Abstract

We report on the spectroscopic characterization, continuous-wave and continuous wave mode-locked laser performance of bulk Tm3+:GPNG fluorogermanate and Tm3+-Ho3+:TZN tellurite glass lasers around 2 μm. A slope efficiency of up to 50% and 190 mW of output power were achieved from the Tm3+:GPNG laser at 1944 nm during continuous wave operation. The Tm3+-Ho3+:TZN laser produced a 26% slope efficiency with a maximum output power of 74 mW at 2012 nm. The Tm3+:GPNG produced near-transform-limited pulses of 410 fs duration centered at 1997 nm with up to 84 mW of average output power and repetition frequency of 222 MHz when was passively modelocked using an ion-implanted InGaAsSb-based quantum well SESAM. Using the same SESAM, the Tm3+-Ho3+:TZN laser generated 630-fs pulses with 38 mW of average output power at 2012 nm. Data analysis of pulses at different intracavity pulse energies provided an estimation of n2 at 2012 nm of 2.9 × 10−15 cm2/W for the Tm3+-Ho3+:TZN

©2010 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The development of near-infrared lasers operating around the 2 µm spectral region has recently attracted research interest driven by their widespread applications from LIDAR systems to medicine [1]. The emission of Tm3+ (3F43H6) and Ho3+ (5I75I8) doped and Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped crystalline and amorphous materials are often chosen to produce laser radiation around 2 µm [24]. A range of Tm and Tm-Ho doped crystalline and fiber-based 2 µm laser sources have been demonstrated producing multi-watt output powers and operating with slope efficiencies as high as 76% [5]. Ultrashort-pulse lasers that operate around 2 μm are of particular interest for applications in time-resolved spectroscopy, nonlinear frequency down-conversion to the mid/far-infrared spectral regions, mid-IR supercontinuum generation, optical communications and photomedicine [6]. 190-fs pulses at 1897 nm with an average output power of 1 mW have been generated from thulium fibre laser using semiconductor saturable absorber [7] and, alternatively, 108-fs pulses were produced at 1980 nm with an average power of 3.1 W after amplification of Raman-shifted Er-doped fiber laser in a Tm-doped fiber [8]. The use of Tm-doped or Tm-Ho co-doped amorphous materials for ultrashort pulse generation based on bulk-glass gain elements represents an attractive option since such gain media are characterized by broadband and smooth emission spectra around 2 µm spectral region [9]. Additionally, they can be produced with very good optical quality by using a simple melt and quenching technique that permits an extremely fast development cycle compared to growing many crystalline hosts. Optical pumping of Tm-doped glass media can be achieved by laser radiation at around 0.8 µm (3H63H4) but, alternatively, pumping around 1.2 µm (3H63H5) [10] and 1.6 μm (inband pumping of 3F4) [11] was also attained.

Here we report the spectroscopic characterization, 2 µm continuous wave (CW) and passively continuous wave mode-locked (CWML) laser operation of a Tm3+:GPNG fluorogermanate and a Tm3+-Ho3+:TZN tellurite glass lasers pumped at 792 nm. The fluorogermanate sample produced a maximum output power of 190 mW at 1944 nm with a corresponding slope efficiency of 50% during cw operation. Broadly tunable laser operation could also be observed over the 1840-2085 nm range. The Tm3+-Ho3+:TZN laser gave a 26% slope efficiency with maximum output power of 74 mW at 2012 nm. Using an InGaAsSb-based semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) [12] near-transform-limited 410-fs pulses at 1997 nm with 62 mW of average output power were produced from the Tm3+:GPNG laser and 630-fs pulses were generated at 2012 nm with 38 mW of average power using Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN gain material.

2. Sample preparation and spectroscopy characterizations

The samples used in our assessments were prepared by a melt and quenching technique. Germanium dioxide GeO2 and Tellurium Dioxide TeO2 network formers were chosen and developed because of the exploitability of their broad transparency range from 0.4 - 5 µm [13,14]. Additionally, their attractive physical characteristics such as, good crystallization stability, high glass transition temperatures and good moisture resistance makes GeO2 and TeO2 compounds good candidates for production of glass laser elements. They possess high refractive indices of around 1.8 for the GeO2 and 2 for the TeO2, their phonon energies are ~900 cm−1 for the germanate and ~750 cm−1 for the tellurite [14]. Additionally, both germanate [13] and tellurite glasses can be successfully drawn into optical fibers [3].

The Tm3+:GPNG fluorogermanate was derived from an all-oxide germanate composition [13] via the substitution of the lead oxide with lead fluoride. In a glass matrix with a substantial amount of fluorides, Tm3+ ions tend to interact with a lower local peak phonon energy decreasing the multi-phonon relaxation rates [15,16]. High purity (>99.99%) starting chemical constituents were weighed and mixed in ambient atmosphere to form glass with a molar concentration of 56 GeO2 – 31 PbF2 – 9 Na2O – 4 Ga2O3. 2 wt% of Tm2O3 was added to a 15 g batch as dopant and the mixture was then transferred to a platinum crucible and melted at 1200 °C for 4 hours under a dry oxygen atmosphere. The melt was stirred once after 2 hours and cast on a preheated brass mould and annealed at 360 °C for 2 hours. The annealing furnace was then turned off and the glass was allowed to cool slowly to room temperature. The quality of the glass obtained was not fully optimized as lines and small casting defects could be seen in the final samples. Also, analysis of the sample between crossed polarizers showed that some material strains were present.

In the Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN sample, the host glass was designed following our previously developed process and composition [9]. As in all Tm3+ and Ho3+ co-doped materials a balance between upconversion losses which are directly related to the Tm3+ and Ho3+ concentrations, and Tm3+→Ho3+ transfer efficiency, inversely proportional to the Ho3+/Tm3+ concentration ratio [17] had to be found. Different samples were produced with varying concentrations of Ho3+ and in this study we present the optimized results obtained with a sample doped with 2 wt% of Tm2O3 and 0.1 wt% of Ho2O3 in a 10g TZN batch. Both samples were cut to a length of 4.5 mm and parallel polished with an 8 mm × 8 mm aperture.

Measurements of the absorption spectrum were carried out from 400 nm to 2200 nm with a PerkinElmer Lambda 950 UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer and are shown in Fig. 1 . Density measurements of active ions in two glass samples returned a Tm3+ concentration of 3.1 × 1020 cm−3 in the fluorogermanate and 3.3 × 1020 cm−3 in the tellurite glasses. This in turn allowed an estimation of the peak absorption cross section of the 3H6-3H4 transition to be made from the absorption coefficient spectrum. The values found were peak absorption cross sections of 9.5 × 10−21 cm2 for the fluorogermanate glass and 8.7 × 10−21 cm2 for the tellurite glass as shown in Fig. 1. Tm3+ level 3H5 and Ho3+ level 5I6 around 1200 nm overlap and cannot be clearly resolved in our samples, a detailed spectroscopy of Ho3+ is reported by Gruber et al. [18] The luminescence spectra were recorded from 1300 nm to 2200 nm using an Edinburgh Instruments FLS920 Steady State spectrometer with excitation by a laser diode at 808 nm. In the fluorogermanate glass a negligible emission around 1470 nm indicated an efficient cross-relaxation (3H4 + 3H63F4 + 3F4) process. Using the reciprocity method and parameters reported in reference [19] the emission cross section for Tm3+ in the fluorogermanate glass was calculated to be 5.5 × 10−21 cm2 at 1850 nm.

 

Fig. 1 Calculated absorption cross sections (left axis) for both glass samples using the measured absorption coefficient spectra (right axis). All peaks are highlighted with their respective wavelength and absorption level from the ground 3H6 level of Tm3+ or 5I8 level of Ho3+. Non boxed values refer to Tm3+ transitions, boxed values refer to Ho3+ transitions.

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Similarly, the emission cross section of the Ho3+ peak at 1950 nm in the tellurite sample was calculated to be 8 × 10−21 cm2. The calculated emission cross sections as a function of wavelength are shown in Fig. 2 . The upper laser level lifetimes of Tm3+ and Ho3+ were measured using a time-resolved fluorescence spectrophotometer and an InGaAs detector with a modulated laser diode at 808 nm as an excitation source. The fluorescence decay of the Tm3+ in germanate glass had a single exponential feature with the lifetime constant of 2.9 ms showing a negligible energy transfer upconversion (3F4 + 3F43H6 + 3H4). The lifetime of the 5I7 level of Ho3+ in the tellurite sample was measured to be 2.5 ms.

 

Fig. 2 The emission cross section spectra of the two glass samples as calculated with the reciprocity method from the absorption cross sections and parameters reported in reference [19]. Non boxed values refer to the Tm3+ transition to ground level 3H6, boxed values refer to the Ho3+ transition to ground levels 5I8.

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3. Continuous-wave laser performance

For the assessment of CW laser performance, the glass samples were glued with thermo-conductive paint to a copper mount which was maintained at 15 °C and inserted at Brewster’s angle in a Z-fold 4-mirror laser cavity as depicted on Fig. 3 . The Ti:sapphire pumping beam was focused to a 25 µm radius spot size inside the gain material and the pump wavelength was tuned to the maximum of the 3H4 absorption line of the Tm3+ at 792 nm for the Tm3+:GPNG and 793 nm for the Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN. The two samples showed a similar absorption cross section at the pump wavelength, hence they both absorbed around ~65% of the incident radiation in a single-pass configuration. The cavity mirrors in place were designed for high transmission (>98%) at the pump wavelength and high reflectivity (>99.99%) in the 1800-2100 nm range. Four output couplers (OC) were used having transmissivities of 0.8%, 2.0%, and 4.1% around 1950 nm respectively and, by using two OCs in place of mirror M3 and M4 data for an overall 6.1% output coupling could also be obtained.

 

Fig. 3 The experimental setup used for the laser experiments. M1 and M2 – plano-concave HR mirrors (r1 = −75 mm and r2 = −100mm), M3 and M4 plane high reflectivity or output coupler mirrors. LE - glass laser element, IRP - infrared grade fused silica prisms, SESAM - semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (was used during modelocking experiments). The SESAM was replaced with an HR mirror for cw characterization.

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The input-output cw characteristics obtained for the two lasers are shown in Fig. 4 . The maximum slope efficiency of 50% with respect to the absorbed power was obtained using the 6.1% output coupling in the Tm3+:fluorogermanate laser (Fig. 4(a)). The maximum output power was 190 mW obtained at 1952 nm and was limited by the available pump power. The lowest laser threshold was of 43 mW of absorbed pump power with the 0.8% OC. The round-trip losses of the cavity were found to be around 1.2%/cm by plotting the inverse of the slope efficiencies against the inverse of the mirror transmissivities [20].

 

Fig. 4 a) Tm3+:GPNG output power vs. absorbed pump power for 0.8%, 2.0%, 4.1% and 6.1% OCs with associated slope efficiencies of 32%, 40%, 47% and 50% respectively. b) Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN output power vs. absorbed pump power for 0.8% and 2. % OCs with associated slope efficiencies of 18% and 26%.

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In the case of the Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN laser the highest slope efficiency reached was 26% for a 2.0% OC with corresponding maximum output power of 74 mW (Fig. 4(b)). The efficiency of this laser was lower than for singly doped Tm3+ laser system as a result of the energy transfer from the Tm3+ 3F4 level to the 5I7 laser level of Ho3+ and the presence of enhanced up-conversion losses in the Tm-Ho system [21]. The Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN laser output was centered at 2048 nm for the 0.8% OC and operation at shorter wavelength of 2012 nm was observed for the 2.0% OC due to the quasi-three level nature of the Ho3+ 5I7-5I8 transition. With a 4.0% OC laser output was observed at 1944 nm only where Tm3+ contributed predominantly. The laser threshold was approximately 100 mW of absorbed pump power with the 0.8% OC. Interestingly, both laser systems demonstrated no thermal rollover up to the maximum incident pump power of 900 mW.

The tunability of the two lasers was measured with a fused silica prism inserted into the laser cavities. The prism losses were negligible and the output power reached 145 mW with the 0.8% OC for the Tm3+:GPNG element and 58 mW with the 0.8% OC in the case of the Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN sample.

The Tm3+:GPNG laser emission extended from 1840 nm to 2085 nm with full width at half maximum of 145 nm and the Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN laser emitted from 1870 nm to 2080 nm with a FWHM of 125 nm (Fig. 5 ).

 

Fig. 5 Tunabilities normalized to the maximum power for Tm3+:GPNG and Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN glass lasers. Data were measured with the 0.8% OC. The straight lines highlight the full width at half maximum of the tunability profiles. FWHM = 145 nm for the Tm3+:GPNG and 125 nm for the Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN.

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4. Continuous wave mode-locked laser performance

The CWML laser performance of both Tm3+:GPNG and Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN lasers operating at 2 μm was evaluated when an InGaAsSb-based SESAM (described previously in Ref [12].) was employed. The Z-folded 4-mirror laser cavity depicted in Fig. 3 was constructed where second-order dispersion control was achieved with a pair of infrared grade fused silica prisms. The laser cavity mode size (radius) on the SESAM was 50 µm. In both laser systems, the prisms were mounted on translation stages, and had a material dispersion of −100 fs2/mm around 2000 nm. The total double-pass group velocity dispersion (GVD) that could be produced with the prism pair was varied between −2800 fs2 and −3700 fs2 depending on the amount of glass inserted. The refractive indices of both fluorogermanate and tellurite glass elements were measured with a Metricon 2010 prism coupler machine at 532 nm at 633 nm and 1321 nm. They resulted of n532 = 1.868, n633 = 1.825, and n1321 = 1.755 for the fluorogermanate and n532 = 2.068, n633 = 2.039, and n1321 = 1.988 for the tellurite glass respectively. The parameters for the Sellmeier equation fit could thus be calculated providing a measured linear refractive index dispersion curve. From the linear dispersion the second order dispersion (group velocity dispersion GVD) could be derived: the undoped fluorogermanate glass had a GVD of 280 fs2/mm at 1950 nm and the undoped tellurite glass had a positive GVD of 68 fs2/mm at 2010 nm.

The Tm3+:GPNG laser with the two prisms inserted and the high reflectivity mirror M4 in place produced 140 mW of output power with corresponding slope efficiency of 29% with the 0.8% OC. Upon insertion of the SESAM the efficiency dropped to 19%, Fig. 6(a) .

 

Fig. 6 The absorbed to average output power characteristics of (a) Tm:fluorogermanate and (b) Tm,Ho:tellurite glass lasers with the SESAM in place.

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Stable self-starting mode locking operation was achieved at 410 mW of incident pump power (275 mW of absorbed power) with 37 mW of average output power. A maximum average output power of 84 mW was achieved in the mode locking mode.

The pulse repetition frequency was 222 MHz and the modelocking threshold fluence on the absorber was estimated to be 265 µJ/cm2. Near-transform-limited pulses were produced at 1997 nm center wavelength with pulse duration ranging from 520 fs at modelocking threshold conditions to 410 fs at 62 mW and higher values of average output power, the autocorrelation trace is shown in Fig. 7(a) . This corresponded to a maximum achieved peak power for these pulses of 680 W. The FWHM output spectrum for the pulses ranged from 8.1 nm to 10.4 nm depending on the intracavity pulse energy with corresponding time-bandwidth products ΔνΔτ ranging from 0.32 to 0.36. Figure 7(b) shows the output spectrum obtained for the 410-fs pulse. The Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN laser was modelocked using the same cavity arrangements. As shown in Fig. 8 , the shortest measured pulse duration was 630 fs with corresponding spectral bandwidth of 6.8 nm at maximum average output power of 38 mW. Starting from modelocking threshold and increasing the incident power in the TZN laser, and therefore the intracavity power, the pulses shortened from 1010 fs to 630 fs when the SESAM dynamic saturable losses were fully saturated.

 

Fig. 7 (a) The intensity autocorrelation trace with sech2 fit (dotted line) and (b) the corresponding optical spectrum of the shortest pulses obtained from the Tm:fluorogermanate laser.

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Fig. 8 (a) The intensity autocorrelation trace with sech2 fit (dot line) and (b) optical spectrum of the shortest modelocked pulses from the Tm,Ho:tellurite glass laser.

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Measured pulse durations, τP, as a function of the intracavity energy are plotted in Fig. 9 with the hyperbolic fit curve according to the expression [22]:

τP=1.76274|D|δLEP
where, 1.7627 converts the pulse duration in its FWHM value, D is the total intracavity second order dispersion, δL is the self phase modulation (SPM) coefficient and EP is the intracavity pulse energy as it follows from the area theorem. Fitting the data in Fig. 9 the δL = 2.33·10−6 W−1 could be extracted taking into account that D value was estimated to be −3300 fs2.

 

Fig. 9 The pulse durations τP as a function of the intracavity pulse energy for the Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN laser.

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The SPM coefficient, or Kerr coefficient, δL is directly connected to the nonlinear refractive index of the gain material, n2, in this case the alkali tellurite TZN glass, by the formula [22]:

n2=wL2λδL4Lg
where wL is the laser mode spot radius, λ is the emission center wavelength and Lg is the length of the TZN glass laser element. The n2 found was of 2.9 × 10−15 cm2/W at 2012 nm. Published values for n2, measured at 1070 nm, via three-wave-frequency mixing on tellurite based glasses are of about 4.87 × 10−15 cm2/W [23].

5. Conclusions

In conclusion, we have presented spectroscopic, CW and CWML femtosecond laser characterization of the Tm3+:GPNG bulk fluorogermanate and a doubly doped Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN bulk tellurite based glasses pumped by a Ti:Sapphire laser at around 800 nm. In case of the Tm3+:GPNG laser a maximum slope efficiency of 50% with the corresponding maximum output power of 190 mW were achieved during continuous wave operation at 1952 nm. This confirms that germanate glass represents a good candidate for 2 μm gain media in agreement with the work of G. Turri et al [24]. The Tm3+-Ho3+:TZN laser operated with maximum slope efficiency of 26% and produced a maximum output power of 74 mW at 2012 nm. Modelocking pulsed assessments were carried out using an ion-implanted InGaAsSb-based quantum well SESAM. The Tm-doped fluorogermanate glass produced near-transform-limited pulses of 410 fs duration centered at 1997 nm with up to 84 mW of average output power and a repetition frequency of 222 MHz. The Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN laser yielded 630 fs pulses centered at 2012 nm at 38 mW average output power and repetition frequency 143 MHz. Data analysis of pulses at different intracavity pulse energies provided an estimation of n2 parameter at 2012 nm of 2.9 × 10−15 cm2/W for the Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN. This is the first time, to the authors’ knowledge, that a femtosecond-pulse operation has been demonstrated using bulk glass lasers in the 2 μm spectral band.

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge funding from the UK Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council under a Photon Flow Basic Technology grant EP/D04622X/1. Access to the specialist equipment in the laboratories of colleagues Professors Andrew P. Mackenzie and Thomas F. Krauss at St Andrews University is also gratefully acknowledged.

References and links

1. A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, “Soft and hard tissue ablation with short-pulse high peak power and continuous thulium-silica fibre lasers,” Lasers Med. Sci. 18(3), 139–147 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. S. D. Jackson, “Efficient Tm3+, Ho3+-co-doped silica fibre laser diode pumped at 1150 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281(14), 3837–3840 (2008). [CrossRef]  

3. Y. Tsang, B. Richards, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Tm(3+)/Ho(3+) codoped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1282–1284 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009). [CrossRef]  

5. J. F. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, and S. B. Jiang, “Highly efficient high-power thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 638–640 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001). [CrossRef]  

7. R. C. Sharp, D. E. Spock, N. Pan, and J. Elliot, “190-fs passively mode-locked thulium fiber laser with a low threshold,” Opt. Lett. 21(12), 881–883 (1996). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. G. Imeshev and M. E. Fermann, “230-kW peak power femtosecond pulses from a high power tunable source based on amplification in Tm-doped fiber,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7424–7431 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, A. Jha, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm3+-doped bulk TZN and TZNG tellurite glasses operating around 1.9 µm,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19146–19151 (2008). [CrossRef]  

10. F. Fusari, S. Vetter, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Tunable laser operation of a Tm3+-doped tellurite glass laser near 2 μm pumped by a 1211 nm semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Mater. In press.

11. B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Efficient similar to 2 μm Tm3+-doped tellurite fiber lase,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 402–404 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 172–174 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. X. Jiang, J. Lousteau, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1701–1706 (2009). [CrossRef]  

14. J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite Glass: A new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994). [CrossRef]  

15. S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Local-Structure around Rare-Earth Ions in Indium-Based and Lead-Based Fluoride Glasses with High up-Conversion Efficiency,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 143, 46–51 (1992). [CrossRef]  

16. J. E. Shelby and E. A. Bolden, ““Formation and Properties of Lead Fluorogermanate Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 142, 269–277 (1992). [CrossRef]  

17. S. X. Shen, A. Jha, E. Zhang, and S. Wilson, “Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Tb3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 434–440 (2007). [CrossRef]  

18. J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy-levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991). [CrossRef]  

19. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992). [CrossRef]  

20. J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum Electronic Properties of the Na3Ga2Li3FI12 Cr3+ Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988). [CrossRef]  

21. A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009). [CrossRef]  

22. H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000). [CrossRef]  

23. R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive-index measurements of glasses using three-wave frequency mixing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(6), 875–881 (1987). [CrossRef]  

24. G. Turri, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ in germanate, silica, and phosphate glasses: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093104 (2008). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, “Soft and hard tissue ablation with short-pulse high peak power and continuous thulium-silica fibre lasers,” Lasers Med. Sci. 18(3), 139–147 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. D. Jackson, “Efficient Tm3+, Ho3+-co-doped silica fibre laser diode pumped at 1150 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281(14), 3837–3840 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Tsang, B. Richards, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Tm(3+)/Ho(3+) codoped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1282–1284 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. F. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, and S. B. Jiang, “Highly efficient high-power thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 638–640 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. C. Sharp, D. E. Spock, N. Pan, and J. Elliot, “190-fs passively mode-locked thulium fiber laser with a low threshold,” Opt. Lett. 21(12), 881–883 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. G. Imeshev and M. E. Fermann, “230-kW peak power femtosecond pulses from a high power tunable source based on amplification in Tm-doped fiber,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7424–7431 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, A. Jha, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm3+-doped bulk TZN and TZNG tellurite glasses operating around 1.9 µm,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19146–19151 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. F. Fusari, S. Vetter, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Tunable laser operation of a Tm3+-doped tellurite glass laser near 2 μm pumped by a 1211 nm semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Mater.In press.
  11. B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Efficient similar to 2 μm Tm3+-doped tellurite fiber lase,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 402–404 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 172–174 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. X. Jiang, J. Lousteau, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1701–1706 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite Glass: A new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Local-Structure around Rare-Earth Ions in Indium-Based and Lead-Based Fluoride Glasses with High up-Conversion Efficiency,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 143, 46–51 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. E. Shelby and E. A. Bolden, ““Formation and Properties of Lead Fluorogermanate Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 142, 269–277 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. X. Shen, A. Jha, E. Zhang, and S. Wilson, “Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Tb3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 434–440 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy-levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  20. J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum Electronic Properties of the Na3Ga2Li3FI12 Cr3+ Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  22. H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive-index measurements of glasses using three-wave frequency mixing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(6), 875–881 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  24. G. Turri, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ in germanate, silica, and phosphate glasses: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093104 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

X. Jiang, J. Lousteau, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1701–1706 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

2007 (2)

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, E. Zhang, and S. Wilson, “Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Tb3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 434–440 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. F. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, and S. B. Jiang, “Highly efficient high-power thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 638–640 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, “Soft and hard tissue ablation with short-pulse high peak power and continuous thulium-silica fibre lasers,” Lasers Med. Sci. 18(3), 139–147 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite Glass: A new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Local-Structure around Rare-Earth Ions in Indium-Based and Lead-Based Fluoride Glasses with High up-Conversion Efficiency,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 143, 46–51 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. E. Shelby and E. A. Bolden, ““Formation and Properties of Lead Fluorogermanate Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 142, 269–277 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy-levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum Electronic Properties of the Na3Ga2Li3FI12 Cr3+ Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

Adair, R.

Bass, M.

G. Turri, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ in germanate, silica, and phosphate glasses: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Binks, D.

Bolden, E. A.

J. E. Shelby and E. A. Bolden, ““Formation and Properties of Lead Fluorogermanate Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 142, 269–277 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brown, C. T. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 172–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, A. Jha, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm3+-doped bulk TZN and TZNG tellurite glasses operating around 1.9 µm,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19146–19151 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, S. Vetter, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Tunable laser operation of a Tm3+-doped tellurite glass laser near 2 μm pumped by a 1211 nm semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Mater.In press.

Caird, J. A.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum Electronic Properties of the Na3Ga2Li3FI12 Cr3+ Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

Calvez, S.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 172–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Fusari, S. Vetter, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Tunable laser operation of a Tm3+-doped tellurite glass laser near 2 μm pumped by a 1211 nm semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Mater.In press.

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum Electronic Properties of the Na3Ga2Li3FI12 Cr3+ Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive-index measurements of glasses using three-wave frequency mixing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(6), 875–881 (1987).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 172–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Fusari, S. Vetter, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Tunable laser operation of a Tm3+-doped tellurite glass laser near 2 μm pumped by a 1211 nm semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Mater.In press.

Elliot, J.

El-Sherif, A. F.

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, “Soft and hard tissue ablation with short-pulse high peak power and continuous thulium-silica fibre lasers,” Lasers Med. Sci. 18(3), 139–147 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

Fusari, F.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 172–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, A. Jha, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm3+-doped bulk TZN and TZNG tellurite glasses operating around 1.9 µm,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19146–19151 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, S. Vetter, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Tunable laser operation of a Tm3+-doped tellurite glass laser near 2 μm pumped by a 1211 nm semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Mater.In press.

Gannot, I.

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gruber, J. B.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy-levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hills, M. E.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy-levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Local-Structure around Rare-Earth Ions in Indium-Based and Lead-Based Fluoride Glasses with High up-Conversion Efficiency,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 143, 46–51 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ilev, I. K.

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001).
[Crossref]

Imeshev, G.

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson, “Efficient Tm3+, Ho3+-co-doped silica fibre laser diode pumped at 1150 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281(14), 3837–3840 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jha, A.

X. Jiang, J. Lousteau, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1701–1706 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Efficient similar to 2 μm Tm3+-doped tellurite fiber lase,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 402–404 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tsang, B. Richards, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Tm(3+)/Ho(3+) codoped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1282–1284 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, A. Jha, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm3+-doped bulk TZN and TZNG tellurite glasses operating around 1.9 µm,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19146–19151 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, E. Zhang, and S. Wilson, “Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Tb3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 434–440 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, S. Vetter, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Tunable laser operation of a Tm3+-doped tellurite glass laser near 2 μm pumped by a 1211 nm semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Mater.In press.

Jiang, S. B.

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, J. Lousteau, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1701–1706 (2009).
[Crossref]

King, T. A.

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, “Soft and hard tissue ablation with short-pulse high peak power and continuous thulium-silica fibre lasers,” Lasers Med. Sci. 18(3), 139–147 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kisel, V. E.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 172–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kokta, M. R.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy-levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum Electronic Properties of the Na3Ga2Li3FI12 Cr3+ Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kuleshov, N. V.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 172–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kurilchik, S. V.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 172–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Lagatsky, A. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 172–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, A. Jha, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm3+-doped bulk TZN and TZNG tellurite glasses operating around 1.9 µm,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19146–19151 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, S. Vetter, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Tunable laser operation of a Tm3+-doped tellurite glass laser near 2 μm pumped by a 1211 nm semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Mater.In press.

Lousteau, J.

Morrison, C. A.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy-levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pan, N.

Pavlyuk, A. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009).
[Crossref]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum Electronic Properties of the Na3Ga2Li3FI12 Cr3+ Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. A. Payne, “Nonlinear refractive-index measurements of glasses using three-wave frequency mixing,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(6), 875–881 (1987).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, A. J.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum Electronic Properties of the Na3Ga2Li3FI12 Cr3+ Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

Richards, B.

X. Jiang, J. Lousteau, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1701–1706 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Efficient similar to 2 μm Tm3+-doped tellurite fiber lase,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 402–404 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tsang, B. Richards, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “Tm(3+)/Ho(3+) codoped tellurite fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1282–1284 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, A. Jha, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm3+-doped bulk TZN and TZNG tellurite glasses operating around 1.9 µm,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19146–19151 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, S. Vetter, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Tunable laser operation of a Tm3+-doped tellurite glass laser near 2 μm pumped by a 1211 nm semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Mater.In press.

Richardson, M.

G. Turri, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ in germanate, silica, and phosphate glasses: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Seltzer, M. D.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy-levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sharp, R. C.

Shelby, J. E.

J. E. Shelby and E. A. Bolden, ““Formation and Properties of Lead Fluorogermanate Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 142, 269–277 (1992).
[Crossref]

Shen, S. X.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, E. Zhang, and S. Wilson, “Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Tb3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 434–440 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sibbett, W.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. Calvez, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, M. D. Dawson, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Femtosecond pulse operation of a Tm,Ho-codoped crystalline laser near 2 microm,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 172–174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, A. Jha, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm3+-doped bulk TZN and TZNG tellurite glasses operating around 1.9 µm,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19146–19151 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, S. Vetter, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Tunable laser operation of a Tm3+-doped tellurite glass laser near 2 μm pumped by a 1211 nm semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Mater.In press.

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Snitzer, E.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite Glass: A new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[Crossref]

Soga, N.

S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Local-Structure around Rare-Earth Ions in Indium-Based and Lead-Based Fluoride Glasses with High up-Conversion Efficiency,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 143, 46–51 (1992).
[Crossref]

Spock, D. E.

Staber, P. R.

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum Electronic Properties of the Na3Ga2Li3FI12 Cr3+ Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

Stevens, S. B.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy-levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sudesh, V.

G. Turri, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ in germanate, silica, and phosphate glasses: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Todoroki, S.

S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Local-Structure around Rare-Earth Ions in Indium-Based and Lead-Based Fluoride Glasses with High up-Conversion Efficiency,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 143, 46–51 (1992).
[Crossref]

Toncelli, A.

G. Turri, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ in germanate, silica, and phosphate glasses: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tonelli, M.

G. Turri, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ in germanate, silica, and phosphate glasses: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsang, Y.

Turner, G. A.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy-levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Turri, G.

G. Turri, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ in germanate, silica, and phosphate glasses: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093104 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vetter, S.

F. Fusari, S. Vetter, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Tunable laser operation of a Tm3+-doped tellurite glass laser near 2 μm pumped by a 1211 nm semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Mater.In press.

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite Glass: A new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[Crossref]

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite Glass: A new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[Crossref]

Waynant, R. W.

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wilson, S.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, E. Zhang, and S. Wilson, “Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Tb3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 434–440 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. F.

Yao, Z.

Yasukevich, A. S.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, E.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, E. Zhang, and S. Wilson, “Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Tb3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 434–440 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zong, J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. A. Lagatsky, F. Fusari, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, A. S. Yasukevich, N. V. Kuleshov, A. A. Pavlyuk, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Optical spectroscopy and efficient continuous-wave operation near 2 μm for a Tm, Ho:KYW laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 321–326 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. A. Caird, S. A. Payne, P. R. Staber, A. J. Ramponi, L. L. Chase, and W. F. Krupke, “Quantum Electronic Properties of the Na3Ga2Li3FI12 Cr3+ Laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 1077–1099 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. A. Haus, “Mode-locking of lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1173–1185 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy-levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

G. Turri, V. Sudesh, M. Richardson, M. Bass, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “Temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ in germanate, silica, and phosphate glasses: A comparative study,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093104 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, E. Zhang, and S. Wilson, “Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Tb3+ energy transfer in tellurite glass,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 434–440 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Sol. (2)

S. Todoroki, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, “Local-Structure around Rare-Earth Ions in Indium-Based and Lead-Based Fluoride Glasses with High up-Conversion Efficiency,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 143, 46–51 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. E. Shelby and E. A. Bolden, ““Formation and Properties of Lead Fluorogermanate Glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 142, 269–277 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Phys. (1)

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

A. F. El-Sherif and T. A. King, “Soft and hard tissue ablation with short-pulse high peak power and continuous thulium-silica fibre lasers,” Lasers Med. Sci. 18(3), 139–147 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. D. Jackson, “Efficient Tm3+, Ho3+-co-doped silica fibre laser diode pumped at 1150 nm,” Opt. Commun. 281(14), 3837–3840 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (3)

X. Jiang, J. Lousteau, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Investigation on germanium oxide-based glasses for infrared optical fibre development,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1701–1706 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Tellurite Glass: A new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3(3), 187–203 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, S. Vetter, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Tunable laser operation of a Tm3+-doped tellurite glass laser near 2 μm pumped by a 1211 nm semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Mater.In press.

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Calculated absorption cross sections (left axis) for both glass samples using the measured absorption coefficient spectra (right axis). All peaks are highlighted with their respective wavelength and absorption level from the ground 3H6 level of Tm3+ or 5I8 level of Ho3+. Non boxed values refer to Tm3+ transitions, boxed values refer to Ho3+ transitions.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The emission cross section spectra of the two glass samples as calculated with the reciprocity method from the absorption cross sections and parameters reported in reference [19]. Non boxed values refer to the Tm3+ transition to ground level 3H6, boxed values refer to the Ho3+ transition to ground levels 5I8.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The experimental setup used for the laser experiments. M1 and M2 – plano-concave HR mirrors (r1 = −75 mm and r2 = −100mm), M3 and M4 plane high reflectivity or output coupler mirrors. LE - glass laser element, IRP - infrared grade fused silica prisms, SESAM - semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (was used during modelocking experiments). The SESAM was replaced with an HR mirror for cw characterization.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Tm3+:GPNG output power vs. absorbed pump power for 0.8%, 2.0%, 4.1% and 6.1% OCs with associated slope efficiencies of 32%, 40%, 47% and 50% respectively. b) Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN output power vs. absorbed pump power for 0.8% and 2. % OCs with associated slope efficiencies of 18% and 26%.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Tunabilities normalized to the maximum power for Tm3+:GPNG and Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN glass lasers. Data were measured with the 0.8% OC. The straight lines highlight the full width at half maximum of the tunability profiles. FWHM = 145 nm for the Tm3+:GPNG and 125 nm for the Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The absorbed to average output power characteristics of (a) Tm:fluorogermanate and (b) Tm,Ho:tellurite glass lasers with the SESAM in place.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The intensity autocorrelation trace with sech2 fit (dotted line) and (b) the corresponding optical spectrum of the shortest pulses obtained from the Tm:fluorogermanate laser.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) The intensity autocorrelation trace with sech2 fit (dot line) and (b) optical spectrum of the shortest modelocked pulses from the Tm,Ho:tellurite glass laser.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The pulse durations τP as a function of the intracavity pulse energy for the Tm3+,Ho3+:TZN laser.

Equations (2)

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τ P = 1.7627 4 | D | δ L E P
n 2 = w L 2 λ δ L 4 L g

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