Abstract

A high-energy, wavelength-tunable, all-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort fiber laser was demonstrated using a polyimide film dispersed with single-wall carbon nanotubes. A variable output coupler and wavelength filter were used in the cavity configuration, and high-power operation was demonstrated. The maximum average power was 12.6 mW and pulse energy was 585 pJ for stable single-pulse operation with an output coupling ratio as high as 98.3%. Wide wavelength-tunable operation at 1532–1562 nm was also demonstrated by controlling the wavelength filter. The RF amplitude noise characteristics were examined in terms of their dependence on output coupling ratio and oscillation wavelength.

©2009 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Passively mode-locked ultrashort pulse fiber lasers are compact, stable, maintenance free, practical ultrashort pulse laser sources. They are useful as the pump pulse source for ultrashort pulse applications, such as optical frequency combs, optical metrology, multiphoton microscopy, ultrashort pulse processing, and supercontinuum generation. The fiber Kerr effect and saturable absorbers have been used in the mode-lockers of ultrashort pulse fiber lasers [1]. Recently, single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been attracting much attention as promising new nonlinear optical devices. They show saturable absorption properties with a recovery time of ~1 ps [2]. A transparent saturable absorber can be formed to work as a useful and practical mode-locker. Passively mode-locked ultrashort pulse fiber lasers have been investigated using several kinds of SWNT devices in different wavelength regions [318]. Generally speaking, SWNT saturable absorbers are now divided into four types: direct deposition [4,8,9], evanescent [10,11], slot [15], and film [57,1214]. Using a film type device allows passive mode-locking merely by placing the film between the fiber connectors.

Environmental stability is one of the key issues for fiber lasers. Recently, a few studies on all-polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber lasers have been reported [12,1922]. If we use a film type SWNT device, since the birefringent axes of the PM fibers are automatically aligned at the fiber connectors, a linearly polarized oscillation can be achieved without any polarization control devices. Thus, a film type SWNT saturable absorber is useful for the all-PM configuration. In a previously reported study, we have demonstrated an all-PM passively mode-locked Er-doped ultrashort pulse fiber laser using a polyimide SWNT film for the first time [12]. The maximum output power was 4.8 mW, and the temporal width of the output pulse was 314 fs. A 120 pJ, 107 fs ultrashort pulse with peak power of 1.1 kW was generated after compression. Self-starting, stable operation was obtained owing to the all-PM configuration. Since the cavity design used was unoptimized and the SWNT device had a broad operating bandwidth, we can expect improved performance for this type of laser.

In the present work, we demonstrated a high-performance, all-PM, Er-doped ultrashort pulse fiber laser using an SWNT polyimide film. A variable PM coupler was used as the output coupler, and the dependence on the output coupling ratio was examined. A wavelength filter was also used. High-power operation and wavelength-tunable operation were both demonstrated. The magnitude of RF amplitude noise was also examined for each operating condition.

2. All-polarization-maintaining ultrashort pulse fiber laser with SWNT film

Figure 1 shows the configuration of the all-PM, passively mode-locked fiber laser using an SWNT film employed in our experiments. A high-power laser diode (LD) emitting at a wavelength of 980 nm was used as the pump laser. The pump beam was introduced into a 1.2 m-long PM Er-doped fiber (EDF) through a PM wavelength-division-multiplexed coupler (WDM). The peak absorption of the PM-EDF was 55 dB at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The PM-EDF was fusion spliced with a PM isolator and a variable PM coupler, forming an all-PM fiber ring laser. The total length of the cavity was 7.15 m. The net dispersion of the cavity was estimated to be −0.149 ps2, and consequently, stable mode-locking operation was obtained. We achieved a linearly polarized output with an extinction ratio of 16 dB without any polarization controllers in the cavity.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Configuration of all-PM, passively mode-locked, Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser with SWNT polyimide film. WDM, wavelength-division-multiplexed coupler; EDF, Er-doped fiber.

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An SWNT saturable absorber was used to achieve self-starting, passive mode-locking operation. We have been using a self-standing SWNT-polyimide nanocomposite film as a transparent saturable absorber. In previous work, SWNTs synthesized by the high-pressure CO (HiPco) method were used [12]. In our present work, we used SWNTs synthesized by the laser ablation (LA) method. The LA method is superior to the HiPco method in terms of the control of the tube diameter distribution of the SWNTs. Figure 2 shows the absorption spectrum of the film. A self-standing film with a thickness of 25 μm and an area of 2 mm × 2 mm was prepared. The absorption spectrum showed a peak structure in the 1.55 μm region, indicating that SWNTs with a tube diameter of 1.2 nm, which absorb light with a wavelength of 1.55 μm, are dominant in the film. The magnitude of the absorbance at 1.55 μm was about 0.36.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Absorption spectrum of SWNT-polyimide film. The SWNTs were synthesized by the LA method.

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The polyimide film was easily inserted between a pair of angled-polished FC/APC fiber connectors so that there was no need for a spatial optical alignment system. The film function was independent of the polarization direction of the input beam. The polyimide film is robust and flexible, and it does not suffer damage by physical contact. In this work, the polyimide film was placed at the fiber connector after the output coupler. Since a large part of the power was picked off at the output coupler, the irradiation power to the SWNT film was well-suppressed, eliminating heating of the SWNT film.

Figure 3 shows the output power and operating mode of the laser as a function of pump power when the output coupling ratio was 85%. As the pumping power was increased, the operation mode of the laser shifted from cw oscillation, to self-Q switching, single-pulse mode-locking, and then multiple-pulse mode-locking. The self-starting, passive mode-locking was obtained stably without any polarization control. The output power was nearly proportional to the pump power. The maximum output power for single-pulse mode-locking was limited by the threshold of multiple-pulse oscillation. The oscillation wavelength was 1554 nm.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Output power and operating mode of the laser as a function of pump power when the output coupling ratio was 85%.

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It is interesting to note that when the single-pulse mode-locking operation was achieved, the output power was slightly increased from the power level of self-Q switching and multiple-pulse oscillation. It is considered that this power increment was due to the saturation of absorption at the SWNT film by the mode-locked ultrashort pulse. When the polyimide film with SWNTs synthesized by the HiPco method was used, this power increment for single-pulse mode locking was not observed [12]. This is due to the fact that the magnitude of saturable absorption in SWNTs synthesized by the LA method is larger than that in SWNTs synthesized by the HiPco method.

Figure 4 shows the characteristics of the output pulses from the fiber laser. The output coupling ratio was 85%. For the measurements, we used an optical spectrum analyzer, a combination of a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope, a second harmonic generation (SHG) autocorrelator, and an SHG frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) system. The ultrashort pulses were generated stably at a repetition frequency of 28.3 MHz. The Kelly sidebands of soliton laser emission were clearly observed in the pulse spectra. The spectral width was 5.2 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM). The temporal pulse shape was obtained from analysis of the observed FROG trace. A clear trace with small pedestal component was clearly observed. The temporal width was 243 fs at FWHM, which is in agreement with the result obtained with the autocorrelator. The observed minimum temporal width was 215 fs at FWHM for this condition. As shown in Fig. 4(c), chirping due to self phase modulation was observed in the main pulse component.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Characteristics of output pulses from fiber laser when the output coupling ratio was 85%, showing optical spectra on (a) linear and (b) log scales, (c) temporal pulse shape and instantaneous wavelength, and (d) pulse train.

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In Fig. 4(c), we can see that there are small temporal components around ±1.6 ps. The instantaneous wavelengths of these components are about 1545 and 1565 nm, which are the wavelengths of Kelly sidebands in the pulse spectra. Thus, from the results of SHG FROG analysis, it is considered that part of the Kelly sideband components propagate just before and after the main pulse as tiny pulse components.

3. Dependence on output coupling ratio

Next, we examined the dependence of the output performance on the output coupling ratio. Figure 5 shows the variation of the output pulses when the output coupling ratio at the fiber coupler was varied. The variation of maximum output power, the power inside the cavity, and the temporal width of the output pulses are presented. In this figure, the power inside the cavity corresponds to the power just before the output coupler, which was obtained from the output power and output coupling ratio. In Fig. 5, as the output coupling ratio was increased, the maximum output power was increased continuously. The power before the output coupler in the cavity was approximately constant for all output coupling conditions. This means that the maximum output power was limited by the threshold of the multiple-pulse oscillation, which is determined by the magnitude of self-phase modulation inside the cavity. When the output coupling ratio was 85%, an average output power of 9.08 mW, a pulse energy of 321 pJ, a pulse width of 215 fs, and a repetition frequency of 28.3 MHz were obtained. The corresponding soliton order N was 1.2.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Variation of maximum output power, power inside the cavity, and the temporal width of the output pulses as a function of output coupling ratio.

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As the output coupling ratio was increased above 85%, the power of the 1.53 μm wavelength component rose, and the power of the 1.56 μm component decreased. Next, we inserted a wavelength filter into the cavity, as shown in Fig. 1. The wavelength filter consisted of a birefringent plate and polarizer, and the transmission loss was negligibly small [23]. The bandwidth of the pass band was determined by the thickness of the birefringent plate. The center wavelength of the passband could be tuned by vertical and horizontal rotation of the birefringent plate. When a wavelength filter with a transmission band center wavelength of 1560 nm and bandwidth of 30 nm was used, we could obtain passive mode-locking even when the output coupling ratio was increased up to 99%. The observed maximum output power was 12.6 mW when the output coupling ratio was 98.3%.

The temporal width of the output pulses was almost constant with respect to the output coupling ratio. When the wavelength filter was used, the output power was increased, but the cavity power and pulse width were also increased as the output coupling ratio was increased.

Figure 6(a) shows the optical spectra of the output pulse when the maximum output power was obtained using the wavelength filter. The output coupling ratio was 98.3%. When a dual-stage configuration was used for the wavelength filter, a bandwidth of 13 nm was realized, and the spectral sidebands were reduced considerably as compared with the single-stage filter configuration. A 504 fs sech2-like pulse was obtained. The temporal shape is shown in Fig. 6(b). The repetition rate was 21.6 MHz, the corresponding output power was 12.6 mW, and the pulse energy was 580 pJ. The estimated soliton order N was 2.6. Compared with the previous work using a 1:1 output coupler, the average power and the pulse energy were increased by factors of 2.5 and 5, respectively.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 (a) Optical spectrum of output pulse when the maximum output power was obtained. Wavelength filters with bandwidths of 30 and 13 nm were used. (b) Temporal shape of the laser output.

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Next, we examined the RF noise characteristics of the output pulses. A wavelength filter with a bandwidth of 13 nm was used. The single-sideband measurement method was used for the RF noise measurement [24], employing a fast photodiode, bias-T, and RF spectrum analyzer. The observed RF noise when the output coupling ratio was 98% is shown in Fig. 7(a) . There was no large noise component. The noise level was as low as that of a commercially available ultrashort-pulse solid state laser. Figure 7(b) shows the variation of the averaged magnitude of RF noise as a function of output coupling ratio. The magnitude of RF noise in Fig. 7(a) was obtained by averaging the RF noise spectra between 1 kHz and 10 MHz. Generally speaking, the magnitude of RF noise was low for the whole range of output coupling ratio. As the coupling ratio was increased, the magnitude of the RF noise was decreased slightly and continuously, reaching the minimum when the output coupling ratio was 80%. The magnitude of RF noise was increased as the output coupling ratio was increased above 80%. This means that, for the high output coupling region of 85–95%, the output power and noise magnitude were both increased. The reason for the noise increment is considered to be the effect of amplified spontaneous emission noise in the Er-doped fiber under the extremely small input power condition.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 (a) RF noise spectra of output pulse from fiber laser when the output coupling ratio was 98%, and (b) variation of averaged RF noise as a function of output coupling ratio.

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4. Wavelength-tunable operation

Wavelength tunability is also an important feature for ultrashort pulse fiber lasers. Next, we tuned the properties of the wavelength filter to demonstrate wavelength-tunable operation of the PM fiber laser. We used a dual-stage wavelength filter. The bandwidth of the pass band was set to 13 nm.

Figure 8 shows the output spectra at several wavelengths. The output coupling ratio was set to 90%. We could obtain clear sech2-shaped soliton pulses, and the side lobe level was well suppressed. The center wavelength was variable from 1532 to 1562 nm continuously, under the control of the wavelength filter. Since the operation bandwidth of the SWNT film was broad, the actual operation bandwidth was limited by the gain bandwidth of the Er-doped fiber.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Variation of optical spectra of output pulses for wavelength-tunable operation.

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Figure 9 shows the output power and the optical spectrum width when the center wavelength was varied. The output power and the spectrum width were almost constant at about 6.5 mW and 4.5 nm, respectively, regardless of the center wavelength. The dip in the output power at 1535 nm is considered to be due to the small gain of the Er-doped fiber at that wavelength. Since the SWNT film had a wide operation bandwidth, it is expected that we will be able to broaden the operation range using a device with broader gain.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 Output power and optical spectrum width when the center wavelength was varied.

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The temporal shapes of the output pulses were observed using an autocorrelator. The averaged temporal width was 525 fs under the assumption of sech2 pulses. This value is almost in agreement with the estimated temporal width from the spectrum width under the assumption of transform-limited sech2 pulses.

Finally, we examined the averaged RF amplitude noise characteristics of the output pulses while the output coupling ratio and the oscillation wavelength were varied. The magnitude of the averaged RF noise was obtained in the same manner used in Fig. 7(b). The passive mode-locking was achieved for almost any combination of output coupling ratio and center wavelength. The observed results are summarized in Fig. 10 . Generally speaking, the magnitude of the averaged RF noise was low at about −160 to −152 dBc/Hz for the entire wavelength region. As shown in Fig. 7(b), the magnitude of averaged RF noise slightly decreased as the output coupling ratio increased from 40% to 80%. In this range, the magnitude of averaged RF noise was almost constant for the entire wavelength region. As the output coupling ratio was increased above 80%, the magnitude of averaged RF noise slightly increased as the coupling ratio was increased. In this range, the magnitude of averaged RF noise increased at longer wavelengths in the 1552–1560 nm region. This result can be explained by the fact that the signal-to-noise ratio characteristic was degraded at the band edge of the Er-doped fiber amplifier.

 figure: Fig. 10

Fig. 10 Variation of magnitude of RF noise as a function of wavelength. Several output coupling ratios were examined.

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5. Conclusion

We have demonstrated an all-polarization-maintaining, high-pulse-energy, wavelength-tunable, passively mode-locked Er-doped ultrashort pulse fiber laser using a polyimide film dispersed with single-wall carbon nanotubes. The extinction ratio was 16 dB, and stable, self-starting operation was achieved without any polarization control. The dependence on output coupling ratio was examined in detail. The output coupling ratio could be increased to 99% with a wavelength filter. The maximum output power was 12.6 mW, and the corresponding pulse energy was 580 pJ. Compared with previous work, the average power was a factor of 2.5 higher, and the pulse energy was a factor of 5 higher.

Wide wavelength-tunable operation from 1532 to 1562 nm was also demonstrated under the control of the wavelength filter. The output power and spectrum width of the output pulses were almost constant during the wavelength variation. The characteristics of RF noise were examined in detail, and the dependence on the output coupling ratio and oscillation wavelength were examined experimentally. Generally speaking, the magnitude of RF noise level was as low as that of commercially available solid state lasers. A slight noise increment was observed at large output coupling ratio and at the longer wavelength edge of the wavelength tuning band.

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas.

References and links

1. M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast fiber oscillators”, in Ultrafast Lasers, M. E. Fermann, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2003), Chap. 3.

2. Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002). [CrossRef]  

3. S. Y. Set, H. Yamaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes”, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2003, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

4. S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1581–1583 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itatani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, “Optically uniform carbon nanotube-polyimide nanocomposite: application to 165 fs mode-locked fiber laser and waveguide”, Proceedings of ECOC’05, 1, 37 (2005).

6. A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006). [CrossRef]  

7. M. Nakazawa, S. Nakahara, T. Hirooka, M. Yoshida, T. Kaino, and K. Komatsu, “Polymer saturable absorber materials in the 1.5 µm band using poly-methyl-methacrylate and polystyrene with single-wall carbon nanotubes and their application to a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 915–917 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007). [CrossRef]  

9. J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Optically driven deposition of single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorbers on optical fiber end-faces,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9176–9183 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composite,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2242–2244 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008). [CrossRef]  

12. N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, J. Mata, and J. Tsukamoto, “147 fs, 51 MHz soliton fiber laser at 1.56 µm with a fiber-connector-type SWNT/P3HT saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20943–20948 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “A passively mode-locked femtosecond soliton fiber laser at 1.5 µm with a CNT-doped polycarbonate saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21191–21198 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. A. Martinez, K. Zhou, I. Bennion, and S. Yamashita, “In-fiber microchannel device filled with a carbon nanotube dispersion for passive mode-lock lasing,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15425–15430 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 µm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1336–1338 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

17. S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2358–2363 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

18. F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers”, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CThG1.

20. C. K. Nielsen, B. Ortaç, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Hohmuth, W. Richter, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-starting self-similar all-polarization maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9346–9351 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. J. W. Nicholson and M. Andrejco, “A polarization maintaining, dispersion managed, femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8160–8167 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. S. Masuda, S. Niki, and M. Nakazawa, “Environmentally stable, simple passively mode-locked fiber ring laser using a four-port circulator,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6613–6622 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 697–699 (1994). [CrossRef]  

24. N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2846–2848 (2004). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast fiber oscillators”, in Ultrafast Lasers, M. E. Fermann, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2003), Chap. 3.
  2. Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Y. Set, H. Yamaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes”, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2003, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.
  4. S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1581–1583 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itatani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, “Optically uniform carbon nanotube-polyimide nanocomposite: application to 165 fs mode-locked fiber laser and waveguide”, Proceedings of ECOC’05, 1, 37 (2005).
  6. A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Nakazawa, S. Nakahara, T. Hirooka, M. Yoshida, T. Kaino, and K. Komatsu, “Polymer saturable absorber materials in the 1.5 µm band using poly-methyl-methacrylate and polystyrene with single-wall carbon nanotubes and their application to a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 915–917 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Optically driven deposition of single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorbers on optical fiber end-faces,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9176–9183 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composite,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2242–2244 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  12. N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, J. Mata, and J. Tsukamoto, “147 fs, 51 MHz soliton fiber laser at 1.56 µm with a fiber-connector-type SWNT/P3HT saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20943–20948 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “A passively mode-locked femtosecond soliton fiber laser at 1.5 µm with a CNT-doped polycarbonate saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21191–21198 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. Martinez, K. Zhou, I. Bennion, and S. Yamashita, “In-fiber microchannel device filled with a carbon nanotube dispersion for passive mode-lock lasing,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15425–15430 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 µm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1336–1338 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers”, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CThG1.
  20. C. K. Nielsen, B. Ortaç, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Hohmuth, W. Richter, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-starting self-similar all-polarization maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9346–9351 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. W. Nicholson and M. Andrejco, “A polarization maintaining, dispersion managed, femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8160–8167 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S. Masuda, S. Niki, and M. Nakazawa, “Environmentally stable, simple passively mode-locked fiber ring laser using a four-port circulator,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6613–6622 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 697–699 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  24. N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2846–2848 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (7)

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, J. Mata, and J. Tsukamoto, “147 fs, 51 MHz soliton fiber laser at 1.56 µm with a fiber-connector-type SWNT/P3HT saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20943–20948 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “A passively mode-locked femtosecond soliton fiber laser at 1.5 µm with a CNT-doped polycarbonate saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21191–21198 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Zhou, I. Bennion, and S. Yamashita, “In-fiber microchannel device filled with a carbon nanotube dispersion for passive mode-lock lasing,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15425–15430 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 µm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1336–1338 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[Crossref]

Achiba, Y.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, B.

Ajayan, P. M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Andrejco, M.

Bennion, I.

Brown, D. P.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chernov, A. I.

Dianov, E. M.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Doerr, C. R.

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Goh, C. S.

Hakulinen, T.

Härkönen, A.

Haus, H. A.

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hennrich, F.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirooka, T.

Hohmuth, R.

Hsiung, P.

Inoue, Y.

Ippen, E. P.

Itoga, E.

Itoh, K.

Jablonski, M.

Kaino, T.

Kaskela, A.

Kataura, H.

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kauppinen, E. I.

Kieu, K.

Kivistö, S.

Komatsu, K.

Konov, V. I.

Limpert, J.

Lobach, A. S.

Lu, T.-M.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mansuripur, M.

Martinez, A.

Maruyama, S.

Masuda, S.

Mata, J.

Milne, W. I.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murakami, Y.

Nakahara, S.

Nakazawa, M.

Namiki, S.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nasibulin, A. G.

Nicholson, J. W.

Nielsen, C. K.

Niki, S.

Nishizawa, N.

Obraztsova, E. D.

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Ortaç, B.

Raravikar, N. R.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Richter, W.

Rozhin, A. G.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sakakibara, Y.

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Scardaci, V.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schadler, L. S.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, T.

Seno, Y.

Set, S. Y.

Shirato, T.

Shohda, F.

Solodyankin, M. A.

Song, Y. W.

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sumimura, K.

Sun, Z.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamura, K.

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[Crossref]

Tausenev, A. V.

Tokumoto, M.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tsukamoto, J.

Tünnermann, A.

Wang, F.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

White, I. H.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

Yaguchi, H.

Yamashita, S.

Yoshida, M.

Zhang, X.-C.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhou, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y.-C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y.-P. Zhao, T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, and S. Maruyama, “Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-energy optical pulse formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(2), 021115 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Tamura, C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Tuning with a broad intracavity filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(6), 697–699 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

S. Kivistö, T. Hakulinen, A. Kaskela, B. Aitchison, D. P. Brown, A. G. Nasibulin, E. I. Kauppinen, A. Härkönen, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Carbon nanotube films for ultrafast broadband technology,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2358–2363 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, “All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9429–9435 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, J. Mata, and J. Tsukamoto, “147 fs, 51 MHz soliton fiber laser at 1.56 µm with a fiber-connector-type SWNT/P3HT saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20943–20948 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Shohda, T. Shirato, M. Nakazawa, K. Komatsu, and T. Kaino, “A passively mode-locked femtosecond soliton fiber laser at 1.5 µm with a CNT-doped polycarbonate saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21191–21198 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Zhou, I. Bennion, and S. Yamashita, “In-fiber microchannel device filled with a carbon nanotube dispersion for passive mode-lock lasing,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15425–15430 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Optically driven deposition of single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorbers on optical fiber end-faces,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9176–9183 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Nielsen, B. Ortaç, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, R. Hohmuth, W. Richter, and A. Tünnermann, “Self-starting self-similar all-polarization maintaining Yb-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 13(23), 9346–9351 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Nicholson and M. Andrejco, “A polarization maintaining, dispersion managed, femtosecond figure-eight fiber laser,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8160–8167 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Masuda, S. Niki, and M. Nakazawa, “Environmentally stable, simple passively mode-locked fiber ring laser using a four-port circulator,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6613–6622 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

N. Nishizawa, Y. Chen, P. Hsiung, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time, ultrahigh-resolution, optical coherence tomography with an all-fiber, femtosecond fiber laser continuum at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2846–2848 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Kieu and M. Mansuripur, “Femtosecond laser pulse generation with a fiber taper embedded in carbon nanotube/polymer composite,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2242–2244 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nakazawa, S. Nakahara, T. Hirooka, M. Yoshida, T. Kaino, and K. Komatsu, “Polymer saturable absorber materials in the 1.5 µm band using poly-methyl-methacrylate and polystyrene with single-wall carbon nanotubes and their application to a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 915–917 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. W. Song, S. Yamashita, C. S. Goh, and S. Y. Set, “Carbon nanotube mode lockers with enhanced nonlinearity via evanescent field interaction in D-shaped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 32(2), 148–150 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1581–1583 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 µm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1336–1338 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. E. Fermann, “Ultrafast fiber oscillators”, in Ultrafast Lasers, M. E. Fermann, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2003), Chap. 3.

I. Hartl, G. Imeshev, L. Dong, G. C. Cho, and M. E. Fermann, “Ultra-compact dispersion compensated femtosecond fiber oscillators and amplifiers”, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CThG1.

Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itatani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, “Optically uniform carbon nanotube-polyimide nanocomposite: application to 165 fs mode-locked fiber laser and waveguide”, Proceedings of ECOC’05, 1, 37 (2005).

S. Y. Set, H. Yamaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, “Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes”, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2003, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper PD44.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Configuration of all-PM, passively mode-locked, Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser with SWNT polyimide film. WDM, wavelength-division-multiplexed coupler; EDF, Er-doped fiber.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Absorption spectrum of SWNT-polyimide film. The SWNTs were synthesized by the LA method.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Output power and operating mode of the laser as a function of pump power when the output coupling ratio was 85%.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Characteristics of output pulses from fiber laser when the output coupling ratio was 85%, showing optical spectra on (a) linear and (b) log scales, (c) temporal pulse shape and instantaneous wavelength, and (d) pulse train.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Variation of maximum output power, power inside the cavity, and the temporal width of the output pulses as a function of output coupling ratio.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Optical spectrum of output pulse when the maximum output power was obtained. Wavelength filters with bandwidths of 30 and 13 nm were used. (b) Temporal shape of the laser output.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) RF noise spectra of output pulse from fiber laser when the output coupling ratio was 98%, and (b) variation of averaged RF noise as a function of output coupling ratio.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Variation of optical spectra of output pulses for wavelength-tunable operation.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Output power and optical spectrum width when the center wavelength was varied.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Variation of magnitude of RF noise as a function of wavelength. Several output coupling ratios were examined.

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