Abstract

Using terahertz time domain spectroscopy we demonstrate tunable polarization rotation and circular dichroism in intrinsically non-chiral planar terahertz metamaterials without twofold rotational symmetry. The observed effect is due to extrinsic chirality arising from the mutual orientation of the metamaterial plane and the propagation direction of the incident terahertz wave.

©2010 Optical Society of America

Since the discovery of light polarization rotation in crystals by Arago in 1811 [1], optical activity has been a phenomenon of fundamental importance for the progress of chemistry, physics, biology, and optics. Apart from their ability to rotate the polarization state of light (circular birefringence), optically active materials also exhibit different transmission levels for left and right circular polarizations (circular dichroism) and they can have a negative refractive index for circularly polarized waves [24]. Since 1848, when optical activity has been linked to intrinsically 3D-chiral molecules by Luis Pasteur's pioneering work on tartaric acid [5], research in this area focused almost entirely on natural and artificial 3D-chiral structures, i.e. three-dimensional (3D) objects such as a helix, which can be distinguished from their mirror image. However, optical activity does not require intrinsically chiral materials. Instead, optical activity may also arise from extrinsic 3D chirality, when the direction of incidence and an achiral material structure form a chiral experimental arrangement [68], see Fig. 1 .

 

Fig. 1 Extrinsic chirality. (a) At normal incidence, the experimental arrangement formed by the direction of incidence and a planar metamaterial is the same as its mirror image and therefore not 3D-chiral. Here, the angle of incidence α is measured from the metamaterial’s surface normal n to the direction of incidence k. (b) At oblique incidence, an achiral planar structure and the direction of incidence can form an experimental arrangement that is different from its mirror image and therefore extrinsically 3D-chiral.

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The terahertz electromagnetic region is a unique frequency range that is scientifically rich but technologically underdeveloped. It falls between the domain of high frequency radiowaves (microwaves) and the far-infrared with many important applications such as security detection, sensing, biomedical imaging, and in understanding the complex dynamics in solid state physics and processes such as molecular recognition [9,10]. However, the devices for manipulating terahertz waves are considerably limited. Consequently, the development of artificially engineered materials with unusual properties in this frequency region is especially important. Recently, metamaterials research has greatly expanded the accessible range of optical properties at terahertz frequencies [1128]. However, due to the complexity of 3D-chiral metamaterial geometries, experimental realizations of 3D-chiral terahertz metamaterials still remain challenging. While current realizations of such structures exhibit circular birefringence and circular dichroism [4,29,30], lack of efficient tunability limits their suitability for practical applications.

Here, we show for the first time that optical activity can occur in non-chiral planar terahertz metamaterials. Exceptionally large circular birefringence and circular dichroism are observed at oblique incidence, when the non-chiral metamaterial forms an extrinsically 3D-chiral experimental arrangement with the incident wave. The effect is inherently tunable, its sign and magnitude can be controlled by the tilt of the metamaterial plane relative to the incident beam. Importantly, this type of tunable optical activity occurs in a large class of simple planar metamaterial designs that are ideally suited for well-established planar manufacturing technologies, opening up an avenue to polarization control devices for terahertz wave applications.

Four different planar metamaterials were fabricated by conventional photolithography from a 200 nm aluminum layer on a 640 μm thick silicon substrate (n-type resistivity 12 Ω cm). The metamaterials all have lateral dimensions of 10 x 10 mm2 and a lattice constant of P = 60 μm, which renders the structures non-diffracting at any angle of incidence for frequencies up to 2.5 THz. As illustrated by Figs. 2(a)2(d), the meta-molecules consist of symmetrically and asymmetrically split wire rings (positive metamaterials) and the complementary symmetrically and asymmetrically split ring apertures in an aluminum film (negative metamaterials), respectively. Detailed dimensions are given in Fig. 2.

 

Fig. 2 Fabricated planar metamaterial samples represented by their unit cells: (a) symmetrically and (b) asymmetrically split wire rings and the complementary (c) symmetrically and (d) asymmetrically split ring apertures with structural dimensions. (e) Fragment of the metamaterial array of asymmetrically split wire rings.

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We studied these structures using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy THz-TDS [31]. The terahertz beam incident on the sample had a frequency-independent diameter of 3.5 mm and thus illuminated about 3000 unit cells at the center of the metamaterial. Transmission of the structures was studied for angles of incidence in the range from α = −45° to + 45°, where the plane of incidence was parallel to the splitting in all cases. Using parallel or crossed linear polarizers placed before and after the sample, we measured all components of the metamaterial's transmission matrix Eitrans=τijEjinc, which relates the incident and transmitted electric fields in terms of linearly polarized components. Amplitude |τij(ω)|=|Eijsample(ω)|/|Eref(ω)| and phase arg(τij(ω))=[Eijsample(ω)/Eref(ω)] of the transmission matrix elements were calculated from transmission measurements taken on the metamaterial Eijsample(ω) with a correspondingly oriented blank silicon substrate Eref(ω) used as reference. The insertion loss of the silicon substrate is about −3 dB. In order to analyze the metamaterial response for circularly polarized waves, we transformed the transmission matrix τij from the linear polarization basis to circular polarization,

t=(t++t+t+t)=12(τxx+τyy+i(τxyτyx)τxxτyyi(τxy+τyx)τxxτyy+i(τxy+τyx)τxx+τyyi(τxyτyx)).

In this form the transmission matrix Eitrans=tijEjinc directly relates the incident and transmitted terahertz electric fields in terms of right-handed ( + ) and left-handed (-) circularly polarized components. The square of its elements Tij=|tij|2 corresponds to transmission and circular polarization conversion in terms of power.

Figure 3 shows measurements of direct transmission and circular polarization conversion taken for an angle of incidence of α = 45°. It can be clearly seen, that within experimental accuracy the circular polarization conversion efficiencies are identical for each metamaterial, T-+ = T+-, indicating the expected presence of linear dichroism/birefringence in the anisotropic structures and absence of the recently-discovered 2D-chiral asymmetric transmission phenomenon [27,32]. More importantly, the direct transmission levels, T++ and T, were found to be equal for the symmetric metamaterials and unequal in case of the asymmetric structures, indicating the presence of 3D-chiral circular dichroism, Δ = T++ - T, only for the asymmetric metamaterials. The importance of the asymmetric splitting becomes clear when considering (i) the experimental arrangement consisting of the metamaterial and the direction of incidence and (ii) its mirror image, see Fig. 1(b). For asymmetrically split rings, these mirror-experiments cannot be superimposed: If we rotate one experiment to superimpose the wave vectors k and the surface normals n, then the metamaterial orientations will differ by a 180° rotation around n (one structure is up-side-down). Therefore the experimental arrangement is different from its mirror image, extrinsic 3D chirality is present and optical activity is allowed. In case of symmetrically split rings - and indeed for any twofold rotationally symmetric planar metamaterial - the experiment is not chiral, as it can be superimposed with its mirror image and therefore optical activity must be absent.

 

Fig. 3 Measured circular transmission and polarization conversion for terahertz waves incident at α = + 45° on metamaterial arrays of (a) symmetrically split wire rings, (b) asymmetrically split wire rings, (c) symmetrically split ring apertures, and (d) asymmetrically split ring apertures. The dashed lines mark the frequency band of pure polarization rotation, where circular dichroism and linear birefringence / dichroism are virtually absent.

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The manifestations of extrinsic 3D chirality are further illustrated by Fig. 4 , which shows the dependence of polarization rotation, ΔΦ3D=12[arg(t++)arg(t)], and circular dichroism Δ on the angle of incidence α for the asymmetric metamaterials. At normal incidence extrinsic chirality is absent and no optical activity can be observed. When the angle of incidence is increased, a band of gradually increasing optical activity appears around 0.9THz, where opposite angles of incidence ± α lead to optical activity of opposite sign. Thus, circular dichroism can be tuned continuously from Δ = −31% to + 31%, simply by tilting the array of asymmetrically split wire rings from α = + 45° to −45°. Similarly, using the metamaterial array of asymmetrically split ring apertures, polarization rotation can be tuned continuously from ΔΦt = −28° to + 28°. In case of the asymmetric aperture array, it is particularly useful, that the maximum of circular birefringence coincides with absence of circular dichroism and negligible linear dichroism/birefringence [T-+, T+-, see Fig. 3(d)]. Thus, at the maximum of polarization rotation, the metamaterial exhibits pure circular birefringence and behaves like an ideal tunable polarization rotator. This behavior is opposite to the effect seen in most optically active molecular systems, where characteristically strong resonant polarization rotation of initially linearly polarized radiation is accompanied by substantial circular dichroism resulting in an elliptical polarization state.

 

Fig. 4 Optical activity due to extrinsic 3D chirality. Polarization azimuth rotation (circular birefringence) and circular dichroism observed in metamaterial arrays of asymmetrically split (a) wire rings and (b) ring apertures at different angles of incidence α.

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Comparing the optical activity for both asymmetric split ring metamaterials, we find that the aperture array shows about 3.5 times larger polarization rotation, see Fig. 4(b). On the other hand, circular dichroism is about 3.5 times larger for the wire structure, see Fig. 4(a). Overall, the spectral and angular dependence of polarization rotation and circular dichroism, each, is similar, but of reversed sign, for the positive and negative metamaterial structures.

Neglecting the presence of the substrate, the positive and negative metamaterials are complementary structures in the sense of Babinet's principle [3335]. Babinet complementary planar metamaterials exhibit interchanged optical activity in transmission and reflection [36]. Thus it may be expected that both arrays of asymmetrically split rings exhibit substantial polarization rotation and circular dichroism also for reflected waves.

Similarly to optical activity in conventional 3D-chiral molecules, optical activity due to extrinsic 3D chirality has been linked to electric and magnetic responses of the meta-molecules [6]. In a wire split ring, which essentially consists of a pair of electric dipole antennas, in-phase current oscillations correspond to an electric dipole oscillating in the metamaterial plane. On the other hand, the asymmetric splitting also allows the currents in both wires to oscillate in anti-phase, giving rise to a magnetic dipole oscillating perpendicular to the metamaterial plane. Only the magnetic dipole component perpendicular to the propagation direction can contribute to the scattered field and this radiating magnetic component is zero at normal incidence and has opposite signs for opposite angles of incidence. Therefore optical activity can only be observed at oblique incidence onto the asymmetrically split ring arrays and reverses sign for opposite angles of incidence.

In summary, we demonstrate strong and tunable resonant polarization rotation and circular dichroism in achiral planar terahertz metamaterials. The effects are due to extrinsic 3D chirality arising from the mutual orientation of a metamaterial lacking twofold rotational symmetry and the incident terahertz beam. Due to (i) the large magnitude of the observed optical activity, (ii) the huge tunable range of the effect and (iii) the simplicity of suitable planar metamaterials, such structures are ideal functional elements for novel, highly efficient terahertz polarization rotators, circular polarizers, modulators and vibration sensors.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Xinchao Lu for mask design, and Zhen Tian and Jiangfeng Zhou for fruitful discussions. Financial support of the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, UK are acknowledged.

References and links

1. F. J. D. Arago, “Mémoire sur une modification remarquable qu'éprouvent les rayons lumineux dans leur passage à travers certains corps diaphanes et sur quelques autres nouveaux phénomènes d'optique,” Mémoires de la classe des sciences math. et phys. de l'Institut Impérial de France 1, 93 (1811).

2. J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009). [CrossRef]  

4. S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. L. Pasteur, “Mémoire sur la relation qui peut exister entre la forme cristalline et la composition chimique, et sur la cause de la polarization rotatoire,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 26, 535 (1848).

6. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191911 (2008). [CrossRef]  

7. E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009). [CrossRef]  

9. B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002). [CrossRef]  

10. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007). [CrossRef]  

11. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. A. K. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, “Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 634–636 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008). [CrossRef]  

17. H. T. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009). [CrossRef]  

18. J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Optically thin terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6537–6543 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. R. Singh, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Effect of metal permittivity on resonant properties of terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1506–1508 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009). [CrossRef]  

24. S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009). [CrossRef]  

25. S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009). [CrossRef]  

26. M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009). [CrossRef]  

27. R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009). [CrossRef]  

28. R. Singh, X. Lu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, and W. Zhang, “Random terahertz metamaterials,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015101 (2010). [CrossRef]  

29. F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Strong optical activity in chiral metamaterials of metal screw hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211105 (2006). [CrossRef]  

30. N. Kanda, K. Konishi, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Terahertz wave polarization rotation with double layered metal grating of complimentary chiral patterns,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11117–11125 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far infrared time domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006 (1990). [CrossRef]  

32. V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

33. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1999), 3rd ed.

34. H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1084–1095 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

35. I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Applying the Babinet principle to asymmetric resonators,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1228 (2008). [CrossRef]  

36. E. Plum, Chirality and Metamaterials (Ph.D. thesis, University of Southampton, 2010).

References

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  1. F. J. D. Arago, “Mémoire sur une modification remarquable qu'éprouvent les rayons lumineux dans leur passage à travers certains corps diaphanes et sur quelques autres nouveaux phénomènes d'optique,” Mémoires de la classe des sciences math. et phys. de l'Institut Impérial de France 1, 93 (1811).
  2. J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. L. Pasteur, “Mémoire sur la relation qui peut exister entre la forme cristalline et la composition chimique, et sur la cause de la polarization rotatoire,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 26, 535 (1848).
  6. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191911 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. K. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, “Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 634–636 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. T. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Optically thin terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6537–6543 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. R. Singh, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Effect of metal permittivity on resonant properties of terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1506–1508 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  27. R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  28. R. Singh, X. Lu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, and W. Zhang, “Random terahertz metamaterials,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015101 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  29. F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Strong optical activity in chiral metamaterials of metal screw hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211105 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  30. N. Kanda, K. Konishi, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Terahertz wave polarization rotation with double layered metal grating of complimentary chiral patterns,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11117–11125 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and Ch. Fattinger, “Far infrared time domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  32. V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1999), 3rd ed.
  34. H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Applying the Babinet principle to asymmetric resonators,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1228 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  36. E. Plum, Chirality and Metamaterials (Ph.D. thesis, University of Southampton, 2010).

2010 (1)

R. Singh, X. Lu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, and W. Zhang, “Random terahertz metamaterials,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (12)

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Optically thin terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6537–6543 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Effect of metal permittivity on resonant properties of terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1506–1508 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191911 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Applying the Babinet principle to asymmetric resonators,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1228 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2006 (5)

A. K. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, “Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 634–636 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Strong optical activity in chiral metamaterials of metal screw hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211105 (2006).
[Crossref]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1848 (1)

L. Pasteur, “Mémoire sur la relation qui peut exister entre la forme cristalline et la composition chimique, et sur la cause de la polarization rotatoire,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 26, 535 (1848).

Al-Naib, I. A. I.

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Applying the Babinet principle to asymmetric resonators,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

H. T. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Effect of metal permittivity on resonant properties of terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1506–1508 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. K. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, “Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 634–636 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bettiol, A. A.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

Casse, B. D. F.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheville, R. A.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chiam, S. Y.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cich, M.

H. T. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

Dong, J.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fattinger, Ch.

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191911 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grischkowsky, D.

Gu, J.

R. Singh, X. Lu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, and W. Zhang, “Random terahertz metamaterials,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015101 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hangyo, M.

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Strong optical activity in chiral metamaterials of metal screw hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Highstrete, C.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jansen, C.

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Applying the Babinet principle to asymmetric resonators,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kanda, N.

Keiding, S.

Koch, M.

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Applying the Babinet principle to asymmetric resonators,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1228 (2008).
[Crossref]

Konishi, K.

Korvink, J. G.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koschny, T.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

Lederer, F.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X. X.

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loffelmann, U.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

R. Singh, X. Lu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, and W. Zhang, “Random terahertz metamaterials,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015101 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meier, H.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Menzel, C.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miyamaru, F.

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Strong optical activity in chiral metamaterials of metal screw hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211105 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mladyonov, P. L.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moser, H. O.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

Ortner, A.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Padilla, W.

H. T. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Padilla, W. J.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, Y. S.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pasteur, L.

L. Pasteur, “Mémoire sur la relation qui peut exister entre la forme cristalline et la composition chimique, et sur la cause de la polarization rotatoire,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 26, 535 (1848).

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peralta, X. G.

Plum, E.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191911 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prosvirnin, S. L.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rogacheva, A. V.

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saw, B. T.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shrekenhamer, D. B.

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, X. Lu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, and W. Zhang, “Random terahertz metamaterials,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015101 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Effect of metal permittivity on resonant properties of terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1506–1508 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Optically thin terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6537–6543 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smirnova, E.

Smirnova, E. I.

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, P. J.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

Strikwerda, A. C.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, H.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

X. G. Peralta, E. I. Smirnova, A. K. Azad, H. T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, and J. F. O’Hara, “Metamaterials for THz polarimetric devices,” Opt. Express 17(2), 773–783 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Effect of metal permittivity on resonant properties of terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1506–1508 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Optically thin terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6537–6543 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, “Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1084–1095 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Z.

R. Singh, X. Lu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, and W. Zhang, “Random terahertz metamaterials,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsai, D. P.

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Exter, M.

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wilhelmi, O.

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

R. Singh, X. Lu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, and W. Zhang, “Random terahertz metamaterials,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015101 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. O’Hara, R. Singh, I. Brener, E. Smirnova, J. Han, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Thin-film sensing with planar terahertz metamaterials: sensitivity and limitations,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1786–1795 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, A. K. Azad, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, and W. Zhang, “Effect of metal permittivity on resonant properties of terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1506–1508 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Singh, E. Smirnova, A. J. Taylor, J. F. O’Hara, and W. Zhang, “Optically thin terahertz metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6537–6543 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Azad, J. Dai, and W. Zhang, “Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through subwavelength double split-ring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 634–636 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. C.

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191911 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical activity in extrinsically chiral metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191911 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, and W. Zhang, “The impact of nearest neighbor interaction on the resonances in terahertz metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(2), 021116 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, J. Gu, J. Han, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Increased frequency shifts in high aspect ratio terahertz split ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 064102 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Walther, A. Ortner, H. Meier, U. Loffelmann, P. J. Smith, and J. G. Korvink, “Terahertz metamaterials fabricated by inkjet printing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 251107 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Strong optical activity in chiral metamaterials of metal screw hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211105 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris (1)

L. Pasteur, “Mémoire sur la relation qui peut exister entre la forme cristalline et la composition chimique, et sur la cause de la polarization rotatoire,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 26, 535 (1848).

Electron. Lett. (1)

I. A. I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, and M. Koch, “Applying the Babinet principle to asymmetric resonators,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1228 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

R. Singh, X. Lu, J. Gu, Z. Tian, and W. Zhang, “Random terahertz metamaterials,” J. Opt. 12(1), 015101 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

E. Plum, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Extrinsic electromagnetic chirality in metamaterials,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 11(7), 074009 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X. C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, “Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 295–298 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. T. Chen, W. Padilla, M. Cich, A. K. Azad, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “A metamaterial solid-state terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 148–151 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444(7119), 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

R. Singh, E. Plum, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, A. K. Azad, R. A. Cheville, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and N. I. Zheludev, “Terahertz metamaterial with asymmetric transmission,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153104 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Chiam, R. Singh, C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, W. Zhang, and A. A. Bettiol, “Analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B 80(15), 153103 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterial with negative index due to chirality,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035407 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

S. Zhang, Y. S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(2), 023901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. O. Moser, B. D. F. Casse, O. Wilhelmi, and B. T. Saw, “Terahertz response of a microfabricated rod-split-ring-resonator electromagnetic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(6), 063901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Plum, X. X. Liu, V. A. Fedotov, Y. Chen, D. P. Tsai, and N. I. Zheludev, “Metamaterials: optical activity without chirality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(11), 113902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(14), 147401 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, P. L. Mladyonov, S. L. Prosvirnin, A. V. Rogacheva, Y. Chen, and N. I. Zheludev, “Asymmetric propagation of electromagnetic waves through a planar chiral structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 167401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

J. B. Pendry, “A chiral route to negative refraction,” Science 306(5700), 1353–1355 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, “Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials,” Science 303(5663), 1494–1496 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

F. J. D. Arago, “Mémoire sur une modification remarquable qu'éprouvent les rayons lumineux dans leur passage à travers certains corps diaphanes et sur quelques autres nouveaux phénomènes d'optique,” Mémoires de la classe des sciences math. et phys. de l'Institut Impérial de France 1, 93 (1811).

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1999), 3rd ed.

E. Plum, Chirality and Metamaterials (Ph.D. thesis, University of Southampton, 2010).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Extrinsic chirality. (a) At normal incidence, the experimental arrangement formed by the direction of incidence and a planar metamaterial is the same as its mirror image and therefore not 3D-chiral. Here, the angle of incidence α is measured from the metamaterial’s surface normal n to the direction of incidence k. (b) At oblique incidence, an achiral planar structure and the direction of incidence can form an experimental arrangement that is different from its mirror image and therefore extrinsically 3D-chiral.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fabricated planar metamaterial samples represented by their unit cells: (a) symmetrically and (b) asymmetrically split wire rings and the complementary (c) symmetrically and (d) asymmetrically split ring apertures with structural dimensions. (e) Fragment of the metamaterial array of asymmetrically split wire rings.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measured circular transmission and polarization conversion for terahertz waves incident at α = + 45° on metamaterial arrays of (a) symmetrically split wire rings, (b) asymmetrically split wire rings, (c) symmetrically split ring apertures, and (d) asymmetrically split ring apertures. The dashed lines mark the frequency band of pure polarization rotation, where circular dichroism and linear birefringence / dichroism are virtually absent.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical activity due to extrinsic 3D chirality. Polarization azimuth rotation (circular birefringence) and circular dichroism observed in metamaterial arrays of asymmetrically split (a) wire rings and (b) ring apertures at different angles of incidence α.

Equations (1)

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t = ( t + + t + t + t ) = 1 2 ( τ x x + τ y y + i ( τ x y τ y x ) τ x x τ y y i ( τ x y + τ y x ) τ x x τ y y + i ( τ x y + τ y x ) τ x x + τ y y i ( τ x y τ y x ) ) .

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