Abstract

We propose and demonstrate an OCDMA-PON scheme with optical network unit (ONU) internetworking capability, which utilizes low-cost gain-switched Fabry–Pérot (GS-FP) lasers with external dual-wavelength injection as the pulse sources on the ONU side. The injection-generated optical pulses in two wavelengths from the same GS-FP laser are used separately for the PON uplink transmission and ONU internetworking. Experimental results based on a two-user OCDMA system confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme. With OCDMA technologies, separate ONU-internetworking groups can be established using different optical codes. We also give experiment results to analyze the performance of the ONU-ONU transmission at different power of interference signals when two ONU-internetworking groups are present in the OCDMA-PON.

© 2010 OSA

1. Introduction

Optical-code-division multiple access (OCDMA) technique [1] has attracted a lot of interests due to its various advantages including asynchronous operation, high network flexibility, protocol transparency, simplified network control and potentially enhanced security [24], and is often considered as one of the effective multiple-access ways for passive optical networks (PONs) applications [57]. To satisfy the need of PON users that share information among optical network units (ONUs), it is advantageous to establish peer-to-peer internetworking within OCDMA PONs. ONU internetworking independent of the optical line terminal (OLT) is considered as an attractive feature for PONs, because it can reduce packet traffic load on the OLT [8]. However, few effective schemes have been given and demonstrated to realize the ONU internetworking independent of OLT on optical layer in OCDMA PONs, although the study on related topics has been popular in TDM-PONs and WDM-PONs [810]. For ONU internetworking in an OCDMA-PON, multiple ONU-ONU transmissions can be simultaneously performed by using different optical codes. And the simple architecture proposed for TDM-PON in [9], in which a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is located before the optical splitter at the remote node (RN), can also be utilized in OCDMA-PON, avoiding using the complex RN configurations, e.g. 2N*2N AWG used in [10].

Recently, we have proposed and demonstrated a low-cost scheme for OCDMA PONs, using optical injected gain-switched Fabry-Pérot (GS-FP) lasers as short-pulse sources on the ONU side [11]. Compared with the OCDMA system using the conventional pulse source, e.g. mode-locked lasers (MLLs), the scheme with GS-FP lasers gives an effective solution to decrease the ONU cost and shows reasonable system performance. In this paper, we propose an OCDMA PON scheme with optical ONU internetworking capability, which utilizes the low-cost GS-FP lasers with external dual-wavelength injection on the user side. Both the uplink and ONU-ONU transmission signals can be carried on the two injection-generated wavelengths from the same GS-FP laser to decrease the cost of ONUs. The fiber Bragg grating (FBG) located before the optical couplers at RN reflects the ONU-ONU traffic data towards all users without passing through the OLT. ONUs belonging to the same ONU-internetworking group can communicate with each other by sharing the same optical code and multiple groups can be established using different optical codes. A two-user OCDMA system with symmetrical 1.25-Gb/s downlink and uplink transmission, as well as 1.25-Gb/s ONU-ONU data transmission is set up to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme. In addition, the performance of the desired ONU-ONU transmission data as the power of interference signal varies is also analyzed when two simultaneous ONU-internetworking groups are present in the OCDMA-PON.

2. Proposed network architecture

Figure 1 shows an OCDMA PON architecture providing ONU internetworking capability. The system is based on low-cost GS-FP lasers with external dual-wavelength injection at the ONUs. In this architecture, data for up/downlink transmission and ONU-ONU traffic can be simultaneously transmitted since they are at different wavelengths. Two continuous wave (CW) lasers used as the injection seeding sources are located at OLT and shared by all ONUs to reduce the cost and relax the management at ONUs. The injecting lights are first combined with the encoded downlink signals by a wavelength division multiplexer (WDM1) and then transmitted to the ONUs. At each ONU, the injecting light is separated from encoded downlink signals by a WDM demultiplexer (the same type as WDM1) and then injected into the FP laser. At the same time, a matched decoder at the receiving end is used to decode the desired channel of the encoded downlink signals. Short pulses in dual wavelengths generated from the injection-locked GS-FP laser are separated by a WDM demultiplexer (WDM2). One branch is modulated and coded for the uplink and the other for the ONU-ONU traffic.

 

Fig. 1 Proposed OCDMA PON scheme supporting multiple ONU-internetworking groups. GS-FP laser: gain switched Fabry-Pérot laser; D-Enc/Dec: en/decoder for downlink transmission; U-Enc/Dec: en/decoder for uplink transmission; O-Enc/Dec: en/decoder for ONU-ONU transmission; Tx: Transmitter; Rx: Receiver; Mod.: modulator; O-Group: ONU-internetworking group.

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At the RN, a FBG is located before the uplink power splitter to pass uplink OCDMA signals and reflect the ONU-ONU signals towards ONUs. To realize multiple ONU-internetworking groups within the OCDMA PON, ONUs in different groups use different optical en/decoders. Only ONUs in the same internetworking group communicate with each other by sharing the same optical code. Reconfigurable en/decoders [12] need to be used if an ONU needs to switch among internetworking groups.

To resolve the possible collision during the intra-group ONU-ONU transmission, media access control (MAC) protocol, such as carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance protocol for optical networks [13], is needed. Despite of this, several intra-group ONU-ONU transmissions, which belong to different ONU-internetworking groups, can be performed simultaneously and asynchronously, because they are optical-code divided.

3. Experiment setup

Figure 2 presents the experimental setup of the proposed system. For the downlink transmission, an optical pulse train with 1.8-ps pulse width and 10-GHz repetition rate is generated by a commercial MLL, followed by an optical filter with 3-dB passing bandwidth of 0.6 nm and central wavelength at 1552.3 nm, in an effort to match the pulse width of the GS-FP lasers on the ONU side. The pulse train is gated down to 1.25 GHz and modulated with 215-1 pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS), and then encoded by two different 127-chip, 320-Gchip/s super-structured fiber Bragg gratings (SSFBGs). The encoded signals are combined with two CW lights generated from the distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers at wavelength of 1549.1 nm and 1550.7 nm, respectively, by a WDM (WDM 1; passing band: 1551.7-1553.3 nm; reflection band: others) and launched into a 20-km single mode fiber (SMF) followed by a dispersion compensation fiber (DCF).

 

Fig. 2 Experimental setup. PPG: programmable pattern generator; MZM: EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; ENC/DEC_DL: en/decoder for downlink signals; ENC/DEC_UL: en/decoder for uplink signals; ENC/DEC_ONU-ONU: en/decoder for ONU-ONU transmitting signals; DL: optical delay line; VOA: variable optical attenuator; BERT: bit error rate tester.

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On the ONU side, the downlink encoded signals are separated from the CW lights by a WDM demultiplexer (the same type as WDM 1), decoded by a matched SSFBG and directly detected for bit error rate (BER) analysis. The two CW lights are injected into the FP laser and then the generated 10-GHz pulse train from the injection locking GS-FP laser is modulated with 27-1 PRBS at 1.25 Gb/s. A polarization controller (PC) is put before the GS-FP to obtain the matched polarization state. In a practical application, a depolarizer at OLT can be used to eliminate the polarization dependence of injection locking, as proposed in [14]. The generated signal is splitted into two branches to emulate the users in two different ONU-internetworking groups. For each branch, the 1.25-Gb/s signal is separated by another type of WDM (WDM 2; pass band: 1550.1-1551.7 nm; reflection band: others) and then encoded by other two different 127-chip, 320-Gchip/s SSFBGs for the uplink and ONU-ONU traffic. Optical delay lines (DLs) are used to decorrelate these encoded signals. A WDM demultiplexer (the same type as WDM 2) is employed in the experiment to replace the FBG. Hence, the ONU-ONU transmitting signal is redirected downlink to another ONU through a 6-km SMF, while the uplink signal is transmitted back to the OLT through another 20-km SMF followed by the DCF. The generated pulse train from the GS-FP laser is characterized by using an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution of 0.1 nm and an Agilent 20-GHz sampling oscilloscope with 17.5-ps time resolution in conjunction with a 42-GHz pin photodetector. Due to the acceptable dispersion-induced penalty, no DCF is used for the ONU-ONU transmission.

4. Results and discussion

At bias current of 28 mA, RF signal power of 28 dBm and the injection power at each wavelength of around −4.5 dBm, dual-wavelength 10 GHz pulses with a pulse width of ~20 ps (see Fig. 3(d) ) and side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) exceeds 24 dB (comparing Fig. 3(a) and (b)) can be generated from the commercial GS-FP laser. The measured optical spectra for the downlink, uplink and ONU-ONU transmission are all illustrated in Fig. 3(c). One can see that the three wavelength channels are 1.6 nm spacing and correspond to the 200 GHz ITU grid channels. The reason of using 200 GHz channel spacing is that the mode spacing of the GS-FP laser used in this experiment is 200 GHz (seeing Fig. 3(a)) and the effective spectral range of SSFBGs used is around 1549-1553 nm.

 

Fig. 3 (a) spectrum for the GS-FP laser (w/o injection locking); (b) spectrum for the GS-FP laser (with injection locking); (c) spectra of downlink, uplink and ONU-ONU transmitting channel(tested at Point A, B and C in Fig. 2); (d) waveforms of the 10-GHz optical pulse trains.

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The measured eye diagrams of the decoded signals are illustrated in Fig. 4 . Since different wavelengths are used in OLT downlink, ONU uplink and internetworking, there is no significant multiple user interference (MUI) cross the three wavelength channels (seeing one-user cases in Fig. 4(a), (b) and (c)). However, in each wavelength channel, a two-user OCDMA system is carried and thus the MUI exists, which can be shown by comparing one-user cases in Fig. 4(a), (b) and (c) with two-user cases in Fig. 4(d), (e) and (f), respectively. From the BER curves shown in Fig. 5 , one can see that the 1.25-Gb/s uplink and ONU-to-ONU interconnecting signals show very similar BER performance (in the back-to-back cases, their power penalty difference at BER = 10−9 is ~0.3dB and ~0.4dB for the cases of one user and two users, respectively), which means the two wavelengths from the dual wavelength injection GS-FP laser have similar system performance. Here we note that the pulse width of the generated pulses from GS-FP laser is larger than the chip duration (~3 ps) of the SSFBG en/decoders used in the experiment, which may cause the BER performance degradation. However, from the BER curves in Fig. 5, one can see the low-cost GS-FP laser can still work reasonably well with the 320 Gchip/s SSFBGs in our experiments. SSFBGs with chip duration of ~20 ps may be a choice to compensate this degradation. However, bit rate or security of the OCDMA system will be decreased in this case. In addition, although the experiments we conducted here are at 1.25Gb/s due to the relatively broad pulse width from GS-FP laser (~20 ps), it is possible to realize 10-Gb/s OCDMA systems by using shorter pulses, which can be generated by GS-FP lasers with higher bandwidths plus optional fiber compressors, such as in [15].

 

Fig. 4 Eye diagrams. (a) decoded downlink signal in btb case, one user; (b) decoded uplink signal in btb case, one user; (c) decoded ONU-ONU transmitting signal in btb case, one ONU-internetworking group; (d) decoded downlink signal after 20-km transmission, two users; (e) decoded uplink signal after 20-km transmission, two users; (f) decoded ONU-ONU transmitting signal after 6-km transmission, two ONU-internetworking groups.

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Fig. 5 Measured BER curves.

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Separate ONU-internetworking groups can be supported in the PON, and signals from each group may have the different power loss induced by different transmitting fiber lengths. Therefore, the ONU will receive different ONU-ONU transmitting signals with different optical power, which will result in additional power penalty. Figure 6 shows the measured optical power penalty at BER = 10−9 for the desired ONU-ONU transmitting signal versus the received power difference, when two ONU-internetworking groups are supported in the OCDMA-PON. Here we keep the optical power of the desired signal constant while adjusting the optical power of the interfering signal. Considering that the distribution-fiber-length difference is often less than 10 km in the PON and the typical power loss at 1550 nm for the SMF is 0.2 dB/ km, the received power difference between these two signals is kept within 2 dB. When the optical power of the interfering signal is 2 dB more than the desired signal, ~3.4-dB power penalty is observed. And the BER performance of the desired signal is with ~1.1 dB improved, when the optical power of the interfering signal is 2 dB less than the desired signal. These power penalties should be considered during system design.

 

Fig. 6 Measured power penalty at BER = 10−9 against the received power difference between two ONU-internetworking groups. The minus sign in the x-axis means that the power of the interfering group is smaller than that of the desired group.

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5. Conclusion

We have proposed and demonstrated an OCDMA PON scheme supporting ONU-ONU transmission independent of the OLT, which employs low-cost GS-FP lasers wit h external dual-wavelength injection on the user side. The data for the uplink transmission and the traffic among ONUs can be carried on two injection-generated wavelengths from the same GS-FP laser. Several ONU-internetworking groups can be simultaneously performed using different optical codes. Experiment results based on a two-user OCDMA system have proved the feasibility of the scheme.

References and links

1. J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37(8), 824–833 (1989). [CrossRef]  

2. P. R. Prucnal, Optical Code Division Multiple Access: Fundamentals and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 2005).

3. T. Hamanaka, X. Wang, N. Wada, A. Nishiki, and K.-I. Kitayama, “Ten-user truly asynchronous gigabit OCDMA transmission experiment with a 511-chip SSFBG en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 95–102 (2006). [CrossRef]  

4. C.-S. Bres, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of an eight-user 115-Gchip/s incoherent OCDMA system using supercontinuum generation and optical time gating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 889–891 (2006). [CrossRef]  

5. K.-I. Kitayama, X. Wang, and N. Wada, “OCDMA over WDM PON - solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1654–1662 (2006). [CrossRef]  

6. Z. A. El-Sahn, B. J. Shastri, M. Zeng, N. Kheder, D. V. Plant, and L. A. Rusch, “Experimental demonstration of a SAC-OCDMA PON with burst-mode reception: local versus centralized sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1192–1203 (2008). [CrossRef]  

7. S. Yoshima, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Suzuki, M. Noda, M. Nogami, J. Nakagawa, and K.-I. Kitayama, “10 Gb/s-based PON over OCDMA uplink burst transmission using SSFBG encoder/multi-port decoder and burst-mode receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 365–371 (2010). [CrossRef]  

8. M. Gharaei, S. Cordette, C. Lepers, I. Fsaifes, and P. Gallion, “Multiple optical private networks over EPON using optical CDMA technique,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA34. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2010-JThA34

9. C. J. Chae, S. T. Lee, G. Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1686–1688 (1999). [CrossRef]  

10. Q. Zhao and C. K. Chan, “A wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network with flexible optical network unit internetworking capability,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 1970–1977 (2007). [CrossRef]  

11. J. Liu, Y. Lu, C. Guo, X. Hong, L. Xu, and S. He, “Demonstration of low-cost uplink transmission in a coherent OCDMA PON using gain-wwitched Fabry–Pérot lasers with external injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 583–585 (2010). [CrossRef]  

12. Z. Zhang, C. Tian, M. R. Mokhtar, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and M. Ibsen, “Rapidly reconfigurable optical phase encoder-decoders based on fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1216–1218 (2006). [CrossRef]  

13. S. M. Gemelos, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, K. Shrikhande, T. One, and L. G. Kazovsky, “WDM metropolitan area network based on CSMA/CA packet switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1512–1514 (1999). [CrossRef]  

14. Z. Xu, Y. J. Wen, W.-D. Zhong, C.-J. Chae, X.-F. Cheng, Y. Wang, C. Lu, and J. Shankar, “High-speed WDM-PON using CW injection-locked Fabry–Pérot laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2953–2962 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. Y. Matsui, S. Kutsuzawa, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, “Generation of wavelength tunable gain-switched pulses from FP MQW lasers with external injection seeding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1087–1089 (1997). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37(8), 824–833 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. R. Prucnal, Optical Code Division Multiple Access: Fundamentals and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 2005).
  3. T. Hamanaka, X. Wang, N. Wada, A. Nishiki, and K.-I. Kitayama, “Ten-user truly asynchronous gigabit OCDMA transmission experiment with a 511-chip SSFBG en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 95–102 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. C.-S. Bres, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of an eight-user 115-Gchip/s incoherent OCDMA system using supercontinuum generation and optical time gating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 889–891 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. K.-I. Kitayama, X. Wang, and N. Wada, “OCDMA over WDM PON - solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1654–1662 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  6. Z. A. El-Sahn, B. J. Shastri, M. Zeng, N. Kheder, D. V. Plant, and L. A. Rusch, “Experimental demonstration of a SAC-OCDMA PON with burst-mode reception: local versus centralized sources,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(10), 1192–1203 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Yoshima, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Suzuki, M. Noda, M. Nogami, J. Nakagawa, and K.-I. Kitayama, “10 Gb/s-based PON over OCDMA uplink burst transmission using SSFBG encoder/multi-port decoder and burst-mode receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 365–371 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Gharaei, S. Cordette, C. Lepers, I. Fsaifes, and P. Gallion, “Multiple optical private networks over EPON using optical CDMA technique,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA34. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2010-JThA34
  9. C. J. Chae, S. T. Lee, G. Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1686–1688 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. Q. Zhao and C. K. Chan, “A wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network with flexible optical network unit internetworking capability,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(8), 1970–1977 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Liu, Y. Lu, C. Guo, X. Hong, L. Xu, and S. He, “Demonstration of low-cost uplink transmission in a coherent OCDMA PON using gain-wwitched Fabry–Pérot lasers with external injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 583–585 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. Z. Zhang, C. Tian, M. R. Mokhtar, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and M. Ibsen, “Rapidly reconfigurable optical phase encoder-decoders based on fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1216–1218 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. M. Gemelos, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, K. Shrikhande, T. One, and L. G. Kazovsky, “WDM metropolitan area network based on CSMA/CA packet switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1512–1514 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. Z. Xu, Y. J. Wen, W.-D. Zhong, C.-J. Chae, X.-F. Cheng, Y. Wang, C. Lu, and J. Shankar, “High-speed WDM-PON using CW injection-locked Fabry–Pérot laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2953–2962 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Matsui, S. Kutsuzawa, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, “Generation of wavelength tunable gain-switched pulses from FP MQW lasers with external injection seeding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1087–1089 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. Yoshima, N. Nakagawa, N. Kataoka, N. Suzuki, M. Noda, M. Nogami, J. Nakagawa, and K.-I. Kitayama, “10 Gb/s-based PON over OCDMA uplink burst transmission using SSFBG encoder/multi-port decoder and burst-mode receiver,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 365–371 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. Lu, C. Guo, X. Hong, L. Xu, and S. He, “Demonstration of low-cost uplink transmission in a coherent OCDMA PON using gain-wwitched Fabry–Pérot lasers with external injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 583–585 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (4)

T. Hamanaka, X. Wang, N. Wada, A. Nishiki, and K.-I. Kitayama, “Ten-user truly asynchronous gigabit OCDMA transmission experiment with a 511-chip SSFBG en/decoder,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 95–102 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.-S. Bres, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of an eight-user 115-Gchip/s incoherent OCDMA system using supercontinuum generation and optical time gating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 889–891 (2006).
[Crossref]

K.-I. Kitayama, X. Wang, and N. Wada, “OCDMA over WDM PON - solution path to gigabit-symmetric FTTH,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1654–1662 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, C. Tian, M. R. Mokhtar, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and M. Ibsen, “Rapidly reconfigurable optical phase encoder-decoders based on fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1216–1218 (2006).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

S. M. Gemelos, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, K. Shrikhande, T. One, and L. G. Kazovsky, “WDM metropolitan area network based on CSMA/CA packet switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1512–1514 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. J. Chae, S. T. Lee, G. Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1686–1688 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Y. Matsui, S. Kutsuzawa, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, “Generation of wavelength tunable gain-switched pulses from FP MQW lasers with external injection seeding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1087–1089 (1997).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37(8), 824–833 (1989).
[Crossref]

Arahira, S.

Y. Matsui, S. Kutsuzawa, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, “Generation of wavelength tunable gain-switched pulses from FP MQW lasers with external injection seeding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1087–1089 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bres, C.-S.

C.-S. Bres, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of an eight-user 115-Gchip/s incoherent OCDMA system using supercontinuum generation and optical time gating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 889–891 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chae, C. J.

C. J. Chae, S. T. Lee, G. Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1686–1688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chae, C.-J.

Chan, C. K.

Cheng, X.-F.

El-Sahn, Z. A.

Gemelos, S. M.

S. M. Gemelos, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, K. Shrikhande, T. One, and L. G. Kazovsky, “WDM metropolitan area network based on CSMA/CA packet switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1512–1514 (1999).
[Crossref]

Glesk, I.

C.-S. Bres, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of an eight-user 115-Gchip/s incoherent OCDMA system using supercontinuum generation and optical time gating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 889–891 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

J. Liu, Y. Lu, C. Guo, X. Hong, L. Xu, and S. He, “Demonstration of low-cost uplink transmission in a coherent OCDMA PON using gain-wwitched Fabry–Pérot lasers with external injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 583–585 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hamanaka, T.

He, S.

J. Liu, Y. Lu, C. Guo, X. Hong, L. Xu, and S. He, “Demonstration of low-cost uplink transmission in a coherent OCDMA PON using gain-wwitched Fabry–Pérot lasers with external injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 583–585 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hong, X.

J. Liu, Y. Lu, C. Guo, X. Hong, L. Xu, and S. He, “Demonstration of low-cost uplink transmission in a coherent OCDMA PON using gain-wwitched Fabry–Pérot lasers with external injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 583–585 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ibsen, M.

Z. Zhang, C. Tian, M. R. Mokhtar, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and M. Ibsen, “Rapidly reconfigurable optical phase encoder-decoders based on fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1216–1218 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kataoka, N.

Kazovsky, L. G.

S. M. Gemelos, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, K. Shrikhande, T. One, and L. G. Kazovsky, “WDM metropolitan area network based on CSMA/CA packet switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1512–1514 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kheder, N.

Kim, G. Y.

C. J. Chae, S. T. Lee, G. Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1686–1688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kitayama, K.-I.

Kutsuzawa, S.

Y. Matsui, S. Kutsuzawa, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, “Generation of wavelength tunable gain-switched pulses from FP MQW lasers with external injection seeding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1087–1089 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. T.

C. J. Chae, S. T. Lee, G. Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1686–1688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, Y. Lu, C. Guo, X. Hong, L. Xu, and S. He, “Demonstration of low-cost uplink transmission in a coherent OCDMA PON using gain-wwitched Fabry–Pérot lasers with external injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 583–585 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

Lu, Y.

J. Liu, Y. Lu, C. Guo, X. Hong, L. Xu, and S. He, “Demonstration of low-cost uplink transmission in a coherent OCDMA PON using gain-wwitched Fabry–Pérot lasers with external injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 583–585 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matsui, Y.

Y. Matsui, S. Kutsuzawa, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, “Generation of wavelength tunable gain-switched pulses from FP MQW lasers with external injection seeding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1087–1089 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mokhtar, M. R.

Z. Zhang, C. Tian, M. R. Mokhtar, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and M. Ibsen, “Rapidly reconfigurable optical phase encoder-decoders based on fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1216–1218 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, J.

Nakagawa, N.

Nishiki, A.

Noda, M.

Nogami, M.

Ogawa, Y.

Y. Matsui, S. Kutsuzawa, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, “Generation of wavelength tunable gain-switched pulses from FP MQW lasers with external injection seeding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1087–1089 (1997).
[Crossref]

One, T.

S. M. Gemelos, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, K. Shrikhande, T. One, and L. G. Kazovsky, “WDM metropolitan area network based on CSMA/CA packet switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1512–1514 (1999).
[Crossref]

Park, H.

C. J. Chae, S. T. Lee, G. Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1686–1688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

Z. Zhang, C. Tian, M. R. Mokhtar, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and M. Ibsen, “Rapidly reconfigurable optical phase encoder-decoders based on fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1216–1218 (2006).
[Crossref]

Plant, D. V.

Prucnal, P. R.

C.-S. Bres, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of an eight-user 115-Gchip/s incoherent OCDMA system using supercontinuum generation and optical time gating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 889–891 (2006).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Z. Zhang, C. Tian, M. R. Mokhtar, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and M. Ibsen, “Rapidly reconfigurable optical phase encoder-decoders based on fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1216–1218 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rusch, L. A.

Salehi, J. A.

J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37(8), 824–833 (1989).
[Crossref]

Shankar, J.

Shastri, B. J.

Shrikhande, K.

S. M. Gemelos, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, K. Shrikhande, T. One, and L. G. Kazovsky, “WDM metropolitan area network based on CSMA/CA packet switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1512–1514 (1999).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, N.

Tian, C.

Z. Zhang, C. Tian, M. R. Mokhtar, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and M. Ibsen, “Rapidly reconfigurable optical phase encoder-decoders based on fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1216–1218 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wada, N.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Wen, Y. J.

White, I. M.

S. M. Gemelos, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, K. Shrikhande, T. One, and L. G. Kazovsky, “WDM metropolitan area network based on CSMA/CA packet switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1512–1514 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wonglumsom, D.

S. M. Gemelos, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, K. Shrikhande, T. One, and L. G. Kazovsky, “WDM metropolitan area network based on CSMA/CA packet switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1512–1514 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

J. Liu, Y. Lu, C. Guo, X. Hong, L. Xu, and S. He, “Demonstration of low-cost uplink transmission in a coherent OCDMA PON using gain-wwitched Fabry–Pérot lasers with external injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 583–585 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Yoshima, S.

Zeng, M.

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, C. Tian, M. R. Mokhtar, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and M. Ibsen, “Rapidly reconfigurable optical phase encoder-decoders based on fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1216–1218 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

Zhong, W.-D.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

C.-S. Bres, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, “Demonstration of an eight-user 115-Gchip/s incoherent OCDMA system using supercontinuum generation and optical time gating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(7), 889–891 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. J. Chae, S. T. Lee, G. Y. Kim, and H. Park, “A PON system suitable for internetworking optical network units using a fiber Bragg grating on the feeder fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1686–1688 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. Lu, C. Guo, X. Hong, L. Xu, and S. He, “Demonstration of low-cost uplink transmission in a coherent OCDMA PON using gain-wwitched Fabry–Pérot lasers with external injection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 583–585 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, C. Tian, M. R. Mokhtar, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, and M. Ibsen, “Rapidly reconfigurable optical phase encoder-decoders based on fiber Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1216–1218 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. M. Gemelos, I. M. White, D. Wonglumsom, K. Shrikhande, T. One, and L. G. Kazovsky, “WDM metropolitan area network based on CSMA/CA packet switching,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(11), 1512–1514 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Matsui, S. Kutsuzawa, S. Arahira, and Y. Ogawa, “Generation of wavelength tunable gain-switched pulses from FP MQW lasers with external injection seeding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1087–1089 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

J. A. Salehi, “Code division multiple access techniques in optical fiber networks—Part I: Fundamental principles,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 37(8), 824–833 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

M. Gharaei, S. Cordette, C. Lepers, I. Fsaifes, and P. Gallion, “Multiple optical private networks over EPON using optical CDMA technique,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThA34. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2010-JThA34

P. R. Prucnal, Optical Code Division Multiple Access: Fundamentals and Applications (Taylor & Francis, 2005).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed OCDMA PON scheme supporting multiple ONU-internetworking groups. GS-FP laser: gain switched Fabry-Pérot laser; D-Enc/Dec: en/decoder for downlink transmission; U-Enc/Dec: en/decoder for uplink transmission; O-Enc/Dec: en/decoder for ONU-ONU transmission; Tx: Transmitter; Rx: Receiver; Mod.: modulator; O-Group: ONU-internetworking group.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. PPG: programmable pattern generator; MZM: EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; ENC/DEC_DL: en/decoder for downlink signals; ENC/DEC_UL: en/decoder for uplink signals; ENC/DEC_ONU-ONU: en/decoder for ONU-ONU transmitting signals; DL: optical delay line; VOA: variable optical attenuator; BERT: bit error rate tester.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) spectrum for the GS-FP laser (w/o injection locking); (b) spectrum for the GS-FP laser (with injection locking); (c) spectra of downlink, uplink and ONU-ONU transmitting channel(tested at Point A, B and C in Fig. 2); (d) waveforms of the 10-GHz optical pulse trains.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Eye diagrams. (a) decoded downlink signal in btb case, one user; (b) decoded uplink signal in btb case, one user; (c) decoded ONU-ONU transmitting signal in btb case, one ONU-internetworking group; (d) decoded downlink signal after 20-km transmission, two users; (e) decoded uplink signal after 20-km transmission, two users; (f) decoded ONU-ONU transmitting signal after 6-km transmission, two ONU-internetworking groups.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured BER curves.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured power penalty at BER = 10−9 against the received power difference between two ONU-internetworking groups. The minus sign in the x-axis means that the power of the interfering group is smaller than that of the desired group.

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