically thick metal layer (~4 skin depths) [3] with subwavelength apertures: T(a/λ)4, where a and λ are the aperture dimensions and wavelength, respectively [18]. At normal incidence, the resonance frequencies can be described through the dispersion relation and related to grating momentum wave vectors for the hexagonal array, νSMi,j2c(i2+j2+ij)1/2/(3Lnd), where νSMi,j, c, nd, L, and i,j are the resonance transmission frequencies, speed of light, refractive index of dielectric interface, array lattice constant, and integers for direction of surface mode propagation across lattice, respectively [19].

The used Al thickness allowed good coupling of surface modes on both sides of the array [20]. At normal incidence, the theoretical fundamental [( ± 1,0), (0, ± 1)] resonance on Al/Si interface is at ≈0.87 THz for our array. By using focused or collimated beams, it was experimentally observed in vacuum at ~0.80-0.81 THz with FWHM≈10 μm (see Figs. 4(d) and 4(g)). The double resonance transmission peak at ~0.84 THz was probably caused by strong coupling between surface modes that travel along the plate through the top and bottom of the Al array (see Figs. 4(e) and (g)) [20]. Its visibility depends on metal array thickness and illumination angle, θ. Other resonances at Al/vacuum and Al/Si interfaces were beyond spectral limits of our apparatuses or had much weaker intensities due to lower degeneracy or strength factor (i2+j2+ij)1/2 [21].

In addition, the electromagnetic field (E) was probably enhanced around four apexes (~500 nm radiuses) of the opposing aperture tips via nonresonant lighting rod effect [22,23]. This enhancement has a pure geometric origin. On a rough conductor, E is largest near the sharpest surface feature and its enhancement factors could reach up to ~103 for high aspect-ratio conical nanowires [24]. Typically, the confinement of the enhanced E is within a distance of several apex radiuses [25,26]. Consequently, the light transmitted (scattered, E2) more effectively through our apertures compared to the aperture arrays with smooth boundaries. In other words, additionally enhanced resonant and nonresonant transmissions were probably generated. Such 4-leaf-clover aperture structure also narrowed the resonance peak FWHM. To our knowledge, the spectrum on Fig. 4(e) has sharpest transmission lines, simplest spectral signature, and highest transmission efficiency at fundamental resonance band reported to date for thin-metal subwavelength aperture arrays on thick dielectric substrates. Though, the simple aperture shapes for the arrays were intensively investigated in THz regime (circular, oval, rectangular [12], square [27], hexagonal [28]), only few studies on more elaborated shapes (bow-tie [14], cross-slot [29], C-shaped [30]) were reported so far. In later case, the sharp aperture boundaries were also responsible for the additionally enhanced transmissions [3133].

Moreover, by appropriate design of array symmetry and L, the array transmission at fundamental [( ± 1,0), (0, ± 1)] resonance νSMi,j borrowed intensity from nearby interference fringe. It was formed by multiple Fresnel reflections of incoming waves inside plane-parallel Si substrate. The corresponding fringe position is seen in reflection spectrum from Al mirror on Si at ~0.83 THz (see Figs. 1(a) and 4(b)), since such mirror has nearly-zero transmission throughout the THz region. It is also barely visible between double fundamental resonance peaks in Fig. 4(g). Note that due to the 180° phase difference for each reflected beam at Si/Al(array) interface inside Si plate (see Fig. 3), the maximum and minimum fringe intensities are opposite at the same frequencies for beams transmitted through Si plate and array on Si (see Figs. 4(a) and 4(b)). This explains over 100% transmission at ~0.81 THz through the array on Si compared to bare Si substrate (see Figs. 2(a) and (b)), i.e. our array is a combination of resonant and interference (kind of low-finesse Fabry-Perot etalon) filters with substrate thickness dc/νSMi,j. Other three fringes for nonresonant transmission are seen on Fig. 4(e) at lower frequencies than [( ± 1,0), (0, ± 1)] peak. Their spectral positions, ν, are well described by Airy function, T=1/{1+4Rsin2[π/2+2πndνdcos(θ)/c]/(1R)2}. Therefore, substrate geometry and its optical properties were used to effect the array fundamental resonant transmission band intensity.

In addition, due to array’s symmetry and reciprocity theorem, filter preserved light polarization, and its transmission intensities and peak positions were independent on filter’s rotation angle (not shown) and illumination side (see Figs. 4(e) and (g)). For reflection, however, the nonreciprocity was clearly manifested in measured spectra (see Figs. 4(c) and 4(d)). Such nonreciprocal reflection under side reversal indicated asymmetry in path losses of the THz radiation towards detector (see Fig. 4 inserts). This was similar to other works [34].

For collimated incident beam, filter displayed poor band-pass characteristics due to launching of the long-lifetime counterpropagating surface waves which produced strong fractional order multiple resonance transmissions (see Figs. 4(f) and 4(g)) [35]. As seen from Fig. 3, each successive reflection within Si substrate reduces amplitude (A), of nonresonant and resonant transmissions by A2. Consequently, they almost completely vanished after 40 ps. However, the temporal damped oscillations responsible for sharp fractional order peaks on Fig. 4(f) continued for hundreds of picoseconds. We are aware only single THz-TDS work measuring waveforms within large temporal windows [35]. Typically, for metal aperture arrays on thick dielectric substrates, the waveforms were limited by the round trip time of pulses reflected inside substrate material. As a result, the reported THz spectra often lack of good spectral resolution and complete spectral signature of array transmission which are essential to understand the possible practical applications.

4. Conclusion

In summary, the filter’s band-pass characteristics could be fine-tuned and improved by additional design of the array, aperture, and substrate geometries as well as by varying the array symmetry, periodicity, and substrate refractive index. The microfabrication on Si is very flexible in this sense.

Acknowledgments

The microfabrication was supported by WPI Research Center, MEXT, Japan.

References and links

1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998). [CrossRef]  

2. J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003). [CrossRef]  

3. W. Zhang, “Resonant terahertz transmission in plasmonic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 1–18 (2008) (and references therein). [CrossRef]  

4. D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: Applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008) (and references therein). [CrossRef]  

5. F. Miyamaru, M. W. Takeda, T. Suzuki, and C. Otani, “Highly sensitive surface plasmon terahertz imaging with planar plasmonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14804–14809 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009). [CrossRef]  

7. M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Hangyo, T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Effect of a thin dielectric layer on terahertz transmission characteristics for metal hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1210–1212 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. F. Miyamaru, S. Hayashi, C. Otani, K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, H. Yoshida, and E. Kato, “Terahertz surface-wave resonant sensor with a metal hole array,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1118–1120 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. S. Yoshida, E. Kato, K. Suizu, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing of thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film thickness using a metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 012301 (2009). [CrossRef]  

10. Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1-3), 132–134 (2009). [CrossRef]  

11. F. Miyamaru, Y. Sasagawa, and M. W. Takeda, “Effect of dielectric thin films on reflection properties of metal hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021106 (2010). [CrossRef]  

12. H. Cao and A. Nahata, “Influence of aperture shape on the transmission properties of a periodic array of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3664–3672 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. M. Akazawa, Y. Yamazaki, and E. Sano, “Terahertz transmission property of a thin metal hole-array filter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(49), L1481–L1483 (2005). [CrossRef]  

14. E. Kato, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Strong resonance and terahertz wave transmission enhancement of low-porosity metal hole array with bow-tie-shaped apertures,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 122302 (2009). [CrossRef]  

15. D. S. Bulgarevich, M. Watanabe, and M. Shiwa, Japan Patent Pending 09-MS-145 (2010).

16. C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 331–336 (2003). [CrossRef]  

17. T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Surface-mode lifetime and the terahertz transmission of subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. 80(11), 115423 (2009). [CrossRef]  

18. H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944). [CrossRef]  

19. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

20. V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, “Enhanced transmission through metallic plates perforated by arrays of subwavelength holes and sandwiched between dielectric slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235117 (2005). [CrossRef]  

21. C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Huygens description of resonance phenomena in subwavelength hole arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(5), 998–1002 (2005). [CrossRef]  

22. J. I. Gersten, “The effect of surface roughness on surface enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(10), 5779–5780 (1980). [CrossRef]  

23. J. I. Gersten, “Rayleigh, Mie, and Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(10), 5780–5781 (1980). [CrossRef]  

24. H. Liang, S. Ruan, M. Zhang, and H. Su, “Nanofocusing of terahertz wave on conical metal wire waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 262–264 (2010). [CrossRef]  

25. S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

26. K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003). [CrossRef]  

27. J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 241102 (2007). [CrossRef]  

28. T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Terahertz wave filter from cascaded thin-metal-film meshes with a triangular array of hexagonal holes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L287–L289 (2004). [CrossRef]  

29. O. Paul, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Highly selective terahertz bandpass filters based on trapped mode excitation,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18590–18595 (2009). [CrossRef]  

30. J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Polarization dependent transmission through asymmetric C-shaped holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081102 (2009). [CrossRef]  

31. K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006). [CrossRef]  

32. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006). [CrossRef]  

33. S. M. V. Uppuluri, E. C. Kinzel, Y. Li, and X. Xu, “Parallel optical nanolithography using nanoscale bowtie aperture array,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7369–7375 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

34. E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Nonreciprocal reflection of a subwavelength hole array,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1906–1908 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. D. Qu and D. Grischkowsky, “Observation of a new type of THz resonance of surface plasmons propagating on metal-film hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 196804 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Zhang, “Resonant terahertz transmission in plasmonic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 1–18 (2008) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: Applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008) (and references therein).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Miyamaru, M. W. Takeda, T. Suzuki, and C. Otani, “Highly sensitive surface plasmon terahertz imaging with planar plasmonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14804–14809 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Hangyo, T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Effect of a thin dielectric layer on terahertz transmission characteristics for metal hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1210–1212 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. Miyamaru, S. Hayashi, C. Otani, K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, H. Yoshida, and E. Kato, “Terahertz surface-wave resonant sensor with a metal hole array,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1118–1120 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Yoshida, E. Kato, K. Suizu, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing of thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film thickness using a metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 012301 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1-3), 132–134 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Miyamaru, Y. Sasagawa, and M. W. Takeda, “Effect of dielectric thin films on reflection properties of metal hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Cao and A. Nahata, “Influence of aperture shape on the transmission properties of a periodic array of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3664–3672 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Akazawa, Y. Yamazaki, and E. Sano, “Terahertz transmission property of a thin metal hole-array filter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(49), L1481–L1483 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Kato, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Strong resonance and terahertz wave transmission enhancement of low-porosity metal hole array with bow-tie-shaped apertures,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 122302 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. S. Bulgarevich, M. Watanabe, and M. Shiwa, Japan Patent Pending 09-MS-145 (2010).
  16. C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 331–336 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Surface-mode lifetime and the terahertz transmission of subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. 80(11), 115423 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).
  20. V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, “Enhanced transmission through metallic plates perforated by arrays of subwavelength holes and sandwiched between dielectric slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235117 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Huygens description of resonance phenomena in subwavelength hole arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(5), 998–1002 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. I. Gersten, “The effect of surface roughness on surface enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(10), 5779–5780 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. I. Gersten, “Rayleigh, Mie, and Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(10), 5780–5781 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Liang, S. Ruan, M. Zhang, and H. Su, “Nanofocusing of terahertz wave on conical metal wire waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 262–264 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 241102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Terahertz wave filter from cascaded thin-metal-film meshes with a triangular array of hexagonal holes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L287–L289 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  29. O. Paul, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Highly selective terahertz bandpass filters based on trapped mode excitation,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18590–18595 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Polarization dependent transmission through asymmetric C-shaped holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. M. V. Uppuluri, E. C. Kinzel, Y. Li, and X. Xu, “Parallel optical nanolithography using nanoscale bowtie aperture array,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7369–7375 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Nonreciprocal reflection of a subwavelength hole array,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1906–1908 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. Qu and D. Grischkowsky, “Observation of a new type of THz resonance of surface plasmons propagating on metal-film hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 196804 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

F. Miyamaru, Y. Sasagawa, and M. W. Takeda, “Effect of dielectric thin films on reflection properties of metal hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Liang, S. Ruan, M. Zhang, and H. Su, “Nanofocusing of terahertz wave on conical metal wire waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 262–264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. V. Uppuluri, E. C. Kinzel, Y. Li, and X. Xu, “Parallel optical nanolithography using nanoscale bowtie aperture array,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7369–7375 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

O. Paul, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Highly selective terahertz bandpass filters based on trapped mode excitation,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18590–18595 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Polarization dependent transmission through asymmetric C-shaped holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kato, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Strong resonance and terahertz wave transmission enhancement of low-porosity metal hole array with bow-tie-shaped apertures,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 122302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Surface-mode lifetime and the terahertz transmission of subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. 80(11), 115423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoshida, E. Kato, K. Suizu, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing of thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film thickness using a metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 012301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1-3), 132–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

W. Zhang, “Resonant terahertz transmission in plasmonic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 1–18 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: Applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 241102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyamaru, M. W. Takeda, T. Suzuki, and C. Otani, “Highly sensitive surface plasmon terahertz imaging with planar plasmonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14804–14809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

F. Miyamaru, S. Hayashi, C. Otani, K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, H. Yoshida, and E. Kato, “Terahertz surface-wave resonant sensor with a metal hole array,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1118–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

M. Akazawa, Y. Yamazaki, and E. Sano, “Terahertz transmission property of a thin metal hole-array filter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(49), L1481–L1483 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, “Enhanced transmission through metallic plates perforated by arrays of subwavelength holes and sandwiched between dielectric slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Huygens description of resonance phenomena in subwavelength hole arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(5), 998–1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Hangyo, T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Effect of a thin dielectric layer on terahertz transmission characteristics for metal hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1210–1212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

D. Qu and D. Grischkowsky, “Observation of a new type of THz resonance of surface plasmons propagating on metal-film hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 196804 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, “Influence of aperture shape on the transmission properties of a periodic array of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3664–3672 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Terahertz wave filter from cascaded thin-metal-film meshes with a triangular array of hexagonal holes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L287–L289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Altewischer, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Nonreciprocal reflection of a subwavelength hole array,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1906–1908 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

J. I. Gersten, “The effect of surface roughness on surface enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(10), 5779–5780 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Gersten, “Rayleigh, Mie, and Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(10), 5780–5781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Akazawa, M.

M. Akazawa, Y. Yamazaki, and E. Sano, “Terahertz transmission property of a thin metal hole-array filter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(49), L1481–L1483 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Hangyo, T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Effect of a thin dielectric layer on terahertz transmission characteristics for metal hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1210–1212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Terahertz wave filter from cascaded thin-metal-film meshes with a triangular array of hexagonal holes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L287–L289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Altewischer, E.

Andrews, S. R.

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Surface-mode lifetime and the terahertz transmission of subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. 80(11), 115423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Bolivar, P. H.

J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bravo-Abad, J.

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 241102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

Crozier, K. B.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dragoman, D.

D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: Applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Dragoman, M.

D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: Applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 241102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Huygens description of resonance phenomena in subwavelength hole arrays,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(5), 998–1002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gersten, J. I.

J. I. Gersten, “The effect of surface roughness on surface enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(10), 5779–5780 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Gersten, “Rayleigh, Mie, and Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(10), 5780–5781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gómez Rivas, J.

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 241102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Qu and D. Grischkowsky, “Observation of a new type of THz resonance of surface plasmons propagating on metal-film hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 196804 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, J.

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1-3), 132–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1-3), 132–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

Hayashi, S.

Hendry, E.

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Surface-mode lifetime and the terahertz transmission of subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. 80(11), 115423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 241102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, D.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ikari, T.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Isaac, T. H.

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Surface-mode lifetime and the terahertz transmission of subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. 80(11), 115423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, K.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, E. X.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Polarization dependent transmission through asymmetric C-shaped holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kato, E.

S. Yoshida, E. Kato, K. Suizu, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing of thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film thickness using a metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 012301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kato, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Strong resonance and terahertz wave transmission enhancement of low-porosity metal hole array with bow-tie-shaped apertures,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 122302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyamaru, S. Hayashi, C. Otani, K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, H. Yoshida, and E. Kato, “Terahertz surface-wave resonant sensor with a metal hole array,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1118–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawase, K.

E. Kato, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Strong resonance and terahertz wave transmission enhancement of low-porosity metal hole array with bow-tie-shaped apertures,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 122302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoshida, E. Kato, K. Suizu, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing of thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film thickness using a metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 012301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyamaru, S. Hayashi, C. Otani, K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, H. Yoshida, and E. Kato, “Terahertz surface-wave resonant sensor with a metal hole array,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1118–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. S.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Polarization dependent transmission through asymmetric C-shaped holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kinzel, E. C.

Kurz, H.

J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Polarization dependent transmission through asymmetric C-shaped holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Liang, H.

H. Liang, S. Ruan, M. Zhang, and H. Su, “Nanofocusing of terahertz wave on conical metal wire waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 262–264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, “Enhanced transmission through metallic plates perforated by arrays of subwavelength holes and sandwiched between dielectric slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1-3), 132–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 241102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michielssen, E.

V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, “Enhanced transmission through metallic plates perforated by arrays of subwavelength holes and sandwiched between dielectric slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Minamide, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

Nahata, A.

Nakagomi, Y.

S. Yoshida, E. Kato, K. Suizu, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing of thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film thickness using a metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 012301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

S. Yoshida, E. Kato, K. Suizu, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing of thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film thickness using a metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 012301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyamaru, S. Hayashi, C. Otani, K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, H. Yoshida, and E. Kato, “Terahertz surface-wave resonant sensor with a metal hole array,” Opt. Lett. 31(8), 1118–1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohashi, K.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

Park, Q.-H.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Polarization dependent transmission through asymmetric C-shaped holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Paul, O.

Qu, D.

D. Qu and D. Grischkowsky, “Observation of a new type of THz resonance of surface plasmons propagating on metal-film hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 196804 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quate, C. F.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rahm, M.

Rivas, J. G.

J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, S.

H. Liang, S. Ruan, M. Zhang, and H. Su, “Nanofocusing of terahertz wave on conical metal wire waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 262–264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sano, E.

M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Hangyo, T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Effect of a thin dielectric layer on terahertz transmission characteristics for metal hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1210–1212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Akazawa, Y. Yamazaki, and E. Sano, “Terahertz transmission property of a thin metal hole-array filter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(49), L1481–L1483 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Terahertz wave filter from cascaded thin-metal-film meshes with a triangular array of hexagonal holes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L287–L289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sasagawa, Y.

F. Miyamaru, Y. Sasagawa, and M. W. Takeda, “Effect of dielectric thin films on reflection properties of metal hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schotsch, C.

J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M. A.

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Polarization dependent transmission through asymmetric C-shaped holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shikata, J.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, H.

H. Liang, S. Ruan, M. Zhang, and H. Su, “Nanofocusing of terahertz wave on conical metal wire waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 262–264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suizu, K.

S. Yoshida, E. Kato, K. Suizu, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing of thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film thickness using a metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 012301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Kato, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Strong resonance and terahertz wave transmission enhancement of low-porosity metal hole array with bow-tie-shaped apertures,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 122302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

Takeda, M. W.

F. Miyamaru, Y. Sasagawa, and M. W. Takeda, “Effect of dielectric thin films on reflection properties of metal hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyamaru, M. W. Takeda, T. Suzuki, and C. Otani, “Highly sensitive surface plasmon terahertz imaging with planar plasmonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14804–14809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, M.

Tanaka, T.

M. Tanaka, F. Miyamaru, M. Hangyo, T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Effect of a thin dielectric layer on terahertz transmission characteristics for metal hole arrays,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1210–1212 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Terahertz wave filter from cascaded thin-metal-film meshes with a triangular array of hexagonal holes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L287–L289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1-3), 132–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uppuluri, S. M. V.

van Exter, M. P.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Q.

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1-3), 132–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

S. M. V. Uppuluri, E. C. Kinzel, Y. Li, and X. Xu, “Parallel optical nanolithography using nanoscale bowtie aperture array,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7369–7375 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, Y.

M. Akazawa, Y. Yamazaki, and E. Sano, “Terahertz transmission property of a thin metal hole-array filter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(49), L1481–L1483 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J. S.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

Yoshida, S.

S. Yoshida, E. Kato, K. Suizu, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing of thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film thickness using a metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 012301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

H. Liang, S. Ruan, M. Zhang, and H. Su, “Nanofocusing of terahertz wave on conical metal wire waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 262–264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1-3), 132–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, “Resonant terahertz transmission in plasmonic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 1–18 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Plasmonic effects in near-field optical transmission enhancement through a single bowtie-shaped aperture,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 3–9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

E. Kato, K. Suizu, and K. Kawase, “Strong resonance and terahertz wave transmission enhancement of low-porosity metal hole array with bow-tie-shaped apertures,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(12), 122302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoshida, E. Kato, K. Suizu, Y. Nakagomi, Y. Ogawa, and K. Kawase, “Terahertz sensing of thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film thickness using a metallic mesh,” Appl. Phys. Express 2(1), 012301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Miyamaru, Y. Sasagawa, and M. W. Takeda, “Effect of dielectric thin films on reflection properties of metal hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(2), 021106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, and Q.-H. Park, “Polarization dependent transmission through asymmetric C-shaped holes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishihara, K. Ohashi, T. Ikari, H. Minamide, H. Yokoyama, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(20), 201120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Tian, J. Han, X. Lu, J. Gu, Q. Xing, and W. Zhang, “Surface plasmon enhanced terahertz spectroscopic distinguishing between isotopes,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 475(1-3), 132–134 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Zhang, “Resonant terahertz transmission in plasmonic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 43(1), 1–18 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(7), 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

J. I. Gersten, “The effect of surface roughness on surface enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(10), 5779–5780 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Gersten, “Rayleigh, Mie, and Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces,” J. Chem. Phys. 72(10), 5780–5781 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Tanaka, M. Akazawa, and E. Sano, “Terahertz wave filter from cascaded thin-metal-film meshes with a triangular array of hexagonal holes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L287–L289 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Akazawa, Y. Yamazaki, and E. Sano, “Terahertz transmission property of a thin metal hole-array filter,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(49), L1481–L1483 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

H. Liang, S. Ruan, M. Zhang, and H. Su, “Nanofocusing of terahertz wave on conical metal wire waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 283(2), 262–264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, “Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra,” Opt. Commun. 225(4-6), 331–336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Y. Cui, D. Hu, W. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz quasi-near-field real-time imaging,” Opt. Commun. 282(24), 4683–4687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (2)

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Surface-mode lifetime and the terahertz transmission of subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. 80(11), 115423 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. G. Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Lomakin and E. Michielssen, “Enhanced transmission through metallic plates perforated by arrays of subwavelength holes and sandwiched between dielectric slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 71(23), 235117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bravo-Abad, L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Hendry, and J. Gómez Rivas, “Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes: From a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 241102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. Qu and D. Grischkowsky, “Observation of a new type of THz resonance of surface plasmons propagating on metal-film hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(19), 196804 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(17), 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Dragoman and M. Dragoman, “Plasmonics: Applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 1–41 (2008) (and references therein).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

D. S. Bulgarevich, M. Watanabe, and M. Shiwa, Japan Patent Pending 09-MS-145 (2010).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme (a) and actual photos (b) and (c) of the Al aperture array on Si substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The THz transmission spectrum of the array band-pass filter, Si substrate, and THz source in air; (b) Transmission across the array (see the red line on insert) at resonance (0.81 THz) and nonresonance (1.85 THz) frequencies. The insert is the THz transmission image of the array at 0.81 THz in air.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Terahertz wave forms measured in vacuum at different illumination conditions (see schemes on insert) and normalized to unit intensity and time origin for the first transmission peak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission and reflection THz spectra of the array and substrate in vacuum at different illumination sides and incidence angles (see schemes on inserts): (a), (e), (f), and (g) are transmission spectra of the Si substrate and array; (b), (c), and (d) are reflection spectra from Al mirror and array. The reference spectra in corresponding optical alignments were THz source transmission or reflection from Au mirror for (a), (e), and (g) or (b), (c), and (d), respectively. The intensity, I, (f) and transmission (g) spectra were obtained from FFT of the same waveform, but for different time domains: (f) for 40-553 ps and (g) for 0-553 ps time intervals. Spectra are vertically shifted on indicated % for clarity.

Metrics