Abstract

We demonstrate that the intensity of the second harmonic (SH) generated in KTiOPO4 nanoparticles excited with femtosecond laser pulses increases with decreasing duration of the infrared pump pulses. The SH intensity scales, approximately, as the inverse of the laser pulse duration ranging between 13 fs and 200 fs. The SH intensity enhancement requires careful compensation of the high-order spectral phase, being achieved with a genetic algorithm. Using ultrashort laser pulses improves the signal-to-noise ratio and will allow the detection of 10-nm size particles. Finally, we demonstrate that the spectrum of broadband (100 nm) pulses can be shaped to generate non-degenerate sum-frequency mixing. This opens up access to the polarization degrees of freedom of this second-order nonlinear process at the nanoscale.

©2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The coherent second harmonic generation (SHG) from nanoparticles can be efficiently detected in a nonlinear microscopy using standard femtosecond lasers producing pulses of 100 fs duration [1–5]. The study of these nonlinear nanoparticles constitutes a rapidly developing field of research, with establishing novel schemes of near-field microscopy [1], and leading to new markers for biology [2]. A single SHG-active nanoparticle is also a local probe of the electromagnetic field, with a response strongly dependent on the polarization of the excitation pulses and on the nanocrystal orientation [4]. Up to now, single inorganic nanoparticles with size down to 30 nm have been directly detected in the photon counting regime [5,6]. Downscaling the size by even a modest factor would be crucial for many applications in nano-optics or biology.

As a coherent process, the number of SHG photons emitted by a noncentrosymmetric nanoparticle scales as the square of the number of oscillators, i.e., as the sixth power of the nanoparticle average size. As a two-photon process the SHG intensity is also expected to scale, for a constant average laser power, as the inverse of the pulse time duration. It is therefore tempting to reduce the pulse duration from the standard 100 fs to 10 fs available from broadband ultrafast lasers in order to enhance the second harmonic photon emission rate thus reducing the limit size of detectable nanoparticles. Nevertheless, this downscaling has to be done with care since high-order phase dispersion of the microscope objective and other optical components induce temporal aberrations in the excitation pulse interacting with the nanoparticle at the focus of the microscope [7]. Using recently developed techniques for temporal characterization at the microscope focus and careful precompensation [8], SHG from large objects has indeed been shown to scale as the inverse of the pulse time duration [9]. Additionally, the broadband excitation corresponding to a 10-fs pulse offers the possibility of spectral manipulation for coherent control [10,11] of two-photon absorption and non-resonant second harmonic generation [12–14].

 

Fig. 1. (a) Experimental set-up; OSC- Ti:Sa femtosecond oscillator, DL – prism dispersion line for phase precompression, A – interferometric autocorrelator, PS – pulse shaper with spatial light modulator (SLM), OB – microscope objective, NP – SHG-active nanocrystals deposited on top of a glass plate, TS – translation stage with nanometric resolution, NF – notch filter for second harmonic detection, PCM – photon counting module. (b) Autocorrelation of the shortest precompensated pulse together with the corresponding calculated autocorrelation function. Inset: compensating phase retrieved by the genetic algorithm (GA).

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While it has been recently shown that a SHG-active nanoparticle of a size about a few hundreds of nanometers can be used for pulse detection in a nanoscopic version of the FROG technique [15], the effects of manipulation of the excitation beam on SHG emission, i.e., decreasing the time duration of a precompensated pulse as well as structuring its broadband spectrum, have not yet been investigated at the single nanoparticle level with a size well below the wavelength of light. Moreover in this size range phase matching conditions are automatically fulfilled, improving the coherent emission. Here we show that the use of broadband ultrashort laser pulses, precompensated using an automatic genetic algorithm, improves the second harmonic emission from a single nanoparticle of size about 100 nm. It results in a contrast enhancement of the SHG image obtained by raster scanning the sample. In this process, smaller nanoparticles are revealed for a given background. We also manipulate the broadband incident spectrum in a very simple manner to obtain a non-degenerate sum-frequency generation from a single nanoparticle.

2. Experiment

The experiment relies on a home-made titanium doped sapphire (Ti:Sa) femtosecond laser with a 100 nm bandwidth, and an inverted microscope with a high numerical aperture microscope objective (×100, N.A. = 1.4). The laser spectrum is sufficiently broad to support pulses of approximately 10 fs duration. While methods like MIIPS enable an accurate pulse precompensation [8], our goal was to optimize the pulse phase without performing any preliminary measurement of the phase distortion introduced by all dispersive optical components in the optical path. Since this can be achieved by a simple optimization of the total amount of SHG photons emitted by the nanocrystal, we applied a genetic algorithm [16], to search for the best phase correction on the incident pulse (see inset in Fig. 1).

The genetic algorithm search for the optimal spectral phase of the pulse, was performed with a reference sample, a bulk KTP crystal with one face polished, placed on the cover slip at the focus of the microscope. Under femtosecond beam illumination, the second harmonic signal emitted by the crystal and detected with an avalanche photodiode operated in photon counting regime served as the feedback information in the genetic algorithm procedure. The bulk crystal, instead of a nanocrystal, was selected because it provides a high signal to noise ratio, which speeds up the search for the optimal phase of the excitation pulse. The phase correction was achieved with two separate systems (Fig. 1.a): (1) a two-prism compressor used for the rough compensation of (mostly quadratic) phase, and (2) a compact pulse shaper using a diffraction grating and a spatial light modulator (SLM) [11]. The SLM-based pulse shaper was used for the genetic algorithm search for the optimal phase. To evaluate the result of this search we estimated the duration of the excitation pulse at the focus of the microscope by recording the interferometric autocorrelation of the pulse using the second harmonic field generated in the KTP nonlinear crystal. The result of the genetic algorithm search leads to a pulse of, approximately, 13 fs duration. (see Fig. 1(b)). Once the optimal pulse shape was found its duration can then be increased to any value by adding, with the SLM, a controlled amount of the second-order phase. The corresponding SHG photon number was then measured as a function of the corresponding pulse duration.

 

Fig. 2. Detected rate of the SHG from a 100 nm KTP nanocrystal as a function of pulse time duration showing the improvement of the SHG signal with the inverse of the pulse duration.

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For a constant average incident power, the SHG signal is expected to scale as the inverse of the duration of the pulse at the microscope focus. Indeed, we observed a linear increase of the SHG signal with the inverse of the time duration, as shown in Fig. 2. However, the measured average slope is approximately 0.7 instead of unity. This is due in part to the broadband spectrum which cannot be perfectly compressed by the SLM due to pixelization of the correction signal and imperfections in spectral wings compensation. Analysis of the data shown in Fig. 2 reveals that the slope is indeed close to unity for long pulses, while it decreases with the pulse duration. Such a behavior is consistent with imperfect phase compensation – even small phase errors become important when the pulse duration approaches the Fourier transform limit. Despite this imperfect phase compensation, the SH count rate is nevertheless improved by almost an order of magnitude, as compared to excitation by standard 100 fs pulses with the same average intensity.

With precompensated pulses, we recorded maps of the SH signal originating from well dispersed KTP nanoparticles (nanoKTP) deposited by spin-coating a colloidal solution on a glass cover-slip [5]. The maps were acquired by raster scanning the sample with a PZT-driven translation stage. Figure 3 shows maps of the same area of the sample recorded with different pulse durations ranging between 200 fs and 13 fs. Firstly, for nanoparticles already visible at 200 fs, a clear increase of the signal-to-noise ratio is observed for shorter pulses. Secondly, Fig. 3 reveals that a higher number of nanoparticles appear in the maps acquired with shorter pulses, since smaller objects can be detected due to enhanced second harmonic emission. This contrast enhancement is crucial for many practical applications of nonlinear microscopy.

We then focused on the study of an individual KTP nanocrystallite with a size of 120 nm independently measured by an in situ atomic force microscope (see Figs. 4(a) and 4(b))[5]. The associated SHG signal is shown in Fig. 4(c), corresponding to a diffraction-limited spot size. The pulse autocorrelation measured using the same nanocrystallite is shown in Fig. 4(d) proves that the 13-fs pulse in the focus of the microscope is close to the Fourier limit. This observation confirms the efficiency of the phase compensation and gives evidence that all spectral components of the precompensated pulse are converted by the nanoparticle. We note that the bandwidth of the SHG is, for bulk nonlinear crystal, limited by phase matching conditions [17]. However, because of the sub-wavelength dimension of the nanoparticle spectral filtering associated to phase-matching becomes negligible even for ultrashort femtosecond laser pulse.

 

Fig. 3. SHG maps of the same area of the nanoKTP sample. The maps correspond to excitation with pulse durations τ of (a) 200 fs (SNR=2.5), (b) 100 fs (SNR=4), (c) 65 fs (SNR=4.5) and (d) 13 fs (SNR=16). For each pulse duration both a three-dimensional graph of the SH intensity as well as a normalized two-dimensional map are shown.

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The broadband nonlinear response opens the way to the coherent control of the different spectral components of the single incident beam in order to manipulate the second-order nonlinear emission [18].

As a proof-of-principle of such spectral manipulation, we used a two-band incident spectrum, containing well-separated but coherent “red” and “blue” parts (see inset of Fig. 5), in order to excite and subsequently filter out a non-degenerate sum-frequency (SF) signal. If we simply assume two average excitation frequencies ωR and ωB in the single incident beam, the SF signal is due to a nonlinear polarization of the form [17]:

PiωR+ωB=ε0j,kχijk(2)(ωRωB;ωR,ωB)EjωREkωB,

where i,j,k stands for x,y,z, the laboratory axes. With two well-separated spectral bands, Eq. (1) shows that we have access to the different polarizations j,k of the driving fields, then select a specific nonlinear coefficient χijk (2), and thus control the direction i of the nonlinear dipole at the generated sum frequency. This can be applied e.g. to enhance the recognition of the nanoparticle-marker in a complex environment, and to investigate the shape dependence of the nonlinear optical response of an individual nanoparticle. Yet another possible future application concerns the measurement of the polarization properties of a femtosecond pulse in the focus of a microscope objective. In principle, the spatial resolution of such a measurement is limited by the minimum size of the nanocrystallite that produces a measurable signal. With sub 100-nm detection limit demonstrated in our experiment we hope to obtain in the future a detailed 3-D map of the polarization in the vicinity of the focus.

 

Fig. 4. (a) AFM raster scan of the nanoKTP sample (white bar is 1.4 micrometer long) and (b) associated cross section of the selected nanoparticle giving a size of ≈ 120 nm; (c) Associated second harmonic emission with a diffraction-limited spot; (d) Autocorrelation of the 13-fs pulse measured with the same nanoparticle, together with the theoretical autocorrelation of the Fourier limited pulses calculated from the measured laser spectrum.

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As an experimental proof of principle, we performed a simple two-band excitation by blocking a part of the incident pulse spectrum. A bandpass filter is then placed in the detection path to transmit ωR + ωB, and reject both 2ωR and 2ωB. We checked that excitation with any single spectral band, i.e., ωR or ωB, does not produce SF signal. Varying the power of the blue band of the spectrum while keeping fixed the intensity of the red band leads to a linear increase of SFG vs. blue band power (Fig. 5), as expected from Eq. (1). Due to the intrinsic absence of ensemble averaging, this result can be considered as an improved version of Kurtz powder method [19], now applied on a single 100-nm size nonlinear nanoparticle.

 

Fig. 5. Coherent sum frequency generation from a single nano-KTP vs the intensity of the blue band. Inset: corresponding pulse spectrum with two distinctive parts “red” and “blue”. The nonlinear response is detected in the sum-frequency band with an interference filter transmission (spectral transmission shown in red). Note that in the latter case the wavelength scale has been multiplied by two.

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3. Conclusion and prospects

We have shown that phase-compensated 13-fs infrared pulses generated through the application of a genetic algorithm allow one to gain about one order of magnitude (as compared to 100-fs pulses with the same average intensity) in the SHG emission rate of a noncentrosymmetric single KTP nanocrystal. This leads to efficient optical detection of smaller nanocrystals which appear only when shorter pulses are used. Since there is no phase matching limitation on the bandwidth of the excitation pulses, even shorter (sub-10 fs) pulses can be used to even further enhance the second harmonic signal. Autocorrelation from a nanocrystal with an AFM measured size of about 100 nm has been recorded, showing that pulse characterization can be obtained even on SHG-active nanoparticles of sub-wavelength size. This, coupled to amplitude and phase measurements based on nanoparticle nonlinear emission [15], opens the way to a full near-field characterization of ultra-short pulses.

The broad spectrum of 10-fs pulses can also be tailored to manipulate the non-resonant nonlinear second-order excitation process and extract e.g. a nondegenerate sum-frequency mixing signal generated in a single nanoparticle. In association with polarization spectral modulation [20], this will lead to direct measurement of each of the nanoparticle nonlinear coefficients. This work can be extended to the optical nonlinear response of other nanoparticles and specific single nanostructures [21], and to other nonlinear coherent processes such as four-wave mixing from nanometric-sized coupled gold nanospheres [22], or third-harmonic generation from silver nanoparticles used in cancer research [23]. More prospectively, tailored femtosecond excitation of nonlinear nanoparticles may lead to new insights on nonlinear localization at nanoscale [24,25].

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Hubert Curien Program Polonium N° 17793WF. We thank Joseph Lautru for helping in the fabrication of samples with well dispersed nanoKTPs, Philippe Villeval and Dominique Lupinski at Cristal Laser (France) for initial nanoKTP material, and Jacek Waluk, Hubert Piwonski, and Adam Sokolowski for the loan of the microscope.

References and links

1. Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphard, and P. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447, 1098–1101 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007). [CrossRef]  

3. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003). [CrossRef]  

4. S. Brasselet, V. Le Flo’h, F. Treussart, J. -F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401.1–207401.4 (2004). [CrossRef]  

5. L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, D. Chauvat, J. -F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a ingle nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16051–16060 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-16051. [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. J. B. Guild, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of group delay dispersion of high numerical aperture objective lenses using two-photon excited fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 36, 397–401 (1997). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 775–777 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Greater Signal and Less Photobleaching in Two-Photon Microscopy with Ultrabroad Bandwidth Femtosecond Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1841–1849 (2008). [CrossRef]  

10. W. S. Warren, R. Rabitz, and M. Daleh, “Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream Is Alive,” Science 259, 1581–1589 (1993). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000). [CrossRef]  

12. B. Broers, L. D. Noordam, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvall, “Diffraction and focusing of spectral energy in multiphoton processes,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2749–2756 (1992). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396, 239–242 (1998). [CrossRef]  

14. P. Wnuk and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent control and dark pulses in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 272, 496–502 (2007). [CrossRef]  

15. J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Glez, and J. -P. Wolf, “OG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-14-10405. [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997). [CrossRef]  

17. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2003).

18. N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. S. Kurtz and T. Perry, “A powder technique for the evaluation of nonlinear optical materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 333–333 (1968). [CrossRef]  

20. T. Brixner and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26, 557–559 (2001). [CrossRef]  

21. A Bouhelier, M. Berverhuis, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Second-Harmonic Generation Induced by Local Field Enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903.1–013903.4 (2003). [CrossRef]  

22. M. Dankwerts and L. Novotny, “Optical Frequency Mixing at Coupled Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104.1–026104.4 (2007).

23. S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007). [CrossRef]  

24. T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 89–95 (2006). [CrossRef]  

25. M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

References

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  1. Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphard, and P. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447, 1098–1101 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Brasselet, V. Le Flo’h, F. Treussart, J. -F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401.1–207401.4 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, D. Chauvat, J. -F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a ingle nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16051–16060 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-16051.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. B. Guild, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of group delay dispersion of high numerical aperture objective lenses using two-photon excited fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 36, 397–401 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 775–777 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Greater Signal and Less Photobleaching in Two-Photon Microscopy with Ultrabroad Bandwidth Femtosecond Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1841–1849 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. S. Warren, R. Rabitz, and M. Daleh, “Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream Is Alive,” Science 259, 1581–1589 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. Broers, L. D. Noordam, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvall, “Diffraction and focusing of spectral energy in multiphoton processes,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2749–2756 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396, 239–242 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Wnuk and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent control and dark pulses in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 272, 496–502 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Glez, and J. -P. Wolf, “OG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-14-10405.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2003).
  18. N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. Kurtz and T. Perry, “A powder technique for the evaluation of nonlinear optical materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 333–333 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Brixner and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26, 557–559 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  21. A Bouhelier, M. Berverhuis, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Second-Harmonic Generation Induced by Local Field Enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903.1–013903.4 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Dankwerts and L. Novotny, “Optical Frequency Mixing at Coupled Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104.1–026104.4 (2007).
  23. S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 89–95 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Greater Signal and Less Photobleaching in Two-Photon Microscopy with Ultrabroad Bandwidth Femtosecond Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1841–1849 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Glez, and J. -P. Wolf, “OG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-14-10405.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

P. Wnuk and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent control and dark pulses in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 272, 496–502 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, D. Chauvat, J. -F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a ingle nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16051–16060 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-16051.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphard, and P. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447, 1098–1101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Dankwerts and L. Novotny, “Optical Frequency Mixing at Coupled Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104.1–026104.4 (2007).

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 89–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

S. Brasselet, V. Le Flo’h, F. Treussart, J. -F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401.1–207401.4 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 775–777 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref]

A Bouhelier, M. Berverhuis, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Second-Harmonic Generation Induced by Local Field Enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903.1–013903.4 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396, 239–242 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
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J. B. Guild, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of group delay dispersion of high numerical aperture objective lenses using two-photon excited fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 36, 397–401 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

W. S. Warren, R. Rabitz, and M. Daleh, “Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream Is Alive,” Science 259, 1581–1589 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

B. Broers, L. D. Noordam, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvall, “Diffraction and focusing of spectral energy in multiphoton processes,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2749–2756 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

S. Kurtz and T. Perry, “A powder technique for the evaluation of nonlinear optical materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 333–333 (1968).
[Crossref]

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andegeko, Y.

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Greater Signal and Less Photobleaching in Two-Photon Microscopy with Ultrabroad Bandwidth Femtosecond Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1841–1849 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bauer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumert, T.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Berverhuis, M.

A Bouhelier, M. Berverhuis, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Second-Harmonic Generation Induced by Local Field Enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903.1–013903.4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bonacina, L.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Glez, and J. -P. Wolf, “OG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-14-10405.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Botzung-Appert, E.

S. Brasselet, V. Le Flo’h, F. Treussart, J. -F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401.1–207401.4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bouhelier, A

A Bouhelier, M. Berverhuis, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Second-Harmonic Generation Induced by Local Field Enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903.1–013903.4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boutou, V.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007).
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Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2003).

Brasselet, S.

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, D. Chauvat, J. -F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a ingle nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16051–16060 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-16051.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Brasselet, V. Le Flo’h, F. Treussart, J. -F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401.1–207401.4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brixner, T.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 89–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Brixner and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26, 557–559 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Broers, B.

B. Broers, L. D. Noordam, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvall, “Diffraction and focusing of spectral energy in multiphoton processes,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2749–2756 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Byer, D.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C. -H.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chauvat, D.

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, D. Chauvat, J. -F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a ingle nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16051–16060 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-16051.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. -J.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. -W.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Courvoisier, F.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Glez, and J. -P. Wolf, “OG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-14-10405.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Daleh, M.

W. S. Warren, R. Rabitz, and M. Daleh, “Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream Is Alive,” Science 259, 1581–1589 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dankwerts, M.

M. Dankwerts and L. Novotny, “Optical Frequency Mixing at Coupled Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104.1–026104.4 (2007).

Dantus, M.

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Greater Signal and Less Photobleaching in Two-Photon Microscopy with Ultrabroad Bandwidth Femtosecond Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1841–1849 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 775–777 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Abajo, F. J. García

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 89–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Extermann, J.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Glez, and J. -P. Wolf, “OG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-14-10405.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gacoin, T.

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galez, C.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gerber, G.

T. Brixner and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping,” Opt. Lett. 26, 557–559 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Glez, C.

Guild, J. B.

Ibanez, A.

S. Brasselet, V. Le Flo’h, F. Treussart, J. -F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401.1–207401.4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kiselev, D.

Kurtz, S.

S. Kurtz and T. Perry, “A powder technique for the evaluation of nonlinear optical materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 333–333 (1968).
[Crossref]

Lambert, Y.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Le Dantec, R.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Glez, and J. -P. Wolf, “OG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-14-10405.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Le Flo’h, V.

S. Brasselet, V. Le Flo’h, F. Treussart, J. -F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401.1–207401.4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Le Xuan, L.

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, D. Chauvat, J. -F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a ingle nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16051–16060 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-16051.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, K. -H.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, K. -J.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liphard, J.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphard, and P. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447, 1098–1101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, T. -M.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lozovoy, V. V.

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Greater Signal and Less Photobleaching in Two-Photon Microscopy with Ultrabroad Bandwidth Femtosecond Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1841–1849 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. V. Lozovoy, I. Pastirk, and M. Dantus, “Multiphoton intrapulse interference. IV. Ultrashort laser pulse spectral phase characterization and compensation,” Opt. Lett. 29, 775–777 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meshulach, D.

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396, 239–242 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mugnier, Y.

J. Extermann, L. Bonacina, F. Courvoisier, D. Kiselev, Y. Mugnier, R. Le Dantec, C. Glez, and J. -P. Wolf, “OG: Frequency resolved optical gating by a nanometric object,” Opt. Express 16, 10405–10411 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-14-10405.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakayama, Y.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphard, and P. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447, 1098–1101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noordam, L. D.

B. Broers, L. D. Noordam, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvall, “Diffraction and focusing of spectral energy in multiphoton processes,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2749–2756 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

M. Dankwerts and L. Novotny, “Optical Frequency Mixing at Coupled Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104.1–026104.4 (2007).

A Bouhelier, M. Berverhuis, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Second-Harmonic Generation Induced by Local Field Enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903.1–013903.4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Onorato, R. M.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphard, and P. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447, 1098–1101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oron, D.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pastirk, I.

Pauzauskie, P. J.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphard, and P. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447, 1098–1101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perruchas, S.

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perry, T.

S. Kurtz and T. Perry, “A powder technique for the evaluation of nonlinear optical materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 333–333 (1968).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, W.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 89–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rabitz, R.

W. S. Warren, R. Rabitz, and M. Daleh, “Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream Is Alive,” Science 259, 1581–1589 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radenovic, A.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphard, and P. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447, 1098–1101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radzewicz, C.

P. Wnuk and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent control and dark pulses in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 272, 496–502 (2007).
[Crossref]

Roch, J. -F.

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, D. Chauvat, J. -F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a ingle nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16051–16060 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-16051.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Brasselet, V. Le Flo’h, F. Treussart, J. -F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401.1–207401.4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rohmer, M.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandeau, N.

Saykally, R. J.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphard, and P. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447, 1098–1101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seyfried, V.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shi, X. -Y.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shieh, D. -B.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396, 239–242 (1998).
[Crossref]

Slablab, A.

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spindler, C.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 89–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

Steeb, F.

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strehle, M.

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. -K.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tai, S. -P.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tard, C.

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Treussart, F.

S. Brasselet, V. Le Flo’h, F. Treussart, J. -F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401.1–207401.4 (2004).
[Crossref]

van Linden van den Heuvall, H. B.

B. Broers, L. D. Noordam, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvall, “Diffraction and focusing of spectral energy in multiphoton processes,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2749–2756 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villeval, P.

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warren, W. S.

W. S. Warren, R. Rabitz, and M. Daleh, “Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream Is Alive,” Science 259, 1581–1589 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. B. Guild, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, “Measurement of group delay dispersion of high numerical aperture objective lenses using two-photon excited fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 36, 397–401 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

Weisel, L. R.

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Greater Signal and Less Photobleaching in Two-Photon Microscopy with Ultrabroad Bandwidth Femtosecond Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1841–1849 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wen, Y. -C.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Williams, R. M.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wnuk, P.

P. Wnuk and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent control and dark pulses in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 272, 496–502 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wolf, J. -P.

Wolf, J.-P.

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xi, P.

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Greater Signal and Less Photobleaching in Two-Photon Microscopy with Ultrabroad Bandwidth Femtosecond Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1841–1849 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

Yang, P.

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphard, and P. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447, 1098–1101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C. -H.

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, C.

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, D. Chauvat, J. -F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a ingle nanocrystal,” Opt. Express 15, 16051–16060 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-24-16051.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zipfel, W. R.

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zyss, J.

S. Brasselet, V. Le Flo’h, F. Treussart, J. -F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401.1–207401.4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. -P. Tai, Y. Wu, D. -B. Shieh, L. -J. Chen, K. -J. Lin, C. -H. Yu, S. -W. Chu, C. -H. Chang, X. -Y. Shi, Y. -C. Wen, K. -H. Lin, T. -M. Liu, and C. -K. Sun, “Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using Plasmon-Resonant-Enhanced Third-Harmonic-Generation in Silver Nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 19, 4520–4523 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

L. Bonacina, Y. Mugnier, F. Courvoisier, R. Le Dantec, J. Extermann, Y. Lambert, V. Boutou, C. Galez, and J.-P. Wolf, “Polar Fe(IO3)3 nanocrystals as local probes for nonlinear microscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 87, 399–403 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Baumert, T. Brixner, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, “Femtosecond pulse shaping by an evolutionary algorithm with feedback,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 779–782 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, C. Spindler, and W. Pfeiffer, “Adaptive ultrafast nano-optics in a tight focus,” Appl. Phys. B 84, 89–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Kurtz and T. Perry, “A powder technique for the evaluation of nonlinear optical materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 4, 333–333 (1968).
[Crossref]

Nature (4)

M. Aeschlimann, M. Bauer, D. Byer, T. Brixner, F. J. García de Abajo, W. Pfeiffer, M. Rohmer, C. Spindler, and F. Steeb, “Adaptive ubwavelength control of nano-optical fields,” Nature 446, 301–304 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Dudovich, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg, “Single-pulse coherently controlled nonlinear Raman spectroscopy and microscopy,” Nature 418, 512–514 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Meshulach and Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396, 239–242 (1998).
[Crossref]

Y. Nakayama, P. J. Pauzauskie, A. Radenovic, R. M. Onorato, R. J. Saykally, J. Liphard, and P. Yang, “Tunable nanowire nonlinear optical probe,” Nature 447, 1098–1101 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Biotechnol. (1)

W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nature Biotechnol. 21, 1369–1377 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Wnuk and C. Radzewicz, “Coherent control and dark pulses in second harmonic generation,” Opt. Commun. 272, 496–502 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Xi, Y. Andegeko, L. R. Weisel, V. V. Lozovoy, and M. Dantus, “Greater Signal and Less Photobleaching in Two-Photon Microscopy with Ultrabroad Bandwidth Femtosecond Pulses,” Opt. Commun. 281, 1841–1849 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

B. Broers, L. D. Noordam, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvall, “Diffraction and focusing of spectral energy in multiphoton processes,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 2749–2756 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. Brasselet, V. Le Flo’h, F. Treussart, J. -F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 207401.1–207401.4 (2004).
[Crossref]

A Bouhelier, M. Berverhuis, and L. Novotny, “Near-Field Second-Harmonic Generation Induced by Local Field Enhancement,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903.1–013903.4 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Dankwerts and L. Novotny, “Optical Frequency Mixing at Coupled Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026104.1–026104.4 (2007).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929–1960 (2000).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

W. S. Warren, R. Rabitz, and M. Daleh, “Coherent Control of Quantum Dynamics: The Dream Is Alive,” Science 259, 1581–1589 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Small (1)

L. Le Xuan, C. Zhou, A. Slablab, D. Chauvat, C. Tard, S. Perruchas, T. Gacoin, P. Villeval, and J. -F. Roch, “Photostable Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single KTiOPO4 Nanocrystal for Nonlinear Microscopy,” Small 4, 1332–1336 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics, 2nd ed. (Academic Press, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Experimental set-up; OSC- Ti:Sa femtosecond oscillator, DL – prism dispersion line for phase precompression, A – interferometric autocorrelator, PS – pulse shaper with spatial light modulator (SLM), OB – microscope objective, NP – SHG-active nanocrystals deposited on top of a glass plate, TS – translation stage with nanometric resolution, NF – notch filter for second harmonic detection, PCM – photon counting module. (b) Autocorrelation of the shortest precompensated pulse together with the corresponding calculated autocorrelation function. Inset: compensating phase retrieved by the genetic algorithm (GA).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Detected rate of the SHG from a 100 nm KTP nanocrystal as a function of pulse time duration showing the improvement of the SHG signal with the inverse of the pulse duration.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. SHG maps of the same area of the nanoKTP sample. The maps correspond to excitation with pulse durations τ of (a) 200 fs (SNR=2.5), (b) 100 fs (SNR=4), (c) 65 fs (SNR=4.5) and (d) 13 fs (SNR=16). For each pulse duration both a three-dimensional graph of the SH intensity as well as a normalized two-dimensional map are shown.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) AFM raster scan of the nanoKTP sample (white bar is 1.4 micrometer long) and (b) associated cross section of the selected nanoparticle giving a size of ≈ 120 nm; (c) Associated second harmonic emission with a diffraction-limited spot; (d) Autocorrelation of the 13-fs pulse measured with the same nanoparticle, together with the theoretical autocorrelation of the Fourier limited pulses calculated from the measured laser spectrum.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Coherent sum frequency generation from a single nano-KTP vs the intensity of the blue band. Inset: corresponding pulse spectrum with two distinctive parts “red” and “blue”. The nonlinear response is detected in the sum-frequency band with an interference filter transmission (spectral transmission shown in red). Note that in the latter case the wavelength scale has been multiplied by two.

Equations (1)

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P i ω R + ω B = ε 0 j , k χ ijk ( 2 ) ( ω R ω B ; ω R , ω B ) E j ω R E k ω B ,

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